Sample records for rayonnements ionisants des

  1. Risques spécifiques du CERN : rayonnements ionisants

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau


    Précautions - Instructions - Dosimètres - Différentes zones - Accès règlementés - Dangers particuliers - Panneaux d'information - Stockage de matériaux - Règles de transport - Rayonnements ionisants - Lasers.

  2. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A


    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  3. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes


    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  4. Accord entre l'Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire, le Conseil Fédéral Suisse et le Gouvernement de la République Française relatif à la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants et à la sûreté des installations de l'Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire

    CERN Document Server


    Accord entre l'Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire, le Conseil Fédéral Suisse et le Gouvernement de la République Française relatif à la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants et à la sûreté des installations de l'Organisation Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire

  5. Patient cumulative radiation exposure in interventional cardiology; Exposition cumulee aux rayonnements ionisants des patients en cardiologie interventionnelle: caracteristiques cliniques et dosimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M.O.; Jacob, S.; Laurier, D. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, LEPID, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maccia, C. [Centre d' assurance de qualite des applications technologiques dans le domaine de la sante - CAATS, Bourg-la-Reine (France); Bar, O.; Blanchard, D. [Clinique Saint-Gatien, Tours (France); Catelinois, O. [Institut de veille sanitaire, St Maurice (France)


    Interventional cardiology procedures can involve potentially high doses of radiation to the patients. Stochastic effects of ionising radiation - radiation-induced cancers in the long term - may occur. We analysed clinical characteristics and dosimetric data in a population of patients undergoing interventional cardiology. In all, 1 591 patients who had undergone coronarography and/or angioplasty in the course of a year at the Saint-Gatien Clinic in Tours (France) were included. Information on patients' individual clinical characteristics and Dose-Area Product values were collected. Organ doses to the lung, oesophagus, bone marrow and breast were mathematically evaluated. The median age of patients was 70 years. Their median cumulative dose-area product value was 48.4{sup 2} for the whole year and the median effective dose was 9.7 mSv. The median organ doses were 41 mGy for the lung, 31 mGy for the oesophagus, 10 mGy for the bone marrow and 4 mGy for the breast. Levels of doses close to the heart appear to be rather high in the case of repeated interventional cardiology procedures. Clinical characteristics should be taken into account when planning epidemiological studies on potential radiation-induced cancers. (authors)

  6. The risk of low doses of ionising radiation and the linear no threshold relationship debate; La controverse sur les effets des faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants et la relation lineaire sans seuil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Centre Antoine Beclere, Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [11 rue du Haras, Residence Le Boqueteau, Acacias 2, 91 - Saint-Michel-sur-Orge (France); Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U 605., 94 - Villejuif (France); Averbeck, D. [Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Lab. Raymond Latarjet, UMR2027 du CNRS, Centre Universitaire d' Orsay, 91 - Orsay (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Service Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)


    The ICRP and the B.E.I.R. VII reports recommend a linear no threshold (L.N.T.) relationship for the estimation of cancer excess risk induced by ionising radiations (IR), but the 2005 report of Medicine and Science French Academies concludes that it leads to overestimate of risk for low and very low doses. The bases of L.N.T. are challenged by recent biological and animal experimental studies which show that the defence against IR involves the cell microenvironment and the immunologic system. The defence mechanisms against low doses are different and comparatively more effective than for high doses. Cell death is predominant against low doses. DNA repairing is activated against high doses, in order to preserve tissue functions. These mechanisms provide for multicellular organisms an effective and low cost defence system. The differences between low and high doses defence mechanisms are obvious for alpha emitters which show several greys threshold effects. These differences result in an impairment of epidemiological studies which, for statistical power purpose, amalgamate high and low doses exposure data, since it would imply that cancer IR induction and defence mechanisms are similar in both cases. Low IR dose risk estimates should rely on specific epidemiological studies restricted to low dose exposures and taking precisely into account potential confounding factors. The preliminary synthesis of cohort studies for which low dose data (< 100 mSv) were available show no significant risk excess, neither for solid cancer nor for leukemias. (authors)

  7. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paola, M; Bianchi, M; Bianchi, M no 1; Baarli, J no 1; Di Paola, M no 1


    L'opacification du cristallin après irradiation par des neutrons et d'autres rayonnements ionisants a été largement étudiée, vu l'importance de telles recherches en radioprotection et la possibilité offerte par ce système d'analyser les effets produits par de petites doses de rayonnement. Les neutrons de haute énergie sont d'un intéret particulier pour la radioprotection près des accélérateurs et dans l'espace, mais jusqu'à présent les études ont été limitées aux neutrons d'énergie inférieur à 14 MeV. L'opacification du cristallin chez la souris, après irradiation par des neutrons de 400 MeV produits par le Synchro-Cyclotron du CERN, a été étudiée. Le valeurs d'E.B.R. ont été déterminées par comparaison avec des rayons X de 250 kV. Une breve discussion des résultats obtenus est inclue dans la présentation.

  8. Calculs de doses générées par les rayonnements ionisants principes physiques et codes de calcul

    CERN Document Server

    Vivier, Alain


    Cet ouvrage et les codes associés s’adressent aux utilisateurs de sources de rayonnements ionisants : techniciens, ingénieurs de sécurité, personnes compétentes en radioprotection, mais aussi médecins, chercheurs, concepteurs, décideurs… Les contraintes croissantes liées à la radioprotection rendent indispensables l’utilisation de codes de calcul permettant d’évaluer les débits de doses générées par ces sources et la façon dont on peut s’en protéger au mieux. De nombreux codes existent, dont certains restent des références incontournables, mais ils sont relativement complexes à mettre en oeuvre et restent en général réservés aux bureaux d’études. En outre, ces codes sont souvent des « boîtes noires » qui ne permettent pas de comprendre la physique sous-jacente. L’objectif de cet ouvrage est double : - Exposer les principes physiques permettant de comprendre les phénomènes à l’oeuvre lorsque la matière est irradiée par des rayonnements ionisants. Il devient al...

  9. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    au cours de la radiolyse grace a leur spectre d'absorption apres qu'ils aient ete separes du milieu reactionnel par chromatographie d'adsorption ou d'echange d'ions; d'autres produits de la radiolyse, chlorure d'ammonium et eau oxygenee, ont ete egalement caracterises. Au cours d'une etape ulterieure, une variation systematique des parametres physico-chimiques a permis de determiner les conditions les plus favorables a la radiosynthese; les rendements radiochimiques maximum obtenus ont pour valeurs respectives: G (Violet de Lauth) = 1,65; G (Bleu de Methylene) = 1,75. En outre, l'etude de l'influence sur le rendement radiochimique des reactifs amines differemment substitues a fait apparaitre la possibilite de synthetiser par voie radiochimique le Vert de Bindschedler et le Bleu de Wurster. Enfin la decouverte d'un compose intermediaire fondamental, le Rouge de Wurster, ainsi que l'etude cinetique de la synthese chimique du Bleu de Methylene ont permis de determiner les principales etapes du Bleu de Methylene reactionnel et de preciser la part qui revenait aux rayonnements ionisants dans le cas de la synthese par voie radiochimique. (auteur)

  10. Rayonnement quantique


    Laverne, Alain


    1 - Prélude2 - A propos de l'équation de Schrodinger3 - La thèorie quantique du rayonnement4 - Propriétés des grandeurs physiques du rayonnement quantique5 - Quelque états du raiyonnement quantique intéressants6 - Emission et absormtion des photons7 - Histoire des photons; Cet exposé du rayonnement quantique en interaction avec la matière quantique non relativiste prétend être élémentaire. La licence de le comprendre n'exige guère que la maîtrise de l'oscillateur harmonique quantique. Quelque...

  11. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study; Etude Rimed rayonnements ionisants en milieu medical. Etude de faisabilite. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  12. About particular use of ionizing radiations; Des usages particuliers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Different uses of ionizing radiations are reviewed: tracers techniques, nuclear gauges, dating by carbon 14, silica doping, use of gamma irradiation for the density measurement in civil engineering, use of a electron capture detector to study by gas chromatography chlorinated contaminants in environment, neutron activation as environmental gauge, analysis of lead in paint and pollutants in ground and dusts, help for work of art valuation by x spectrometry. (N.C.)

  13. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des

  14. I. ÉTUDE du Rayonnement de Freinage Interne, de L'autoionisation et des ÉLECTRONS ÉMIS SIMULTANÉMENT avec le Rayonnement β du Phosphore 32 (United States)

    Suzor, F.; Charpak, G.

    On étudie, par analyse des impulsions en coïncidences de deux compteurs proportionnels, les spectres de photons et d'électrons de basse énergie (1 à 25 keV) émis en même temps que les rayons β, par 32P. Le spectre der photons comprend la raie K de 2,3 keV provenant de l'autoionisation de l'atome résiduel d'intensité 5,5.10-4 par désintégration, et le spectre continu du rayonnement de freinage interne. Ce dernier concorde parfaitement avec les prévisions théoriques de 1 à 6 keV puis monte fortement au-dessus. Le spectre électronique comprend la raie Auger de 2 keV et un spectre continu important, d'intensité supérieure à celle prévue par la théorie de l'auto -ionisation. Le désaccord deviant considérable de 5 à 25 keV, où l'on trouve 6, 6.10-3 électrons associés par désintégration. By analysis of the coincident impulses in two proportional counters study is made of the low energy photon and electron spectrum (1 keV to 25 keV) emitted, simultaneously with beta rays, by 32P. The Photon spectrum comprises 2,3 keV K-line following autoionisation of the residual atom, of intensity 5,5. × 10-4 per disintegration, and the internal bremsstrahlung continuous spectrum; the latter agrees perfectly with the theoretical prediction from 1 keV to 6 keV and then it rises strongly above the theoretical values. The electron spectrum comprises the 2 keV Auger line and an important continuous spectrum. The intensity of the latter is higher than predicted by autoionisation theory. The discrepancy becomes considerable from 5 keVto 25 keV where 6.6.10-2 associated electrons are found per disintegration.

  15. Etude de l'influence du rayonnement UV sur le vieillissement des bitumes purs et modifiés par des polymères




    Les bitumes, résidus de la distillation du pétrole, sont des mélanges complexes de composés hydrocarbonés très utilisés comme liant routier. Sur la route, le bitume subit différents types de contraintes à l'origine de son vieillissement : passage des véhicules, températures, rayonnements solaires. Le vieillissement chimique des bitumes, essentiellement dû à la température et aux radiations solaires, se traduit par des réactions d'oxydation. Ce travail porte sur l'étude du vieillissement photo...

  16. Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation and Countermeasures (Les effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants et leurs contre-mesures) (United States)


    Discussion 2-7 Acknowledgment 2-8 2.2.2 Retrospective Study by FISH Chromosome Painting Translocation in a 2-9 Cohort of Italian irradiated mice. Acta Medica 2010;53:221-224. [88] Ha, C.T., Li, X.H., Fu, D., Xiao, M. and Landauer, M.R. Genistein Nanoparticles Protect Mouse...retrospective study employing FISH chromosome painting translocation in a cohort of Italian soldiers with past deployments in the Balkan Area. Stefania de

  17. Radio-induced genetic risk estimated; Effets hereditaires des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutrillaux, B. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie, DRR, 92 (France)


    No hereditary effect has been observed until now among irradiated people. Anything leads to believe that there is no increasing of pathologies where the transmission to the descendant is systematic (dominant). The searchers have to determine in which measure it is the case also for the pathologies with conditional transmission (recessive), that could eventually appear after several generations. These researches are justified, even if the incidence is low, because it could be a way to determine if some people are more predisposed than other ones. for some pathology. (N.C.)

  18. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; Effets des faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)


    Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

  19. Expansion des feuilles de tournesol en conditions environnementales fluctuantes : effets de la température, du rayonnement et du déficit hydrique

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    Full Text Available L’expansion et les divisions cellulaires dans les feuilles de tournesol ont été analysées dans des situations contrastées de température, de rayonnement et d’état hydrique du sol, en serre, au champ et en chambre de culture. Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus remettent en cause deux concepts utilisés dans le formalisme des modèles de simulation des cultures : – le premier est celui qui considère que l’expansion foliaire dépend du carbone disponible. Des déficits hydriques modérés et précoces réduisent la surface finale des feuilles de 40% sans affecter la photosynthèse nette. Ils se traduisent par des accumulations de sucres dans les feuilles en déficit hydrique; – le second est celui qui relie la vitesse absolue d’expansion un jour donné aux conditions environnementales le même jour. Des contraintes hydriques ou des réductions du rayonnement absorbé affectent la vitesse absolue d’expansion plusieurs jours après le rétablissement des conditions favorables. Dans le modèle que nous proposons, la considération de la vitesse relative d’expansion des feuilles plutôt que de la vitesse absolue permet de rendre compte des arrière-effets négatifs des contraintes sur la vitesse d’expansion des feuilles. La vitesse relative d’expansion à un moment donné est directement reliée aux conditions environnementales au même moment. Son expression en temps thermique permet de prendre en compte les effets de la température. Elle est réduite par un déficit hydrique et par une réduction du rayonnement absorbé. Dans ce modèle, les durées d’expansion et de divisions cellulaires dans les feuilles, exprimées en temps thermique, sont stables pour un rang de feuille donné dans une large gamme de rayonnement absorbé et d’état hydrique du sol.

  20. Effet des additifs sur la structure cristalline du polyéthylène à basse densité (PEBD irradiés par des rayonnements UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheloufi T


    Full Text Available L’effet des rayons U V sur les propriétés physico-chimiques et mécaniques du polyéthylène à basse densité (PEBD et pigmenté avec des additifs dans différentes formulations ont été étudiées. Les échantillons ont été exposés au rayonnement U V émis par une lampe à xénon d’une puissance de 6000 W à une température de 46 °C pour différents temps. Un échantillon de référence a été pris pour la comparaison. A l’aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge FTIR et l’essai de traction, on a pu suivre les changements structuraux physico-chimiques et mécaniques. L’évolution des paramètres mécaniques (module d’élasticité, contrainte et allongement à la rupture ainsi que l’évolution des groupements carbonylés sous l’effet des radiations UV sont discutées. L’allongement à la rupture diminue avec le temps d’exposition pour la plupart des formulations étudiées, sauf la formulation F4 (anti-oxydant/stabilisant dont il y à une augmentation avec le temps. Par les RX, on a pu calculer le taux de cristallinité qui ont donné des valeurs élevées par rapport à d’autres ce qui est du probablement aux additifs ajoutés (chimassorb 81. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les additifs (stabilisants lumière et anti-oxydants avec des concentrations appropriées donnent des améliorations fiables concernant le comportement mécanique et les propriétés physico-chimiques des échantillons du PEBD exposés au rayonnement UV.

  1. Biological effects of the ionizing radiation. Press breakfast; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants. Petit dejeuner de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flury-Herard, A. [CEA, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S.; Dutrillaux, B. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 92 (France); Toledano, M. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, DSV, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 29 june 2000 on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and provides inquiries on the NDA operating to introduce the NDA damages by ionizing radiations, the possible repairs and the repair efficiency facing the carcinogenesis. Those researches allow the scientists to define laws on radiation protection. (A.L.B.)

  2. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations; Effets biologiques et sanitaires des rayonnements non ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Seze, R.; Souques, M.; Aurengo, A.; Bach, V.; Burais, N.; Cesarini, J.P.; Cherin, A.; Decobert, V.; Dubois, G.; Hours, M.; Lagroye, I.; Leveque, Ph.; Libert, J.P.; Lombard, J.; Loos, N.; Mir, L.; Perrin, A.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Thuroczy, G.; Wiart, J.; Lehericy, St.; Pelletier, A.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Douki, Th.; Guibal, F.; Tordjman, I.; Gaillot de Saintignon, J.; Collard, J.F.; Scoretti, R.; Magne, I.; Veyret, B.; Katrib, J.


    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day on the biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. Sixteen presentations out of 17 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes; 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 {mu}T magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 10 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 11 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 12 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Veyret); 13 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 14 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 15 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)


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    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse à l’étude de la spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique de quelques composés des iridoïdes glucosidiques de type C-9 extraits des plantes de l’espèce Euplantago en utilisant la diéthylamine comme gaz réactant. Nous avons appliqué la même technique que précédemment à deux d’entre eux se trouvant en abondance dans ce type de plantes, après leur acétylation.

  4. Design and test of a scintillation dosimeter for dosimetry measurements of high energy radiotherapy beams; Conception et realisation d'un dosimetre a scintillation adapte a la dosimetrie de faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontbonne, J.M


    This work describes the design and evaluation of the performances of a scintillation dosimeter developed for the dosimetry of radiation beams used in radiotherapy. The dosimeter consists in a small plastic scintillator producing light which is guided by means of a plastic optical fiber towards photodetectors. In addition to scintillation, high energy ionizing radiations produce Cerenkov light both in the scintillator and the optical fiber. Based on a wavelength analysis, we have developed a deconvolution technique to measure the scintillation light in the presence of Cerenkov light. We stress the advantages that are anticipated from plastic scintillator, in particular concerning tissue or water equivalence (mass stopping power, mass attenuation or mass energy absorption coefficients). We show that detectors based on this material have better characteristics than conventional dosimeters such as ionisation chambers or silicon detectors. The deconvolution technique is exposed, as well as the calibration procedure using an ionisation chamber. We have studied the uncertainty of our dosimeter. The electronics noise, the fiber transmission, the deconvolution technique and the calibration errors give an overall combined experimental uncertainty of about 0,5%. The absolute response of the dosimeter is studied by means of depth dose measurements. We show that absolute uncertainty with photons or electrons beams with energies ranging from 4 MeV to 25 MeV is less than {+-} 1 %. Last, at variance with other devices, our scintillation dosimeter does not need dose correction with depth. (author)

  5. Radioprotection rayonnements, dosimétrie, protection

    CERN Document Server

    Marey, Gérard


    Pour tous les travailleurs du nucléaire comme pour les étudiants des licences professionnelles et des BTS Environnement nucléaire et BTS radioprotection, l'ouvrage rassemble de façon progressive, claire et précise toutes les informations scientifiques et pratiques qui leur sont indispensables. Une première partie résume les données de base relatives à la structure de la matière, la stabilité des noyaux, les différents rayonnements, leur énergie et la décroissance radioactive. La deuxième partie constitue une approche progressive de la radioprotection s'appuyant sur l'influence des rayonnement sur la matière pour définir les notions de dose et aborder le dimensionnement des protections biologiques et des éléments de ventilation. Enfin, la dernière partie traite de la mise en oeuvre pratique de la radioprotection sur le terrain et de la gestion des déchets nucléaires en application de la technologie actuelle, de la réglementation et des directives imposées par l'exploitant qu'est EDF. De...

  6. The activity of {gamma}-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient {gamma} for some radio-elements (1961); Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Determination du coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} de quelques radioelements (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    chambre d'ionisation gamma, permettant soit de mesurer l'activite de sources radioactives, soit de determiner le coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} (ou coefficient K) d'un radioelement determine. Les chambres d'ionisation etudiees appartiennent a deux categories: chambre-cavites en graphite, et chambres a puits {gamma}. Pour les mesures effectuees avec une chambre-cavite, on a calcule les differents facteurs do correction dont il faut tenir compte, en particulier les corrections de geometrie et d'hygrometrie. Les corrections d'absorption et d'autoabsorption ont amene a introduire la notion 'd'energie efficace {gamma}' d'un radioelement. Dans le cas des chambres a puits, on a montre qu'une forme appropriee des 'electrodes permettait d'ameliorer leurs performances. Une des chambres decrites permet la mesure des emetteurs {beta} par le rayonnement de freinage associe. Pour la determination du coefficient K de quelques radioelements, il s'est avere commode d'utiliser une chambre a puits a parois de graphite, les mesures etant effectuees par comparaison avec un etalon de radium. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee avec quelques radioelements pour lesquels la valeur du coefficent K etait deja bien connue ({sup 24}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, {sup 198}Au). Pour d'autres radioelements, les valeurs suivantes ont ete obtenues (exprimees en r cm{sup 3} mc{sup 1} h{sup 1}): {sup 51}Cr: 0,18; {sup 56}Mn: 8,8; {sup 65}Zn: 3,05; {sup 124}Sb: 9,9; {sup 134}Cs: 9,3; {sup 137}Cs: 3,35; {sup 141}Ce: 0,46; {sup 170}Tm: 0,023; {sup 192}Ir: 24,9; {sup 203}Hg: 1,18; Ces valeurs ont ete corrigees de la contribution qu'apportent a la dose les rayonnements de fluorescence eventuellement emis par la source, sauf dans le cas du {sup 170}Tm. Dans la derniere partie de ce travail, on a compare les performances des differents dispositifs electrometriques utilises. (auteur)

  7. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public; Renforcer la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants. Des professionnels de sante, des patients et du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. Planification visuelle et interactive d'interventions dans des environnements d'accélérateur de particules émettant des rayonnements ionisants


    Fabry, Thomas


    Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordina...

  9. Physique Nucléaire. — Différence de comportement par diffusion des électrons et du rayonnement β (United States)

    Suzor, Francis; Charpak, Georges

    Nous avons déjà exposé dans deus(1) le dispositif expérimental (Fig. I) nous permettant de mesurer la proportion de rayonnement diffusé dans tout l'espace situé d'un còté d'une feuille plane d'aluminium en fonction de l'épaisseur h de cette feuille (courbe A); la source sans matière est placée sur la feuille elle-mème du còté où le rayonnement est mesuré…

  10. Open-air ionisation chambers with walls of soft-tissue equivalent material for measuring photon doses; Chambres d'ionisation d'ambiance a parois en materiau equivalent aux tissus mous pour la mesure des doses absorbees dues aux photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, H.; Anceau, J.C.; Grand, M.; Petit, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The ionisation chambers presented in this report constitute a contribution to research into methods of carrying out correct determinations in the field of health physics. The use of a mixture of teflon containing 42.5 per cent by weight of carbon for the chamber walls makes it possible to measure directly the dose absorbed in air through 300 mg/cm{sup 2} of soft tissue and, consequently, the dose absorbed in the soft tissues with a maximum error of 10 per cent for photon energies of between 10 keV and 10 MeV. Furthermore since this material does not contain hydrogen, the chamber has a sensitivity to neutrons which is much less than other chambers in current use. Finally the shape of these chambers has been studied with a view to obtaining a satisfactory measurement from the isotropy point of view; for example for gamma radiation of 27 keV, the 3 litre chamber is isotropic to within 10 per cent over 270 degrees, and the 12 litre chamber is isotropic to within 10 per cent over 300 degrees; for 1.25 MeV gamma radiation this range is extended over 330 degrees for the 3 litre chamber, and 360 degrees for the 12 litre chamber. This report presents the measurements carried out with these chambers as well as the results obtained. These results are then compared to those obtained with other chambers currently used in the field of health physics. (authors) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation presentees dans ce rapport apportent une contribution a la recherche de moyens dosimetriques adaptes aux mesures a effectuer pour assurer une dosimetrie correcte dans le domaine de la radioprotection. L'utilisation d'un melange de teflon charge a 42.5 pour cent en masse de carbone comme materiau constituant les parois de la chambre permet de realiser un dosimetre mesurant directement la dose absorbee dans l'air sous 3OO mg/cm{sup 2} de tissu mou et, par consequent, la dose absorbee dans les tissus mous avec une erreur maximale de 10 pour cent, pour des photons d

  11. Spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning selective: Elimination des corrections necessaires a la determination du rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene (United States)

    Letarte, Sylvain

    Dans le but d'ameliorer la precision avec laquelle le rapport isotopique de l'hydrogene peut etre determine, un spectrometre de masse a ionisation Penning a ete construit pour provoquer l'ionisation selective de l'hydrogene moleculaire et de l'hydrure de deuterium a partir d'un melange gazeux. L'utilisation d'atomes dans des etats d'excitation metastable s'est averee une solution adequate pour reponde a cette attente. L'emploi de l'helium, a l'interieur d'une source d'atomes metastables construit specifiquement pour ce travail, ne permet pas d'obtenir un spectre de masse compose uniquement des deux molecules d'interet. L'ionisation de ces dernieres provient de deux processus distincts, soient l'ionisation Penning et l'ionisation par bombardement electronique. Contrairement a l'helium, il a ete demontre que le neon metastable est un candidat ideal pour produire l'ionisation selective de type Penning. Le nombre d'ions produits est directement proportionnel au courant de la decharge electrique et de la pression d'operation de la source d'atomes metastables. Ces resultats demontrent le potentiel d'un tel spectrometre de masse pour ameliorer la precision a laquelle le rapport isotopique peut etre determine comparativement aux autres techniques existantes.

  12. Theoretical galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum obtained for sources of varying geometry; Spectre theorique des electrons du rayonnement cosmique dans la galaxie obtenu pour des sources a geometrie variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Jokipii and Meyer have recently obtained an electron density energy spectrum of the cosmic rays, originating in the Galaxy, using integral solutions of the steady state transfer equations, by considering a circular cylindric galactic disc as source and approximating the resulting fourth order integral. In this report, we present general results, obtained by using an arbitrary circular cylindric source, without restricting ourselves to the galactic disc. The integrals are treated exactly. The conclusions of Jokipii and Meyer form special cases of these results. We also obtain an exponential energy variation which, at the moment, is not observed experimentally. The second part of this work deals with more complicated, but perhaps more realistic models of elliptic cylindric and ellipsoidal galactic disc sources. One may also note that a very large source concentrated in a very small region gives a spectrum not unlike that for a small source distributed throughout a large volume. Finally, it may be remarked that the model adopted is much less restrictive than the artificial conception of 'leakage time' followed by other workers. (author) [French] Jokipii et Meyer ont dernierement obtenu un spectre d'energie pour les electrons galactiques dans le rayonnement cosmique, en utilisant les solutions des equations de transfert, a l'etat stationnaire, ces dernieres etant sous forme d'integrales, en prenant une source completement diffusee dans le disque galactique, celui-ci etant hypothetiquement choisi comme circulaire et cylindrique et en faisant une approximation sur l'integrale du quatrieme degre. Dans ce rapport, nous presentons des resultats generaux obtenus en faisant appel a une source, diffusee dans un cylindre circulaire, arbitrairement choisi, c'est-a-dire sans nous restreindre au disque galactique comme source. Les integrales sont traitees d'une maniere exacte. Les conclusions de Jokipii et Meyer constituent des cas speciaux

  13. Prevention of risks in relation with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation; Prevention des risques lies a l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    After remind the base notions in the field of ionizing radiation, this file evaluates the situation on the natural and occupational exposures: modes, sources, and exposure level, risk for health. It presents the principles of prevention allowing in a professional area (out of nuclear industry) to reduce and control these exposures. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. references are given: regulatory benchmarks, useful links, books to consult. (N.C.)

  14. The use of Monte Carlo codes in metrology of ionizing radiations; Utilisation de codes de Monte Carlo en metrologie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathe, J.; Gouriou, J.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/DIMRI - LNHB), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)


    The use of Monte Carlo codes allows to get corrective values more exact or inaccessible by traditional methods. Here are presented several results got in te frame of dose metrology (influence of vacuum interstices in a calorimeter, influence of walls in a chemical dosemeter) as well as in this one of radioactivity metrology ( efficiency and spectra of energy deposition in a detector, spectra in energy of thick sources). (N.C.)

  15. Occupational exposure in radiology and nuclear medicine departments. Categorization and dosimetric monitoring; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants des personnels medicaux. Pour une categorisation et une surveillance dosimetrique rationnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Physique 94 - Villejuif (France)


    Currently, the radiation exposure of the huge majority of radiologic staff in radiology or nuclear medicine departments is very low. These workers are no longer in the 'A category' of the French regulations, which implies annual exposure ranged from 6 to 20 mSv. Most workers of the staff would be categorized into B category (annual exposure ranged from 1 to 6 mSv). In radiology departments, only the interventional radiologists must be categorized 'A' and in nuclear medicine department, only the technicians regularly assigned to injection of radiopharmaceuticals must be categorized 'A'. The modification of the categorization from 'B' to 'A' provides a best dosimetric monitoring: the electronic dosimeters are allocated to a few, really exposed, workers, while passive, three-month-read dosimeters record the very low exposures of the majority of workers. A dosimetric survey of each post, working out the maximal exposure of a permanent worker at this post is the prerequisite of the establishment of this categorization. (author)

  16. Workers' radioprotection: professional exposure to ionizing radiation in France: assessment for 2010; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants en France: bilan 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As more than 300.000 workers are potentially exposed to different artificial sources of ionizing radiation in different activity sectors in France (nuclear, industry, research, and medicine) and some others to natural radiation sources, this report proposes an assessment of these exposures for 2010. The report describes the monitoring of professional exposure (legal framework, monitoring modalities, means and actions of the IRSN), presents the methodology adopted for this annual assessment of workers' exposure to ionizing radiation. It gives this assessment for civilian activities submitted to an authorization or declaration regime and for defence activities (general results for external and internal exposures, exposure in the medical and veterinary sector, in the nuclear sector, in the industrial sector, in the research sector). It finally addresses the exposure of workers to natural radioactivity

  17. Atomes et rayonnement


    Dalibard, Jean; Haroche, Serge


    Matière et lumière sont intimement liées dans notre modélisation du monde physique. De l’élaboration de la théorie quantique à l’invention du laser, l’interaction entre atomes et rayonnement a joué un rôle central dans le développement de la science et de la technologie d’aujourd’hui. La maîtrise de cette interaction permet désormais d’atteindre les plus basses températures jamais mesurées. Le refroidissement de gaz d’atomes par la lumière d’un laser conduit à une « matière quantique » aux pr...

  18. Determination of the cross-sections of some nuclear reactions occurring as a result of cosmic radiation (1963); Determination des sections efficaces de quelques reactions nucleaires intervenant dans les effets ou rayonnement cosmique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamers, M.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The high energy reactions studied during this research are reactions liable to occur as a result of cosmic radiation. On the one hand the reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C was studied and its cross-section measured between 65 MeV and 2.7 GeV; a value of 2.3 mb {+-} 0.5 was found. These values have mode it possible to forecast measurable quantities of carbon-14 in meteorites and also to measure them. On the other hand the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) have been studied and an attempt has been made to explain the mechanism of these reactions. (author) [French] Les reactions a hautes energies qui ont ete etudiees au court de ce travail sont des reactions susceptibles de se produire sous l'effet du rayonnement cosmique. Il s'agit d'une part de la reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C dont on a mesure la section efficoce egale a 2,3 mb {+-} 0,5 entre 65 MeV et 2,7 GeV. Ces valeurs ont permis de prevoir des quantites mesurables de carbone 14 dans les meteorites et par suite de les determiner. D'autre part les reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) et {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) ont ete etudiees et on a tente d'expliquer le mecanisme de ces reactions. (auteur)

  19. Effects of the ionising radiations on the structure and the function of the intestinal epithelial cell; Effets des rayonnements ionisants sur la structure et la fonction de la cellule epitheliale intestinale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haton, C


    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly radio-sensitive tissue and damage may occur following either accidental or therapeutic exposure. the deleterious actions of ionizing radiation are linked to the formation of sometimes overwhelming quantities of reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.). Production of R.O.S. is both direct and indirect from the secondary effects of irradiation. A better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of injury will lead to more adapted therapeutic approaches to limit the harmful effects of irradiation. The homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium is regulated by three factors: proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. these three factors were studied using the cell model, HT29, in order to analyze modulations of this balance after irradiation. our results, in agreement with other data, showed the establishment of mitotic delay. This arrest of proliferation was followed by apoptosis to be the major mechanism leading to cell death in this model. thus, for the first time, we have shown that irradiated intestinal epithelial cells preserve their capacity to differentiate. This indicates, although indirectly, that intestinal cells have and preserve an intrinsic capacity restore a functional epithelium. R.O.S. are considered as intermediates between the physical nature of radiations and biological responses. It seems essential to understand anti-oxidant mechanisms used by the cell for defence against the deleterious effects of R.O.S post exposure. This study of several anti-oxidant defence mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, was carried out in vivo in the mouse at different times following abdominal irradiation. We observed an early mitochondrial response in the hours following irradiation revealing this organelle as a particular target. We demonstrated a strong alteration of anti-oxidant capacity as revealed by a decrease in S.O.D.s, catalase and an increase of the G.P.X.s and M.T.s. A part of these modifications appeared to depend on an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. Finally, we showed that the loss of catalase is linked to the onset of structural damage to the mucosa. All of these results orient therapeutic strategies towards inducing the proliferation of crypt cells, rather than an inhibition of apoptosis, since the epithelial cells retain differentiation capacity and so production of functional cells. (aut0009h.

  20. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations; Epidemiologie et rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, M. [Direction generale de la surete nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Masse, R. [Academie des technologies, 75 - Paris (France); Slama, R.; Spira, A. [Inserm et Ined U569, Epidemiologie, Demographie et Sciences Sociales: Sante Reproductive, Sexualite et Infection a VIH, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Hall, P. [Karolinska Inst., Dept. d' Epidemiologie Medicale, Stockholm (Sweden); Ron, E. [Institut national du cancer, Div. Epidemiologie du Cancer et Genetique (United States); Vathaire, F. de [INSERM XR 521, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire (InVs), 94415 - Saint-Maurice (France); Bloch, J. [Direction generale de la sante, 75 - Paris (France); Setbon, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)


    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  1. The non ionizing radiations; Les rayonnements non ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, P. [Institut National de la Sante, Lab. de Physique, Rome (Italy); Souques, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Lambrozo, J. [EDF/GDF, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others


    The biological effects of non ionizing radiations are studied in this part. The magnetic fields and the cardiac implants, melatonin secretion among the electricians exposed to magnetic fields of 50 hz, the effects of electromagnetic fields in professional medium, evaluation of the effect of an exposure to a signal of a mobile phone (GSM 900) on the skin are the different subjects discussed. (N.C.)

  2. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B; Evaluation d'un modele alternatif de peau dans l'etude de l'atteinte epidermique apres exposition a differents agents de stress environnementaux: rayonnements ionisants (RI) et ultra-violets B (UVB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoir, M


    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  3. Study of the texture of porous solids using a technique of {gamma} ray absorption; Application de l'absorption du rayonnement {gamma} a l'etude de la texture des solides poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A technique, which enables us to measure locally total porosity, open porosity and pore size distribution is developed. The total porosity is calculated from the bulk density. A gamma absorption gauge is set up fitted with a Cs137 source. This enables the determination of the density by layers of carbonaceous samples in a practically automatic way. By taking adequate precautions it is possible to obtain the density with a maximum error {delta}{rho} {<=} 0,005 g/cm{sup 3}. The open porosity is evaluated by the absorption method after impregnation with bromoform. A new mercury porosimeter is developed using the absorption probe for the measurement of mercury infiltrated into the porous sample. Due to the localized character of exploration by this technique, the variations of porous texture in a heterogeneous sample can be studied. Used as a classical porosimeter, in the case of homogeneous samples, this apparatus is capable of exploring the equivalent diameters of pores between 500 {mu} and 0.14 {mu} with a maximum error {delta}P {<=} 0.002. The possibility of exploration of heterogeneous samples, with the facility of determination of porosities due to macro-pores combined with the non-limiting character of the method in the field of high pressures differentiates this apparatus from all the porosimeters of former conception. Examples of utilization of this technique in the case of graphite-gas reactions are presented. (author) [French] On a developpe une technique permettant la mesure localisee de la porosite totale, de la porosite ouverte et de la repartition de la taille de pores. La porosite totale est calculee a partir de la densite apparente. On a mis au point une jauge d'absorption du rayonnement gamma munie d'une source de Cs137. Celle-ci nous a permis de determiner la densite par couches d'echantillons cylindriques carbones d'une facon pratiquement automatique. En prenant les precautions adequates, il est possible d'obtenir la densite

  4. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F


    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  5. The use aeroplanes and vehicles for prospecting. The technique of the detection radioactivity. The future opened up by the use of the discrimination of energies; Methodes de prospection autoportee et aeroportee. La technique de la detection des rayonnements. Les perspectives offertes par la discrimination des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J.; Berbezier, J.; Blangy, B.; Lallemant, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The idea of installing activity detectors on aeroplanes and vehicles has been widely applied by the CEA since the start of prospecting in the arid and tropical regions of the Communaute Francaise. Three systems of detection have been developed and compared in a systematic manner: a group of 50 G.M. tubes; the sodium iodide scintillator; the plastic scintillator. The sodium iodide scintillator is used as a standard reference; the results are compared by graphical recording. Airborne prospecting is carried out in two stages: the initial flights, which follow a kilometre square network, make possible the discovery of the most likely zones; these likely zones are then examined in greater detail using light aeroplanes or helicopters. The two types of airborne scintillation measuring devices which have been developed by the CEA are described in this article. The practical results obtained during systematic and detailed airborne prospecting campaigns in the Hoggar are described. The difficulty in airborne uranium prospecting is to be able to immediately distinguish while in flight, anomalies caused by uranium from those caused by thorium. (author) [French] L'idee de monter des detecteurs de rayonnements sur des avions ou des vehicules a ete largement appliquee par le CEA des le debut des prospections dans les pays sahariens et tropicaux de la Communaute Fran ise. On a realise et compare d'une maniere systematique trois moyens de detection: groupe de 50 tubes GM; scintillateur d'iodure de sodium, scintillateur plastique. L'appareil de reference sera le scintillateur d'iodure de sodium; les resultats sont compares par enregistrement graphique. La prospection aeroportee se fait en deux etapes; les premiers vols systematiques suivant un quadrillage kilometrique permettent de reperer les zones interessantes; ces dernieres font l'objet d'examens plus detailles effectues en avion leger ou en helicoptere. Dans cet article, on decrit les deux

  6. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    . Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  7. Recommandations pour la détermination des profils de porosité et de saturation dans les milieux poreux par absorption d'un rayonnement X Recommendations for Determining Porosity and Saturation Profiles in Porous Media by X-Ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode expérimentale de mesures locales de saturations en milieu poreux. Cette méthode, basée sur des mesures d'absorption d'un rayonnement X, peut être utilisée en statique : détermination de profil de porosité, de répartition des phases, ou en dynamique : suivi du front de déplacement lors d'écoulements diphasiques. Après avoir rappelé brièvement le principe de la méthode, l'appareillage et la procédure expérimentale sont décrits. Quelques exemples de mesures viennent ensuite l'illustrer. This article describes an experimental method for local saturation measurements in porous media. The method is based on X-ray absorption measurements. It can be used under static conditions for determining the porosity profile and the phase distribution. It can also be used under dynamic conditions to follow a displacement front during two-phase flows. After a brief review of the principle of the method, the equipment and experimental procedure are described. Several examples of measurements are then given to illustrate the method.



    Fabre, Claude


    National audience; Ce cours, donné dans le parcours de deuxième année Physique Quantiquedu Master ENS-ICFP : Concepts fondamentaux de la Physique, est consacréà une présentation générale de l’interaction entre la matière et le rayonnementélectromagnétique. On appelle souvent Optique Quantique ce domaine de la physique, carla matière, ou la lumière, ou les deux, sont traitées au niveau des phénomènesmicroscopiques donc quantiques. Les systèmes étudiés sont souventcomplexes. On cherche donc à l...

  9. Prevention of cancer and the dose-effect relationship: the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations; La prevention du cancer et la relation dose-effet: l'effet cancerogene des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M. [Centre Antoine-Beclere, Faculte de Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)


    Cancer prevention has to be based on robust biological and epidemiological data, therefore its reappraisal becomes mandatory in view of recent progress in the understanding of carcinogenesis. The first phase of the carcinogenic process, that of initiation, is generally associated with mutation; however the role of extrinsic mutagens is less critical than was thought two decades ago. During intracellular oxygen metabolism, reactive oxygen species (R.O.S.) are made which are potent mutagens. Defense mechanisms against these intrinsic mutagens include scavenger and enzymatic systems which destroy them (catalase, superoxide dismutase). When the radiation dose is low, DNA repair is very effective as well as the elimination of cells with unrepaired or bad repaired DNA. Therefore a small increase in the number of R.O.S., such as that caused by a small dose of radiation has most probably no significant effect on the risk of DNA damage. These conclusions are consistent with the concept of a practical threshold. The second phase, that of promotion, appears to be the key one. During the promotion phase, initiated cells must acquire new properties (immortalization, release of angiogenic factors, resistance to hypoxia, etc.) in order to become pre-cancerous. This evolution is due to the accumulation in the genome of 6 to 10 new alteration defects. In the clone of initiated cells, the occurrence in one cell of a mutation or an epigenetic event gives birth to a sub clone. There is a Darwinian type competition between the sub clones and those with the more rapid growth because dominant (the acceleration of the growth rate can be due to shorter cell cycles or to an alleviation of cell proliferation exerted by the neighboring cells or the microenvironment). In the dominant sub clones new genomic events provoke the appearance of new sub clones growing more rapidly and having greater autonomy. The process is very slow because the specific genetic events that favour this evolution seldom occur. Promoting factors are agents that either perturb intercellular signalling or stimulate cell proliferation (e.g. hormones) or increase cell mortality: mechanical or chemical irritation (e.g. alcohol, bacteria, viruses) thereby inducing compensatory cell proliferation. Thus, gradually pre-cancerous cells become able to divide more rapidly with greater autonomy. This phase ends when a sub clone of cells has acquired the capacity of autonomous proliferation. The third phase is that of progression during which cells proliferate regularly without any stimulation. In one of the cells of one of the pre-cancerous lesions (e.g. polyps) a cell acquires the capacity of invading surrounding tissue or to metastasize. The whole carcinogenic process is very slow, extending over several decades, because the specific mutations seldom occur and the probability of an accumulation of several specific mutations in the same cell or cell lineage is very small. It can be accelerated by intense stimulation of cell proliferation or genetic instability. Ionizing radiations act firstly as a mutagen, however when the dose is high they also kill a significant proportion of cells and by a homeostatic mechanism they induce cell proliferation and clonal amplification. It has been claimed that even the smallest dose of radiation can induce a cancer. This concept is associated with the L.N.T. model and it is not based on scientific evidence. It has fuelled a fear of radiation which had detrimental consequences. Conversely the high efficacy of defense mechanisms against radio carcinogenesis, particularly when the tissue is not disorganized, can explain the lack of carcinogenic effect of contamination by small doses of radium or thorium which has been observed on radium dial painters or in patients injected with thorotrast. The study of second cancers in patients treated by radiotherapy could provide important information and should be actively pursued with two aims: reduce the incidence of second cancers; to better understand radio carcinogenesis and the relation between dose and carcinogenic effect. (authors)

  10. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in exo-buccal dental radiology; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire exobuccale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)


    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of exo-buccal dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment

  11. Medical exposure of French population to ionizing radiations. Situation for the setting up of a perennial information system on medical exposure of the patients to ionizing radiations; Exposition medicale de la population francaise aux rayonnements ionisants. Etat des lieux pour la mise en place d'un systeme perenne d'information sur l'exposition medicale des patients aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)


    The necessity of a information gathering system allowing to globally evaluate the contribution of medical exposure to the French population exposure and to know more particularly the most irradiating practices and these ones that reach the most sensitive populations has been emphasized in the 'Vrousos' report on the priorities in radiation protection and detailed in the actions planning for the patients surveillance to ionizing radiation exposure by the general direction of nuclear safety and radiation protection. So, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety and the institute of health surveillance have decided to co-ordinate their efforts to implement an observatory of medical practice in radiology. This study should allow to know the average radiation dose delivered for each act and to know the nature and frequency of these acts. for example the average radiation dose in conventional radiology has been estimated between .66 to .83 mSv by year according to the lowest or highest hypothesis. The examinations of conventional radiology would contribute to 35% of the total dose delivered to population, scanography examinations to 40% and the nuclear medicine acts and interventional radiology for 20 to 25%. (N.C.)

  12. Ionisation and dissociation of water induced by swift multicharged ions; Etude de l'ionisation et de la dissociation d'H{sub 2}O induites par collision avec des ions multicharges rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, S


    Ionization and dissociation of water molecules and water clusters induced by 11.7 MeV/A Ni{sup 25+} ions were carried out by imaging techniques. Branching ratios, ionisation cross sections and Kinetic Energy Released distributions have been measured together with fragmentation dynamics studies. Multiple ionization represents approximately 30% of the ionizing events. Double ionization produces in significant way atomic oxygen, considered as a possible precursor of the large production of HO{sub 2} radical in liquid water radiolysis by ions of high Linear Energy Transfer. We evidence a strong selectivity of bond breakage in the case of ion-induced HOD fragmentation. Once the molecule doubly ionized, the breakage of the O-H bond is found 6.5 times more probable than that of the O-D bond. A semi-classical calculation simulating the fragmentation dynamics on the potential energy surface of the ground-state of di-cation H{sub 2}O{sup 2+} makes possible to as well reproduce the preferential nature of the breakage of the O-H bond as the position and the shift of the kinetic energy distributions. First results concerning interaction with water clusters are also reported. Measurements in coincidence are carried out giving access to correlation, with the distributions in energy and angle of the emitted fragments. Mass spectrum points fast intra-cluster proton transfer, leading to the emission of protonated clusters. (author)

  13. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoroy Pascal


    Full Text Available Dans les modèles de simulation du fonctionnement des cultures, l’interception du rayonnement est une variable cruciale pour la prévision de la productivité en biomasse. D’autre part, la connaissance de l’interception du rayonnement par une culture permet de mieux analyser la réponse à un traitement en autorisant la distinction entre les effets morphogénétique et physiologique du traitement. Par exemple, dans l’étude de la fertilisation azotée du colza [1] on a pu faire la part de l’effet morphogénétique (accroissement de l’indice foliaire, donc de l’interception et de l’amélioration de la conversion photosynthétique du rayonnement absorbé. Dans un cas comme dans l’autre, une estimation correcte de l’interception du rayonnement est essentielle. Très souvent, un formalisme dérivé de la loi de Beer-Lambert est utilisé pour quantifier la part interceptée du rayonnement : PARi = epsiloni PAR (1 et epsiloni = 1 - e- k.IF (2, PAR représentant le rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif incident (exprimé en Joules ou en moles de photons, PARi la part de ce dernier interceptée par le couvert, epsiloni le coefficient (sans dimension d’interception, IF l’indice foliaire et k le coefficient d’extinction du rayonnement. Un formalisme un peu plus complexe doit être utilisé si on veut considérer le rayonnement absorbé [1, 2]. Pour des cultures couvrantes, la sensibilité de ces modèles à la valeur de k est faible pour les IF élevés, c’est pourquoi ces modèles sont souvent utilisés avec succès. Mais aux faibles IF, les modèles sont sensibles à k, d’où l’importance de l’estimation de ce paramètre pour les cultures présentant une longue période de faible couverture du sol, tel le colza peu fertilisé en phase hivernale. De plus, pour les cultures discontinues, c’est-à-dire présentant des zones où le sol n’est pas du tout couvert par la végétation, comme les inter-rangs, on doit

  14. Influence du rayonnement diffusé sur la résolution spatiale: étude quantitative sur un système numérique DR


    Bayala, Bédoua Arsène; Salamin, Julie; Buchillier-Decka, Ina


    L’objectif de cette étude est d’investiguer l’effet du rayonnement diffusé sur la résolution spatiale en radiodiagnostic, sur un appareil numérique à conversion directe. Nous avons imagé des plaques de poly méthacrylate de méthyle selon la méthode du beam-stop pour quantifier le rayonnement diffusé au travers du rapport S/P. Les paramètres d’acquisition ont été choisis de manière à se rapprocher des conditions cliniques. La tension, l’épaisseur et la taille de champ sont les trois paramètres ...

  15. Positron impact ionisation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kara, V


    impact ionisation of H. The total ionisation cross section (sigma sub T sup +), including contributions from both direct ionisation and Ps formation, was measured by extracting ions randomly. The Ps formation cross section (sigma sub P sub s) of H was then determined from these measurements by subtraction of sigma sub i sup + data. Two recent theoretical calculations, generally considered to be the most reliable thus far, are found to be in agreement with the results for sigma sub P sub s over the entire energy range investigated. The present measurements also differentiate between two prior conflicting measurements of sigma sub P sub s , thus providing a degree of consensus amongst experimental data. In this work, a magnetically confined e beam was crossed with a gas jet to study ionisation of Ne, Kr and Xe atoms. Ions produced in the overlap of the beams were detected in coincidence with the scattered projectile, so as to discriminate against ionisation events involving positronium (Ps) formation. The singl...

  16. High spatial and time resolutions with gas ionization detectors; Hautes resolutions en position et temps avec des detecteurs gazeux a ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthas, J


    This document presents the principles and the characteristics of the gaseous ionisation detectors used in position and timing measurements. The first two parts recall the main notions (electron and ion motions, gaseous amplification, signal formation) and their applications to the proportional counter and the wire chamber. The explanation of the signal formation makes use of the Ramo theorem. The third part is devoted to the different types of wire chambers: drift or cathode strip chambers, TPC (time projection chamber). Some aspects on construction and ageing are also presented. Part 4 is on the detectors in which the multiplication is performed by a 'Parallel Plate' system (PPAC, Pestov counter). Special attention is paid to the RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers) and their timing resolutions. Part 5 concentrates on 'Micro-pattern detectors' which use different kinds of microstructure for gaseous amplification. The new detectors MICROMEGAS, CAT (compteur a trous) and GEM (gas electron multiplier) and some of their applications are presented. The last part is a bibliography including some comments on the documents. (author)

  17. Use of well-type ionization chambers in radioactive metrology; Utilisation des chambres d'ionisation a puits en metrologie radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazzone, J.; Guiho, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A summary is given of the results of our observations and experiments gathered together over a period of 10 years in the Radioelement Measurements Laboratory, concerning the use of well-type chambers in refined metrology. The optimum conditions for obtaining good reproducibility are defined; this is indispensable if improved sensitivity and accuracy are required. For this, we consider, and measure, the effects of: the nature and the shape of the sources and of the containers; the random form of the response and its statistical treatment; the non-linearity and the show drift of the installation. A sound knowledge of the causes of error, the application of adequate correction methods and an exact calculation of the error, all make it possible to carry out measurements under the best conditions for obtaining a good reproducibility. The accuracy can attain 1.5 per cent. (author) [French] Nous resumons les resultats de nos observations et experiences, accumules depuis plus de dix ans au L. M. R., sur l'usage des chambres a puits en metrologie fine. Nous definissons les conditions optimum de reproductibilite des mesures, prealable indispensable a une sensibilite et une precision accrues. Pour y parvenir, nous considerons et mesurons les effets de: la geometrie et la nature des sources ainsi que du flaconnage; la forme aleatoire de la reponse et son traitement statistique; la non-linearite et la derive lente de l'installation. La bonne connaissance des causes d'erreurs, l'application de methodes de corrections adequates et un calcul d'erreur rigoureux nous permettent de faire des mesures dans d'excellentes conditions de reproductibilite, avec une exactitude pouvant atteindre 1.5 pour cent. (auteur)

  18. Apport du rayonnement synchrotron à l'étude de cheveux archéologiques (United States)

    Bertrand, L.; Chevallier, P.; Doucet, J.; Simionovici, A.; Tsoucaris, G.; Walter, P.


    La préservation dans certains contextes archéologiques des cheveux humains et des fibres animales est favorisée par leur transformation chimique au contact d'objets métalliques. Afin de mieux comprendre les phénomènes complexes mis en jeu, nous avons étudié expérimentalement la fixation de cations métalliques (Cu et Pb) dans des cheveux modèles à partir de différentes méthodes de caractérisation utilisant le rayonnement X synchrotron. Nous avons ainsi pu mettre en évidence la fixation spécifique d'une partie de ces cations au sein des lipides structurés du cheveu. La comparaison entre échantillons modèles et archéologiques apporte de nouvelles données concernant les premières étapes d'altération des cheveux archéologiques.

  19. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires concernant la protection de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  20. The accidental exposure to ionizing radiations; L'exposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This article is divided in three parts, the first one gives the radioactivity sources, the doses and the effects, the second part is devoted to the medical exposures, the third part concerns the accidents and the biological effects of an irradiation the different syndromes ( the acute whole-body irradiation syndrome, the localized irradiation syndrome, the inflammatory syndrome, hematopoietic syndrome,neuro-vascular syndrome) are detailed. (N.C.)

  1. Pregnancy and exposure to ionizing radiations; Femme enceinte et exposition aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topsoba, T.L. [Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso Univ., Lab. de Biophysique UFR/SDS (Burkina Faso); Tapsoba, T.L.; Cisse, R.; Lougue Sorgho, L.C.; Bamouni, Y.A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yo, Service de Radiologie et d' Imagerie Medicale (Burkina Faso); Gassama Seck, S. [Faculte de Medecine - UCAD, Dakar (Senegal)


    The sensitivity of the embryo and foetus varies during pregnancy. Recent studies confirm that the principal damage is mental retardation. It is generally admitted that the risk is negligible for a dose < 100 milli-sieverts (mSv). A possible termination of pregnancy will be considered for an exposure > 200 mSv.The objective of this work is to provide precise information on the various risks related to the irradiation for the foetus, according to the age of gestation and delivered dose, and the action to be taken in case of accidental irradiation. The medical use of ionizing radiation in pregnant women can only be considered within the framework of precise information. (author)

  2. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the first part is studied the properties of atoms excited by the passage of {alpha} particles through the various rare gases at atmospheric pressure. A spectral analysis of the emitted light showed that certain impurities play an important part in producing the fluorescence, and it has led to the conclusion that the light emission contains at least two components - one very short - lived due to the direct deexcitation of the rare gas, the other relatively slower due to the energy transfers to the impurity. The measurement of the life-time of the excited states has confirmed this foregoing hypothesis, the rapid part of the impulse is extremely short: less than 2,25.10{sup -9} s in the case of xenon; the slower part has a life-time depending directly on the nitrogen concentration, nitrogen being the impurity giving the largest effect in all cases. The study of rare gases under the influence of an electric field has made it possible to show that the amount of light produced by an {alpha} particle can be multiplied (by 60, for example, in a field of 600 V:cm) so that the luminescent efficiency is greater than in the case of INaTI. In the second part the characteristics of the rare gases acting as scintillators is examined, the most important property being the absence of fluorescence saturation when the intensity of the excitation incident on the gas is very large. This, together with the very short time of scintillation has made it possible to study a certain number of nuclear physical applications (heavy particle energy-measurements, kinetic studies on nuclear reactors, neutron spectroscopy). (author) [French] On etudie dans la premiere partie les proprietes des atomes excites par le passage de particules {alpha} dans les differents gaz rares a la pression atmospherique. L'etude spectrale de la lumiere emise a montre que certaines impuretes jouent un role considerable dans la fluorescence et on a ete amene a penser que l'emission de lumiere comporte au



    Lorange, Jimmy


    This work is a first step towards the understanding of involuntary couplings of wound components. More specifically, it refers to inductors entering a 10 cm edge cube and working in the 100 kHz-10 MHz frequency range. Two topics are particularly developed: mathematical tools required to evaluate, in near field approximation, magnetic coupling of close components and metrology that suits the characterization of the induction radiated by such a component. Some characterizations of industrial co...

  4. Transposition of the 97/43 EURATOM directive. Mission on procedures and standard levels of medical examinations using ionizing radiations. The radiological procedures: quality criteria and doses optimization; Transposition de la directive 97/43 Euratom. Mission sur les procedures et les niveaux de reference des examens medicaux utilisant les rayonnements ionisants. Les procedures radiologiques: criteres de qualite et optimisation des doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this report concerns the optimization of radiological practices, to avoid delivering unuseful doses while ensuring an image quality necessary to the obtaining of the desired diagnosis information. (N.C.)

  5. Decree no. 2003-296 on the 31 of march 2003 relative to the workers protection against the ionizing radiations; Decret no. 2003-296 du 31 mars 2003 relatif a la protection des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The different conditions modifying the Labour code in relation with the radiation protection of workers are exposed in detail, from the occupational exposure in normal conditions, the organisation of radiation protection, the abnormal working conditions until the medical examinations and medical follow up. (N.C.)

  6. Study of consequences of a ionizing radiation exposure on the health of persons having stay at the Marie Curie school of Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne); Etude des consequences d'une exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sur la sante des personnes ayant sejourne a l'ecole Marie Curie de Nogent-sur-Marne (Val-de-Marne)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study follows two other ones about the same subject. No one could bring elements to the question of the exposure impact on the population having stayed in the school. The old pupils and personnel have been exposed to radiation doses higher to the limit values of public exposure especially before 1987. The scientific knowledge suggest that the eventual sanitary consequences are in the area of low risks. The lack of exhaustiveness in the inquiry realisation and the lack of statistical power did not allow to measure the sanitary impact of ionizing radiation exposure among the former pupils of the Marie Curie school of Nogent sur Marne. (N.C.)

  7. Adaptive response to ionizing radiation in normal human skin fibroblasts. Enhancement of DNA repair rate and modulation of gene expression. Reponse adaptative au rayonnement ionisant des fibroblastes de peau humaine. Augmentation de la vitesse de reparation de l'ADN et variation de l'expression des genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, S.M. de; Mitchel, R.E.J. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Azzam, E. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs. Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology); Raaphorst, G.P. (Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    Low doses and dose rates of ionizing radiation enhance the rate of DNA repair in human fibroblasts and protect the cells against radiation-induced micronucleus formation. Chronic exposures reduce the mRNA levels of the genes topoisomerase II and FACC-1 (Fanconi's anemia, group C). (authors). 11 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Priorities in radiation protection. Propositions for a better protection of persons against the danger of ionizing radiations. Report of the Vrousos commission; Priorites en radioprotection. Propositions pour une meilleure protection des personnes contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants. Rapport de la commission Vrousos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    this report presents priorities for actions and recommendations on subjects such communication, information, education, and also research, monitoring of technological development, expertise or giving users more responsibility. these recommendations are given with actions propositions on field of workers radiation protection or patients protection or radioactive sources management. (N.C.)

  9. Gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere; Rayonnement gamma dans l'espace et dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchia, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    We have shown that the {gamma} radiation existing in the atmosphere is caused mainly by the Bremsstrahlung of the electrons of the electromagnetic cascades ({approx} 50 per cent of the measured radiation), by the 511 keV radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons created in cascades (8 per cent of the measured intensity) and by the Compton {gamma} degradation of this line (30 per cent of the measured intensity). The rest, slightly over 10 per cent, must be attributed to secondary causes such as the nuclear de-excitation {gamma} to the internal Bremsstrahlung of charged particles created in nuclear stars, and to charged particles crossing our detector, since the latter was not fitted with a device for rejecting these particles. Experiments carried out in rockets at Colomb-Bechar confirm these results and have made it possible to detect and measure a primary {gamma} radiation having an intensity of {approx} 2 {gamma} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} above 100 keV. The primary spectrum obeys an approximate E{sup -2} law. (author) [French] Nous avons montre que le rayonnement {gamma} existant dans l'atmosphere est provoque principalement por le bremsstrohlung des electrons des cascades electromagnetiques ({approx} 50 pour cent du rayonnement mesure), au rayonnement 511 keV provoque par l'annihilation des positrons crees dans les cascades (8 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree) et aux {gamma} de degradation Compton de cette raie (30 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree). Le reste, soit un peu plus de 10 pour cent, doit etre attribue a des causes secondaires telles que les {gamma} de desexcitation nucleaire, le bremsstrahlung interne des particules chargees creees dans les etoiles nucleaires, et aux particules chargees traversant notre detecteur car celui-ci ne comportait pas de dispositif de rejet de ces particules. Les experiences faites en fusees a Colomb-Bechar ont confirme ces resultats et permis de detecter et mesurer un rayonnement {gamma} primaire dont l

  10. Ionisation D'atomes Par un Laser Carbon Dioxide Intense Par L'effet Tunnel (United States)

    Xiong, Wei

    Cette these decrit des experiences d'ionisation d'atomes (Xe et K) par un laser CO_2 intense. Des spectrometres de masse et d'energie electronique ont ete developpes pour mesurer le nombre d'ions crees et l'energie des electrons acceleres par le gradient spatial du champ laser. Des details sur ces mesures sont fournis et justifies. On a mesure des energies d'electrons jusqu'a 1000eV, a une intensite de 10^{14} W/cm^2. Les mesures experimentales sont comparees avec deux types de theorie, qui decrivent le processus d'ionisation dans deux limites: l'interaction entre electron et noyau est beaucoup plus forte que celle entre electron et champ laser (processus multiphotonique), ou l'inverse (effect tunnel). Les resultats montrent que la courbe du nombre d'ions crees en fonction de l'intensite n'est pas tres sensible aux details du processus d'ionsisation. Par contre les spectres d'energie des electrons dependent fortement du processus d'ionisation, et on peut en deduire le taux d'ionisation. On trouve que la theorie multiphotonique ne fournit pas une explication satisfaisante aux resultats experimentaux, mais que la theorie de l'effet tunnel s'ajuste bien si on suppose que le seuil d'ionisation peut etre deplace legerement par le champ laser. Le deplacement necessaire du seuil est estime dans cette these, mais une explication theorique reste a trouver.

  11. Etude CEM sur le Couplage du Champ Electromagnétique Rayonné par un Coup de Foudre avec une Ligne Aérienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arzag


    Full Text Available Dans cette communication nous présentons une étude CEM portant sur le couplage du champ électromagnétique rayonné par un coup de foudre avec une ligne aérienne. L’étude est basée sur la mise en œuvre des approches théoriques de S. Rusck. Pour mener à bien cette étude nous avons d’abord dû choisir des modèles de représentation du courant dans le canal de foudre et celui du courant à la base du canal. Les modèles que nous avons retenus appartiennent à la famille des modèles dits d’ingénieurs. Nous avons ensuite calculé de manière analytique les composantes du champ électromagnétique rayonné par la foudre. Enfin nous avons calculé, en s’appuyant sur la théorie de Rusck, les surtensions induites par couplage du champ électromagnétique rayonné par la foudre sur une ligne aérienne. Les calculs ont été effectués sous environnement Matlab. Les résultats obtenus par simulation ont été comparés à d’autres résultats tirés de la littérature et ont montré une assez bonne concordance.

  12. Collection of legislative and regulatory arrangements relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires relatives a la radioprotection. Partie 1: lois et decrets du code de la sante publique et du code du travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This collection concerns on one hand the protection of the population and on the other hand the protection of the workers against ionizing radiations. As regards the protection of the populations, there is a quality control of waters, a control of the medical devices for the protection of patients. For the protection of the workers it is the employment law which serves as reference. (N.C.)

  13. Une ONG béninoise opère des changements organisationnels qui l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... précisé ses orientations stratégiques,; déterminé la marche à suivre pour diversifier et augmenter ses revenus,; investi dans l'amélioration des locaux et de nouveaux logiciels de comptabilité et de diffusion des connaissances,; conçu une stratégie de communication et des outils de rayonnement afin ...

  14. Electron ionisation of sulfur dioxide. (United States)

    Fletcher, James D; Parkes, Michael A; Price, Stephen D


    Relative precursor-specific partial ionisation cross sections for the fragment ions formed following electron ionisation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been measured for the first time, from 30 to 200 eV, using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with two-dimensional ion coincidence detection. These data quantify the yields of O(2+), O(+), SO(2+), S(+), O2(+), and SO(+) ions, relative to the formation of SO2(+), via single, double, and triple electron ionisation of SO2. Formation of O(2+), following electron-SO2 collisions, has been quantified for the first time. The data allow a first experimental estimate of the triple ionisation potential of SO2 (69.0 ± 3.6 eV), an energy in good agreement with a value derived in this study via computational chemistry. The triple ion combination S(+) + O(+) + O(+) is clearly detected following electron collisions with SO2 at electron energies markedly below the vertical energy for forming SO2(3 +). This observation is accounted for by the operation of a stepwise pathway to the formation of S(+) + 2O(+) which does not involve the formation of a molecular trication.

  15. Preparation and characterization of a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy of GdCo entering the design of magnetic tunnel junctions: ionizing radiations hardness of magnetic tunnel junctions; preparation et caracterisation d'un alliage amorphe ferrimagnetique de GdCo entrant dans la conception de jonctions tunnel magnetiques. Resistance des jonctions tunnel magnetiques aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conraux, Y


    The magnetic random access memories (MRAM) are on the way to supplant the other forms of random access memories using the states of electric charge, and this thanks to their many technical advantages: not-volatility, speed, low consumption power, robustness. Also, the MRAM are alleged insensitive with the ionizing radiations, which was not checked in experiments until now. The current architecture of the MRAM is based on the use of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ). These MRAM can present an important disadvantage, because they are likely of present errors of addressing, in particular when integration (density of memory cells) is increasingly thorough. The work undertaken during this thesis relates to these two points: - to check the functional reliability of the MRAM containing JTM exposed to high energy ionizing radiations; - to study a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy, GdCo, likely to enter the composition of JTM and allowing to free from the possible errors of addressing by a process of thermal inhibition of the memory cells. This work of thesis showed that the MRAM containing JTM preserve their functional properties fully when they are subjected to intense ionizing radiations, and that GdCo is a very interesting material from the point of view of the solid state physics and magnetism, that its physical properties are very promising as for its applications, and that its integration in a JTM still claims technological developments. (author)

  16. Order of the 8 december 2003 fixing the modalities of implementing of the ionizing radiation protection for workers working in aircraft in flight; Arrete du 8 decembre 2003 fixant les modalites de mise en oeuvre de la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants des travailleurs affectes a l'execution de taches a bord d'aeronefs en vol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This order concerns the cosmic radiation exposure for workers working in aircraft in flight. The individual exposure of any workers to an effective dose of more than 1 mSv per year, have to be evaluated. (A.L.B.)

  17. Order of the 30 December 2004 relative to the individual sheet of medical follow-up and to the individual information concerning the dosimetry of workers exposed to ionizing radiations; Arrete du 30 decembre 2004 relatif a la carte individuelle de suivi medical et aux informations individuelles de dosimetrie des travailleurs exposes aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This order concerns the content and the modalities of grant of the individual sheet of medical follow-up, the collect and the centralization of dosimetry individual information by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Safety (IRSN), and the access to individual results of external and internal dosimetry. (A.L.B.)

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of new organic and phosphorous derivatives against ionizing radiation: study of the in vitro mechanism of action; Synthese et evaluation de nouveaux composes organiques et phosphores contre les effets des rayonnements ionisants. Etude de leur mecanisme d'action in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, C


    This work falls under a research program. The aim was to synthesize new organic phosphorylated compounds having an interesting radio pharmacological activity without toxicity. That is why, we carried out the synthesis of new benzothiazole and thiadiazole N-substituted derivatives as thiols, amino thiols, acids thio-sulfonic and phosphoro thioates. All these compounds were characterized by NMR (proton, carbon, phosphorus, 2D), by mass spectrometry, elementary analyzes and for some of them by diffraction of x-rays. The activity of the majority of them was evaluated by in vitro tests. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical study: the aim of D.F.T. calculation was the study of the mechanism of capture of the free radicals by our compounds. In addition, a study of relation structure activity (Q.S.A.R.) was carried out. Our results allow us to create a model making it possible to establish structure-activity relationship. (author)

  19. Health and biological effects of non-ionizing radiations. Meeting of the non-ionizing radiation section of the French radiation protection society (SFRP). Meeting review; Les effets biologiques et sanitaires des rayonnements non ionisants. Journee scientifique de la section RNI de la SFRP - Compte rendu de congres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, A.; Souques, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)


    This document makes a review of this conference day on biological and health effects of non-ionizing radiations. The program comprised three sessions with a total of 17 presentations dealing with: 1 - NMR: biological effects and implications of Directive 2004/40 on electromagnetic fields (S. Lehericy); 2 - impact of RF frequencies from mobile telephone antennas on body homeostasis (A. Pelletier); 3 - expression of stress markers in the brain and blood of rats exposed in-utero to a Wi-Fi signal (I. Lagroye); 4 - people exposure to electromagnetic waves: the challenge of variability and the contribution of statistics to dosimetry (J. Wiart); 5 - status of knowledge about electromagnetic fields hyper-sensitivity (J.P. Marc-Vergnes); 6 - geno-toxicity of UV radiation: respective impact of UVB and UVA (T. Douki); 7 - National day of prevention and screening for skin cancers (F. Guibal); 8 - UV tan devices: status of knowledge about cancer risks (I. Tordjman, and J. Gaillot de Saintignon); 9 - In vitro study of the extremely low frequencies (ELF) effect on genes expression (J.F. Collard); 10 - modulation of brain activity during a tapping task after exposure to a 3000 {mu}T magnetic field at 60 Hz (M. Souques and A. Legros); 11 - calculation of ELF electromagnetic fields in the human body by the finite elements method (R. Scoretti); 12 - French population exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field (I. Magne); 13 - LF and static fields, new ICNIRP recommendations: what has changed, what remains (B. Vey. Veyret); 14 - risk assessment of low energy lighting systems - DELs and CFLs (J.P. Cesarini); 15 - biological effects to the rat of a chronic exposure to high power microwaves (R. De Seze); 16 - theoretical and experimental electromagnetic compatibility approaches of active medical implants in the 10-50 Hz frequency range: the case of implantable cardiac defibrillators (J. Katrib); 17 - French physicians and electromagnetic fields (M. Souques). (J.S.)

  20. Decree of the 18. may 2004 relative to the training program bearing on the radiation protection of patients exposed to ionizing radiation; Arrete du 18 mai 2004 relatif aux programmes de formation portant sur la radioprotection des patients exposes aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This decree explains the contents of training relative to radiation protection for radiologists, doctors in nuclear medicine, doctors in radiotherapy, dental surgeons, doctors using ionizing radiations for diagnostic uses, for surgeons using ionizing radiations during surgery acts, for persons specialized in medical radiation physics, for manipulators in medical electro radiology. (N.C.)

  1. Assessment of risks associated to ionizing radiations: lung cancers after domestic radon exposure and thyroid cancers after accidental exposure to radioactive iodines; Evaluation des risques associes aux rayonnements ionisants: cancers du poumon apres exposition domestique au radon et cancers de la thyroide apres exposition accidentelle aux iodes radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelinois, O


    The aim of this work is to develop a critical analysis of quantitative risk assessment in the field of ionizing radiation and to provide new estimates of attributable risks for particular situations of environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. This work is based on knowledge about dose-response relationships and ionizing radiation exposure of the general population. The work focuses on two different situations that both present an important interest for public health: lung cancer associated with domestic radon exposures (natural situation) and thyroid cancer associated with the Chernobyl accident fallout (accidental situation). The assessment of lung cancer risk associated with domestic radon exposure considers 10 dose-response relationships resulting from miner cohorts and case-control studies in the general population. A critical review of available data on smoking habits has been performed and allowed to consider the interactions between radon and tobacco. The exposure data come from measurements campaigns carried out since the beginning of the 1980 by the Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety and the Health General Directory in France. The French lung cancer mortality data are provided by the I.N.S.E.R.M.. Estimates of the number of attributable cancers are carried out for the whole country, stratified by 8 large regions (Z.E.A.T.) and by 96 departments for the year 1999 allowing to perform a sensibility analysis according to the geographical level of calculation. Uncertainties associated to risk coefficients and exposures have been quantified and it's impact on risk estimates is calculated. The estimated number of deaths attributable to domestic radon exposure ranges from 543 (90% uncertainty interval (U.I.): 75-1,097) to 3,108 (90% U.I.: 2,996-3,221). The corresponding risk fractions range from 2.2% (90% U.I.: 0.3%-4.4%) to 12.4% (90% U.I.: 11.9%-12.8%). The assessment of thyroid cancer risk in the most exposed area of France due to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident fallout, is based on the excess relative risk model published by E. Ron et al. in 1995. The target population is composed of all children younger than 15 years and living in the eastern part of France at the time of the accident (26 April 1986). The incidence rates between 1978 and 1997 are analysed and forecasted up to 2007 using age-period-cohort models. Thyroid doses are estimated from all available data about the contamination in France from the Chernobyl fallout/ The risks characterization is carried out by considering various scenarios on the projection of spontaneous incidence rates, the effectiveness of internal exposures compared to external ones and the levels of radioactive deposits. Uncertainties to the risk coefficient, the expected spontaneous incidence rates and the thyroid dose are considered. The estimated number of thyroid cancer cases in excess between 1991 and 2007 for the target population ranges from 5 (90% U.I.: 1-15) to 63 (90% U.I. 12-180). In comparison, depending on the scenario of spontaneous rate projection, the number of spontaneous cancer cases should range from 894 (90% U.I.: 869-920) to 1,716 (90% U.I.:1,691-1,741) between 1991 and 2007. The results show that the thyroid cancer incident rate increase observed in France during last 20 years cannot be explained by the Chernobyl fallout. The work provides an adaptation of the classical risk assessment method integrating each of its step such as a discussion about the choice of the dose-response relationship. The data analysis considers the interaction between ionizing radiation and other risk factors, a spontaneous incidence rate projection and a quantification of uncertainties. This work provides new results showing the importance of the choice of the dose-response relationship, of the consideration of the spontaneous incidence trend and of the quantification of uncertainties in risk assessment. In conclusion, this work provides new knowledge for public health by the analysis of enlarged epidemiological data. (author)

  2. Medical exposure to ionizing radiations at diagnosis aim of the French population: situation at the end of 2002 in order to implement a surveillance system;Exposition medicale aux rayonnements ionisants a visee diagnostique de la population francaise: etat des lieux fin 2002 en vue de la mise en place d'un systeme de surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Scanff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)


    The principal result of this study, in the perspective of the implementation of an epidemiological follow-up of radiological practices, is to show that the scanner and the interventional radiology, that regroup about 8% and 1.5% of the examinations number, represent respectively about 35% and 19% of the dose to the population. These examinations are in regular progression these last years. A such evaluation allows to better adapt the efforts of the epidemiological surveillance of radiological practices. Our evaluation of the situation in France in 2002 allows a comparison with the previous data registered in France but also international comparisons. The comparison of French data during the twenty last years is based, firstly, on the comparison of the number of examinations. on this period, we observe a reduction of abdomen examinations with injection of contrast product without substitution at the profit of abdomen scanner but likely at the profit of non irradiating examinations such MRI or echography. Conversely, other indications of the scanner have been developed (head and thorax). The resultant of changes in the radiological practice in term of exposure to X radiation of the population is more difficult to analyse. In addition of the number of examinations, the radiological technique has reduced the exposure. More, the coefficient of weighting used for the calculation of efficient dose have been changed in 1990 with the passage of the ICRP 26 to the ICRP 60 recommendation. The international comparisons are also a problem of method: different approaches to compare acts, values of average efficient doses by examination are referred to doses established in Great britain when the real average efficient doses by examination vary from a country to another. An European project called 'Dose Datamed' is underway to homogenize the methods of collection. The strategies of examinations uses can be different in each country. The cumulative exposure of patients should also be taken into consideration. (N.C.)

  3. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in intra-oral dental radiology and applicable texts; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiologie dentaire endobuccale et textes applicables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)


    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of intra-oral dental radiology. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the determination of exposure levels, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment. A second part indicates the various applicable legal and regulatory texts (European directives, institutions in charge of radioprotection, general arrangements applicable to workers and patients, and regulatory texts concerning worker protection or patient protection against ionizing radiations)

  4. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un

  5. Des

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, L.G.J.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; de Leeuw, J.W.


    We studied the high-resolution and well-dated 25,000 year sedimentary record of Lake Challa, a deeptropical crater lake in equatorial East Africa, to explore new proxies for paleoenvironmental and paleohydrologicalchange. Sedimentary biomarker analysis revealed the presence of des-A-triterpenoids

  6. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 2: orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and Labour Code concerning the protection of populations, patients and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations; Recueil de textes reglementaires relatifs a la radioprotection. Partie 2: arretes et decisions pris en application du Code de Sante Publique et du Code du Travail concernant la protection de la population, des patients et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This collection of texts includes the general measures of population protection, exposure to natural radiations, general system of authorizations and statements, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical purpose, situations of radiological emergency and long exposure to ionizing radiations, penal dispositions, application of the Public Health code and application of the Labour code. Chronological contents by date of publication is given. (N.C.)

  7. Units for ionisation chamber measurements of {beta} and {gamma} activity; Ensemble de mesure d'activite {beta} et {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J.J.; Roquefort, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In this paper two methods for ionisation chamber measurements of {beta} and {gamma} activity are discussed. Two ionisation chambers associated with continuous current amplifiers are described: - the first, type C {beta} {gamma} 1, is intended chiefly for measuring the specific activity of {beta}-emitting solutions and the dose rate on the surface of radioactive application systems, - the second, type CCP{gamma} 1, known as a well chamber, serves mainly for measuring the activity of {gamma}-emitting sources or solutions. (author) [French] Dans cet article, nous etudions 2 methodes de mesure d'activite {beta} et {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Nous decrirons deux chambres d'ionisation associees a des amplificateurs a courant continu: - l'une, type C {beta} {gamma} 1, permet principalement la mesure de l'activite specifique des solutions emettrices {beta}, et la mesure de dose a la surface d'applicateurs radioactifs; - l'autre, type CCP{gamma} 1, dite chambre a puits, permet principalement la mesure de l'activite de sources ou solutions emettrices {gamma}. (auteur)

  8. Study of gamma radiation between 0.1 and 1.0 MeV in the earth's atmosphere; Etude du rayonnement gamma entre 0,1 et 1 Mev dans l'atmosphere terrestre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The present work is devoted to some of the particular problems arising in the detection and localisation of sources of gamma radiation situated outside the earth's atmosphere. These weak sources can only be detected and localized if care is taken to eliminate gamma and particle radiations coming from other sources in the earth's atmosphere and in space. In order to separate the various sources of background noise, generally much stronger than the radiation under study, use is made of a directional detector whose characteristics are determined as described in the first part of the following report. The closest diffuse source considered is that constituted by the earth's atmosphere. Its detailed study will make it possible both to eliminate its effect when sources outside the earth are to be measured, and to predict the amount of secondary gamma radiation emitted by the same process in other celestial bodies, the moon in particular. This work considered in the 2. and 3. parts of the report. (author) [French] La presente etude est consacree a certains des problemes particuliers poses par la detection et la localisation des sources de rayonnement gamma situees hors de l'atmosphere terrestre. Ces sources faibles ne peuvent etre detectees et localisees que si l'on se protege des rayonnements gamma et particulaires provenant d'autres sources situees dans l'atmosphere terrestre et dans l'espace. Pour separer ces divers composants parasites, en general beaucoup plus intenses que le rayonnement a etudier, nous emploierons un detecteur directif dont nous determinons les caracteristiques dans la premiere partie de l'expose qui suit. La source diffuse la plus proche que nous considerons comme parasite est constituee par l'atmosphere terrestre. Son etude detaillee nous permettra d'une part de nous en proteger lorsque nous voudrons etudier les sources {gamma} extra-terrestres, d'autre part de prevoir le rayonnement gamma

  9. Soutien au Conseil arabe des sciences sociales | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    l'établissement du caractère institutionnel du CASS grâce au recrutement de personnel, à l'ouverture d'un bureau à Beyrouth, à des procédures internes bien définies et à une planification stratégique. Le CASS a pour ... d'accroître le rayonnement, la diffusion, le dialogue sur les politiques et la collaboration interrégionale.

  10. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V


    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  11. A new temperature effect in ionized media in the presence of heavy negative electrical charges; Sur un nouvel effet de temperature dans des milieux ionises en presence de charges electriques negatives lourdes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A relatively large electromotive force appears between two electrodes having different temperatures in an atmosphere of ionized vapours. The theoretical interpretation of this phenomenon is based essentially on the one hand on the massive formation of heavy negative electrical charges near the 'cold' electrode and on the other hand, in the case of flames, on the existence of an electronic temperature much higher than that predicted by conventional theory. This temperature effect makes it possible to convert the ionizing energy directly into electricity. (author) [French] Une force electro-motrice relativement importante apparait dans des vapeurs ionisees entre deux electrodes maintenues a des temperatures differentes. L'interpretation theorique, de ce phenomene est essentiellement basee, d'une part sur la formation massive de charges electriques negatives lourdes pres de l'electrode ''froide'' et, d'autre part, dans le cas des flammes sur l'existence d'une temperature electronique beaucoup plus elevee que celle prevue par la theorie classique. Cet effet de temperature permet de convertir directement l'energie ionisante en electricite. (auteur)

  12. Nucleation in an ultra low ionisation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    In this work we have studied aerosol formation at ultra-low ionisation levels, using the existing deep underground science facility at Boulby mine, UK. At 1100 m depth, with a corresponding factor 106 reduction in cosmic ray muon flux, the Boulby facility is an ideal place to study the role of ions...... in aerosol nucleation. By exposing a controlled volume of air to varying levels of ionising radiation, and with the minimum ionisation level vastly reduced compared to normal surface laboratory conditions, we have provided both a validation of earlier studies of ion-induced nucleation and extended...... the measurements to ionisation levels approximately 3 order of magnitudes lower than any earlier study. Getting this close to zero ionisation allows us to distinguish between the neutral and charged contribution better than previously. The effect is explored over a range of sulphuric acid concentrations....

  13. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation. (United States)

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    Desorption als auch die Ionisation erfolgen hierbei durch ein laserbetriebenes Luftplasma. Die Abwesenheit fester oder flüssiger Elektroden hat zur Folge, dass die Methode weder unter chemischen Interferenzen noch unter Verschleiß durch Korrosionsbrand oder abgetragenes Elektrodenmaterial leidet. Insgesamt betrachtet herrscht in dem Plasma Elektroneutralität, wodurch Aufladungseffekte minimiert werden, die andernfalls zu einer langfristigenÄderung der Flugbahnen von Ionen während der Experimente führen kann. In dem Ansatz eine freischwebende Luftentladung bei Atmosphärendruck zu verwenden agiert die Luft nicht nur als Plasmamedium sondert dient zusätzlich als Badgas für die stoßinduzierte Kühlung der entstehenden Ionen. Die Ionisierung der Analytmoleküle erfolgt nicht unmittelbar im Plasma sondern in dessen direkter Umgebung durch Wechselwirkung mit freigesetzten ionischen Luftspezies, freien Elektronen oder Photonen im kurzwelligen ultravioletten Bereich. Jede Laserentladung erzeugt eine hörbare Stoßwelle, in welcher neu produzierte reaktive Spezies freigesetzt werden, welche sich konzentrisch ausbreiten, so dass eine Diffusion der Analytmoleküle ins heiße Innere des Plasmas verhindert wird. Daraus folgt, dass im Interaktionsvolumen zwischen Plasma und Analyt der Temperaturgrenzwert für eine thermische Dissoziation oder Fragmentierung der Moleküle nicht überschritten wird. Experimentell konnte belegt werden, dass das vorgestellte Ionisierungsschema sehr unselektiv bezüglich der chemischen Analytklasse ist und kaum Fragmentierungsprodukte beobachtet werden können. Messungen einer breitgefächerten Auswahl unterschiedlicher Testsubstanzen, wie beispielsweise polarer und unpolarer Kohlenwasserstoffe, Zuckern, niedermolekularer pharmazeutischer Wirkstoffe, sowie natürlicher Biomoleküle in Lebensmittelproben unmittelbar aus ihren komplexen Matrizes, führten zu aussagekräftigen Massenspektren. Zumal das Lasermedium feuchte Luft ist, scheint der

  14. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz (United States)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  15. Etude de la photosensibilite dans la silice implantee avec des ions de haute energie (United States)

    Verhaegen, Marc

    La photosensibilite est la propriete par laquelle une materiau donne voit son indice de refraction changer sous l'effet d'une exposition lumineuse. Malgre le nombre croissant de dispositif base sur ce phenomene, les mecanismes a la base de la photosensibilite sont encore debattus. Nous apportons dans cette these un eclairage original sur ce sujet en etudiant la matrice de silice pure non dopee rendue photosensible par implantation d'ion de haute energie. L'implantation d'ions silicium de S MeV modifie l'indice de refraction principalement en densifiant une couche mince dont l'epaisseur est de l'ordre de quelques microns. Nos mesures montrent qu'un guide plan supportant les modes TEi et TMi (i = 0,1) est forme et que l'indice effectif du mode TE0 suit l'evolution de la densification en fonction de la dose de silicium implantee. Nous montrerons egalement que l'augmentation d'indice et la densification produites par implantation atteignent un palier pour une dose de 3 x 1014Si/cm 2, alors que la production de defauts par implantation atteint son palier pour une dose plus faible d'un ordre de grandeur soit 3 x 1013Si/cm2. Le profil d'indice longitudinal produit par l'implantation ionique est calcule a partir des mesures des indices effectifs des modes guides. Ce profil suggere que l'augmentation d'indice comprend une contribution dues collisions et une contribution dues aux pertes d'energie par ionisation. La contribution des pertes par ionisation influence significativement le profil d'indice pour des valeurs de pertes d'energie par unite de longueur (dE/dx) de l'ordre de 2 keV/nm. Lorsque la silice implantee est soumise a un rayonnement ultraviolet d'un laser a excimeres, il en resulte une diminution d'indice de refraction de l'ordre de 10-3 avec une efficacite plus grande si la longueur d'onde d'exposition est 193nm (ArF) plutot que 248nm (KrF). Deux regimes d'exposition lumineuse de la silice implantee a 193nm sont observes. Le premier regime produit une diminution

  16. Electronic temperature measurement on the deca II plasma using the Bremsstrahlung; Mesure de la temperature electronique du plasma de deca II par etude du rayonnement de freinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The electronic temperature of the DECA II machine's plasma is determined by studying the Bremsstrahlung. Two types of detectors are used for this measurement, a set scintillator-photo-multiplicator and a photoelectric effect detector with a massive silver target. The method used is the classical 'absorbent method', The absorbents used are thin formvar foils whose thickness is between 600 and 12 500 angstrom. The measurements done in two different working conditions of the DECA II machine have given: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV in the first case and Te {approx_equal} 70 eV in the second case. (author) [French] Nous avons determine la temperature electronique du plasma de la machine DECA II par l'etude du rayonnement de freinage. Pour cette mesure nous avons utilise deux types de detecteurs: des ensembles scintillateur-photomultiplicateur et un detecteur a effet photoelectrique a cible massive en argent. La methode utilisee pour cette mesure est la classique methode des absorbants. Nous avons utilise des feuilles de format tres mince (de 600 a 12 500 angstrom) comme absorbant. Les mesures faites dans deux regimes de travail differents de la machine DECA II nous ont conduit a: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV dans un cas et Te {approx_equal} eV dans l'autre cas. (auteur)

  17. Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. (United States)

    Kah, M; Brown, C D


    Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the

  18. A discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation and the critical issue of mobile phones (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna


    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples’ lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted by mobile phones is presented.

  19. A Discussion about Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation and the Critical Issue of Mobile Phones (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna


    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples' lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted…

  20. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation


    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.A.; Aplin, K. L.


    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kgm−3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neu...

  1. Ionising radiation exposure in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleveld H; LSO


    The Dutch population is exposed to ionising radiation from various sources, both natural and man-made. This is a review of the radiation exposure for members of the public from all sources for the year 2000. The average annual effective dose per capita is estimated at 2.5 mSv, which is almost the

  2. Order of the 6 December 2003 relative to the conditions of certificate and agreement issue for the institutions responsible of the individual control of the workers exposure to the ionizing radiations; Arrete du 6 decembre 2003 relatif aux conditions de delivrance du certificat et de l'agrement pour les organismes en charge de la surveillance individuelle de l'exposition des travailleurs aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This decree concerns recommendations on the dosimeters and the radiotoxicity analyzes, the institutions integrity, the accuracy and the reliability of the measures, the results transmission. It discusses also the corresponding administrative procedures. (A.L.B.)

  3. The radiation effects on the living cell; Les effets des rayonnements sur la cellule vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, E.; Dutrillaux, B.; Soussi, Th. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Boiteux, S.; Lopez, B. [CEA-CNRS/Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France); Feunteun, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)


    This publication is a presentation of particular points discussed during the colloquium of the 15-18 june 1999, for which scientific researches are performed at the CEA/CNRS. They deal with the radiobiology, for the radiation effects on living matter; with the DNA, for the knowledge and repair mechanisms on cells submitted to ionizing radiations; with the exposition to UV in correlation with neoplasms; with the P53 gene which is a tumour suppressor. (A.L.B.)

  4. Atomes et lumière, interactions matière-rayonnement


    Fabre, Claude


    I - Les outils de l'optique quantique 1 - Les approches phénoménologiques 2 - L'approche semi-classique 3 - Description quantique du champ électromagnétique libre 4 - Interaction entre atome et champ quantique II - Quelques phénomènes de l'optique quantique 5 - Emission spontanée 6 - Interactions quasi-résonnantes dans les systèmes à deux niveaux 7 - Systèmes à deux niveaux; DEA; Cours sur l'interactions entre la matière et le rayonnement électromagnétique (129 pages).

  5. Food ionisation. Realities and perspectives; L'ionisation alimentaire. Realites et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G


    The ionisation of food is a treatment using a certain type of energy. the radiations used in the industrial treatments are limited to three sources. The gamma radiations, the x radiations and the electrons beams emitted with accelerators. The physical treatments by ionizing radiations have for aim to cleanse and to increase the conservation time of food. Now, the applications in agriculture and food industry, are still marginal. The industrial using ionisation are these ones that did not find any alternative decontamination method. The barriers are more scientific or technical or economical than a question of regulation or behaviour. (N.C.)

  6. Decree no.2003-270 on the 24. of march 2003 relative to the protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations in medical and medico-legal aims and modifying the health code of public health (second part: decrees in Council of State); Decret no. 2003-270 du 24 mars 2003 relatif a la protection des personnes exposees a des rayonnements ionisants a des fins medicales et medico-legales et modifiant le code de la sante publique (deuxieme partie: decrets en Conseil d'Etat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This decree concerns the protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiation in medical aims. Three principal points are debated, the justification, the optimization and the procedures to use in practice. The justification requires that it exists an indisputable advantage compared with the risk it can present and no other technique with a comparable efficiency and less risks is available. The optimization needs to use ionizing radiations at the lowest level as reasonably achievable, the third part is devoted to the procedures, the guides and the training of the person who practices the examinations. (N.C.)

  7. Radiations at the physics-biology interface. Utilization of radiations for research; Les rayonnements a l`interface physique - biologie. Utilisation des rayonnements en recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douzou, P. [Academie des sciences (France)


    Structural biology, which study the relation between the structure of biomolecules and their function, is at the interface between physics and biology. With the help of large radiation instruments such as X ray diffraction and neutron scattering, important advancements have been accomplished in the understanding of specific biological functions and led to the development of protein engineering (such as directed mutagenesis)

  8. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie


    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  9. Students' Conceptions of Ionisation Energy: A Cross-Cultural Study (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Taber, Keith S.; Liu, Xiufeng; Coll, Richard K.; Lorenzo, Mercedes; Li, Jia; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai


    Previous studies have indicated that A-level students in the UK and Singapore have difficulty learning the topic of ionisation energy. A two-tier multiple-choice instrument developed in Singapore in an earlier study, the Ionisation Energy Diagnostic Instrument, was administered to A-level students in the UK, advanced placement high school students…

  10. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation; Caracterisation et modulation pharmacologique de l'inflammation intestinale induite par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gremy, O


    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic treatment with a PPARg synthetic ligand, the so-called 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), protects against the development of the acute mucosal colon inflammation. This pharmacological drug restrains radio-induced expression of pro inflammatory molecular actors such as TNFa, MCP-1 and iNOS, it also limits the repression of nuclear receptors involved in inflammation control such as PPARg, and reduces the radio-induced accumulation of macrophages. These results could give some leads to find therapeutic drug to limit radio-induced early mucosal and consequently, to improve patients' comfort during and after the radiotherapy schedule. (author)

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of new protecting agents against ionizing radiations; Synthese et evaluation de nouveaux agents de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, B.


    This thesis is devoted to the synthesis of new pulvinic acid derivatives and the evaluation of their antioxidant and radioprotective properties. This study has been conducted with the aim to develop new protecting agents against ionizing radiations. A new access to pulvinic acid derivatives was developed starting from L-dimethyl tartrate. It is based on a Dieckmann cyclization a dehydration and a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. It allows a short effective preparation of various pulvinic acid derivatives: tetronic acid derivatives, mono-substituted pulvinic acid derivatives and methyl pulvinates. A modified method has been used to prepare pulvinones. This strategy gave access in four steps to the desired pulvinones. The rapidity of this method is provided by a tandem process, carried out in the final step, involving a Dieckmann cyclization and a {beta}-elimination. A synthesis of 3-aryltetramic acids has also been developed in order to prepare nitrogen derivatives of pulvinic acid. The antioxidant activity of the prepared compounds was then evaluated using various tests: DPPH, ABTS, protection of thymidine and DNA study of lipid peroxidation. These evaluations allowed to define interesting structure-activity relationships of pulvinic derivatives. They have shown that several derivatives have very good antioxidant activities. Finally, radioprotective tests on TK6 cells and mice have have been performed on selected compounds. (author)

  12. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination; Mesures d'urgence et traitement en cas de surexposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ou en cas de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [French] L'auteur presente, en une premiere partie, une vue d'ensemble des mesures d'urgence a appliquer en cas de contamination radioactive externe ou interne. Il fait etat en particulier, dans ces deux cas, des methodes permettant de debarrasser l'organisme des substances radioactives contaminantes. L'auteur envisage, ensuite, la therapeutique a adopter lors d'un accident de surexposition aux rayonnements, distinguant le cas d'une irradiation partielle et celui d'une irradiation totale aigue. Trois traitements seront essentiellement mis en oeuvre en fonction des mesures physiques effectuees (conditions d'irradiation, evaluation de la dose recue) et des donnees cliniques recueillies: traitements specifiques, traitement de soutien de l'organisme preparant la restauration, suppleance temporaire ou definitive d'organes defaillants. (auteur)

  13. Complexation des acides aminés basiques arginine, histidine et lysine avec l'ADN plasmidique en solution aqueuse : participation à la capture de radicaux sous irradiation X à 1,5 keV (United States)

    Tariq Khalil, Talat; Taillefumier, Baptiste; Boulanouar, Omar; Mavon, Christophe; Fromm, Michel


    L'environnement chimique de l'ADN en situation biologique est complexe notam-ment en raison de la présence d'histones, protéines nucléaires, associées en quantité approximativement égales à l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Les histones possèdent de nombreux radicaux basiques arginine et lysine chargés positivement et dont la majorité se trouve sur les chaînes émergentes, l'ADN présente quant à lui des charges négatives sur ses groupements phosphates localisés tout au long de la double hélice. Dans cette étude, la complexité de la structure de la chromatine nucléaire est dans un premier temps mimée en solution aqueuse par la formation de complexes entre un ADN plasmidique sonde et les trois acides aminés basiques, Arg, His, Lys, qui, mis à part His, sont protonés au pH physiologique. Ces acides aminés libres en solution sont réputés être des capteurs efficaces de radicaux libres, notamment pour le radical hydroxyle, conférant ainsi un pouvoir protecteur vis-à-vis des effets indirects sur l'ADN en situation d'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants. A concentration fixée, les capacités de capture des acides aminés libres, σ, pour le radical hydroxyle sont typiquement les suivantes σHis ≈σArg > σLys (σLys ≈ 0,1 × σArg). Nous avons mesuré les taux de cassures simple brin par plasmide et par Gray (χ) lors d'expositions de solutions aqueuses de complexes [acide aminé - ADN plasmidique] aux rayons X ultra-mous (1,5 keV). A concentrations égales, les trois acides aminés complexés et présents en large excès ne manifestent pas une capacité de protection de l'ADN proportionnelle à leur capacité de capture libre et en solution ; on trouve en effet des taux de cassures dans l'ordre suivant χHis > χArg > χLys (χLys ≈ 0,01 χArg). Après avoir détaillé le mode opératoire de ces mesures, nous analyserons sur des bases bibliographiques, les modes spécifiques d'interaction des acides aminés basiques avec l'ADN. La sp

  14. Des univers multiples nouveaux horizons cosmiques

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien


    Notre univers ne serait-il qu’une fraction d’un vaste multivers ? À l’heure des résultats expérimentaux de Planck et du LHC, de nouvelles questions essentielles se posent quant à l’unicité de l’Univers lui-même. Se pourrait-il que notre cosmos ne soit qu’un îlot dérisoire perdu dans un vaste multivers ? Il est aujourd’hui légitime de le supposer. Mais cette proposition vertigineuse est-elle encore scientifique ? La récente mesure détaillée du rayonnement cosmologique fossile ouvre la voie à de nouvelles approches. Faisant le point sur ces avancées, Aurélien Barrau nous dévoile, dans cette édition actualisée, les théories cosmologiques les plus audacieuses.

  15. Biological dosimetry in the case of large-scale accidental overexposure to ionising radiation: contribution of the automatic detection of dicentrics; Dosimetrie biologique en cas d'exposition radiologique d'un grand nombre d'individus: apport de la detection automatique des dicentriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaurijoux, A.; Gruel, G.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Gregoire, E.; Martin, C.; Voisin, P.; Voisin, P.H.; Roy, L. [Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, IRSN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Following large-scale accidental overexposure to ionising radiation, a rapid triage of the exposed population can be performed by scoring dicentrics and ring chromosomes in 50 metaphases. This is rapid but not accurate. Following this triage step, the dose can be estimated by scoring 500 metaphases. This is lengthy but very accurate. To improve the methodology, we propose using software for automatic dicentric scoring, which was tested on 63 victims of a radiological accident. The method using automatic dicentric scoring was compared with the standard methods of manual scoring. The comparison of the doses obtained shows that the automatic method could replace the two steps of the manual scoring (50 and 500 metaphases). In fact, the automatic scoring method is more accurate than the manual scoring of 50 metaphases and can therefore be used for triage. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi North Central Nigeria. H Mohammad, J T Iortile, J E Ekediwe, L Alumuku, E A Okon, D M Chia, E Ejeh, F U Ugbo ...

  17. Regulations concerning radiation protection and survey; Donnees de la surveillance et regles qui en resultent en matiere de protection contre les rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel; Lavie; Fitoussi [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    total irradiation will only be considered with regard to recuperation of uranium after simple machining. (author) [French] 1. L'utilisation croissante de l'energie nucleaire sous toutes ses formes a des fins pacifiques pose des problemes de securite vis-a-vis des travailleurs, des populations et des sites en general. Une etude comparee des risques d'irradiation auxquels le personnel du Commissariat a l'Energie atomique (CEA) a ete expose au cours de l'annee 1957 et des resultats du controle des radiations par les moyens de detection collectifs ou individuels montre que les installations du CEA ont une influence negligeable sur la sante, en raison de la surveillance exercee. 2. Cependant, quelques incidents de contamination et d'irradiation - sommairement indiques ainsi que la maniere dont ils ont ete regles - rendent necessaire l'elaboration d'une reglementation precise definissant les responsabilites respectives, au sein d'un etablissement nucleaire, des services utilisateurs et du Service charge de la Protection contre les Radiations, en matiere de prevention de la contamination. 3. Un ensemble coherent de regles pratiques de prevention et de protection relatives a la detention, la manipulation, le transport et le stockage de sources radioactives scellees ou non scellees, est presente. A cette fin, a partir des recommandations de la Commission Internationale de Protection Radiologique et compte tenu: - de leur nocivite radioactive; de leur activite specifique par unite de masse et du risque de contamination; les radioelements ont ete classes suivant le danger qu'ils presentent par rapport au plutonium. 4. Le Service charge de la Protection contre les Radiations intervient comme conseiller des la conception des laboratoires specialises et veille ensuite a ce que les prescriptions reglementaires de securite soient observees. 5. Des donnees elaborees, indispensables a la protection contre les rayonnements, sont mises a la

  18. Resonant multiphoton ionisation probe of the photodissociation dynamics of ammonia. (United States)

    Smith, Adam D; Watts, Hannah M; Jager, Edward; Horke, Daniel A; Springate, Emma; Alexander, Oliver; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard T; Minns, Russell S


    The dissociation dynamics of the Ã-state of ammonia have been studied using a resonant multiphoton ionisation probe in a photoelectron spectroscopy experiment. The use of a resonant intermediate in the multiphoton ionisation process changes the ionisation propensity, allowing access to different ion states when compared with equivalent single photon ionisation experiments. Ionisation through the E' 1A1' Rydberg intermediate means we maintain overlap with the ion state for an extended period, allowing us to monitor the excited state population for several hundred femtoseconds. The vibrational states in the photoelectron spectrum show two distinct timescales, 200 fs and 320 fs, that we assign to the non-adiabatic and adiabatic dissociation processes respectively. The different timescales derive from differences in the wavepacket trajectories for the two dissociation pathways that resonantly excite different vibrational states in the intermediate Rydberg state. The timescales are similar to those obtained from time resolved ion kinetic energy release measurements, suggesting we can measure the different trajectories taken out to the region of conical intersection.

  19. Radioelements: their detection and measurement; Les radioelements: detection et mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinberg, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A brief review of the properties of nuclear radiations is followed by a description of the basic techniques used for their detection: autoradiography, methods using the ionisation of gases (ionisation chambers, proportional counters, Geiger-Muller counters), scintillation techniques. The principles of the different methods of measurement are explained, whether they concern the activity or the energy absorbed (dosimetry). This is followed by a description of the basic techniques (4 {pi} counter, defined solid angle, {beta}-{gamma} coincidences). (author) [French] Apres un bref rappel des proprietes des rayonnements nucleaires, on decrit les techniques fondamentales employees pour leur detection: autoradiographie, procedes utilisant l'ionisation des gaz (chambres d'ionisation, compteurs proportionnels, compteurs de Geiger-Muller), technique des scintillations. On expose le principe des differentes methodes de mesure concernant soit l'activite, soit l'energie absorbee (dosimetrie). Les techniques fondamentales (compteur 4 {pi}, angle solide defini, coincidences {beta}-{gamma}) sont ensuite decrites. (auteur)

  20. The RF System for the International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ronald, K.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Moss, A.; Grant, A.; White, C.; Griffiths, S.; Stanley, T.; Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, S.; Moretti, A.; Pasquinelli, R.; Peterson, D.; Schultz, R.; Volk, J.; Popovic, M.; Torun, Y.; Hanlet, P.; Alsari, S.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Hunt, C.; Summers, D.; Luo, T.; Smith, P.J.


    The International Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ionisation cooling to reduce the phase space footprint of a charged particle beam, principally to allow the subsequent acceleration of muons for next generation colliders and/or neutrino factories. The experiment (and indeed any subsequent accelerator cooling channel based on the same principles) poses certain unusual requirements on its RF system, whilst the precision measurement of the ionisation cooling process demands special diagnostics. This paper shall outline the key features of the RF system, including the low level RF control, the power amplifier chain, distribution network, cavities, tuners and couplers, many parts of which are required to operate in a high magnetic field environment. The RF diagnostics which, in conjunction with the other MICE diagnostics, shall allow detailed knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the acceleration field during the transit of each individual muon will also ...

  1. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation disinfection of filter materials. (United States)

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation as a disinfection method for filter materials contaminated by microorganisms, and to assess how air relative humidity (RH), time and microbe type influence the effectiveness of this disinfection. In the quantitative analysis of a used car air filter, bacterial contamination equalled 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2, fungal contamination was 3.8 x 10(6) cfu/cm2, and the isolated microorganisms were Aspergillus niger, Bacillus megaterium, Cladosporium herbarum, Cryptococcus laurenti, Micrococcus sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Staphylococcus cohnii. In the model experiment, three isolates (C. herbarum, R. glutinis, S. cohnii) and 3 ATCC species (A. niger, E. coli, S. aureus) were used for photocatalytic ionisation disinfection. The conditions of effective photocatalytic ionisation disinfection (R > or = 99.9%) were established as 2-3 h at RH = 77% (bacteria) and 6-24 h at RH = 53% (fungi). RH has an influence on the effectiveness of the photocatalytic disinfection process; the highest effectiveness was obtained for bacteria at RH = 77%, with results 5% higher than for RH = 49%. The studies show that the sensitivity of microorganisms to photocatalytic ionisation disinfection is ordered as follows: Gram-positive bacteria (S. cohnii, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), yeasts (R. glutinis), and moulds (C. herbarum, A. niger). Of all the mathematical models used for the description of death dynamics after photocatalytic ionisation disinfection, the Chick-Watson model is the most useful, but for more resistant microorganisms, the delayed Chick-Watson model is highly recommended. It therefore seems, that the presented disinfection method of photocatalytic ionisation can be successfully used to clean filtration materials.

  2. [Bipolar ionisation of indoor air through ion generators mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning]. (United States)

    Dudarev, A A; Spichkin, G L; Denisikhina, D M; Burtsev, S I


    Experimental studies and digital modelling of artificial indoor air ionisation through bipolar ionisers mountable into inflow ventilation and conditioning proved possible creation of continuous even bipolar ion background in indoor air, similar to the natural one.

  3. Laser-modified electron scattering from a slowly ionising atom (United States)

    Fiordilino, E.; Mittleman, M. H.


    When an electron scatters from an atom in the presence of a laser field which is resonant with an atomic transition, off-shell effects enter into the cross section. These only become significant at higher laser intensities where the atom may also be ionised by the laser. Cross-sections are obtained for electron-atom scattering in which these off-shell effects appear and in which the slow ionisation of the atom by the laser is included. Experiments are suggested in which simplifications can occur and which still retain these 'exotic' effects.

  4. Binary-Encounter-Bethe ionisation cross sections for simulation of DNA damage by the direct effect of ionising radiation. (United States)

    Plante, I; Cucinotta, F A


    DNA damage is of crucial importance in the understanding of the effects of ionising radiation. To refine existing DNA damage models, an approach using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) cross sections was developed. The differential cross sections for ionisation of the molecular orbitals of the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates are calculated using the electron binding energy, the mean kinetic energy and the occupancy number of each orbital as parameters. The resulting cross section has an analytic form which is quite convenient to use for Monte-Carlo codes that randomly sample the energy loss occurring during an ionisation event. We also describe an algorithm to simulate the interactions of electrons with DNA in the radiation transport code RITRACKS using the integrated BEB cross section for the bases, sugar and phosphates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. La diaspora, instrument de la politique de puissance et de rayonnement de l’Inde à l’île Maurice et dans le monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouck Carsignol-Singh


    Full Text Available Les Persons of Indian Origin (PIO ont depuis le début du XXe siècle servi de levier à l’intelligentsia indienne pour rehausser l’image du pays et contribuer à son rayonnement culturel sur la scène internationale, en tant qu’ambassadeurs culturels de l’Inde dans leur pays de résidence. Aujourd’hui, les nouveaux liens établis entre New Delhi et les Non Resident Indians (NRI dépassent largement le cadre de la diplomatie culturelle, et leur mobilisation économique ou politique en faveur du traité nucléaire contribuent à l’affirmation de la puissance de l’Inde. Une analyse de la mobilisation des Indo-Mauriciens permet de mettre en lumière le double rôle du facteur diasporique dans l’émergence de l’Inde comme grande puissance régionale et internationale, en tant qu’instrument à la fois du Soft Power et de la Realpolitik de New Delhi.People of Indian Origin (PIOs have, since the beginning of the XXth century, been used by the Indian intelligentsia to promote the image of the sub-continent and diffuse India’s cultural values on the international stage, as cultural ambassadors of India in their host countries. Today, the new partnership between New Delhi and the Non Resident Indians (NRIs go beyond India’s cultural diplomacy, and the support of the Diaspora in favour of the nuclear deal plays a strategic part in the affirmation of India as an emerging power. An analysis of the mobilisation of Indo-Mauritians in line with the interests and values of India illustrates the double role of the diasporic factor in the emergence of India as a regional and global power, as a tool of New Delhi’s soft power and Realpolitik.

  6. Connecting stars and ionised gas with integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Emsellem, Eric; Shapiro, Kristen L.; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using integral-field spectroscopy, the SAURON survey has shown that early-type galaxies, once thought to be essentially devoid of gas, commonly show ionised gas emission. This emission is found with a rich variety of distributions and kinematics, ranging from very uniform disks or rings, and

  7. Coincidence angular correlation in electron impact single or double ionisation of atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, E M Staicu [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Naja, A [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Ren, X G [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Nekkab, M [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria); Catoire, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mezdari, F [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lahmam-Bennani, A [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 862), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Madison, D [Department of Physics, University of Missoun-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Chuluunbaatar, O [Joint Institute for Nuclear research, Dubna, Moscow region 141980 (Russian Federation); Joulakian, B [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions (FR 2843), Institut de Physique, 1 rue Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)


    Experimental results obtained with our multi parameter multi-coincidence spectrometer are presented for the (e,3e) double ionisation of Ar and (e,2e) single ionisation of small molecules. The (e,3e) measurements are discussed in terms of competition between the two double ionisation processes present under the chosen kinematics, and qualitative conclusions are given. The results for the ionisation of H{sub 2} and the outer orbital of N{sub 2} are compared with the predictions of the most elaborate available theoretical models for description of the molecular ionisation process. Overall reasonable agreement is observed and tentative interpretations for the discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Study of fast electrons from hard-X radiation; Etude des electrons rapides a partir du rayonnement X-dur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.


    The goal of this thesis is the study of fast electron dynamics by means of the hard X-ray diagnosis installed in TORE SUPRA and numerical simulations. Fast electrons are generated in the plasma in the presence of the injected lower hybrid (LH) waves. Two aspects are studied in detail: the lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a periodically perturbed media and 2-D Fokker-Planck modelling of the fast electron dynamics in the presence of the LH power. Ripple effects on lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption are investigated using the ray tracing technique. A cylindrical equilibrium is first studied and a strong modification of the ray dynamics is predicted. Calculations are carried out in a real toroidal geometry corresponding to TORE SUPRA. It is shown that the lack of toroidal axisymmetry of the magnetic field may result in a modification of the ray evolution even if the global ray evolution is governed by the larger poloidal inhomogeneity. Simulation of LH experiments are performed for TORE SUPRA tokamak which has a large magnetic ripple (7% at the plasma edge). By considering ripple perturbation in LH current drive simulations, a better agreement is found with experimental results, in particular with the hard-X spectra and the current density profiles. In the second part of the thesis, a 2-D modeling of the fast electron dynamics in the velocity phase space is considered, based on the 2-D relativistic electron Fokker-Planck equation. Electron distribution functions obtained are used to calculate non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission for different TORE SUPRA shots in a wide range of experimental conditions. (J.S.). 168 refs., 93 figs., 1 tab., 3 appendix.


    Sørensen, S. P. L.; Linderstrøm-Lang, K.; Lund, Ellen


    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulæ and


    Sørensen, S P; Linderstrøm-Lang, K; Lund, E


    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulae and

  11. Biomarkers of Alpha Particle Radiation Exposure (United States)


    terroriste nucléaire précipité, place la population dans une situation à risque d`une exposition au rayonnement ionisant. Augmenter la capacité des ...particules alpha, posent le risque le plus élevé. Ici nous décrirons les travaux qui utilisent des bio marqueurs, basés sur l`identification de gènes...exposés. Des analyses statistiques strictes ont permis d`identifier avec une réponse significative, des gènes à chacune des doses testées. Parmi ces

  12. Fully kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in partially ionised gases (United States)

    Innocenti, M. E.; Jiang, W.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.


    Magnetic reconnection has been explored for decades as a way to convert magnetic energy into kinetic energy and heat and to accelerate particles in environments as different as the solar surface, planetary magnetospheres, the solar wind, accretion disks, laboratory plasmas. When studying reconnection via simulations, it is usually assumed that the plasma is fully ionised, as it is indeed the case in many of the above-mentioned cases. There are, however, exceptions, the most notable being the lower solar atmosphere. Small ionisation fractions are registered also in the warm neutral interstellar medium, in dense interstellar clouds, in protostellar and protoplanetary accreditation disks, in tokamak edge plasmas and in ad-hoc laboratory experiments [1]. We study here how magnetic reconnection is modified by the presence of a neutral background, i.e. when the majority of the gas is not ionised. The ionised plasma is simulated with the fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code iPic3D [2]. Collisions with the neutral background are introduced via a Monte Carlo plug-in. The standard Monte Carlo procedure [3] is employed to account for elastic, excitation and ionization electron-neutral collisions, as well as for elastic scattering and charge exchange ion-neutral collisions. Collisions with the background introduce resistivity in an otherwise collisionless plasma and modifications of the particle distribution functions: particles (and ions at a faster rate) tend to thermalise to the background. To pinpoint the consequences of this, we compare reconnection simulations with and without background. References [1] E E Lawrence et al. Physical review letters, 110(1):015001, 2013. [2] S Markidis et al. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 80(7):1509-1519, 2010. [3] K Nanbu. IEEE Transactions on plasma science, 28(3):971-990, 2000.

  13. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes


    Johansson, Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.


    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively s...

  14. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation. (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P


    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  15. Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry: Principles and Clinical Applications (United States)

    Ho, CS; Lam, CWK; Chan, MHM; Cheung, RCK; Law, LK; Lit, LCW; Ng, KF; Suen, MWM; Tai, HL


    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service. PMID:18568044

  16. Impact ionisation measurement and modelling of long wavelength avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, J S


    Impact ionisation coefficients are measured in In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As and excess noise characteristics are measured in sub-micron ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As. Photomultiplication measurements performed on a series of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As p-i-n diodes are reported. Taking careful account of factors which could give rise to erroneous results at low fields, ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As ionisation coefficients are deduced at room temperature as a function of electric field. The results confirm the low field ionisation behaviour of alpha and the conventional field dependence of beta. Excess avalanche noise factors of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As p-i-n diodes, with i-region thicknesses ranging from 1.0 mu m to 0.1 mu m, are reported. The results indicate effective beta/alpha values lying between 0.15 and 0.23, comparable with or lower than the values reported in ...

  17. Noyaux et radioactivité une introduction à la physique des particules et à la physique nucléaire

    CERN Document Server

    Debu, Pascal


    Nées au début du XXe siècle, la physique nucléaire et la physique des particules ont bouleversé notre vision du monde et révolutionné la société par leurs innombrables applications : l'énergie nucléaire et l'utilisation des rayonnements pour la médecine et les sciences des matériaux en sont des exemples emblématiques. L'objectif de cet ouvrage est de permettre au lecteur d'appréhender les phénomènes nucléaires et la physique des hautes énergies, d'illustrer les retombées de la physique fondamentale dans la société, et d'éveiller ainsi la curiosité et l'intérêt pour ces disciplines. Le premier chapitre rappelle les notions indispensables de mécanique quantique et de relativité restreinte. Il se termine par une introduction sur l'antimatière et ses applications. Le deuxième chapitre aborde la physique des particules par la description des constituants de la matière et des lois qui gouvernent leurs interactions. L'interaction faible est l'occasion de développements sur les notions...

  18. Spécialiste de programme principal, rayonnement stratégique (h/f ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions. ... évalue le rendement de l'ensemble des bénéficiaires de l'ITT ou d'un groupe prioritaire de bénéficiaires pour ce qui est de l'influence stratégique sur les politiques et de la mobilisation du public; établit les besoins en matière de soutien technique et de formation, évalue les coûts et les priorités et ...

  19. X-spectrographic method for plutonium detection. Application to contamination measurements in humans; Etude d'une methode de detection du plutonium par spectrographie X. Application a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel Trouble [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After reviewing the radio-toxicology of plutonium 239 and conventional detection methods using its {alpha}-radiation, the author considers the measurement of the X emission spectrum of plutonium 239 using a proportional counter filled with argon under pressure. This preliminary work leads to the third part of this research involving the detailed study of the possibilities of applying thin alkali halide crystal scintillators to the detection of soft plutonium X-rays; there follows a systematic study of all the parameters liable to render the detection as sensitive as possible: movement due to the photomultiplier itself and its accessory electronic equipment, nature and size of the crystal scintillator as well as its mode of preparation, shielding against external parasitic radiation. Examples of some applications to the measurement of contamination in humans give an idea of the sensitivity of this method. (author) [French] Apres un apercu de la radiotoxicologie du plutonium 239 et des methodes classiques de detection par son rayonnement {alpha}, on etudie le spectre d'emission X du plutonium 239 avec un compteur proportionnel rempli avec de l'argon sous pression. Ce travail preliminaire permet d'aborder la troisieme partie de cette etude dans laquelle nous examinons d'une fagon approfondie les possibilites d'application des cristaux scintillateurs minces d'halogenure alcalin a la detection du rayonnement X mou du plutonium; suit une etude systematique de tous les parametres susceptibles de rendre la detection aussi sensible que possible: mouvement propre du photomultiplicateur et de l'electronique associee, nature et dimensions du cristal scintillateur ainsi que son mode de fabrication, blindage contre les rayonnements parasites exterieurs. Quelques applications a la mesure des contaminations sur l'homme permettent d'apprecier la sensibilite de cette methode. (auteur)


    Thimann, Kenneth V.


    The effect of the addition of sodium chloride to gelatin solutions is shown from the Donnan relationship to increase the ionisation of the gelatin, the increase produced in acid solutions reaching a maximum at about 1/1000 molar salt concentration. This effect is attributed to the formation of complex ions. From the similar action of calcium and copper chlorides the effective combining power of gelatin for complex positive ion formation is deduced. The bearing of complex ion formation on the zwitter-ionic structure and solubility phenomena of proteins is pointed out. PMID:19872582

  1. Threshold law for positron-atom impact ionisation (United States)

    Temkin, A.


    The threshold law for ionisation of atoms by positron impact is adduced in analogy with our approach to the electron-atom ionization. It is concluded the Coulomb-dipole region of the potential gives the essential part of the interaction in both cases and leads to the same kind of result: a modulated linear law. An additional process which enters positron ionization is positronium formation in the continuum, but that will not dominate the threshold yield. The result is in sharp contrast to the positron threshold law as recently derived by Klar on the basis of a Wannier-type analysis.

  2. Probing excited electronic states and ionisation mechanisms of fullerenes. (United States)

    Johansson, J Olof; Campbell, Eleanor E B


    Fullerenes are interesting model systems for probing the complex, fundamental electron dynamics and ionisation mechanisms of large molecules and nanoparticles. In this Tutorial Review we explain how recent experimental and theoretical advances are providing insight into the interesting phenomenon of thermal electron emission from molecular systems and the properties of hydrogenic, diffuse, excited electronic states, known as superatom molecular orbitals, which are responsible for relatively simple, well-resolved structure in fs laser photoelectron spectra of fullerenes. We focus on the application of velocity map imaging combined with fs laser photoionisation to study angular-resolved photoelectron emission.

  3. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, D D


    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  4. Elaboration de revetements nanocomposites avec des proprietes superhydrophobes, semi-conductrices et photocatalytiques (United States)

    Madidi, Fatima Zahra

    Les lignes aeriennes de transport et de distribution de l'energie electrique sont souvent exposees a diverses contraintes. Parmi celles-ci, la pollution des isolateurs constitue l'un des facteurs de premiere importance dans la fiabilite du transport d'energie. En effet, la presence de pollution sur les isolateurs lorsqu'elle est humidifiee entraine la diminution de leur performance electrique en favorisant l'apparition d'arcs de contournement. De telles pannes peuvent parfois causer des impacts socioeconomiques importants. Par ailleurs, le developpement de nouveaux revetements pour ces isolateurs peut s'averer un moyen efficace pour les proteger contre l'apparition de l'arc de contournement. Les revetements superhydrophobes ont fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes au cours de ces dernieres annees. Ces surfaces sont preparees en combinant une rugosite nano-microstructuree avec une faible energie de surface. En outre, de telles surfaces ont de nombreuses applications si elles sont durables et n'ont pas d'effets nocifs sur l'environnement. L'objectif principal de la presente etude vise d'abord l'elaboration de revetements superhydrophobes, puis l'etude de leur duree de vie, leurs proprietes dielectriques et photocatalytiques. Une grande variete de materiaux a faible energie de surface peuvent etre utilises pour le developpement de ces revetements. Dans cette recherche, le caoutchouc de silicone (CS) est employe car il presente de nombreuses proprietes, notamment une forte hydrophobie, une resistance aux rayonnements ultraviolets, et une bonne tenue au feu sans degagement de produits toxiques. Toutefois, le point faible de ces materiaux est la degradation de leurs proprietes hydrophobes. Afin d'ameliorer certaines proprietes du caoutchouc de silicone, des nanoparticules seront additionnees au polymere de base. La technique d'elaboration des revetements consiste a ajouter des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2) au polymere de base, par des methodes ayant un

  5. Characterisation of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van


    Chemical analysis for the characterisation of micro-organisms is rapidly evolving, after the recent advent of new ionisation methods in mass spectrometry (MS): electrospray (ES) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI). These methods allow quick characterisation of micro-organisms,

  6. Screening ionisation and chromatography conditions for quantitative LC/MS methods. (United States)

    Sillén, Henrik; Magnell, Niklas


    To develop an optimal quantitative LC/MS method with high sensitivity, high selectivity and robustness in a limited time period can be very challenging, especially for methods in which many analytes are to be quantified. In this study the relevant options are reviewed and a simple screening strategy of mass spectrometric and chromatographic conditions is presented. The strategy is divided into two stages, mass spectrometric ionisation screening and reversed phase LC column screening. The objective of the first stage is to find out how sensitivity is affected by ionisation technique, ionisation polarity and buffer. The compounds are dissolved in different buffers covering a broad pH range. Thereafter they are injected using flow injection analysis without LC column, evaluating both electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In the second stage the buffers yielding the best sensitivity and selectivity in the ionisation screening stage are used as mobile phase buffers to LC column screening with different stationary phases applying a shallow gradient. The aim is to find the combinations of column(s) and buffer(s) that give symmetric peaks, adequate retention and selectivity. Finally the retention is adjusted using isocratic or gradient elution. The strategy provides a simple and practical experimental design that allows fast screening a large range of ionisation and chromatographic conditions especially for multiple compounds. The examples included in this study demonstrate that optimal buffer, ionisation technique, ionisation polarity and column cannot be predicted from compound properties such as structure and pK(a).

  7. Controlling ionisation and fragmentation processes in CO2 via inelastic electron recollisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frasinski L. J.


    Full Text Available The angular dependence of nonsequential double ionisation and dissociation induced by laser driven inelastic electron rescattering was investigated experimentally in aligned CO2. A clear dependence on the recollision angle was found demonstrating quantum control of ionisation and dissociation processes in the strong field regime.



    Ma, Biyun


    The development of mobile communication systems impose, for multi-standard systems, to develop technologies leading to low-cost RF front ends of very small size always more efficient. In this thesis, we present a new methodology for designing an integrated antenna with controlled bandwidth. This approach is based on validating the electric equivalent circuit of a planar resonator, resonator with a radiation Q factor depending on the geometry. The equivalent circuit is validated by experiment ...

  9. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron oxides (United States)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Mauracher, Andreas; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael


    We report electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron oxide molecules, FexOx and FexOx+1 with x = 1, 2, 3, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV, obtained with the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) methods. The maxima of the EICSs range from 3.10 to 9 . 96 × 10-16 cm2 located at 59-72 eV and 5.06 to 14.32 × 10-16 cm2 located at 85-108 eV for the DM and BEB approaches, respectively. The orbital and kinetic energies required for the BEB method are obtained by employing effective core potentials for the inner core electrons in the quantum chemical calculations. The BEB cross sections are 1.4-1.7 times larger than the DM cross sections which can be related to the decreasing population of the Fe 4s orbitals upon addition of oxygen atoms, together with the different methodological foundations of the two methods. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted excellently to a simple analytical expression used in modelling and simulation codes employed in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://

  10. Transferring calibration coefficients from ionisation chambers used for diagnostic radiology to transmission chambers. (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Caldas, Linda V E


    In this work, the response of a double volume transmission ionisation chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, was compared to that of a commercial transmission chamber. Both ionisation chambers were tested in different X-ray beam qualities using secondary standard ionisation chambers as reference dosimeters. These standard ionisation chambers were a parallel-plate and a cylindrical ionisation chambers, used for diagnostic radiology and mammography beam qualities, respectively. The response of both transmission chambers was compared to that of the secondary standard chambers to obtain coefficients of equivalence. These coefficients allow the transmission chambers to be used as reference equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise. (United States)

    Lipin, I; Gur, I; Amitai, Y; Amirav, I; Godfrey, S


    To evaluate the effect of positive ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 12 asthmatic children were twice challenged by exercise in random order. During one test positively ionised air (5-10 X 10(5) ions/cm) was breathed. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise induced asthma was significantly aggravated by exposure to positively ionised air, the postexercise fall in FEV1 (delta FEV1) being 24.7% (SEM and 5.3%) and 35.3% (5%) after the control and ionised air tests respectively (p less than 0.04). It is concluded that positive ionisation aggravates the bronchial response to exercise. PMID:6474386

  12. To boost elastomer vulcanization through ionization; Pousser la vulcanisation des elastomeres par ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouif, S. [Ionisos, 01 - Dagneux (France); Noireaux, P. [Centre de Transfert de Technologies du Mans (CTTM), 72 - Le Mans (France)


    The beta and gamma irradiation of elastomers makes easier the handling of the reticulation process in room temperature conditions and in adequate depth inside the material. The irradiation generates free radicals along the polymer chains, these radicals by combining form new chemical bonds (reticulation reaction). The irradiation of an elastomer is featured by the formation of covalent carbon-carbon type bonds while sulfur vulcanization leads to chain bridging based on sulfur-sulfur bonds. The reticulation process entails a rise of the ramification rate of the polymer. These modifications confer to the irradiated material a higher dimensional stability in high temperature conditions and in aggressive environment that may lead, in certain conditions to no need for the usual extra coating. The gamma irradiation facilities of the Ionisos company allow the treatment of molded plastic materials directly in their packaging and in bulk quantity. (A.C.)

  13. Behaviour of circuits with respect to ionising radiations; Tenue des circuits aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudenot, J.C. [Thomson-CSF, 75 - Paris (France)


    Electronic components with a greater integration of transistors, with an increase of surface and with reduced grid distances and operating voltages are more and more developing. These new technologies are more sensible to radiative environments which can lead to important disturbances: multiple upset, low level leakage current in MOS components etc.. The hardening techniques used so far must be adapted in order to take into account these new phenomena. This paper deals successively with: 1 - recall about radiations: interaction with matter (electrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, neutrons), effects to be considered (dose and dose rates, displacements, linear energy transfer and critical load); 2 - radiative environments: nuclear explosions, spatial environment (radiation belts, solar eruptions and wind, cosmic radiation), atmospheric environment, other environments (particle accelerators, robots in radiative environments, nuclear power plants, propulsion reactors, fusion devices, dismantling of nuclear facilities, industrial irradiations); 3 - radiative effects and technological hardening: cumulated dose (basic mechanisms, influence of radiation, polarization, dose rates, temperature, process, vulnerability of components), neutron fluence, heavy ions; 4 - protection means: components technology, circuits and systems (dose and dose rates, neutrons, heavy ions), hardening strategy; 5 - hardening validation: testing methods and procedures, nuclear hardening assurance (context, definition of needs, distribution of afterlife probabilities, design margins, components classification, repertory file), space hardening assurance (context, dose effects, direct and indirect heavy ion effects, assurance costs). (J.S.)

  14. Ionisation Chamber for Measurement of Pulsed Photon Radiation Fields. (United States)

    Ginzburg, D


    The use of pulsed photon radiation in medical, industrial and security sectors has vastly increased during the recent years. The length of pulse from different X-ray flash generators that are commonly used as either portable, battery-operated or fixed systems can be as low as a few femtoseconds. However, the majority of radiation protection instruments, especially various active electronic dosemeters, have limitations when operated in pulsed fields. This study presents measurements that were performed using the dose-integration mode of the RI-02 and Ram Ion survey metres, which are based on ventilated ionisation chamber, when exposed to different pulsed X-ray sources. An intercomparison between the results that were obtained with the survey metres and those that were obtained with thermoluminescence dosemeter, reference passive dosemeter, show good agreement (deviation lies within 10%). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  15. Dissociative ionisation of adamantane: a combined theoretical and experimental study. (United States)

    Candian, Alessandra; Bouwman, Jordy; Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Tielens, Alexander G G M


    Diamond nanoparticles, or nanodiamonds, are intriguing carbon-based materials which, maybe surprisingly, are the most abundant constituent of presolar grains. While the spectroscopic properties of even quite large diamondoids have already been explored, little is known about their unimolecular fragmentation processes. In this paper we characterise the dissociative ionisation of adamantane (C10H16) - the smallest member of the diamondoid family - utilising imaging Photoelectron Photoion Coincidence (iPEPICO) spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We have found adamantane to dissociatively photoionise via several parallel channels of which H, C3H7 and C4H8 losses are the most important ones. Calculations confirm the existence of a rate-limiting transition state for the multiple C-loss channels, which is located at 10.55 eV with respect to neutral adamantane. In addition, we found dissociation channels leading to small cationic hydrocarbons, which may be relevant in the interstellar medium.

  16. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)


    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  17. RF System for the MICE Demonstration of Ionisation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K.; et al.


    Muon accelerators offer an attractive option for a range of future particle physics experiments. They can enable high energy (TeV+) high energy lepton colliders whilst mitigating the difficulty of synchrotron losses, and can provide intense beams of neutrinos for fundamental physics experiments investigating the physics of flavor. The method of production of muon beams results in high beam emittance which must be reduced for efficient acceleration. Conventional emittance control schemes take too long, given the very short (2.2 microsecond) rest lifetime of the muon. Ionisation cooling offers a much faster approach to reducing particle emittance, and the international MICE collaboration aims to demonstrate this technique for the first time. This paper will present the MICE RF system and its role in the context of the overall experiment.

  18. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration


    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Q-balls with ATLAS. A dedicated trigger was developed and deployed for proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. It uses the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The high threshold (HT) readout capability of the TRT is used to distinguish HIPs from other background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electromagnetic calorimeters and is thereby capable of probing a larger range of HIP masses and charges. A description of the algorithm for this newly developed trigger is presented, along with a comparitive study of its performance during the 2012 data-taking period with respect to previous efforts.

  19. Ionising sources in the coma of 67P probed by Rosetta (United States)

    Heritier, Kevin; Galand, Marina; Henri, Pierre; Eriksson, Anders; Odelstad, Elias; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beth, Arnaud; Broiles, Thomas; Burch, Jim; Carr, Christopher; Cupido, Emanuele; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Nilsson, Hans; Richter, Ingo; Rubin, Martin; Vallieres, Xavier; Vigren, Erik


    An ionospheric model has been developed in order to quantify the ion number density in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The model is driven by Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA)/Cometary Pressure Sensor (COPS) neutral density and assumes isentropic expansion for the neutral density profile. The two ionisation sources considered are photo-ionisation by solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and electron-impact ionisation. The EUV radiation is estimated from fluxes measured by the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/ Solar EUV Experiment (SEE), taking into account the phase shift and the heliocentric distance ratio; between Earth and comet 67P. The electron-impact ionisation production rates are derived from Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC)-Ion and Electron Sensor (IES) integrated electron fluxes and corrected for the S/C potential from RPC/LAngmuir Probe (LAP) measurements. Our results are compared with in situ measurements of the plasma density from RPC-Mutual Impedance Probe (MIP) and RPC-LAP. There is a good agreement between the modelled and RPC observed electron densities. The ionospheric model enables to distinguish the relative contributions of the different sources to the total cometary plasma. At high heliocentric distances, electron-impact ionisation becomes the dominant ionisation source and is enhanced over the winter hemisphere. As the solar activity has decreased since the beginning of the mission in 2014, the relative importance of photo-ionisation has decreased as well. However, at low heliocentric distances, photo-ionisation seems to be the most dominant ionising source, in particular through the perihelion period in summer 2015.

  20. Photo-ionisation mass spectrometry as detection method for gas chromatography. Optical selectivity and multidimensional comprehensive separations. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Welthagen, Werner; Gröger, Thomas


    Mass spectrometry (MS) with soft ionisation techniques (i.e. ionisation without fragmentation of the analyte molecules) for gaseous samples exhibits interesting analytical properties for direct analysis applications (i.e. direct inlet mass spectrometric on-line monitoring) as well as mass spectrometric detection method for gas chromatography (GC-MS). Commonly either chemical ionisation (CI) or field ionisation (FI) is applied as soft ionisation technology for GC-MS. An interesting alternative to the CI and FI technologies methods are photo-ionisation (PI) methods. PI overcomes some of the limitations of CI and FI and furthermore add some unique analytical properties. The resonance enhanced multi-photon ionisation (REMPI) method uses intense UV-laser pulses (wavelength range approximately 350-193 nm) for highly selective, sensitive and soft ionisation of predominately aromatic compounds. The single photon ionisation (SPI) method utilises VUV light (from lamps or laser sources, wavelengths range approximately 150-110 nm) can be used for a universal soft ionisation of organic molecules. In this article the historical development as well as the current status and concepts of gas chromatography hyphenated to photo-ionisation mass spectrometry are reviewed.

  1. Electromagnetic fields E.D. 4202. The non ionizing radiations sources (till 60 GHz); Champs electromagnetiques ED 4202. Les sources de rayonnements non ionisants (jusqu'a 60 GHz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisseriex, Ch. [Cram Auvergne, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Laurent, P. [Cram Centre-Ouest, 87 - Limoges (France); Cabaret, Ph. [CRAM Languedoc-Roussillon, 34 - Montpellier (France); Renard, Ch. [Cram Centre, 45 - Orleans (France); Marteau, E.; Masson, Ch. [CRAM Ile-de-France, 75 - Paris (France); Le Berre, G. [Cram de Bretagne, 35 - Rennes (France); Becker, A.; Demaret, Ph.; Herrault, J.; Donati, P.; Bouillot, C. [INRS - Centre de Lorraine, 54 - Vandoeuvre (France); Servent, J.P.; Ganem, Y. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), 75 - Paris (France)


    The sources of electromagnetic fields or non ionizing radiations are common in industry. This card gives a most exhaustive as possible spotting of the principal working applications using frequencies between 0 to 60 GHz, that could involve effects on man. (N.C.)

  2. Exposure of the french population to ionizing radiation link to medical diagnosis act in 2007; Exposition de la population francaise aux rayonnements ionisants liee aux actes de diagnostic medical en 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, C.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France); Sinno-Tellier, S. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)


    The objective of this report is to update and complete the data relative to the medical exposure of the French population to diagnostic imaging examinations for the year 2007. The last published data correspond to the year 2002. The information supplied by this report precise: the medical exposure to diagnostic imaging examinations by imaging modality (conventional radiology, scanner, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic interventional imaging), by anatomical area, by age, and according to the sex of the patient and it also the part of the French population (strength, age, sex) who actually benefited of diagnostic acts using ionizing radiation in 2007. In 2007, 74.6 millions of diagnostic acts using ionizing radiation have been realised in france. These acts induce for the year 2007 to an efficient average dose of 1.3 MSv. (N.C.)

  3. Implementation of an information system on the medical exposure to ionizing radiation; Mise en place d'un systeme d'information sur l'exposition medicale aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, C.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Sinno-Tellier, S. [Saint-Maurice (France)


    The national institute of sanitary surveillance (I.n.V.S.) and I.R.S.N. collaborate since 2003 to build a perennial information system on the medical exposure to ionizing radiation of the French population (Ex.P.R.I. system). These data will allow to update the estimation of the average annual dose per caput, and will inform on its distribution by sex, age and on the number of effectively exposed persons. Thanks to the common project of I.R.S.N. and I.n.V.S., to the contributions of illness assurance and professional, the data of exposure in 2002 will be updated and enriched. A report will be published at the beginning of 2009. (N.C.)

  4. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN (United States)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    dans un etat electronique dissociatif, cette localisation est suivie d'une fragmentation. A plus haute energie, la dissociation dipolaire (i.e., la formation simultanee d'un ion positif et negatif) et l'ionisation jouent un role important dans le dommage de l'ADN. L'ensemble de nos resultats permet d'expliquer les mecanismes de degradation de l'ADN par les EBE et d'obtenir des sections efficaces effectives des differents types de dommages.

  5. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry; Etude des phenomenes catalytiques en chimie des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dran, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of {gamma} rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO{sub 4} of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O{sub 2}. The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te{sup IV}, Pt{sup 11}, As{sup 111}) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO{sub 4} has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute by{gamma} rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO{sub 4} + HO{sub 2} reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10{sup 5} l.mol{sup -1}. sec{sup -1}. (author) [French] Deux phenomenes ont ete etudies: l'action des rayons {gamma} du radio-cobalt sur les proprietes adsorptives et catalytiques de ZnO et NiO en relation avec l'oxydation heterogene de CO et la catalyse homogene par OsO{sub 4} de l'oxydation de divers solutes en phase aqueuse par ce meme rayonnement. L'irradiation prealable de ZnO et de NiO n'a pas modifie leur activite catalytique, mais a generalement accru l'energie d'adsorption des gaz CO et O{sub 2}. L'influence des radiations semble liee a la presence de traces d'eau sur ZnO et d'un exces d'oxygene sur NiO. Le tetroxyde d'osmium qui n'est pas altere par le rayonnement en solution

  6. Des abeilles et des fruits



    La pollinisation est le transfert du pollen des étamines aux pistils suivi de l’acheminement des gamètes mâles (les noyaux spermatiques) via le pollen jusqu’aux ovules. Autrement dit, à part chez les espèces parthénocarpiques (qui produisent des fruits sans fécondation, et donc sans graine, comme le bananier) et les rares espèces apomictiques (qui produisent des graines sans fécondation comme certains agrumes), la pollinisation est un préambule clé à la production de fruits et de graines....

  7. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence


    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. METHODS: We...... used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. RESULTS: For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95...... regions. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation....

  8. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon. (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H


    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  9. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas


    Behringer, K.


    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  10. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward


    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  11. Topologically frustrated ionisation in a water-ammonia ice mixture. (United States)

    Liu, C; Mafety, A; Queyroux, J A; Wilson, C W; Zhang, H; Béneut, K; Le Marchand, G; Baptiste, B; Dumas, P; Garbarino, G; Finocchi, F; Loveday, J S; Pietrucci, F; Saitta, A M; Datchi, F; Ninet, S


    Water and ammonia are considered major components of the interiors of the giant icy planets and their satellites, which has motivated their exploration under high P-T conditions. Exotic forms of these pure ices have been revealed at extreme (~megabar) pressures, notably symmetric, ionic, and superionic phases. Here we report on an extensive experimental and computational study of the high-pressure properties of the ammonia monohydrate compound forming from an equimolar mixture of water and ammonia. Our experiments demonstrate that relatively mild pressure conditions (7.4 GPa at 300 K) are sufficient to transform ammonia monohydrate from a prototypical hydrogen-bonded crystal into a form where the standard molecular forms of water and ammonia coexist with their ionic counterparts, hydroxide (OH-) and ammonium [Formula: see text] ions. Using ab initio atomistic simulations, we explain this surprising coexistence of neutral/charged species as resulting from a topological frustration between local homonuclear and long-ranged heteronuclear ionisation mechanisms.

  12. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration


    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Qballs with the ATLAS trigger system. With proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass enegy of 8 TeV, the trigger was designed to have unique properties as a tracker for HIPs. It uses only the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The unique high threshold readout capability of the TRT is used at the location where HIPs in the detector are looked for. In particular the number and the fraction of TRT high threshold hits is used to distinguish HIPs from background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electro-magnetic calorimeters as a seed unlike previously used trigger algorithms for such searches. Thus the new trigger is capable of probing a large range of HIP masses and charges. We will give a description of the algorithms for this newly developed trigger for HIP searches...

  13. Molecular DNA-based detection of ionising radiation in meat. (United States)

    Şakalar, Ergün


    Ionising radiation induces molecular alterations, such as formation of ions, free radicals, and new stable molecules, and cleavage of the chemical bonds of the molecules present in food. Irradiation-treated meat should be labelled to control the process and to ensure free consumer choice. Therefore, sensitive analytical methods are required to detect the irradiation dose. Meat samples were exposed to radiation doses of 0, 0.272, 0.497, 1.063, 3.64, 8.82 and 17.42 kGy in an industrial 60 Co gamma cell. Primers were designed to amplify 998, 498 and 250-base pair (bp) regions of the 18S rRNA gene of nuclear DNA from the irradiated samples. A new DNA-based method was developed to quantify the radiation exposed to the unstored meat and the meat stored at -20 °C for 3 and 6 months. The method was able to detect meat samples stored and unstored with dose limits of 1.063 and 3.64 kGy, respectively. The level of irradiation can be detected using primer pairs that target particularly different-sized sequences for DNA amplification by PCR. This method can be widely used for the analysis of not only meat samples, but also all biological materials containing DNA. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.


    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  15. The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee Open Meeting 10 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Full text: The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee (IRAC) held its first open meeting on 10 October 2001 in response to a request from the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) that all its advisory committees should follow the Commission's example and hold such meetings. Some of the other advisory committees have already held open meetings and others are planning to do so shortly. The aim of the meeting was to enable members of the public to meet IRAC members and to find out more about the Committee - how it worked and the type of issues it dealt with. The first two sessions were devoted to short presentations describing IRAC's work and influences, now and in the future, on radiation protection generally. The third session was a discussion forum. The agenda for the meeting and the presentations are posted on the web at: Each session of presentations was followed by questions of clarification and the third session of the meeting comprised an open forum. Many of the questions raised were not directly relevant to IRAC but, nevertheless, members provided brief responses and referred questions on to others as appropriate. One question had been notified in advance, asking whether members of IRAC agreed that it is now (regrettably) reasonably foreseeable that a loss of containment of radioactive material may occur at a nuclear facility as a result of impact by an aeroplane or by other hostile acts, and that this should be made clear in published guidance on REPPIR. This question was not within IRAC's remit. The Chairman of the Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee offered to take the question to the Committee's next meeting. Issues discussed included: Concerns that exposure to ionising radiation at low levels is more dangerous than is currently reflected in risk estimates. The European Parliament has adopted a resolution calling on the main international bodies, including the International Commission on Radiological

  16. Excitation and Ionisation dynamics in high-frequency plasmas (United States)

    O'Connell, D.


    Non-thermal low temperature plasmas are widely used for technological applications. Increased demands on plasma technology have resulted in the development of various discharge concepts based on different power coupling mechanisms. Despite this, power dissipation mechanisms in these discharges are not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are low pressure radio-frequency (rf) discharges. The limited understanding of these discharges is predominantly due to the complexity of the underlying mechanisms and difficult diagnostic access to important parameters. Optical measurements are a powerful diagnostic tool offering high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) provides non-intrusive access, to the physics of the plasma, with comparatively simple experimental requirements. Improved advances in technology and modern diagnostics now allow deeper insight into fundamental mechanisms. In low pressure rf discharges insight into the electron dynamics within the rf cycle can yield vital information. This requires high temporal resolution on a nano-second time scale. The optical emission from rf discharges exhibits temporal variations within the rf cycle. These variations are particularly strong, in for example capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), but also easily observable in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), and can be exploited for insight into power dissipation. Interesting kinetic and non-linear coupling effects are revealed in capacitive systems. The electron dynamics exhibits a complex spatio-temporal structure. Excitation and ionisation, and, therefore, plasma sustainment is dominated through directed energetic electrons created through the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. In the relatively simple case of an asymmetric capacitively coupled rf plasma the complexity of the power dissipation is exposed and various mode transitions can be clearly observed and investigated. At higher pressure secondary electrons dominate the

  17. Bayesian analysis of nanodosimetric ionisation distributions due to alpha particles and protons. (United States)

    De Nardo, L; Ferretti, A; Colautti, P; Grosswendt, B


    Track-nanodosimetry has the objective to investigate the stochastic aspect of ionisation events in particle tracks, by evaluating the probability distribution of the number of ionisations produced in a nanometric target volume positioned at distance d from a particle track. Such kind of measurements makes use of electron (or ion) gas detectors with detecting efficiencies non-uniformly distributed inside the target volume. This fact makes the reconstruction of true ionisation distributions, which correspond to an ideal efficiency of 100%, non-trivial. Bayesian unfolding has been applied to ionisation distributions produced by 5.4 MeV alpha particles and 20 MeV protons in cylindrical volumes of propane of 20 nm equivalent size, positioned at different impact parameters with respect to the primary beam. It will be shown that a Bayesian analysis performed by subdividing the target volume in sub-regions of different detection efficiencies is able to provide a good reconstruction of the true nanodosimetric ionisation distributions.

  18. Des Balkans


    Matvejević, Predrag


    Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définitio...

  19. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  20. Effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on the response of asthmatic children to exercise and inhaled histamine. (United States)

    Ben-Dov, I; Amirav, I; Shochina, M; Amitai, I; Bar-Yishay, E; Godfrey, S


    To evaluate the effect of negative ionisation of inspired air on bronchial reactivity, 11 asthmatic children were challenged twice by exercise and 10 were challenged twice by histamine inhalation. The children breathed negatively ionised air (4 X 10(5) - 10 X 10(5) ions/cm3) or control room air in random order in a double-blind fashion. All challenges were matched in terms of basal lung function and the exercise tests were matched in terms of ventilation and respiratory heat loss. Exercise-induced asthma was significantly attenuated by exposure to negatively ionised air, the mean postexercise fall in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) being 29% (SE 5%) of the initial value after the control and 21% (3%) after the ionised air test (p less than 0.02). Ten of the 11 subjects developed less exercise-induced asthma while breathing ionised air. Although the median dose of histamine (cumulative breath units) which caused a constant fall in FEV1 for each individual was higher with the ionised air challenge than with the control challenge the difference was not significant. Five of the 10 subjects were less sensitive to histamine and the other five more sensitive when breathing ionised air. It is concluded that negative ionisation of inspired air can modulate the bronchial response to exercise but the effect on the response to histamine is much more variable. PMID:6351332

  1. Ionisation in the absence of high voltage using supercritical fluid chromatography: a possible route to increased signal. (United States)

    Thite, Mohini A; Boughtflower, Robert; Caldwell, Jeff; Hitzel, Laure; Holyoak, Clare; Lane, Stephen J; Oakley, Paul; Pullen, Frank S; Richardson, Stefan; Langley, G John


    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is fast becoming a technique of choice for the analysis of a wide range of compounds and has been found to be complementary to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The combination of SFC and mass spectrometry (MS) affords a very useful tool in the separation and analysis of compounds. In this study the ionisation of samples in the absence of an applied electrospray voltage has been observed when using SFC/MS, with some compounds showing increased sensitivity when all ionisation source high voltage (HV) is removed. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of ionisation, a series of test compounds were analysed using standard electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) source configurations and also different API source designs. In both cases, data were acquired with the applied high voltage on (normal conditions) or with the high voltage off, i.e. no voltage spray (novo-spray). The standards were analysed with a range of pressure and modifier percentage conditions. To understand the nature of the ionisation process observed, this was compared with three established liquid-to-gas ionisation mechanisms. These were thermospray (TSP), charge residue model (CRM) of ESI and sonic spray ionisation (SSI). Experiments were undertaken in an attempt to explain this ionisation phenomenon and quantify any observed change in sensitivity. The most important point to note is that enhanced ionisation was observed under novo-spray conditions in a SFC/MS configuration, which in certain cases provides a lowering in the overall limit of detection (LOD).

  2. Des guides et des cartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia MATHIEU


    Full Text Available Consultés pour leurs références régionales ou locales, les guides touristiques donnent aussi une vision globale de la France qui est rarement perçue par l'utilisateur. Différents types de représentations cartographiques ont été choisis pour montrer, à partir d'informations simples, découpage en «régions» touristiques, étoilement des sites et des espaces touristiques, cette image de la France.

  3. Exploring Learners' Conceptual Resources: Singapore a Level Students' Explanations in the Topic of Ionisation Energy (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel


    This paper describes findings from a study to explore Singapore A-level (Grades 11 and 12, 16-19 yr old) students' understanding of ionisation energy, an abstract and complex topic that is featured in school chemistry courses. Previous research had reported that students in the United Kingdom commonly use alternative notions based on the perceived…

  4. Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) and REMPI-photoelectron spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, R.A.; Buma, W.J.; Baldwin, M.A.; Ascenzi, D.; Orr-Ewing, A.J.; Ashfold, M.N.R.; de Milan, J.B.; Scheper, C.R.; de Lange, C.A.


    The results of recent mass-resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation (REMPI) and REMPI-photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies of the sixteen valence electron molecules OCS and CS2 are used to illustrate some of the many opportunities offered by (and a few of the possible limitations

  5. Experimental investigation of ionisation track structure of carbon ions at HIL Warsaw. (United States)

    Bantsar, A; Hilgers, G; Pszona, S; Rabus, H; Szeflinski, Z


    In view of the upcoming radiation therapy with carbon ions, the ionisation structure of the carbon ion track at the nanometre scale is of particular interest. Two different nanodosimeters capable of measuring track structure of ionising particles in a gas target equivalent to a nanometric site in condensed matter were involved in the presented experimental investigation, namely the NCBJ Jet Counter and the PTB Ion Counter. At the accelerator facility of the HIL in Warsaw, simulated nanometric volumes were irradiated with carbon ions of 45 and 76 MeV of kinetic energy, corresponding to a range in the tissue of ∼85 µm and ∼190 µm, respectively. The filling gas of both nanodosimeters' ionisation volume was molecular nitrogen N2, and the ionisation cluster size distributions, i.e. the statistical distribution of the number of ionizations produced by one single primary carbon ion in the filling gas, were measured for the two primary particle energies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Bioaerosol detection by aerosol TOF-mass spectrometry: Application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Stowers, M.A.; Kientz, Ch.E.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.


    In previous publications the use of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer was reported for the on-line measurements of aerosols (Weiss 1997, Kievit 1995). The apparatus is capable of measuring the size as well as the chemical composition, by the use of Laser Desorption/Ionisation (LDI), of an

  7. Stellar populations, neutral hydrogen, and ionised gas in field early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, P.; Trager, S. C.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Morganti, R.

    Aims. We present a study of the stellar populations of a sample of 39 local, field early-type galaxies whose H I properties are known from interferometric data. Our aim is to understand whether stellar age and chemical composition depend on the H I content of galaxies. We also study their ionised

  8. Calculated ionisation potentials to determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hartmans, S.; Swarts, H.J.; Field, J.A.


    In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. The ionisation potential (IP) of a series of model compounds was

  9. The impact of high and low dose ionising radiation on the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calina Betlazar


    Full Text Available Responses of the central nervous system (CNS to stressors and injuries, such as ionising radiation, are modulated by the concomitant responses of the brains innate immune effector cells, microglia. Exposure to high doses of ionising radiation in brain tissue leads to the expression and release of biochemical mediators of ‘neuroinflammation’, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to tissue destruction. Contrastingly, low dose ionising radiation may reduce vulnerability to subsequent exposure of ionising radiation, largely through the stimulation of adaptive responses, such as antioxidant defences. These disparate responses may be reflective of non-linear differential microglial activation at low and high doses, manifesting as an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory functional state. Biomarkers of pathology in the brain, such as the mitochondrial Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO, have facilitated in vivo characterisation of microglial activation and ‘neuroinflammation’ in many pathological states of the CNS, though the exact function of TSPO in these responses remains elusive. Based on the known responsiveness of TSPO expression to a wide range of noxious stimuli, we discuss TSPO as a potential biomarker of radiation-induced effects.

  10. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ruth


    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  11. An ionisation gauge using a channel electron multiplier for pressures below 10$\\^{-12}$

    CERN Document Server

    Blechschmidt, Diether


    Since new techniques to achieve pressures of below 10/sup -12/ Torr have been developed, gauges with an appropriate low pressure limit are required. Channeltrons, with their high gain, seem to be the best means to construct gauges with high sensitivity. In this paper a new ionisation gauge using a channeltron has been described. (15 refs).

  12. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnard, P


    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  13. Biologic effects of millimetric waves (94 GHz). Are there long term consequences?; Effets biologiques des rayonnements millimetriques (94 GHz). Quelles consequences a long terme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debouzy, J.C.; Crouzier, D.; Dabouis, V.; Bachelet, C.; Perrin, A. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees (CRSSA/BCM), Unite de Biophysique Cellulaire et Moleculaire, 38 - La Tronche (France); Malabiau, R. [DGA/DET/CTSN, 83 - Toulon Armees (France)


    Active Denial Systems (ADS) is a millimetric wave radiation emitting technology now included in the non lethal weapon arsenal. Such devices emit electromagnetic, thus agitating water in the skin and causing feeling of heat enough that target individual retreats from the beam. They can be used at up to 1 km from the target. We have reviewed the literature on the interactions of millimetric waves (MMW) with biological systems. An opposition appears between the observations performed in the Former Soviet Union and Russia showing potential interaction some-times deleterious while generally of good influence and used in therapy. By way of contrast, most of the other studies, performed in USA. address local acute effects, exclusively located on the skin and eyes of the target, and considered as completely reversible. (authors)

  14. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions; Le rayonnement de transition optique. I: etude numerique des distributions angulaires et spectrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G


    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  15. Destruction of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation and the implications for life detection on Mars. (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Page, Kristian; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Wright, Gary; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J; Ward, John M; Edwards, Howell G M


    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very effective approach for the detection of microorganisms colonising hostile environments on Earth. The ExoMars rover, due for launch in 2018, will carry a Raman laser spectrometer to analyse samples of the martian subsurface collected by the probe's 2-m drill in a search for similar biosignatures. The martian surface is unprotected from the flux of cosmic rays, an ionising radiation field that will degrade organic molecules and so diminish and distort the detectable Raman signature of potential martian microbial life. This study employs Raman spectroscopy to analyse samples of two model organisms, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the extremely radiation resistant polyextremophile Deinococcus radiodurans, that have been exposed to increasing doses of ionising radiation. The three most prominent peaks in the Raman spectra are from cellular carotenoids: deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans and β-carotene in Synechocystis. The degradative effect of ionising radiation is clearly seen, with significant diminishment of carotenoid spectral peak heights after 15 kGy and complete erasure of Raman biosignatures by 150 kGy of ionising radiation. The Raman signal of carotenoid in D. radiodurans diminishes more rapidly than that of Synechocystis, believed to be due to deinoxanthin acting as a superior scavenger of radiolytically produced reactive oxygen species, and so being destroyed more quickly than the less efficient antioxidant β-carotene. This study highlights the necessity for further experimental work on the manner and rate of degradation of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation, as this is of prime importance for the successful detection of microbial life in the martian near subsurface.

  16. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale (United States)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la

  17. Theoretical investigation of the ultrafast dissociation of ionised biomolecules immersed in water: direct and indirect effects. (United States)

    Gaigeot, M-P; Lopez-Tarifa, P; Martin, F; Alcami, M; Vuilleumier, R; Tavernelli, I; Hervé du Penhoat, M-A; Politis, M-F


    Theoretical simulations are particularly well suited to investigate, at a molecular level, direct and indirect effects of ionising radiations in DNA, as in the particular case of irradiation by swift heavy ions such as those used in hadron therapy. In the past recent years, we have developed the modeling at the microscopic level of the early stages of the Coulomb explosion of DNA molecules immersed in liquid water that follows the irradiation by swift heavy ions. To that end, Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory molecular dynamics simulations (TD-DFT MD) have been developed where localised Wannier orbitals are propagated. This latter enables to separate molecular orbitals of each water molecule from the molecular orbitals of the biomolecule. Our main objective is to demonstrate that the double ionisation of one molecule of the liquid sample, either one water molecule from the solvent or the biomolecule, may be in some cases responsible for the formation of an atomic oxygen as a direct consequence of the molecule Coulomb explosion. Our hypothesis is that the molecular double ionisation arising from irradiation by swift heavy ions (about 10% of ionisation events by ions whose velocity is about the third of speed of light), as a primary event, though maybe less probable than other events resulting from the electronic cascading (for instance, electronic excitations, electron attachments), may be systematically more damageable (and more lethal), as supported by experiments that have been carried out in our group in the 1990s (in studies of damages created by K holes in DNA). The chemical reactivity of the produced atomic oxygen with other radicals present in the medium will ultimately lead to chemical products that are harmful to DNA. In the present paper, we review our theoretical methodology in an attempt that the community be familiar with our new approach. Results on the production of atomic oxygen as a result of the double ionisation of water or as a result of


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques (FSA), Université d'Abomey-Calavi (UAC), 01 BP 526 Cotonou Bénin. Email : 2Institut National des Recherches Agricoles du Bénin, Centre de Recherches Agricoles d'Agonkanmey (CRA-A),. Laboratoire des Sciences du Sol, Eau et Environnement (LSSEE).

  19. Effect of the diaphragm of free-air ionisation chamber for X-ray air-kerma measurements. (United States)

    Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Takata, Nobuhisa; Saito, Norio


    Free-air ionisation chambers are widely used at standards laboratories as primary standards for absolute measurements of air kerma in X-ray fields. The area of the diaphragm aperture of a free-air ionisation chambers is an important factor for absolute measurements because it defines the size of the X-ray beam incident on the free-air chamber. In this study, correction factors for the contribution of X rays transmitted through the diaphragm of a free-air ionisation chamber and those scattered from the surface of the diaphragm aperture are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation for two different sized free-air ionisation chambers and for various diaphragm aperture sizes, X-ray energies and source-to-chamber distances.

  20. The use of recently described ionisation techniques for the rapid analysis of some common drugs and samples of biological origin. (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan P; Patel, Vibhuti J; Holland, Richard; Scrivens, James H


    Three ionisation techniques that require no sample preparation or extraction prior to mass analysis have been used for the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical tablets and ointments. These methods were (i) the novel direct analysis in real time (DART), (ii) desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI), and (iii) desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (DAPCI). The performance of the three techniques was investigated for a number of common drugs. Significant differences between these approaches were observed. For compounds of moderate to low polarity DAPCI produced more effective ionisation. Accurate DESI and DAPCI tandem mass spectra were obtained and these greatly enhance the selectivity and information content of the experiment. The detection from human skin of the active ingredients from ointments is reported together with the detection of ibuprofen metabolites in human urine. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; Boer, de J.


    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  2. How do air ions reflect variations in ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere in a boreal forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen


    Full Text Available Most of the ion production in the atmosphere is attributed to ionising radiation. In the lower atmosphere, ionising radiation consists mainly of the decay emissions of radon and its progeny, gamma radiation of the terrestrial origin as well as photons and elementary particles of cosmic radiation. These types of radiation produce ion pairs via the ionisation of nitrogen and oxygen as well as trace species in the atmosphere, the rate of which is defined as the ionising capacity. Larger air ions are produced out of the initial charge carriers by processes such as clustering or attachment to pre-existing aerosol particles. This study aimed (1 to identify the key factors responsible for the variability in ionising radiation and in the observed air ion concentrations, (2 to reveal the linkage between them and (3 to provide an in-depth analysis into the effects of ionising radiation on air ion formation, based on measurement data collected during 2003–2006 from a boreal forest site in southern Finland. In general, gamma radiation dominated the ion production in the lower atmosphere. Variations in the ionising capacity came from mixing layer dynamics, soil type and moisture content, meteorological conditions, long-distance transportation, snow cover attenuation and precipitation. Slightly similar diurnal patterns to variations in the ionising capacity were observed in air ion concentrations of the cluster size (0.8–1.7 nm in mobility diameters. However, features observed in the 0.8–1 nm ion concentration were in good connection to variations of the ionising capacity. Further, by carefully constraining perturbing variables, a strong dependency of the cluster ion concentration on the ionising capacity was identified, proving the functionality of ionising radiation in air ion production in the lower atmosphere. This relationship, however, was only clearly observed on new particle formation (NPF days, possibly indicating that charges after

  3. Effect of radiation-induced charge accumulation on build-up cap on the signal current from an ionisation chamber. (United States)

    Takata, N; Morishita, Y


    The signal current from a thimble ionisation chamber with a build-up cap made of an insulator decreases by about 0.41 % after being irradiated for 17 h at an air kerma rate of 41 Gy h(-1) by a collimated (60)Co gamma-ray beam in air. In contrast, the signal current remains constant when the thimble ionisation chamber is irradiated in a water phantom. During irradiation, positive charge is considered to accumulate near the outer surface of the build-up cap where electron equilibrium is not achieved. Secondary electrons travelling in the build-up cap and the chamber wall toward the ionisation volume are decelerated by the electric field generated by the positive charge. Consequently, the signal current decreases with increasing charge accumulation because some secondary electrons are prevented from entering the ionisation volume. In the water phantom, electron equilibrium is established in and around the ionisation chamber and charge does not accumulate. To confirm this hypothesis, the signal current was measured for an ionisation chamber in air with a build-up cap wrapped with Al foil and covered with PMMA tubes. Electron equilibrium was established over the build-up cap because the tubes were thicker than the secondary electron range. The signal current decreased with increasing positive voltage applied to the Al foil. It was estimated from the results that positive charges equivalent to a voltage of over 6 kV applied to the Al foil accumulated during irradiation. The signal current was also measured for an ionisation chamber with a metal build-up cap and for an ionisation chamber with a wall and build-up cap made of conductive plastic.

  4. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry. (United States)

    Murawski, Ł; Zielczyński, M; Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A


    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. An important step forward in continuous spectroscopic imaging of ionising radiations using ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Fessler, P; Eberle, H; Raad-Iseli, C D; Hilt, B; Huss, D; Krummenacher, F; Lutz, Jean Robert; Prevot, G; Renouprez, Albert Jean; Sigward, M H; Schwaller, B; Voltolini, C


    Characterization results are given for an original ASIC allowing continuous acquisition of ionising radiation images in spectroscopic mode. Ionising radiation imaging in general and spectroscopic imaging in particular must primarily be guided by the attempt to decrease statistical noise, which requires detection systems designed to allow very high counting rates. Any source of dead time must therefore be avoided. Thus, the use of on-line corrections of the inevitable dispersion of characteristics between the large number of electronic channels of the detection system, shall be precluded. Without claiming to achieve ultimate noise levels, the work described is focused on how to prevent good individual acquisition channel noise performance from being totally destroyed by the dispersion between channels without introducing dead times. With this goal, we developed an automatic charge amplifier output voltage offset compensation system which operates regardless of the cause of the offset (detector or electronic). ...

  6. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry in cancer research. (United States)

    Bateson, Hannah; Saleem, Saira; Loadman, Paul M; Sutton, Chris W


    Cancer significantly affects millions of people worldwide. It is possible to use proteomic techniques to aid in detection, monitoring of treatment and progression, as well as gaining an increased understanding of cancer. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry can be utilised to detect the presence of proteins and peptides within various samples from the body, including blood, biological fluids and tumour tissue. This review aims to introduce MALDI mass spectrometry and discuss a range of applications in the field of cancer research, from quantitative to qualitative methods. Also described is MALDI imaging mass spectrometry which differs from typical sample preparation methods, as analytes are ionised directly from the tissue. Finally, presented is a brief summary of the status of biomarker discovery using blood/serum and biological fluids samples, and the implications in the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the Powerful Ionised Wind in the Seyfert Galaxy PG1211+143 (United States)

    Pounds, Ken


    Highly-ionised high-speed winds in AGN (UFOs) were first detected with XMM-Newton a decade ago, and are now established as a key factor in the study of SMBH accretion, and in the growth and metal enrichment of their host galaxies. However, information on the ionisation and dynamical structure, and the ultimate fate of UFOs remains very limited. We request a 600ks extended XMM-Newton study of the prototype UFO PG1211+143 in AO-13, to obtain high quality EPIC and RGS spectra, to map the flow structure and variability, while seeking evidence for the anticipated interaction with the ISM and possible conversion of the energetic wind to a momentum-driven flow.

  8. Ionizing radiation metrology. 1. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Jose Guilherme P. (ed.)


    The main purpose of this publication is to review various concepts, fundamental topics and methods related to the primary or secondary measurements of ionizing radiation. Following the approach proposed by the BIPM Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesures des Rayonnements Ionisants, the book is fully devoted to three different aspects of metrology, namely: radionuclides and radioactivity; X-rays, Gamma, Electron and Charged Particles; Neutron metrology. Approaches inherent traceability, primary standard (absolute) and secondary (relative), assessment of uncertainties, nuclear instrumentation, and laboratory infrastructure were also contemplated herein. (author)

  9. Radon in drinking water: Comparison and evaluation of two ionisation chamber activity measurement methods. (United States)

    Wiedner, H; Lotter, K; Karner, P; Friedmann, H; Maringer, F J


    In this study the radon activity concentration of water samples from the so called "Thermenlinie" are measured using two different techniques: currents measured with an ionisation chamber setup developed by H. Friedmann are compared with results obtained using a commercially available AlphaGUARD. A fit to compensate for measurements made in non-equilibrium state is applied and the detection limit is estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  11. New coplanar (e,2e) experiments for the ionisation of He and Ar atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, E.M. Staicu [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 8625) and Federation Lumiere Matiere (FR 2764), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Catoire, F.; Naja, A.; Ren, X.G.; Lahmam-Bennani, A. [Laboratoire des Collisions Atomiques et Moleculaires (UMR 8625) and Federation Lumiere Matiere (FR 2764), Bat. 351, Universite de Paris-Sud XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Nekkab, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria); Dal Cappello, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions and ICPMB (FR 2843), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Institut de Physique, 1 rue Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 5031 (United States); Whelan, C.T. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)


    We report new coplanar measurements of the (e,2e) TDCS for the ionisation of helium 1s-shell and argon 3p- and 2p-shells. The kinematics employed remained rather unexplored to date, and could be investigated here using an improved version of our multi-angle (e,2e) spectrometer, with increased sensitivity. The results are discussed in the light of state-of-the-art theoretical models.

  12. Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of polymers and polymer additives: a review. (United States)

    Paine, Martin R L; Barker, Philip J; Blanksby, Stephen J


    The purpose of this review is to showcase the present capabilities of ambient sampling and ionisation technologies for the analysis of polymers and polymer additives by mass spectrometry (MS) while simultaneously highlighting their advantages and limitations in a critical fashion. To qualify as an ambient ionisation technique, the method must be able to probe the surface of solid or liquid samples while operating in an open environment, allowing a variety of sample sizes, shapes, and substrate materials to be analysed. The main sections of this review will be guided by the underlying principle governing the desorption/extraction step of the analysis; liquid extraction, laser ablation, or thermal desorption, and the major component investigated, either the polymer itself or exogenous compounds (additives and contaminants) present within or on the polymer substrate. The review will conclude by summarising some of the challenges these technologies still face and possible directions that would further enhance the utility of ambient ionisation mass spectrometry as a tool for polymer analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using aromatic polyamines with high proton affinity as "proton sponge" dopants for electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wirth, Marisa A; Rüger, Christopher P; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf


    Proton sponges are polyamines with high proton affinity that enable gentle deprotonation of even mildly acidic compounds. In this study, the concept of proton sponges as signal enhancing dopants for electrospray ionisation is presented for the first time. 1,8-Bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) and 1,8-bis(tetramethylguanidino)naphthalene (TMGN) were chosen as dopants, using methanol and acetonitrile/methanol as solvents. Individual standard compounds, compound mixtures and a diesel fuel as a complex sample matrix were investigated. Both proton sponges enhanced signal intensities in electrospray ionisation negative mode, but TMGN decomposed rapidly in methanolic solution. Significantly higher signals were only achieved using the acetonitrile/methanol mixture. On average a more than 10-fold higher signal intensity was measured with 10-3 mol l-1 DMAN concentration. A stronger signal increase of alcohol functionalities was observed compared to acid functionalities. All compound classes which were detected in the diesel fuel (CH- and CHOx-class) received roughly 100-fold higher signal intensities when using DMAN as a dopant. Furthermore, the number of detected compounds as well as the double bond equivalent of the detected compounds increased. The compound class distribution shifted when adding DMAN and the formerly dominant CHO2-, CHO3-, and CHO4- classes received similar relative intensities as formerly less accessible classes. The findings depict DMAN as a promising additive for electrospray ionisation negative analysis of at least mildly acidic compounds, even within complex sample material.

  14. Comparison of ionisation measurements in water and polystyrene for electron beam dosimetry. (United States)

    Bruinvis, I A; Heukelom, S; Mijnheer, B J


    For the determination of absorbed dose to water in electron beams, dosimetry protocols advocate ionisation measurements in plastic phantoms instead of water for practical reasons. The chamber readings in polystyrene at the depth of maximum ionisation must be corrected for the difference in physical properties between the two materials. This correction factor was determined for a Farmer 0.6 cm3 graphite-walled chamber in electron beams with mean energies at the phantom surface between 6 and 19 MeV. Experiments with white polystyrene yielded corrections for the measured ionisation ranging from 0.3 to 2.4%. For clear polystyrene, 0.6-1% higher corrections were found. For beams with the same mean energy at the phantom surface, but with different beam-flattening and collimation systems, variations in this correction up to 1.2% were observed. In contrast to recent reports on electrical charge storage in polystyrene due to electron irradiation, our experiments do not show differences in the chamber readings any larger than 0.5%.

  15. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple (United States)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.


    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL: Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  16. Detection of the ionization of food. Analysis and characterization; Detection de l'ionisation des aliments. Analyse et caracterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffi, J


    Nowadays, the physico-chemical analysis allows to detect food and ionized medicines. Some protocols are normalized by the CEN (European Committee of Normalization). These qualitative methods are applied in quality control in agro-alimentary or for controlling the frauds at the ticketing. (O.M.)

  17. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs ... L'objectif visé est d'augmenter durablement ..... Village. EAF. (nbre). Revenus de la vente d'animaux sur pieds et du lait (Fcfa). Bovins. Petits. Ruminants. Volailles. Autres. Animaux. Total vente animaux. Lait.

  18. Le jeu des Kirlis et des Gourlus


    Touati, Corinne


    National audience; Cet article présente un jeu éducatif a destination des lycéens ayant pour but de présenter quelques exemples contre-intuitifs de théorie des jeux (paradoxe de l'information). La résolution des scénarios leur permet de se familiariser avec l'utilisation d'arbres de décisions et de tableaux et de faire des calculs simples de probabilités.

  19. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities. (United States)

    Coe, Jeremy P; Taylor, Daniel J; Paterson, Martin J


    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) (Greer, J. Chem. Phys. 1995a, 103, 1821; Tong, Nolan, Cheng, and Greer, Comp. Phys. Comm. 2000, 142, 132) is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of N2 and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these nonvariational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with full configuration interaction results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112) and "exact" nonrelativistic results (Booth and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 132, 174104; Cleland, Booth, and Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 024112). We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculation of atomic ionisation energies however electron affinities appear much more challenging for MCCI. Due to the small magnitude of the electron affinities their percentage errors can be high, but with regards to absolute errors MCCI performs similarly for ionisation energies and electron affinities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dissipative instabilities in a partially ionised prominence plasma slab. II. The effect of compressibility (United States)

    Mather, J. F.; Ballai, I.; Erdélyi, R.


    This study deals with the dissipative instability that appears in a compressible partially ionised plasma slab embedded in a uniform magnetic field, modelling the state of the plasma in solar prominences. In the partially ionised plasma, the dominant dissipative effect is the Cowling resistivity. The regions outside the slab (modelling the solar corona) are fully ionised, and the dominant mechanism of dissipation is viscosity. Analytical solutions to the extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are found inside and outside of the slab and solutions are matched at the boundaries of the slab. The dispersion relation is derived and solutions are found analytically in the slender slab limit, while the conditions necessary for the appearance of the instability is investigated numerically for the entire parameter space. Our study is focussed on the effect of the compressibility on the generation and evolution of instabilities. We find that compressibility reduces the threshold of the equilibrium flow, where waves can be unstable, to a level that is comparable to the internal cusp speed, which is of the same order of flow speeds that are currently observed in solar prominences. Our study addresses only the slow waves, as these are the most likely perturbations to become unstable, however the time-scales of the instability are found to be rather large ranging from 105-107 s. It is determined that the instability threshold is further influenced by the concentration of neutrals and the strength of the viscosity of the corona. Interestingly, these two latter aspects have opposite effects. Our numerical analysis shows that the interplay between the equilibrium flow, neutrals and dispersion can change considerably the nature of waves. Despite employing a simple model, our study confirms the necessity of consideration of neutrals when discussing the stability of prominences under solar conditions.

  1. Comparison of low and high dose ionising radiation using topological analysis of gene coexpression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Monika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing use of imaging procedures in medicine has raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR. While the disastrous effects of high dose ionising radiation (HDIR is well documented, the detrimental effects of LDIR is not well understood and has been a topic of much debate. Since little is known about the effects of LDIR, various kinds of wet-lab and computational analyses are required to advance knowledge in this domain. In this paper we carry out an “upside-down pyramid” form of systems biology analysis of microarray data. We characterised the global genomic response following 10 cGy (low dose and 100 cGy (high dose doses of X-ray ionising radiation at four time points by analysing the topology of gene coexpression networks. This study includes a rich experimental design and state-of-the-art computational systems biology methods of analysis to study the differences in the transcriptional response of skin cells exposed to low and high doses of radiation. Results Using this method we found important genes that have been linked to immune response, cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also were able to identify genes such as BRCA1, ABCA1, TNFRSF1B, MLLT11 that have been associated with various types of cancers. We were also able to detect many genes known to be associated with various medical conditions. Conclusions Our method of applying network topological differences can aid in identifying the differences among similar (eg: radiation effect yet very different biological conditions (eg: different dose and time to generate testable hypotheses. This is the first study where a network level analysis was performed across two different radiation doses at various time points, thereby illustrating changes in the cellular response over time.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of transfer ribonucleic acids isolated from yeast. (United States)

    Gruic-Sovulj, I; Lüdemann, H C; Hillenkamp, F; Weygand-Durasevic, I; Kucan, Z; Peter-Katalinic, J


    tRNATyr and tRNASer purified from bulk brewer's yeast tRNA were subjected to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Choosing a mixture of 2,4,6- and 2,3,4-trihydroxy-acetophenone and diammonium citrate as matrix a mass resolution of up to 220 (FWHM) was achieved in the linear mode of operation. Cation adduct suppression by addition of cation exchange beads and a chelating agent (CDTA) is shown to substantially improve mass resolution for this class of molecules. PMID:9108172

  3. Skin dose measurements using radiochromic films, TLDS and ionisation chamber and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Alashrah, Saleh; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Maalej, Nabil; El-Taher, A


    Estimation of the surface dose is very important for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose at the surface of a water phantom at a depth of 0.007 cm as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement with radiochromic films (RFs), thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber in a 6-MV photon beam. The results were compared with the theoretical calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (MCNP5, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). The RF was calibrated by placing the films at a depth of maximum dose (d(max)) in a solid water phantom and exposing it to doses from 0 to 500 cGy. The films were scanned using a transmission high-resolution HP scanner. The optical density of the film was obtained from the red component of the RGB images using ImageJ software. The per cent surface dose (PSD) and percentage depth dose (PDD) curve were obtained by placing film pieces at the surface and at different depths in the solid water phantom. TLDs were placed at a depth of 10 cm in a solid water phantom for calibration. Then the TLDs were placed at different depths in the water phantom and were exposed to obtain the PDD. The obtained PSD and PDD values were compared with those obtained using a cylindrical ionisation chamber. The PSD was also determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a LINAC 6-MV photon beam. The extrapolation method was used to determine the PSD for all measurements. The PSD was 15.0±3.6% for RF. The TLD measurement of the PSD was 16.0±5.0%. The (0.6 cm(3)) cylindrical ionisation chamber measurement of the PSD was 50.0±3.0%. The theoretical calculation using MCNP5 and DOSXYZnrc yielded a PSD of 15.0±2.0% and 15.7±2.2%. In this study, good agreement between PSD measurements was observed using RF and TLDs with the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the cylindrical chamber measurement yielded an overestimate of the PSD

  4. Migration to new ampoule types for the NPL secondary standard ionisation chambers. (United States)

    Baker, M; Fenwick, A; Ferreira, K; Keightley, J; Johansson, L; Collins, S


    As the pre-calibrated sample containers used for activity assay in the two NPL secondary standards ionisation chambers are being phased out, suitable replacements have been identified. Characterisation checks have been carried out on the new ISO ampoules and a long-term recalibration schedule has been devised. Around 40 calibration factors have been determined so far and comparison of ion chamber responses for the two ampoule types showed variations of up to 7% for low energy photon emitting radionuclides. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. First on-line results from the CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) beam line at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, T. J., E-mail:; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Collaboration: CRIS Collaboration


    The CRIS (Collinear Resonant Ionisation Spectroscopy) experiment at the on-line isotope separator facility, ISOLDE, CERN, has been constructed for high-sensitivity laser spectroscopy measurements on radioactive isotopes. The technique determines the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spin and changes in mean-square charge radii of exotic nuclei via measurement of their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts. In November 2011 the first on-line run was performed using the CRIS beam line, when the hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Fr was successfully measured. This paper will describe the technique and experimental setup of CRIS and present the results from the first on-line experiment.

  6. X-ray imaging of the ionisation cones in NGC 5252 (United States)

    Dadina, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Cappi, M.; Bianchi, S.; Vignali, C.; Malaguti, G.; Comastri, A.


    Context. The physical conditions of the gas forming the narrow-line regions (NLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been extensively studied in the optical band. Recently detailed X-ray studies have shown how the emission in the 0.1-2 keV band detected in Seyfert 2 galaxies is associated to gas lying close to or associated with the NLR. Aims: We take advantage of the spectacular extension (~15”) of the NLR in the type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252 and of the complementary characteristics of XMM-Newton and Chandra to investigate the physical conditions of the gas in this galaxy. Methods: The X-ray data from XMM-Newton are used to define the spectral properties of the ionising nuclear source. The Chandra data are used to trace the spatial characteristics of the soft X-ray emission. This information is then compared to the optical HST characteristics of the NLR in NGC 5252. Results: The X-ray spectrum of the nucleus of NGC 5252 is intrinsically flat (Γ~1.4-1.5) and absorbed by neutral gas with a column density NH~1022 cm-2. Below ~1 keV a soft excess is detected. The high-resolution spectrum obtained with the XMM-Newton RGS shows emission lines in the 0.2-1.5 keV range which strongly indicate that the soft X-ray component is essentially due to ionised gas. Moreover, the soft X-ray emission is spatially resolved around the nucleus and well overlaps the images obtained in narrow optical bands centred around the [Oiii] emission line at 5007 Å. The [Oiii]/soft-X flux ratios along the ionisation cones are basically constant. This indicates that the electron density does not significantly deviate from the r-2 law (constant ionisation parameter) moving outward from the nucleus. Conclusions: This result combined with previous optical studies suggests two plausible but different scenarios in the reconstruction of the last ~30 000 years of history of the central AGN. The most promising one is that the source is indeed a “quasar relic” with a steady and inefficient

  7. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Kostidis, L.I. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  8. Characterisation of the Muon Beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J.H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L.M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O.M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T.L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M.A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T.J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D.A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P.J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D.J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C.G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M.


    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  9. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A. [Harwell Oxford, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry (United Kingdom); Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H. [Universite de Geneve, DPNC, Section de Physique, Geneva (Switzerland); De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G. [Sezione INFN Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K. [The University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G. [Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano (Italy); Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G. [St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Department of Atomic Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravar, U. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L. [Sezione INFN Roma Tre e Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Cooke, P.; Gamet, R. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J. [University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G. [University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Filthaut, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ishimoto, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Onel, Y. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA (United States); Palladino, V. [Universita Federico II, Sezione INFN Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); Palmer, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (US); Roberts, T.J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (US); Collaboration: The MICE Collaboration


    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 {pi} mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 {pi} mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  10. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; et al.,


    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  11. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin


    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  12. Remittances | Transferts des migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Major Recipients of Remittances (in Million USD, 2008Principaux pays bénéficiaires des transferts des migrants (en millions USD, 2008­Migrants’ Remittances per Capita (in USD, 2008Transferts des migrants par habitant (en USD, 2008Source: World Bank, migration and remittances data.

  13. Des transformations cartographiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette CAUVIN


    Full Text Available Cet article présente un des apports de l'informatique à la cartographie, les transformations cartographiques, en distinguant celles qui sont liées au changement d'état de la carte de celles qui introduisent des modifications dans les positions des lieux.

  14. Approche pragmaterminologique des termes des entreprises et des organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardo de Vecchi


    Full Text Available Les entreprises et les organisations façonnent la langue générale et spécialisée pour leurs propres besoins. Il en résulte un sociolecte : parler d’entreprise ou organisationnel, qui caractérise la culture et le savoir des entreprises ou organisations. Identifiés et suivis de manière adaptée – approche pragmaterminologique –, les termes deviennent une ressource identifiable (à rapprocher des actifs, notamment pour l’intégration, la communication et la gestion des connaissance.

  15. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)


    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Agren


    Full Text Available We present data from the sixth Cassini flyby of Titan (T5, showing that the magnetosphere of Saturn strongly interacts with the moon's ionosphere and exo-ionosphere. A simple electron ionisation model provides a reasonable agreement with the altitude structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore, we suggest that the dense and cold exo-ionosphere (from the exobase at 1430 km and outward to several Titan radii from the surface can be explained by magnetospheric forcing and other transport processes whereas exospheric ionisation by impacting low energy electrons seems to play a minor role.

  17. Serum ionised calcium and cardiovascular disease in 45-years old men and women followed for 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogard, Christina Gerlach; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben


    a health survey in 1981 in Copenhagen had ionised serum calcium and different cardiovascular risk factors measured. The participants were followed until 1999 in The National Hospital Patients Registry and The National Death Registry in Denmark regarding the diagnosis ischemic heart disease (IHD......High level of total serum calcium within the normal range has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We wanted to evaluate whether the physiological active ionised form of calcium also was a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A total of 974 participants from...

  18. An experimental and theoretical study of core-valence double ionisation of acetaldehyde (ethanal). (United States)

    Zagorodskikh, S; Vapa, M; Vahtras, O; Zhaunerchyk, V; Mucke, M; Eland, J H D; Squibb, R J; Linusson, P; Jänkälä, K; Ågren, H; Feifel, R


    Core-valence double ionisation spectra of acetaldehyde (ethanal) are presented at photon energies above the carbon and oxygen 1s ionisation edges, measured by a versatile multi-electron coincidence spectroscopy technique. We use this molecule as a testbed for analyzing core-valence spectra by means of quantum chemical calculations of transition energies. These theoretical approaches range from two simple models, one based on orbital energies corrected by core valence interaction and one based on the equivalent core approximation, to a systematic series of quantum chemical electronic structure methods of increasing sophistication. The two simple models are found to provide a fast orbital interpretation of the spectra, in particular in the low energy parts, while the coverage of the full spectrum is best fulfilled by correlated models. CASPT2 is the most sophisticated model applied, but considering precision as well as computational costs, the single and double excitation configuration interaction model seems to provide the best option to analyze core-valence double hole spectra.

  19. A rapid ex vivo tissue model for optimising drug detection and ionisation in MALDI imaging studies. (United States)

    Huber, K; Aichler, M; Sun, N; Buck, A; Li, Z; Fernandez, I E; Hauck, S M; Zitzelsberger, H; Eickelberg, O; Janssen, K P; Keller, U; Walch, A


    The aim of this study was to establish an ex vivo model for a faster optimisation of sample preparation procedures, for example matrix choice, in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) drug imaging studies. The ionisation properties of four drugs, afatinib, erlotinib, irinotecan and pirfenidone, were determined in an ex vivo tissue experiment by spotting decreasing dilution series onto liver sections. Hereby, the drug signals were distinctly detectable using different matrix compounds, which allowed the selection of the optimal matrix for each drug. The analysis of afatinib and erlotinib yielded high drug signals with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix, whereas 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was identified as optimal matrix for irinotecan and pirfenidone detection. Our method was validated by a MALDI drug imaging approach of in vivo treated mouse tissue resulting in corresponding findings, indicating the spotting method as an appropriate approach to determine the matrix of choice. The present study shows the accordance between the detection of ex vivo spotted drugs and in vivo administered drugs by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FT-ICR imaging, which has not been demonstrated so far. Our data suggest the ex vivo tissue spotting method as an easy and reliable model to optimise MALDI imaging measurements and to predict drug detection in tissue sections derived from treated mice prior to the recruitment of laboratory animals, which helps to save animals, time and costs.

  20. Absorbed dose in ion beams: comparison of ionisation- and fluence-based measurements. (United States)

    Osinga, Julia-Maria; Brons, Stephan; Bartz, James A; Akselrod, Mark S; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen


    A direct comparison measurement of fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) and a thimble ionisation chamber is presented. Irradiations were performed using monoenergetic protons (142.66 MeV, ϕ=3×10(6) cm(-2)) and carbon ions (270.55 MeV u(-1), ϕ=3 × 10(6) cm(-2)). It was found that absorbed dose to water values as determined by fluence measurements using FNTDs are, in case of protons, in good agreement (2.4 %) with ionisation chamber measurements, if slower protons and Helium secondaries were accounted for by an effective stopping power. For carbon, however, a significant discrepancy of 4.5 % was seen, which could not be explained by fragmentation, uncertainties or experimental design. The results rather suggest a W-value of 32.10 eV ± 2.6 %. Additionally, the abundance of secondary protons expected from Monte-Carlo transport simulation was not observed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul


    The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin.

  2. Gas chromatography with diode array detection in series with flame ionisation detection. (United States)

    Gras, Ronda; Luong, Jim; Shellie, Robert A


    We introduce a gas chromatography detection approach that uses diode array detection operated in series with flame ionisation detection and demonstrate the utility of the detection approach for determination of volatile organic compounds. Diode array detection brings ultraviolet - visible spectroscopy (over a range of 190-640nm) onto the capillary gas chromatography time-scale, where average peak widths of analytes are on the order of 3-5s. The non-destructive nature of the diode array detector affords serially-coupled flame ionisation detection. This arrangement delivers near-simultaneous selective and universal detection without incurring additional analytical time, and without recourse to column flow splitting. The hyphenated technique is shown to be effective for chromatographic applications spanning an equivalent volatility range from C1 to C7n-paraffin hydrocarbons. The approach introduced herein provides increased sensitivity and selectivity for classes of compounds amenable to electronic spectroscopy such as alkenes, dienes, sulfurs, and aromatic compounds. The approach is demonstrated for direct measurement of carbon disulfide in work place atmospheres with a detection limit of 93pg on column and for the direct measurement of 1,3-butadiene in hydrocarbon matrices and ambient air with a detection of 73pg on column, each in less than 5min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ionisation effects on the permeation of pharmaceutical compounds through silicone membrane. (United States)

    Waters, L J; Bhuiyan, A K M M H


    Silicone membrane is frequently used as an in vitro skin mimic whereby experiments incorporate a range of buffered media which may vary in pH. As a consequence of such variability in pH there is a corresponding variability in the degree of ionisation which in turn, could influence permeation through the mainly hydrophobic-rich membrane structure. This study reports the effect of pH on the permeation of five model compounds (benzoic acid, benzotriazole, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and lidocaine). For the five compounds analysed, each at three distinct percentages of ionisation, it was found that the greater extent of permeation was always for the more 'neutral', i.e. more greatly unionised, species rather than the anionic or cationic species. These findings fit with the theory that the hydrophobic membrane encourages permeation of 'lipid-like' structures, i.e. the more unionised form of compounds. However, results obtained with an Inverse Gas Chromatography Surface Energy Analyser (iGC SEA) indicate the membrane surface to be an electron dense environment. In the knowledge that unionised forms of compounds permeate (rather than the charged species) this negatively charged surface was not anticipated, i.e. the basic membrane surface did not appear to affect permeation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinematically complete study on electron impact ionisation of aligned hydrogen molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senftleben, Arne


    Within the work presented here, single ionisation of spatially aligned hydrogen molecules by 200 eV electrons was studied in a kinematically complete experiment. For the first time, a comprehensive set of fully differential cross sections (FDCS) was obtained for this process on a molecular target. The direction of the internuclear axis was derived from the fragment emission of post-collision dissociation of the residual H{sub 2}{sup +} ion. Therefore, a protonic fragment was detected in coincidence with the two final-state electrons using a dedicated reaction microscope and sophisticated data analysis. For direct ionisation into the ionic ground state, existing theoretical cross sections for aligned molecules were tested. Additionally, we observed molecular frame angular distributions of Auger electrons emitted through dissociative autoionisation of H{sub 2}. Earlier findings of kinematically incomplete experiments were reproduced, but the FDCS reveal structures so far unknown. Furthermore, for random alignment, differential cross sections at two distinct values of the mean internuclear distance were obtained, providing new arguments in the current discussion on the nature of discrepancies observed between atomic and molecular collisions. (orig.)

  5. Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, F. [Laboratory of Environmental Modelling, DEI/SECRE/LME, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache, Building 159, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Hertel-Aas, T. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Gilek, M. [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University College, 14189 Huddinge (Sweden); Gilbin, R. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Oughton, D.H. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)


    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h{sup -1}). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h{sup -1}. In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h{sup -1}), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  6. Towards a Symmetric Momentum Distribution in the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, O M; Efthymiopoulos, I


    TheMuon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at Rutherford Appleton Labratory (UK). It is a proof-of-principle experiment for ionisation cooling, which is a prerequisite for a future Neutrino Factory (NF) or a Muon Collider. The muon beam will have a symmetrical momentum distribution in the cooling channel of theNF [1]. In the MICE beamline pions are captured by a quadrupole triplet, beam momentum is selected by dipole 1 (D1) before the beam traverses the decay solenoid. After the decay solenoid the beam momentum is selected by dipole 2 (D2), the beam is focused in two quadrupole triplets and characterised by time-of-flight (TOF) detectors TOF0 and TOF1 before entering the cooling channel. By doing a so-called D1-scan, where the optics parameters are scaled according to the upstream beam momentum, the purity and momentum distribution of the decay muons are changed. In this paper simulation results from G4Beamline (G4BL) [2] and data from MICE are presented and compared.

  7. Optimisation of secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) for the trace determination of gas-phase volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Dillon, Leonard A; Stone, Victoria N; Croasdell, Laura A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Thomas, C L Paul


    An electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Varian 1200 L) was modified to accept nitrogen samples containing low concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Six candidate probe compounds, methyl decanoate, octan-3-one, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, 1,4-diaminobutane, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and 2,3-butanediol, at concentrations below 50 ppb(v) were generated with permeation tubes in a test atmosphere generator. The concept of using a set of molecular probes to evaluate gas-phase electrospray ionisation of volatile analytes was assessed and the feasibility of adopting a unified ionisation approach for gas and liquid contamination of exobiotic environments established. 450 experiments were run in a five-replicate, fifteen-level, three-factor, central-composite-design with exponential dilution for each of the six probe compounds studied. The three factors studied were ionisation voltage, drying-gas flow and nebulising-gas flow. Parametric modelling by regression analysis enabled the differences in the ionisation behaviours of the probe compounds to be described by the optimisation models. Regression coefficients were in the range 0.91 to 0.99, indicating satisfactory levels of precision in the optimisation models. A wide range in ionisation efficiency was observed, with different optimised conditions required for the probe compounds. It was evident that no one factor appeared to dominate the response and the different factors produced different effects on the responses for the different molecules. 1,4-Butanediamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate required significantly lower ionisation voltages (1.2 kV) than the other four, which achieved optimised sensitivity towards the maximum voltage used in this design (5 to 6 kV). Drying-gas flow rates were found to be more important than nebulising-gas flow rates. However, variations in the constant term B(0) in the optimisation models indicated that other factors, not included in this study, were also likely

  8. Study and optimization of the ionisation channel in the Edelweiss dark matter direct detection experiment; Etude et optimisation de la voie ionisation dans l'experience Edelweiss de detection directe de la matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censier, B


    The EDELWEISS experiment is aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), today's most favoured candidates for solving the dark matter issue. Background ionising particles are identified thanks to the simultaneous measurement of heat and ionisation in the detectors. The main limitation to this method is coming from the ionisation measurement, charge collection being less efficient in some part of the detectors known as 'dead' areas. The specificity of the measurement is due to the use of very low temperatures and low collection fields. This thesis is dedicated to the study of carrier trapping. It involves time-resolved charge measurements as well as a simulation code adapted to the specific physical conditions. We first present results concerning charge trapping at the free surfaces of the detectors. Our method allows to build a surface-charge in a controlled manner by irradiation with a strong radioactive source. This charge is then characterised with a weaker source which acts as a probe. In a second part of the work, bulk-trapping characteristics are deduced from charge collection efficiency measurements, and by an original method based on event localisation in the detector. The results show that a large proportion of the doping impurities are ionised, as indicated independently by the study of degradation by space-charge build-up. In this last part, near-electrodes areas are found to contain large densities of charged trapping centres, in connection with dead-layer effects. (author)

  9. Radio-induced oxidation of n-paraffins for obtaining biodegradable detergents; L'oxydation radioinduite des n-paraffines pour l'obtention de detergents biodegradables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, J.R.; Laizier, J.; Blin, M.F.; Marchand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    N-paraffins oxidation is a feasible way to obtain biodegradable detergents. This reaction can be radio-initiated and it proceeds by a branched chain mechanism, with an induction pseudo-period. A suitable analysis of the reaction is allowed by the semi-logarithmic plot of its evolution. Influence of the different parameters of the reaction is studied, results show that the use of radiation for initiating the reaction is of no economical interest. (authors) [French] L'oxydation des n-paraffines est une voie possible d'obtention des detergents biodegradables. Cette reaction, qui peut etre radioinitiee, procede d'un mecanisme en chaine branchee et presente une pseudoperiode d'induction. La representation semi-logarithmique de l'avancement de la reaction permet une analyse commode de celle-ci. L'influence des differents parametres est etudiee. Les resultats montrent que l'utilisation du rayonnement pour l'initiation de la reaction est sans interet economique. (auteurs)

  10. Etude de la production de photons isolés dans les états finals hadroniques des collisions e+e- au LEP dans l'expérience ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Si Mohand, D

    Les photons isolés, observés dans les désintégrations hadroniques du bozon Z0 créé dans les annihilations électron-positron au LEP, proviennent essentiellement du rayonnement électromagnétique des quarks. Ces photons, qui ne sont pas affectés par la fragmentation, sont particulièrement sensibles à l'émission de gluons; leur étude, à l'aide d'algorithmes de simulation tels que JETSET, ARIADNE et HERWIG, constitue un moyen simple et précis de tester les différentes approches de QCD, en particulier dans la description de la compétition photon-gluon. Notre analyse a révélé que JETSET prédit (20±6)% moins de photons directs que le nombre mesuré expérimentalement. ARIADNE, en revanche, semble surestimer légèrement le taux de production de photons directs de (6±4)% alors que HERWIG reproduit fidèlement l'ensemble de nos mesures. Après correction des pertes d'acceptance et des effets d'hadronisation, le rapport d'embranchement du Z0 en hadrons plus photon, normalisé au rapport d'embranc...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (Euphorbiaceae). ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ... Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice .... valeur de la variable aléatoire normale pour un risque α égal à 0,05. La marge d'erreur d prévue pour tout paramètre à estimer à partir de l'enquête est de 3 %.

  12. Ab Initio SCF MO Calculation of Ionisation Energies and Charge Distributions of TCNQ and Its Mono- and Divalent Anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, H.T.; Velde, G.A. van der; Nieuwpoort, W.C.


    Ab initio SCF MO calculations using a contracted double zeta basis set of 168 gaussian type functions were performed on TCNQ+, TCNQ, TCNQ- and TCNQ2-. The ionisation potentials obtained from total energy differences are generally 0.25-0.50 eV higher than the corresponding negative orbital energies

  13. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in 3D simulations of the solar chromosphere. Methods and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Bohm, S.


    Context. The hydrogen ionisation degree deviates substantially from statistical equilibrium under the conditions of the solar chromosphere. A realistic description of this atmospheric layer thus must account for time-dependent non-equilibrium effects. Aims. Advancing the realism of numerical

  14. Hyphenation of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry to supercritical fluid chromatography for polar car lubricant additives analysis. (United States)

    Lavison-Bompard, Gwenaelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Beziau, Jean-François; Carrazé, Bernadette; Valette, Pascale; Duteurtre, Xavier; Tabet, Jean-Claude


    Car lubricant additives are added to mineral or synthetic base stocks to improve viscosity and resistance to oxidation of the lubricant and to limit wear of engines. As they belong to various chemical classes and are added to a very complex medium, the base stock, their detailed chromatographic analysis is very difficult and time consuming. In a previous paper, it was demonstrated that supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) allows the elution of common low-molecular-weight additives. Since their total resolution could not be achieved owing to the limited peak capacity of packed columns, the hyphenation of selective and informative detection methods such as atomic emission detection (AED) was required. Further to results obtained in SFC-AED, this work describes the hyphenation of SFC to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). SFC-MS hyphenation is detailed: temperature, flow rates of gas and mobile phase introduced in the source, position of the restrictor, ionisation additives and conditions of autotune are studied. Car lubricant monitoring requires negative and positive ionisation modes with or without the addition of ionisation auxiliary solvent according to the nature of additives. Moreover, when sensitivity is of major concern for a selected additive, the autotuning routine of the MS has to be performed in conditions as close as possible to analytical conditions, i.e. under subcritical conditions. Unambiguous identification and structure elucidation of several additives in formulated car lubricants are also presented.

  15. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)


    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol

  16. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): Integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karapiperis (Christos); S.J. Kempf (Stefan J.); R. Quintens (Roel); O. Azimzadeh (Omid); V.L. Vidal (Victoria Linares); S. Pazzaglia; D. Bazyka (Dimitry); P.G. Mastroberardino (Pier); Z.G. Scouras (Zacharias G.); S. Tapio (Soile); M.A. Benotmane (Mohammed Abderrafi); C.A. Ouzounis (Christos A.)


    textabstractBackground: The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being


    Horowitz, Y S; Eliyahu, I; Oster, L


    The reader will time-travel through almost seven decades of kinetic models and mathematical simulations of thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics based on the band-gap theory of the solid state. From post-World-War II, ideas concerning electron trapping mechanisms to the highly idealised one trap-one recombination (OTOR) model first elaborated in 1956 but still in 'high gear' today. The review caresses but purposely avoids in-depth discussion of the endless stream of papers discussing the intricacies of glow peak shapes arising from first-order, second-order, mixed-order and general-order kinetics predominantly based on non-interacting systems, and then on to the more physically realistic scenarios that have attempted to analyse complex systems involving ever greater numbers of interacting trapping centres, luminescent centres and non-luminescent centres. The review emphasises the difficulty the band-gap models have in the simulation of dose response linear/supralinear behaviour and especially the dependence of the supralinearity on ionisation density. The significance of the non-observation of filling-rate supralinearity in the absorption stage is emphasised since it removes from consideration the possibility of TL supralinearity arising from irradiation stage supralinearity. The importance of the simultaneous action of both localised and delocalised transitions has gradually penetrated the mindset of the community of kinetic researchers, but most simulations have concentrated on the shape of glow peaks and the extraction of the glow peak parameters, E (the thermal activation energy) and s (the attempt-to-escape frequency). The simulation of linear/supralinear dose response and its dependence on ionisation density have been largely avoided until recently due to the fundamental schism between the effects of ionisation density and some basic assumptions of the band-gap model. The review finishes with an in-depth presentation and discussion of the most recent

  18. Multidisciplinary approach to assess the sensitivity of dwarf tomato plants to low-LET ionising radiation (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Turano, Mimmo; Arena, Carmen

    Ionising radiation, acting alone or in interaction with microgravity and other environmental constraints, may affect plant at molecular, morpho-structural and physiological level. The intensity of the plant’s response depends on the properties of radiation and on the features of the plant itself. Indeed, different species are characterised by different susceptibility to radiation which may change during the life course. The aim of this research was to study the radiosensitivity to low-LET ionising radiation of plants of dwarf tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Microtom’) at two phenological phases (vegetative and reproductive), within the purpose of analysing plants for consideration as candidates for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) in Space. To pursue this objective, plants of the cultivar Microtom were irradiated with different doses of X-rays either at the stage of the second true leaf (VP - vegetative phase) or when at least one flower was blossomed (RP - reproductive phase). Plant’s response to ionising radiation was assessed through a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic analyses, ecophysiological measurements, morpho-anatomical characterisation of leaves and fruits, nutritional analyses of fruits. Growth, molecular and morpho-functional traits were measured during plant development up to fruiting in both VP and RP plant groups, and compared with non-irradiated control plants. Plant growth was monitored weekly recording parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, flowering and fruiting rate. Potential DNA alterations were explored through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by determining photosynthetic pigment composition, photochemistry and leaf gas exchanges. Leaf and fruit structure were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Leaf anatomical traits related to photosynthetic efficiency, and to structural radioprotection

  19. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du

  20. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total {gamma} irradiation; Donnees histologiques sur le porc (sus scrofa), utilisables en radiobiologie. 1. histologie normale de certains appareils. 2. etude des lesions consecutives a une irradiation {gamma} totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [French] Le porc domestique est devenu depuis peu un animal de laboratoire, dont les caracteristiques anatomiques et physiologiques paraissent fort appreciees pour certaines etudes de radiobiologie. Dans ce rapport les auteurs font part des recherches qu'ils ont effectuees (notamment dans le domaine de l'histologie) sur des porcs domestiques de differentes races, de maniere a constituer un document capable de venir en aide aux utilisateurs eventuels. La deuxieme partie de leur travail traite de lesions anatomiques et histologiques, consecutives a des expositions totales aux rayonnements gamma du cobalt 60 a des doses voisines de 285 rads. (auteurs)

  1. Ionisation in turbulent magnetic molecular clouds. I. Effect on density and mass-to-flux ratio structures (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole D.; Basu, Shantanu; Caselli, Paola


    Context. Previous studies show that the physical structures and kinematics of a region depend significantly on the ionisation fraction. These studies have only considered these effects in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations with microturbulence. The next logical step is to explore the effects of turbulence on ionised magnetic molecular clouds and then compare model predictions with observations to assess the importance of turbulence in the dynamical evolution of molecular clouds. Aims: In this paper, we extend our previous studies of the effect of ionisation fractions on star formation to clouds that include both non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and turbulence. We aim to quantify the importance of a treatment of the ionisation fraction in turbulent magnetised media and investigate the effect of the turbulence on shaping the clouds and filaments before star formation sets in. In particular, here we investigate how the structure, mass and width of filamentary structures depend on the amount of turbulence in ionised media and the initial mass-to-flux ratio. Methods: To determine the effects of turbulence and mass-to-flux ratio on the evolution of non-ideal magnetised clouds with varying ionisation profiles, we have run two sets of simulations. The first set assumes different initial turbulent Mach values for a fixed initial mass-to-flux ratio. The second set assumes different initial mass-to-flux ratio values for a fixed initial turbulent Mach number. Both sets explore the effect of using one of two ionisation profiles: step-like (SL) or cosmic ray only (CR-only). We compare the resulting density and mass-to-flux ratio structures both qualitatively and quantitatively via filament and core masses and filament fitting techniques (Gaussian and Plummer profiles). Results: We find that even with almost no turbulence, filamentary structure still exists although at lower density contours. Comparison of simulations shows that for turbulent Mach numbers above 2, there is

  2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for C60 fullerene analysis: optimisation and comparison of three ionisation techniques. (United States)

    Li, Ling; Huhtala, Sami; Sillanpää, Markus; Sainio, Pirjo


    The increasing use and production of nanomaterials have led to growing concern over the release of new pollutants to the environment. Fullerenes have been a subject of intense research, both because of their unique chemistry and because of technological applications. The development of analytical methods to quantify the fullerenes in complex sample matrices is a crucial step in the study of their occurrence and exposure, and thus in risk assessment. This paper reports the development and optimisation of a method combining liquid chromatography with ion-trap mass spectrometry (LC-ITMS) for analysis of the fullerene C(60). Under the optimised chromatogram conditions, a C(18) analytical column had good selectivity for fullerenes C(60) and C(70), with retention times of 3.0 and 4.1 min, respectively. Mass spectrometric detection was tested and optimised using three common ionisation techniques-atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI), atmospheric-pressure photoionisation (APPI), and electrospray ionisation (ESI). The molecular ion was most abundant for C (60) (-) (m/z=720) in APCI and APPI, whereas adduct ions were formed with the molecular ion in ESI. Finally, the performance of the three ionisation techniques examined was compared by use of five validation criteria. The instrument detection limit (8 ng mL(-1)), quantification limit (27 ng mL(-1)), detection sensitivity (90.2 ng mL(-1)), linear range (8-1,000 ng mL(-1)), and repeatability (15 %) of APPI make it the most promising ionisation technique for fullerene C(60) analysis.

  3. CF3+ and CF2H+: new reagents for n-alkane determination in chemical ionisation reaction mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Blake, Robert S; Ouheda, Saleh A; Evans, Corey J; Monks, Paul S


    Alkanes provide a particular analytical challenge to commonly used chemical ionisation methods such as proton-transfer from water owing to their basicity. It is demonstrated that the fluorocarbon ions CF3+ and CF2H+, generated from CF4, as reagents provide an effective means of detecting light n-alkanes in the range C2-C6 using direct chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. The present work assesses the applicability of the reagents in Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometric (CI-TOF-MS) environments with factors such as high moisture content, operating pressures of 1-10 Torr, accelerating electric fields (E/N) and long-lived intermediate complex formation. Of the commonly used chemical ionisation reagents, H3O+ and NO+ only react with hexane and higher while O2+ reacts with all the target samples, but creates significant fragmentation. By contrast, CF3+ and CF2H+ acting together were found to produce little or no fragmentation. In dry conditions with E/N = 100 Td or higher the relative intensity of CF2H+ to CF3+ was mostly less than 1% but always less than 3%, making CF3+ the main reagent ion. Using O2+ in a parallel series of experiments, a substantially greater degree of fragmentation was observed. The detection sensitivities of the alkanes with CF3+ and CF2H+, while relatively low, were found to be better than those observed with O2+. Experiments using alkane mixtures in the ppm range have shown the ionisation technique based on CF3+ and CF2H+ to be particularly useful for measurements of alkane/air mixtures found in polluted environments. As a demonstration of the technique's effectiveness in complex mixtures, the detection of n-alkanes in a smoker's breath is demonstrated.

  4. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The object of this report is to give technical information about high density concretes which have become very important for radiation biological shielding. The most generally used heavy aggregates (barytes, ilmenite, ferrophosphorus, limonite, magnetite and iron punching) to make these concretes are investigated from the point of view prospecting and physical and chemical characteristics. At first, a general survey of shielding concretes is made involving the study of components, mixing and placing methods, then, a detailed investigation of some high density concretes: barytes concrete, with incorporation of iron punching or iron shot, ferrophosphorus concrete, ilmenite concrete and magnetite concrete, more particularly with regard to grading and mix proportions and testing process. To put this survey in concrete form, two practical designs are described such as they have been carried out at the Saclay Nuclear Station. Specifications are given for diverse concretes and for making the proton-synchrotron 'Saturne' shielding blocks. (author) [French] Ce rapport a pour objet de donner des precisions techniques au sujet des betons a haute densite qui ont pris une grande importance pour la protection biologique contre les rayonnements. Les agregats lourds les plus couramment utilises (barytine, ilmenite, ferrophosphore, limonite, magnetite et riblons) pour la fabrication de ces betons, sont examines du point de vue prospection et caracteristiques physiques et chimiques. On procede d'abord a une etude generale des betons de protection comprenant l'etude des constituants, de la confection et de la mise en place, ensuite, a un examen detaille de quelques betons a haute densite: betons a base de barytine, avec incorporation de riblons ou de grenaille de fonte, betons au ferrophosphore, a base d'ilmenite ou de magnetite, notamment en ce qui concerne la granulometrie, la composition, le dosage et les processus d'essais. Pour concretiser ces

  5. L’accès aux ressources en création d’entreprise: vers une reconsidération des facteurs sociaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Omrane


    Full Text Available Les travaux de recherche en entrepreneuriat ont largement mis en valeur le capital relationnel d’un porteur de projet et sa contribution à l’acquisition des moyens financiers, des informations et du support social. Ceci revient à ce que l’entrepreneur, dès qu’il se trouve emporté par le désir d’assurer la survie et le rayonnement de son projet, il se trouve le plus souvent confronté à un handicap de financier mitigé à un manque d’informations et de support social en provenance de ses collaborateurs. Or, toujours est-il que le capital social entrepreneurial en soi suscite une polémique et une interrogation sur les facteurs qui propulsent son développement. Dans cette perspective, nous proposons de centrer notre réflexion sur les compétences sociales afin d’apporter un éclairage à la manière dont se forme le capital relationnel du porteur d’un projet. Dans le même sillage d’idées, nous soulignons les influences que ces habiletés sont susceptibles d’exercer autant sur la mobilisation des moyens nécessaires que sur l’extension du capital relationnel de l’entrepreneur. Une investigation qualitative conduite sur une dizaine de porteurs de projets tunisiens a été effectuée pour tester ces propos, via une reconsidération des catégories d’aptitudes socio-relationnelles les plus saillantes.

  6. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson


    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron and nuclear dynamics following ionisation of modified bismethylene-adamantane. (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Albertani, Fabio E A; Jenkins, Andrew J; Polyak, Iakov; Bearpark, Michael J; Robb, Michael A


    We have simulated the coupled electron and nuclear dynamics using the Ehrenfest method upon valence ionisation of modified bismethylene-adamantane (BMA) molecules where there is an electron transfer between the two π bonds. We have shown that the nuclear motion significantly affects the electron dynamics after a few fs when the electronic states involved are close in energy. We have also demonstrated how the non-stationary electronic wave packet determines the nuclear motion, more precisely the asymmetric stretching of the two π bonds, illustrating "charge-directed reactivity". Taking into account the nuclear wave packet width results in the dephasing of electron dynamics with a half-life of 8 fs; this eventually leads to the equal delocalisation of the hole density over the two methylene groups and thus symmetric bond lengths.

  8. Electrifying atmospheres charging, ionisation and lightning in the solar system and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L


    Electrical processes take place in all planetary atmospheres. There is evidence for lightning on Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, it is possible on Mars and Titan, and cosmic rays ionise every atmosphere, leading to charged droplets and particles. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This book reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity, taken to include ion production and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification is more important at planets receiving little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ...

  9. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation. (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J


    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of potato glycoalkaloids using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Matsuda, Fumio; Morino, Keiko; Miyazawa, Haruna; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi


    A method for quantifying two toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber tissue was developed using HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS. Potato samples were extracted with 5% aqueous acetic acid, and the extracts were subjected directly to HPLC-ESI/MS after filtration. By determining the intensities of the protonated molecules of alpha-solanine (m/z 868) and alpha-chaconine (m/z 852) using selected ion monitoring (positive ion mode), a sensitive assay was attained with detection limits of 38 and 14 ppb for the two glycoalkaloids, respectively. The high sensitivity and selectivity of MS detection effectively reduced the time of analysis thus enabling a high throughput assay of glycoalkaloids in potato tubers.

  11. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation—Implications for low dose risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Munira; Salomaa, Sisko; Wright, Eric


    Non-DNA targeted effects of ionising radiation, which include genomic instability, and a variety of bystander effects including abscopal effects and bystander mediated adaptive response, have raised concerns about the magnitude of low-dose radiation risk. Genomic instability, bystander effects an......) Integrated Project funded by the European Union. Here we critically examine the evidence for non-targeted effects, discuss apparently contradictory results and consider implications for low-dose radiation health effects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... and adaptive responses are powered by fundamental, but not clearly understood systems that maintain tissue homeostasis. Despite excellent research in this field by various groups, there are still gaps in our understanding of the likely mechanisms associated with non-DNA targeted effects, particularly...

  12. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  13. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation. (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K


    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    3) Laboratoire de Mécanique, Structures et Energétique, ... This work consists in detecting two combined defects, simulated on gears using continuous wavelet ..... Vibration, Vol. 234, Issue 1, 2000, p.135-. 148. [15] A. Boulenger, C. Pachaud, Aide- mémoire, Surveillance des machines par analyse des vibrations, Ed. Dunod, ...

  15. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul


    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  16. Technologien des Spektakels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttger, K.; Ritzer, I.; Schulze, P.W.


    Mit dem vorliegenden Artikel möchte ich den Vorschlag unterbreiten, über transmediale Genre-Passagen aus der Perspektive des Spektakels nachzudenken. Denn der Begriff des Spektakels eignet sich meines Erachtens einerseits zur Analyse und Beschreibung verschiedener Massenmedien wie Film, Radio,

  17. Potenziale des Bankenplatzes Basel


    Gantenbein, Pascal; Weder, Rolf


    Aufbauend auf der Studie "Bedeutung des Bankenplatzes Basel" (WWZ-Studie 10/03), welche im Dezember 2010 publiziert und seither mehrfach vorgestellt wurde, ist es das Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung, die Potenziale und Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten des Basler Bankenplatzes zu analysieren.

  18. peste des petits ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of antibodies to peste des petits ruminants. (PPR) virus. Veterinary. Research. Communications, 30:325-330. Singh RK, Balauirjgal V, Bhamuprakash V, Sanen A,. Saravanan P, & Yadev MP (2009). Possible control and eradication of peste des petits ruminants from India: technical aspect. Veterinaria Italiana, 45 (3), ...

  19. Gestion des ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    environnement et l'accès aux ressources naturelles est un enjeu crucial. Ces 40 dernières années, des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI ont trouvé des moyens novateurs de réduire la pauvreté tout en protégeant les ressources naturelles dont ...

  20. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac grâce à la culture de l'arachide (Malawi). L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' ...

  1. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  2. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a

  3. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... des producteurs de tabac et des producteurs de bambou, et produit des plans d'action communautaires pour la diversification des moyens de subsistance. Leur recherche a révélé que la production du tabac ne contribuait guère à améliorer le niveau de vie des agriculteurs, que lorsque cultivé dans les mêmes conditions ...

  4. Metabolite signal identification in accurate mass metabolomics data with MZedDB, an interactive m/z annotation tool utilising predicted ionisation behaviour 'rules'. (United States)

    Draper, John; Enot, David P; Parker, David; Beckmann, Manfred; Snowdon, Stuart; Lin, Wanchang; Zubair, Hassan


    Metabolomics experiments using Mass Spectrometry (MS) technology measure the mass to charge ratio (m/z) and intensity of ionised molecules in crude extracts of complex biological samples to generate high dimensional metabolite 'fingerprint' or metabolite 'profile' data. High resolution MS instruments perform routinely with a mass accuracy of ionised. In reality the annotation process is confounded by the fact that many ionisation products will be not only molecular isotopes but also salt/solvent adducts and neutral loss fragments of original metabolites. This report describes an annotation strategy that will allow searching based on all potential ionisation products predicted to form during electrospray ionisation (ESI). Metabolite 'structures' harvested from publicly accessible databases were converted into a common format to generate a comprehensive archive in MZedDB. 'Rules' were derived from chemical information that allowed MZedDB to generate a list of adducts and neutral loss fragments putatively able to form for each structure and calculate, on the fly, the exact molecular weight of every potential ionisation product to provide targets for annotation searches based on accurate mass. We demonstrate that data matrices representing populations of ionisation products generated from different biological matrices contain a large proportion (sometimes > 50%) of molecular isotopes, salt adducts and neutral loss fragments. Correlation analysis of ESI-MS data features confirmed the predicted relationships of m/z signals. An integrated isotope enumerator in MZedDB allowed verification of exact isotopic pattern distributions to corroborate experimental data. We conclude that although ultra-high accurate mass instruments provide major insight into the chemical diversity of biological extracts, the facile annotation of a large proportion of signals is not possible by simple, automated query of current databases using computed molecular formulae. Parameterising MZedDB to

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Flow Field of Ionised Gases with Applications to High-Performance Electronics and Oil Shale Gasification


    Al-Amayreh, Malik


    This thesis investigates two new applications of flow field ionised gases. The first application involves coupled electromagnetic and aerothermodynamic phenomena in an electrical contactor chamber. I studied a new blowout technique to control the speed of the flow. With this new blowout technique, the ionised gases can be generated between the electrodes to feed the coils with current. I observed that the recovery time for the case of higher current is less than that of the following low curr...

  6. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)


    Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D.; Gillies, Michael; O?Hagan, Jacqueline A; Ghassan B. Hamra; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele


    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308?297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66?...

  7. Analyse des transferts de chaleur et de masse transitoires dans un arena a l'aide de la methode zonale (United States)

    Daoud, Ahmed

    Cette these presente les resultats d'une etude sur le mouvement de l'air et les transferts thermiques et massiques dans les arenas en regime transitoire et en 3D. Pour la partie aeraulique, il a ete question de developper un modele base sur la methode zonale qui permet de calculer les debits de l'air (dus a la ventilation et aux gradients de temperature) et de l'humidite entre les differentes zones du batiment et de determiner l'age de l'air dans chacune des zones. Pour la partie thermique, un modele de calcul du rayonnement entre les surfaces interieures du batiment qui a ete couple a TRNSYS afin de calculer sur une base annuelle les charges de chauffage et de refrigeration; ces dernieres tiennent compte des transferts radiatif et convectif, de la chaleur latente due a la condensation de l'humidite sur la glace et du surfacage. Le document presente est constitue de 7 chapitres qui peuvent etre resumes comme suit: Les chapitres 1, 2 et 3 sont consacres respectivement: a l'introduction generale, a la revue bibliographique et a la description du batiment modelise. Le chapitre 4 decrit l'approche developpee et la contribution importante qui y est apportee. Il presente l'utilisation de la methode zonale comme une alternative pratique aux methodes CFD car elle permet de realiser des simulations dynamiques sur une annee avec des temps de simulation tres courts et une precision acceptable. Il s'agit d'une approche intermediaire entre les modeles CFD et les modeles a un noeud d'air (considerant la temperature homogene dans un local). Le chapitre 5 est consacre a la methode de resolution numerique. L'outil de simulation a ete developpe en utilisant l'interface du logiciel TRNSYS: Le type 56 de ce logiciel a ete adopte comme modele energetique tandis que les autres modeles ont ete developpes et programmes en utilisant le logiciel MATLAB. Le chapitre 6 presente les resultats de simulation pour un arena sans faux plafond et avec un faux plafond et les resultats de mesures

  8. Characterisation of tryptic peptides of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase by high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Mark E. [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dickson, Phillip W. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Dunkley, Peter R. [School of Biomedical Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Nagy-Felsobuki, Ellak I. von [Molecular Structure and Detection Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)]. E-mail:


    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is involved in the biosynthesis of catecholamines and is activated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylated TH was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC ESI-MS). Two mass scanning methods were used to detect tryptic cleavage products of TH. In the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+), the peptides that contain the phosphorylation sites of TH were identified. In the alternative method, a phosphopeptide was detected in the negative electrospray ionisation mode (ESI-) using single ion monitoring in combination with a sequential ESI+ switching experiment. A raised baseline interfered with detection of hydrophilic peptides in ESI-, with the signal-to-noise ratio indicating that the method was operating near the limit of detection for a conventional electrospray source. The switching method improved the certainty of identification of phosphopeptides.

  9. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère


    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  10. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge


    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  11. Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    approfondissement des connaissances sur les sexospécificités au sein du programme Communautés et société de l'information en Afrique (ACACIA) et procéder à une évaluation de la stratégie de ce programme en matière de sexospécificités.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    la triade : gestion commerciale, contrôle de l'Etat et reconnaissance du but non lucratif, proposée ici comme un ... MOTS CLES : Algérie - Théâtre - Gestion des entreprises - Culture. JEL CLASSIFICATION: L32 ... institutionnelle (Journal of Cultural Economics, 1977; Cultural. Trends, 1989; Journal of Arts Management, Law, ...

  13. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann


    Full Text Available A system for fast ammonia (NH3 measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min−1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m−2 s−1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 μg m−2 s−1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  14. Potential errors in relative dose measurements in kilovoltage photon beams due to polarity effects in plane-parallel ionisation chambers. (United States)

    Dowdell, S; Tyler, M; McNamara, J; Sloan, K; Ceylan, A; Rinks, A


    Plane-parallel ionisation chambers are regularly used to conduct relative dosimetry measurements for therapeutic kilovoltage beams during commissioning and routine quality assurance. This paper presents the first quantification of the polarity effect in kilovoltage photon beams for two types of commercially available plane-parallel ionisation chambers used for such measurements. Measurements were performed at various depths along the central axis in a solid water phantom and for different field sizes at 2 cm depth to determine the polarity effect for PTW Advanced Markus and Roos ionisation chambers (PTW-Freiburg, Germany). Data was acquired for kilovoltage beams between 100 kVp (half-value layer (HVL)  =  2.88 mm Al) and 250 kVp (HVL  =  2.12 mm Cu) and field sizes of 3-15 cm diameter for 30 cm focus-source distance (FSD) and 4  ×  4 cm2-20  ×  20 cm2 for 50 cm FSD. Substantial polarity effects, up to 9.6%, were observed for the Advanced Markus chamber compared to a maximum 0.5% for the Roos chamber. The magnitude of the polarity effect was observed to increase with field size and beam energy but was consistent with depth. The polarity effect is directly influenced by chamber design, with potentially large polarity effects for some plane-parallel ionisation chambers. Depending on the specific chamber used, polarity corrections may be required for output factor measurements of kilovoltage photon beams. Failure to account for polarity effects could lead to an incorrect dose being delivered to the patient.

  15. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography


    Aladjev, G. A.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Mingalev, V. S.; G. I. Mingaleva; E. D. Tereshchenko; Khudukon, B. Z.


    Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE) in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionospher...

  16. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    démodulation ou bien l‟analyse des résonances repérées dans le spectre. En pratique, ce n‟est pas ... domaine temporel pour la détection des défauts qui génèrent des signaux impulsionnels. Il est très sensible à ... attrait à la détection de défauts de types chocs. Lin et Zuo ont appliqué le Kurtosis pour la recherche du ...

  17. Viaducto Des Rocs


    Fernández Álvarez del Buergo, Alejandro


    El presente proyecto presenta las actuaciones a llevar a cabo para la Construcción del Viaducto des Rocs en la ciudad de Poitiers (Francia). El emplazamiento del viaducto está ocupado actualmente por la pasarela des Rocs, una pasarela peatonal que conecta los barrios occidentales con el centro histórico de Poitiers, sobrevolando el valle de la Boivre, marcado por la presencia de una playa de vías propiedad de la SNCF (Societé Nationale des Chemins de Fer). Las malas condiciones de esta infrae...

  18. Matrix-free mass spectrometric imaging using laser desorption ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (United States)

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Pitt, Andrew R; Harrison, David; Weidt, Stefan K; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Barrett, Michael P; Logan Mackay, C


    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool in metabolomics and proteomics for the spatial localization and identification of pharmaceuticals, metabolites, lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. However, sample preparation remains a crucial variable in obtaining the most accurate distributions. Common washing steps used to remove salts, and solvent-based matrix application, allow analyte spreading to occur. Solvent-free matrix applications can reduce this risk, but increase the possibility of ionisation bias due to matrix adhesion to tissue sections. We report here the use of matrix-free MSI using laser desorption ionisation performed on a 12 T Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. We used unprocessed tissue with no post-processing following thaw-mounting on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation (MALDI) indium-tin oxide (ITO) target plates. The identification and distribution of a range of phospholipids in mouse brain and kidney sections are presented and compared with previously published MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) MSI distributions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21416534

  19. Investigation of the ionisation density dependence of the glow curve characteristics of LIF:MG,TI (TLD-100) (United States)

    Horowitz, Y. S.; Horowitz, A.; Oster, L.; Marino, S.; Datz, H.; Margaliot, M.


    The dependence of the shape of the glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) on ionisation density was investigated using irradiation with 90Sr/90Y beta rays, 60 and 250 kVp X rays, various heavy-charged particles and 0.2 and 14 MeV neutrons. Special attention is focused on the properties of high-temperature thermoluminescence; specifically, the behaviour of the high-temperature ratio (HTR) of Peaks 7 and 8 as a function of batch and annealing protocol. The correlation of Peaks 7 and 8 with average linear-energy-transfer (LET) is also investigated. The HTR of Peak 7 is found to be independent of LET for values of LET approximately >30 keV µm−1. The behaviour of the HTR of Peak 8 with LET is observed to be erratic, which suggests that applications using the HTR should separate the contributions of Peaks 7 and 8 using computerised glow curve deconvolution. The behaviour of the HTR following neutron irradiation is complex and not fully understood. The shape of composite Peak 5 is observed to be broader following high ionisation alpha particle irradiation, suggesting that the combined use of the HTR and the shape of Peak 5 could lead to improved ionisation density discrimination for particles of high LET. PMID:18667402


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina


    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is known to cause chromosomal instability, which is observed as increased frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei. These are listed as reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Numerous experiments conducted on both animal and plant models demonstrated that increase in radiation dosage is followed by increased mutation frequency, and that mutations occur even at the lowest exposure. We used horse blood in vitro irradiated by low doses of ionizing radiation. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronucleus test were used as biomarkers of genetic damage. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified in accordance with the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Micronuclei were identified on the basis of criteria proposed by Fenech et al. (8. Analysis of chromosomal aberration showed increased frequency of aberrations in blood cultures exposed to 0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy compared to the controls. Microscopic analysis of chromosomal damage in in vitro micronucleus test revealed that the applied radiation dose induced micronuclei while no binucleated cells with micronuclei were found in lymphocytes that were not irradiated. In this paper we analysed the influence of low dose ionising radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei in horse lymphocytes following in vitro exposure to X-rays (0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy. Key words: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, ionising radiation, horse lymphocytes

  1. Reduction of the duration of the natural dead time of a 4 {pi} gas ionization counter operating in geiger-muller; Reduction de la duree de l'etat d'insensibilite naturelle d'un compteur a ionisation gazeuse de geometrie 4 {pi} travaillant en regime de Geiger-Muller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Departement d' Electronique Generale, Laboratoire de Mesure des Radioelements


    It Is only possible to benefit from the 100 per cent efficiency of a 4 {pi} gas-ionisation detector operating in the Geiger-Muller regime (an efficiency which always appears difficult to attain in other detectors) if, one is able: - on the one hand to reduce considerably - on the other hand to fix very precisely the length at the real dead time of the system operating in the above conditions. Taking into account both the phenomena characteristic of the discharge in the regime under consideration, phenomena whose properties are described, and the geometrical conditions depending on the operation over a solid angle of 4 {pi}, it is shown that with an exterior electronic system for cutting off the discharge for example in 30 nanoseconds, absolute 4 {pi} G.M. measurements would become competitive with those now carried out almost in proportional conditions. Measurement results on sources of 5 x 10{sup 3} emissions per second maximum obtained by the use of a system for which the interval between the passage of a particle and the moment when the device has been made insensitive is still 60 nanoseconds have made it possible to confirm these statements. (author) [French] De l'efficacite de 100 pour cent du detecteur a ionisation gazeuse travaillant en regime de Geiger-Muller en geometrie 4 {pi} (efficacite toujours difficile a atteindre par d'autres detecteurs semble-t-il) on ne peut cependant beneficier que si l'on est capable: - d'une part, de reduire considerablement - d'autre part, de fixer de maniere tres precise la duree d'insensibilite reelle du systeme travaillant dans les conditions ci-dessus. Tenant compte des phenomenes propres a la decharge, dans le regime en question, phenomenes dont on rappeUto quelques caracteristiques, et des conditions geometriques propres a une detection dans un angle solide de 4 {pi} on montre qu'avec un systeme electronique de coupure externe de la decharge qui arreterait cette derniere en 30

  2. Problèmes résolus sur les ondes électromagnétiques dans le vide et les conducteurs : propagation et rayonnement

    CERN Document Server

    Lumbroso, H


    Cet ouvrage propose 61 problèmes consacrés aux ondes électromagnétiques dans le vide et les conducteurs tous complètement résolus. Chaque chapitre s'ouvre par un rappel des principaux résultats du cours.

  3. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daar, Eman, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Woods, E. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, Pond Street, Hampstead, London NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); Keddie, J.L. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  4. Development of lithium attachment mass spectrometry - knudsen effusion and chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS). (United States)

    Booth, A Murray; Bannan, Thomas J; Benyezzar, Med; Bacak, Asan; Alfarra, M Rami; Topping, David; Percival, Carl J


    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting, sensitive and robust method for the detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture and results of lithium based ion attachment ionisation sources for two different mass spectrometry systems are presented. In this study trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure measurements are made using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS). In the Li+ CIMS, where the Li+ ionization acts a soft and unselective ionization source, limits of detection of 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt for ammonia were achieved, allowing for ambient measurements of such species at atmospherically relevant concentrations. In the first application of Lithium ion attachment in ultra-high vacuum (UHV), vapor pressures of various atmospherically relevant species were measured with the adapted KEMS, giving measured values equivalent to previous results from electron impact KEMS. In the Li+ KEMS vapour pressures <10-3 mbar can be measured without any fragmentation, as is seen with the initial electron impact (EI) set up, allowing the vapor pressure of individual components within mixtures to be determined.

  5. Artificially-aged cachaça samples characterised by direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    de Souza, Patterson P; Resende, Ana M M; Augusti, Daniella V; Badotti, Fernanda; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei


    Direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode [ESI(-)-MS] was employed to evaluate the authenticity of aged cachaças, a traditional and valuable Brazilian alcoholic beverage prepared from the distillation of brewed sugarcane juice and aged in barrels made of common woods. Counterfeit samples were prepared by adding dyes, sawdust or essences to a freshly-distiled, much less valuable sample (white cachaça) to simulate the 1-2years long natural ageing in wooden barrels. A simple visual inspection revealed remarkable differences between the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples (aged in oak or amburana casks) and the artificially-aged counterfeit samples. A set of diagnostic ions were detectable in the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples aged in oak (m/z 197, 241, 301 and 307) and amburana (m/z 271 and 377/379). This fast and direct methodology seems useful as a routine procedure to monitor this highly profitable and common counterfeit practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth alteration and leaf biochemical responses in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to different doses of ionising radiation. (United States)

    Arena, C; De Micco, V; De Maio, A


    Ionising radiation may have different effects on plant metabolism, growth and reproduction, depending on radiation dose, plant species, developmental stage and physiological traits. In this study, exposure of dwarf bean plants to different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy) was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach consisting of morphological, ecophysiological and biochemical analysis. Both mature and young leaves still growing during the X-rays exposure were compared with non-irradiated control leaves. In particular, leaf expansion, leaf anatomy and functional traits, as well as photosynthetic pigment content and Rubisco expression were analysed. Moreover, the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was also measured as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA damage. Our data showed that leaf growth is affected by high levels of radiation and demonstrate that mature leaves are more radio-resistant than young leaves, which experience severe dose-dependent changes in leaf functional traits. In particular, young leaves exhibited a reduction of area and an increase in specific mass and dry matter content, as well as a decline in Rubisco activity. Moreover, they showed elevated PARP activity and an increase in phenolic compounds in wall cells if compared with mature leaves. Both of these strategies have been interpreted as a way to help developing leaves withstand irradiation. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. A gas ionisation Direct-STIM detector for MeV ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn, E-mail: [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Chiang Rai, 57120 Chiang Rai (Thailand); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Jyväskylä FI-40014 (Finland); Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Dellea, Mario; Jenni, Josef [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Roux, Adrien; Stoppini, Luc [Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Campus Biotech, Chemin des Mines 9, Geneva (Switzerland); Whitlow, Harry J. [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)


    Direct-Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (Direct-STIM) is a powerful technique that yields structural information in sub-cellular whole cell imaging. Usually, a Si p-i-n diode is used in Direct-STIM measurements as a detector. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation damage which appears as a broadening in the energy resolution, we have developed a gas ionisation detector for use with a focused ion beam. The design is based on the ETH Frisch grid-less off-axis Geiger–Müller geometry. It is developed for use in a MeV ion microscope with a standard Oxford Microbeams triplet lens and scanning system. The design has a large available solid angle for other detectors (e.g. proton induced fluorescence). Here we report the performance for imaging ReNcells VM with μm resolution where energy resolutions of <24 keV fwhm could be achieved for 1 MeV protons using isobutane gas.

  8. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident. (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M


    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monte Carlo configuration interaction applied to multipole moments, ionisation energies and electron affinities

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J P; Paterson, M J


    The method of Monte Carlo configuration interaction (MCCI) [1,2] is applied to the calculation of multipole moments. We look at the ground and excited state dipole moments in carbon monoxide. We then consider the dipole of NO, the quadrupole of the nitrogen molecule and of BH. An octupole of methane is also calculated. We consider experimental geometries and also stretched bonds. We show that these non-variational quantities may be found to relatively good accuracy when compared with FCI results, yet using only a small fraction of the full configuration interaction space. MCCI results in the aug-cc-pVDZ basis are seen to generally have reasonably good agreement with experiment. We also investigate the performance of MCCI when applied to ionisation energies and electron affinities of atoms in an aug-cc-pVQZ basis. We compare the MCCI results with full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo [3,4] and `exact' non-relativistic results [3,4]. We show that MCCI could be a useful alternative for the calculati...

  10. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Acien, Maribel [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Paya, Pilar [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Giulotto, Elena [Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Egozcue, Josep [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Montserrat [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain) and Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail:


    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs.

  11. Ionisation Beam Profile Monitor at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY-Jülich

    CERN Document Server

    Kamerdzhiev, V


    For beam profile measurements, a residual-gas ionisation beam profile monitor using a position sensitive micro channel plate (MCP) detector was developed and installed at the cooler synchrotron and storage ring COSY at Forschungszentrum Julich. A parallel ion drift field is maintained in the gap between two electrodes. Residual gas ions are drifted onto an MCP assembly that provides a charge gain of about 107. For online calibration the detector can be illuminated with an α-source. The secondary charge produced from each ion is collected by a wedge and strip anode. After some processing the charge signal is digitized and read out by means of a PC running Cobold PC software. Since COSY operates with beam intensities up to 1011 protons and a vacuum of 10-9 mbar, there is a high risk of detector damage. The lifetime of the channel plates and the event rate are crucial issues for the profile measurement of intense proton beams. The aging of the channel plates (i.e. inhomogeneous decrease of the gain) we...

  12. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries (United States)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K


    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

  13. Non-ionising UV light increases the optical density of hygroscopic self assembled DNA crystal films. (United States)

    Gasperini, Alexandria E; Sanchez, Susy; Doiron, Amber L; Lyles, Mark; German, Guy K


    We report on ultraviolet (UV) light induced increases in the UV optical density of thin and optically transparent crystalline DNA films formed through self assembly. The films are comprised of closely packed, multi-faceted and sub micron sized crystals. UV-Vis spectrophotometry reveals that DNA films with surface densities up to 0.031 mg/mm(2) can reduce the transmittance of incident UVC and UVB light by up to 90%, and UVA transmittance by up to 20%. Subsequent and independent film irradiation with either UVA or UVB dosages upwards of 80 J/cm(2) both reduce UV transmittance, with reductions scaling monotonically with UV dosage. To date the induction of a hyperchromic effect has been demonstrated using heat, pH, high salt mediums, and high energy ionising radiation. Both hyperchromicity and increased light scattering could account for the increased film optical density after UV irradiation. Additional characterisation of the films reveal they are highly absorbent and hygroscopic. When coated on human skin, they are capable of slowing water evaporation and keeping the tissue hydrated for extended periods of time.

  14. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Enghoff


    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find an enrichment factor (δ34S of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV to S(VI conversion.

  15. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium (United States)

    Daar, Eman; Woods, E.; Keddie, J. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.


    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  16. Dental Encounter System (DES) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  17. Des trottoirs à Manille.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy


    Full Text Available On pourrait bien sûr montrer d’abord cette photographie, et si on ne le faisait pas, on nous le reprocherait, en partie à raison. Cela existe et c’est un bidonville comme on l’imagine. Des constructions précaires en matériaux de récupération, il y en a à Manille, mais ce n’est pas la majorité des quartiers informels. L’essentiel du quartier de Tondo, le plus grand et le plus connu des slums de la capitale des Philippines ressemble plutôt à cette deuxième photo. Il ...

  18. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    structure cubique centrée avec une distance réticulaire a = 2,86 ±0.002 Ẳ proche de celle du fer α. Cependant pour les films à forte teneur en Si (32 at. %Si et plus) les diffractogrammes des rayons X présentent des structures amorphes. La micrographie par microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB) de la figure 1.a ...

  19. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Etude de l'activité antibactérienne des huiles essentielles de la Sauge officinale : Salvia officinalis L. sur quelques entérobactéries pathogènes. Salah Benkherara, Ouahiba Bordjiba & Ali Boutlelis Djahra. Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Département de. Biologie, Université Badji ...

  20. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Laboratoire Biologie et Physiologie des. Organismes. Faculté des Sciences ... concerné la prolifération cellulaire ainsi que quelques paramètres cellulaires et nucléaires. Cette étude met en ... milieu enrichi en glucose ainsi qu‟une augmentation de leur diamètre, de leurs grands et petits axes nucléaires et du nombre de ...

  1. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A


    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndombi I, Mendome G. Audit des décès maternels au Centre Hospitalier de Libreville (2005 à 2007). Journal de la SAGO 2007; 8 :29-33. 14.Guillaume A, William M. L'avortement provoqué en. Afrique : un problème mal connu, lourd de conséquences.LaboratoirePopulation-. Environnement-Développement. Unité mixte de.

  3. Approfondissement des connaissances et renforcement des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'échelon du programme et à celui des projets. À la deuxième étape, il y aura tenue d'ateliers en français et en anglais afin d'accroître la sensibilisation aux sexospécificités, de favoriser la réflexion et l'apprentissage mutuel et d'élaborer un ...

  4. Occupational exposure of man to ionizing radiations and necessary time to conceive a pregnancy. Study on fertility at Beaumont-La hague and St Brieuc; Exposition professionnelle de l'homme aux rayonnements ionisant et delai necessaire pour concevoir une grossesse. L'etude sur la fertilite a Beaumont-Hague et Saint-Brieuc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slama, R.; Boutou, O.; Ducot, B.; Aussel, L.; Spira, A. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) - Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)


    The association between short time allowed to conceive and high father exposure before pregnancy research must be interpreted carefully, and checked in other studies on workers fertility whom feasibility has been here demonstrated. (N.C.)

  5. Document sheet no.3. The sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity, the radiations, the biological effects, the medical uses; Fiche documentaire no.3. Les effets sanitaires et les usages medicaux de la radioactivite, rayonnements ionisants, les effets biologiques, les usages medicaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to inform the public the ANCLI published information sheets. This sheet no.3 deals with the sanitary effects and the medical uses of the radioactivity. It presents the radiations definitions (the internal and external irradiation, the doses levels, the absorbed doses), the biological effects (deterministic effects, random effects and chronicity effects), and the medical uses (radiotherapy and monitoring of chemotherapy). (A.L.B.)

  6. Exposure to ionizing radiations having a medical origin. Propositions for the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants d'origine medicale. Propositions pour la mise en place et le developpement d'activites de surveillance epidemiologique en population generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report gives propositions relative to the implementation and the development of epidemiology surveillance activities in general population in relation with medical exposure to ionizing radiations. It is intended for the General Direction of Health and General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. These propositions have been elaborated by a work group coordinated and run by InVS and gathering the following organisms: French Agency of sanitary safety of health products (A.F.S.S.A.P.S.), Center of Quality Assurance of technological applications in the area of health (C.A.A.T.S.), Direction of Hospitals and Care organization (D.H.O.S.), General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), General Direction of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (D.G.S.N.R.), National Federation of radiologists physicists (F.N.M.R.), institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.), INSERM 'epidemiology of cancers', French Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine (S.F.B.M.N.), French Society of Medical Physics (S.F.P.M.), French Society of Radiology (S.F.R.). (N.C.)

  7. Contribution to the study of the inelastic scattering of neutrons from a to 5 MeV (1961); Contribution a l'etude de la diffusion inelastique des neutrons de 1 a 5 MeV (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson - Szteinsznaider, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    - The aim of this work is to see if this reaction occurs only by compound nucleus formation or involves some contribution of direct interaction. In the first case, the angular distribution of inelastic neutrons is symmetric about 90 degree. In the second case, this distribution must be asymmetric and must change slowly with energy of incident neutrons. The neutrons corresponding at the excitation of a given level of the residual nucleus are selected by their coincidence with the {gamma} rays of deexcitation of this level. From the results of our measurements on iron, iodine and bismuth and of other laboratories on different elements, we can conclude that generally, the inelastic scattering of neutrons of some MeV occurs only by compound nucleus. (author) [French] - Le but de ce travail est de determiner si cette reaction s'effectue uniquement par passage par un noyau compose ou fait intervenir un processus d'interaction directe. Dans le premier cas, la distribution angulaire des neutrons inelastiques est symetrique par rapport a 90 degree. Dans le deuxieme cas, cette distribution doit etre asymetrique et doit varier lentement avec l'energie des neutrons incidents. Les neutrons correspondant a l'excitation d'un niveau determine du residuel sont selectionnes par leur cofncidence avec les rayonnements {gamma} de desexcitation de ce niveau. D'apres les resultats de nos mesures sur le fer, l'iode et le bismuth et de celles des autres laboratoires sur differents elements, nous pouvons conclure que, en general, la diffusion inelastique des neutrons de quelques MeV s'effectue uniquement par noyau compose. (auteur)

  8. The use of dicationic ion-pairing compounds to enhance the ambient detection of surface lipids in positive ionization mode using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Rao, Wei; Mitchell, Daniel; Licence, Peter; Barrett, David A


    Lipids are typically analysed in negative ionisation mode in desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), which can result in reduced sensitivity. In this study we examine the use of dicationic compounds as reactive DESI-MS agents to detect a range of lipid standards from the surface in positive ionisation mode. Nine dicationic compounds were tested for their ability to detect seven representative lipid species (palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, phosphatidic acid (34:1), phosphoethanolamine (34:2), phosphatidylglycerol (34:1), phosphatidylserine (36:1), and phosphoinositol (34:2)) with a 2D DESI source on hydrophobic surfaces. Two different solvent systems (methanol/chloroform (1:1) and methanol) were tested with each dicationic compound, with the DESI-MS analysis performed in the positive ionisation mode. Most of the dications tested were able to form stable ion-pairs with the negatively charged lipid species when analysed from the surface with DESI-MS, and were detected readily in positive ionisation electrospray mode as singly charged species. The optimal solvent system was found to be methanol. The dicationic compound [C6(C1Pyrr)2][Br]2 was found to enhance the detection of palmitoleic acid (638%), linoleic acid (304%) and phosphoethanolamine (269%) compared with the negative ionisation mode. We demonstrate the first successful application of dicationic compounds in DESI-MS for the ambient surface detection of model lipids in positive electrospray ionisation mode. Dicationic compounds could potentially be used as reactive DESI-MS agents to improve the ambient detection of a number of negatively charged analytes. © 2014 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. La renaissance du Jardin des Plantes de Montpellier. Passé, présent et avenir du plus ancien jardin botanique de France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Michaud


    Full Text Available Le Jardin des Plantes de Montpellier est le plus ancien jardin botanique de France, l’un des rares à ne pas avoir été déplacé sous la pression urbaine et surtout à être resté universitaire depuis ses origines, il y a plus de quatre siècles. Sa reconnaissance patrimoniale au XXe siècle, au travers de ses classements au titre des Sites (1982 puis des Monuments Historiques (1992, a permis d’entamer un vaste programme de restauration qui vise, en ce début de 3ème millénaire, à lui redonner le rayonnement qu’il a connu en élevant la botanique, avant tout médicale, au rang de science à part entière. Il remplira également son rôle de médiateur vers le grand public en illustrant les rapports homme/plantes sur les thématiques désormais incontournables pour l’avenir de notre planète de la biodiversité et du développement durable.The Jardin des Plantes in Montpellier is the oldest botanical garden in France. It has remained a University property since its creation over four centuries ago and is one of the few gardens to have resisted the crush of urban development. In recognition of its importance, the Gardens’ classification as a protected nature preserve ("Site classé" - 1982 and among the French National Monuments (1992 paved the way for funding an expansive restoration effort. The third millenium will restore the Jardin des Plantes to its original glory, when it elevated botanics – initially mostly confined to medical purposes – to the rank of a science. This unique site will also return to its public service role, illustrating the relationship between man and plants and the now critical concerns of biodiversity and sustainability.

  10. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette


    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  11. Trapping and ionising atoms with light wave and trajectory dynamics of quantum-optical processes /


    Benseny Cases, Albert


    La mecànica quàntica va néixer a començaments del segle passat per a explicar fenòmens que els models de l'època no podien explicar. Des de llavors n'han aparegut diferents formalismes i interpretacions, cadascun amb les seves peculiaritats, que permeten proposar solucions diferents a alguns problemes quàntics o ajudar a descriure'n la dinàmica. Al mateix temps, l'estudi de la llum ha seguit de prop el desenvolupament de la teoria quàntica: des del seu inici amb la descripció que va fer Alber...

  12. Etude des interactions entre les differents acteurs des interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les chefs de ménages ont une perception acceptable de la qualité des prestations des ASC. Seuls environ 60% des ASC ont été sélectionnés par leur communauté au cours d'une assemblée générale. Les chefs de ménages ont une connaissance acceptable des ASC et de leurs activités mais leur comportement ...

  13. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  14. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [9] Azzaoui S., 1999. Métaux lourds dans le bassin versant du Sebou, Géochimie, source de pollution et impact sur la qualité des eaux de surface. Thèse de Doctorat en chimie. Université d'IbnTofail, Maroc. 130p. [10] Louhi A., 2006. Pollution des eaux et des sols. Cas de la région de Annaba, étude des interférences et ...

  15. High‐resolution mass spectrometric analysis of myo‐inositol hexakisphosphate using electrospray ionisation Orbitrap (United States)

    McIntyre, Catherine A.; Arthur, Christopher J.


    Rationale The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo‐inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high‐resolution mass spectrometry (ESI‐HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in‐source and via collision‐induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. Methods The negative ion mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of IP6, and the lower inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), using an ESI‐Orbitrap mass spectrometer is described. The purity of the compounds was investigated using anion‐exchange chromatography. Results IP6 is highly anionic, forming multiply charged ions and sodium adduct ions, which readily undergo dissociation in the ESI source. MS/MS analysis of the phytic acid [M−2H]2− ion and fragment ions and comparison with the full MS of the IP5 reference standard, and the MS/MS spectrum of the pentakisphosphate [M−2H]2− ion, confirm the fragmentation pattern of inositol phosphates in ESI. Further evidence for dissociation in the ion source is shown by the effect of increasing the source voltage on the mass spectrum of phytic acid. Conclusions The ESI‐HRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESI‐HRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). PMID:28696018

  16. Quick elucidation of cyclodepsipeptide sequence from sacoglossan Elysia grandifolia using electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tilvi, Supriya; Devi, Prabha; Majik, Mahesh S


    Butanol fraction of sacoglossan Elysia grandifolia was investigated for identifying peptides using electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Without prior isolation, the structural determination is achieved on the basis of mass fragmentation pattern and comparison with the previously established data. The ESI-MS of the fraction in the positive ion mode gave clusters of singly and doubly charged molecular ion peaks. The ESI-MS spectrum showed peaks for the presence of the peptides kahalalides F, G, R and S reported earlier. In addition, it also showed molecular ion peaks at m/z 1557.8 [M+H]+ and doubly charged ions at m/z 779.4 [M+2H]2+, 790.4 [M+Na]2+ and 796.4 [M+K]2+. The MS/MS at m/z 779.4 [M+2H]+2 at collision energy 40 V obtained series of b and y fragment ions. The MS/MS spectrum showed identical fragment ion y6 at m/z 643 which revealed that cyclic part is identical with kahalalide F, R and S. Careful examination of the fragment ions b1 to b7 with their corresponding y fragment ions y12 to y6, respectively and by comparison of MS/MS pattern of kahalalide S, established that proline can be replaced by tyrosine amino acid residue. The mass difference between b4 ( m/z 511) and b5 ( m/z 674) is equal to 163 which is equivalent to mass residue of tyrosine. Their y fragment ions also quickly helped in fixing the puzzle. This resulted in the identification of the peptide sequence cyclo-[Val-(5-MeHex-Val-Thr-Val-Val-Tyr-Lys-Ile)Thr-Ile-Val-Phe-Dhb)] for the new cyclodepsipeptide, kahalalide Z3. Thus, ESI-MS/MS has set a trend in quick identification of new marine molecules.

  17. Submillimetre molecular line observations of M17: The interaction of an ionisation front and molecular clouds (United States)

    Rainey, R.; White, G. J.; Gatley, I.; Hayashi, S. S.; Kaifu, N.; Griffin, M. J.; Monteiro, S.; Cronin, N. J.; Scivetti, A.


    An area of about 9 by 10 arc minutes in the M17 molecular cloud has been mapped in the J=3-2 transition of CO. The strongest CO emission is observed to come from the two bars to the north and southwest, which lie just outside the area of ionized gas seen in the radio continuum studies. We are viewing the boundary between the ionized and molecular gas almost edge on. The most intense CO emission is from the area around the dense molecular cloud core M17SW in the southwest bar. To the east of M17SW there are signs of recent or continuing star formation including H2O masers and an ultra-compact HII region. The CO J=3-2 spectra observed are complex with considerable variation in line shapes occuring over distances of less than one arc minute. We interpret the velocity structure of this region as arising from an ensemble of molecular cloud fragments in addition to extended emission. We have identified several cloud components at different velocities within both the northern and southwest bars of CO emission. A simple kinematic model of the cloud components in the southwest bar in which they are considered to be clumps of post-shock gas lying close to the edge of the expanding HII region, with the shock being driven by Kleinmann's star, gives a velocity of approx. 10.8 km s(-1) for the expansion velocity of the HII region, which is currently at a distance of approx. 2.4 pc from Kleinmann's star. The resulting shock is thought to be preceding the ionisation front and appears to have led to the fragmentation of the original cloud.

  18. A real time metabolomic profiling approach to detecting fish fraud using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Black, Connor; Chevallier, Olivier P; Haughey, Simon A; Balog, Julia; Stead, Sara; Pringle, Steven D; Riina, Maria V; Martucci, Francesca; Acutis, Pier L; Morris, Mike; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios S; Takats, Zoltan; Elliott, Christopher T


    Fish fraud detection is mainly carried out using a genomic profiling approach requiring long and complex sample preparations and assay running times. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) can circumvent these issues without sacrificing a loss in the quality of results. To demonstrate that REIMS can be used as a fast profiling technique capable of achieving accurate species identification without the need for any sample preparation. Additionally, we wanted to demonstrate that other aspects of fish fraud other than speciation are detectable using REIMS. 478 samples of five different white fish species were subjected to REIMS analysis using an electrosurgical knife. Each sample was cut 8-12 times with each one lasting 3-5 s and chemometric models were generated based on the mass range m/z 600-950 of each sample. The identification of 99 validation samples provided a 98.99% correct classification in which species identification was obtained near-instantaneously (≈ 2 s) unlike any other form of food fraud analysis. Significant time comparisons between REIMS and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were observed when analysing 6 mislabelled samples demonstrating how REIMS can be used as a complimentary technique to detect fish fraud. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the catch method of fish products is capable of detection using REIMS, a concept never previously reported. REIMS has been proven to be an innovative technique to help aid the detection of fish fraud and has the potential to be utilised by fisheries to conduct their own quality control (QC) checks for fast accurate results.

  19. High-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate using electrospray ionisation Orbitrap. (United States)

    McIntyre, Catherine A; Arthur, Christopher J; Evershed, Richard P


    The phosphorus storage compound in grains, phytic acid, or myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), is important for nutrition and human health, and is reportedly the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in soils. Methods for its determination have traditionally relied on complexation with iron and precipitation, acid digestion and measurement of phosphate concentration, or 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Direct determination of phytic acid (and its homologues) using mass spectrometry has, as yet, found limited application to environmental or other complex matrices. The behaviour of phytic acid in electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and its fragmentation, both in-source and via collision-induced dissociation, have not been studied so far. The negative ion mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of IP6, and the lower inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), using an ESI-Orbitrap mass spectrometer is described. The purity of the compounds was investigated using anion-exchange chromatography. IP6 is highly anionic, forming multiply charged ions and sodium adduct ions, which readily undergo dissociation in the ESI source. MS/MS analysis of the phytic acid [M-2H]2- ion and fragment ions and comparison with the full MS of the IP5 reference standard, and the MS/MS spectrum of the pentakisphosphate [M-2H]2- ion, confirm the fragmentation pattern of inositol phosphates in ESI. Further evidence for dissociation in the ion source is shown by the effect of increasing the source voltage on the mass spectrum of phytic acid. The ESI-HRMS of inositol phosphates is unusual and highly characteristic. The study of the full mass spectrum of IP6 in ESI-HRMS mode indicates the detection of the compound in environmental matrices using this technique is preferable to the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). © 2017 The Authors. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Accurate simulation of ionisation chamber response with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE (United States)

    Sempau, Josep; Andreo, Pedro


    Ionisation chambers (IC) are routinely used in hospitals for the dosimetry of the photon and electron beams used for radiotherapy treatments. The determination of absorbed dose to water from the absorbed dose to the air filling the cavity requires the introduction of stopping power ratios and perturbation factors, which account for the disturbance caused by the presence of the chamber. Although this may seem a problem readily amenable to Monte Carlo simulation, the fact is that the accurate determination of IC response has been, for various decades, one of the most important challenges of the simulation of electromagnetic showers. The main difficulty stems from the use of condensed history techniques for electron and positron transport. This approach, which involves grouping a large number of interactions into a single artificial event, is known to produce the so-called interface effects when particles travel across surfaces separating different media. These effects can be sizeable when the electron step length is not negligible compared to the size of the region being crossed, as it is the case with the cavity of an IC. The artefact, which becomes apparent when the chamber response shows a marked dependence on the adopted step size, can be palliated with the use of sophisticated electron transport algorithms. These topics are discussed in the context of the transport model implemented in the PENELOPE code. The degree of violation of the Fano theorem for a simple, planar geometry, is used as a measure of the stability of the algorithm with respect to variations of the electron step length, thus assessing the "quality" of its condensed history scheme. It is shown that, with a suitable choice of transport parameters, PENELOPE simulates IC response with an accuracy of the order of 0.1%.

  1. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8 (United States)

    Danehkar, A.


    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  2. Comparison of electrospray ionisation, atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and atmospheric pressure photoionisation for the identification of metabolites from labile artemisinin-based anti-malarial drugs using a QTRAP® mass spectrometer. (United States)

    Louw, Stefan; Njoroge, Mathew; Chigorimbo-Murefu, Nyaradzo; Chibale, Kelly


    Artemisinin-based drugs and their metabolites are prone to in-source fragmentation under atmospheric pressure ionisation mass spectrometry (API-MS) conditions. To facilitate correct and efficient identification of all possible drug metabolites using full scan MS analyzer methods, stable [M + NH(4) ](+) ions should be produced in the MS source. Using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap MS system, electrospray ionisation (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) methods were developed for the detection of [M + NH(4) ](+) ions of the test compounds dihydroartemisinin, artemisinin, artemether and artesunic acid. The optimised methods employed ammonium formate buffered HPLC mobile phase in combination with moderate source temperatures (100-200 °C) and showed satisfactorily reduced in-source fragmentation. With a full scan MS analyser method for the detection of the in vitro metabolites of the test compounds, the respective performance of the ESI and APCI methods was found to be comparable. ESI generally resulted in less in-source fragmentation. Incorrect assignment of metabolites resulted from strong in-source fragmentation of artemether using the APPI method. The most number of metabolites could be detected using ESI in combination with a selective MS analyser method. ESI and APCI full scan methods proved to be capable of detecting any drug metabolites present in reasonable concentrations, and are useful when employed in addition to selective scan methods that target low level expected metabolites. APPI can be a valuable alternative for detecting expected metabolites due to good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  4. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina


    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  5. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits exploitants aux marchés dynamiques. Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de ...

  6. (S)-(-)-N-(pentafluorobenzylcarbamoyl)prolyl chloride: a chiral derivatisation reagent designed for gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of amino compounds. (United States)

    Leis, Hans J; Windischhofer, Werner


    The synthesis of a novel chiral derivatisation reagent, (S)-(-)-N-(pentafluorobenzylcarbamoyl)prolyl chloride is described which is preferably useful for negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. Preparation of the reagent followed a general strategy used to prepare enantioselective reagents based on the N-substitution of L-proline. Pentafluorobenzyl chloroformate smoothly reacted with L-proline to give the desired derivatisation reagent after conversion into the acyl chloride. The product was sufficiently pure to be used in the following steps without any additional purification. The reagent was tested against selected chiral and non-chiral analytical targets. Chromatographic enantioseparation was at least equal to the commonly used (S)-(-)-N-(heptafluorobutyryl)prolyl derivatives. The derivatives exhibit excellent mass spectral properties under negative ion chemical ionisation, i.e. reduced fragmentation and thus high ion current for the targeted m/z during analysis. With electron ionisation, the fragmentation that occurs is mainly directed by the introduced group. Enantioseparation with gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry of the derivatives was demonstrated for the enantiomers of amphetamine, α-aminocaprylic acid methyl ester and threo-methylphenidate. The new derivatisation reagent shows highly improved mass spectral properties for negative-ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry and is thus suitable for sensitive chiral detection of amino compounds. The reagent extends the applicability of dissociative resonance electron capture using pentafluorobenzyl derivatives to chiral analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate. (United States)

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro


    The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Liste des figures



    1. Schéma pédagogique de l’économie circulaire 2. La criticité potentielle des ressources minérales 3. Comparaison des émissions de contaminants entre l’économie linéaire et l’économie circulaire 4. Schéma de l’économie circulaire de la Fondation Ellen MacArthur 5. Le cycle intégrateur de réemploi et de redistribution 6. La recirculation des ressources par recyclage, compostage et valorisation énergétique 7. Une unité de production de biocarburant 8. Une bioraffinerie intégrée 9. Les stratégi...

  9. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables


    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  10. La cogestion des Ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'extraordinaire diversité des espèces vivantes, unies par des liens que souvent nous comprenons à peine, voilà de quoi dépend l'existence même des populations de la terre. Or, il suffit de jeter un bref coup d'oeil à presque n'importe quel ...

  11. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  12. Analyse des performances thermomecaniques des huiles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats ont montré que les huiles pures ont permis d'obtenir un rendement thermomécanique supérieur à 25% à puissance nominale de 3,5 kW, avec une consommation de 1,3 L/h environ. Les mélanges en volumes à 25% d'huile de coton (resp. 25% d'huile de palmiste) avec le gasoil 75%, ont permis d'obtenir des ...

  13. Influence des caracteristiques generales des gestantes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sur le plan descriptif, 34,5% des enquêtées ont entre 32 et 36 ans; majoritairement de l'ethnie Adja (30,0%) ; de la religion Catholique (54,5%). Elles sont mariées (85,5%) ; 37,3% d'entre elles sont non instruites ; 41,8% ont déclaré ne pas avoir un revenu mensuel. Sur le plan analytique, il ressort de cette étude qu'aucune ...

  14. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosen A


    Full Text Available Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance“. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand bei der fokalen Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms wieder.

  15. The solar ionisation rate deduced from Ulysses measurements and its implications to interplanetary Lyman alpha-intensity (United States)

    Summanen, T.; Kyroelae, E.


    We have developed a computer code which can be used to study 3-dimensional and time-dependent effects of the solar cycle on the interplanetary (IP) hydrogen distribution. The code is based on the inverted Monte Carlo simulation. In this work we have modelled the temporal behaviour of the solar ionisation rate. We have assumed that during the most of the time of the solar cycle there is an anisotopic latitudinal structure but right at the solar maximum the anisotropy disappears. The effects of this behaviour will be discussed both in regard to the IP hydrogen distribution and IP Lyman a a-intensity.

  16. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  17. Analyse des paramètres optiques des aérosols atmosphériques, de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    plus les rayonnements solaire et terrestre qu'ils n'en absorbent. Mots-clés : aérosols atmosphériques, AERONET, EOA, coefficient d'Angström, distribution en taille, albédo de diffusion simple, poussière minérale, feux de biomasse. Abstract. Analysis of optical parameters of atmospheric aerosols, their distribution and their.

  18. Determination of chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the Firth of Clyde by gas chromatography with electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry and carbon skeleton analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection. (United States)

    Hussy, Ines; Webster, Lynda; Russell, Marie; Moffat, Colin


    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of increasing concern, but are to date not widely investigated in the environment, largely due to the challenges involved in their quantification. Here, SCCPs were quantified in marine sediments from the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, by gas chromatography with electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-ECNIMS) and through carbon skeleton analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID), and the analytical challenges encountered are discussed. Concentrations in the sediments ranged from 0.4 to 69 μg kg(-1) when determined by GC-ECNIMS, and from 5.6 to 379 μg kg(-1) when determined by GC-FID. For 8 out of 11 samples, analysis by GC-FID gave higher results than analysis by GC-ECNIMS. Unexpected aspects of the analysis, such as the presence of high concentrations of longer chain chlorinated paraffins in the samples, are also presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification et surveillance des individus


    Aghroum, Christian; Bonelli, Laurent; Dufief, Vincent; Thorel, Jérôme; Tsoukala, Anastassia; Vitran, Jean-Claude; Alberganti, Michel; Ceyhan, Ayse; Charrier, Philippe; Denis, Vincent; Laurent, Sébastien; Piazza, Pierre; Preuss-Laussinotte, Sylvia; Rousselin, Thierry


    « Big Brother is watching you ! » Cet avertissement placardé sur les murs de la cité imaginaire d'Océania dans le roman 1984 de Georges Orwell peut-il s'appliquer à nos sociétés contemporaines ? Passeport biométrique, fichage informatisé des individus, multiplication des caméras de surveillance, utilisation de puce dans des objets de la vie quotidienne, ou pour suivre les criminels en liberté surveillée, les mesures d'identification, de fichage et de surveillance des individus par des techniq...

  20. gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Cowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed gammaH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since gammaH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The

  1. Static electric fields interfere in the viability of cells exposed to ionising radiation. (United States)

    Arruda-Neto, João D T; Friedberg, Errol C; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria C; Cavalcante-Silva, Erika; Schenberg, Ana C G; Rodrigues, Tulio E; Garcia, Fermin; Louvison, Monica; Paula, Claudete R; Mesa, Joel; Moron, Michelle M; Maria, Durvanei A; Genofre, Godofredo C


    The interference of electric fields (EF) with biological processes is an issue of considerable interest. No studies have as yet been reported on the combined effect of EF plus ionising radiation. Here we report studies on this combined effect using the prokaryote Microcystis panniformis, the eukaryote Candida albicans and human cells. Cultures of Microcystis panniformis (Cyanobacteria) in glass tubes were irradiated with doses in the interval 0.5-5 kGy, using a (60)Co gamma source facility. Samples irradiated with 3 kGy were exposed for 2 h to a 20 V . cm(-1) static electric field and viable cells were enumerated. Cultures of Candida albicans were incubated at 36 degrees C for 20 h, gamma-irradiated with doses from 1-4 kGy, and submitted to an electric field of 180 V . cm(-1). Samples were examined under a fluorescence microscope and the number of unviable (red) and viable (apple green fluorescence) cells was determined. For crossing-check purposes, MRC5 strain of lung cells were irradiated with 2 Gy, exposed to an electric field of 1250 V/cm, incubated overnight with the anti-body anti-phospho-histone H2AX and examined under a fluorescence microscope to quantify nuclei with gamma-H2AX foci. In cells exposed to EF, death increased substantially compared to irradiation alone. In C. albicans we observed suppression of the DNA repair shoulder. The effect of EF in growth of M. panniformis was substantial; the number of surviving cells on day-2 after irradiation was 12 times greater than when an EF was applied. By the action of a static electric field on the irradiated MRC5 cells the number of nuclei with gamma-H2AX foci increased 40%, approximately. Application of an EF following irradiation greatly increases cell death. The observation that the DNA repair shoulder in the survival curve of C. albicans is suppressed when cells are exposed to irradiation + EF suggests that EF likely inactivate cellular recovering processes. The result for the number of nuclei with gamma


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    Le suivi des modifications morphologiques en fonction des saisons de G. sesquipedale est effectué sur des échantillons représentatifs des 100 thalles prélevés ..... La période de septembre à janvier correspond à une phase de vieillissement des frondes qui se termine en janvier avec une détérioration des extrémités des ...

  3. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ensemble des communautés vivantes. Le réchauffement climatique affecte les espèces exploitées. Les pêcheurs le constatent de plus en plus, le contenu de leurs filets évolue sous l‟impact du réchauffement. Ces changements ne sont.


    CERN Document Server

    Club de Yoga


    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : -----------------------------------------

  5. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel


    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  6. Praxis des Klebens

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkauff, Petra


    Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich um einen Leitfaden fur Klebepraktiker. Es werden die verschiedenen Einzelschritte beim kleben beschrieben, als auch die vorbereitenden Massnahmen und anschliessenden Prufverfahren auf Festigkeit behandelt. Das Buch sollte an keinem Arbeitsplatz fehlen, wo man sich mit Problemen der Fugetechnik des Klebens beschaftigt.

  7. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... or DES granddaughters) ( 6 ). The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is leading laboratory studies to ...

  8. Contribution to development of SPNDs for instantaneous and selective measurement of different radiation fields in nuclear reactors; Contribution au developpement de collectrons pour la mesure instantanee et selective des differents champs de rayonnements en reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, Christophe [Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    The objective of this work was conceiving and experimentally optimizing the SPNDs (Self-Powdered Neutron Detector) able to control fast power transients in test reactors and also to cope with requirements of surveillanceand protection of EDF reactors. Thus, different SPND emitters of platinum, gadolinium, hafnium and cobalt were provided according to their nature with sheathing and stainless steel plugs as well as with zirconium over-sheathing in order to render them faster, more selective and adapted for wear checking. Special experimental devices were designed for measuring inside the Siloe reactor the promptness of the signals from SPND, on one hand, and their sensitivity to thermal and epithermal neutrons as well as to gamma rays, on the other hand. The follow-up of power transients in test reactors is ensured by the instantaneous measurement of thermal and epithermal neutron flux as well as of gamma field by means of three special SPND with gadolinium, hafnium and platinum. Also, we have defined the characteristics of a new SPND with cobalt, that delivers a current of unique neutronic origin, able to ensure the surveillance and protection of a power reactor over a period of at least six years.

  9. Study and impact of fast electrons diagnosed by electron cyclotron radiation on Tore-Supra tokamak; Etude et influence des electrons rapides diagnostiques par le rayonnement cyclotronique electronique sur le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, P


    This thesis aims at characterizing the dynamics of fast electrons generated by the Landau absorption of the hybrid wave and studying their effects on electron cyclotron radiation. The different processes involved in the propagation and resonant absorption of the hybrid wave in plasmas are described. A method such as ray-tracing allows the characterization of the dynamics of heating but this method relies on the hypothesis of geometrical optics. Whenever absorption rate is low as it is in Tore-Supra, the hybrid wave undergoes a series of successive reflections on the edge of the plasma before being completely absorbed. These reflections generate an electromagnetic chaos in which geometrical optics hypothesis are no longer valid. A statistical treatment of the Fokker-Planck equation allows the calculation of the mean distribution function of electrons in the plasma submitted to hybrid wave. The electron cyclotron radiation is then deduced and by assuming that plasma behaves like a black body, a theoretical radiative temperature is calculated. The confrontation of this theoretical temperature profile with experimental values allows the validation of this modeling and the estimation of the effects of fast electrons on temperature measurements. (A.C.)

  10. Study of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells response to gamma-neutron mixed radiations of different gamma/neutron ratios; Etude de la reponse des progeniteurs hematopietiques murins aux rayonnements mixtes gamma-neutron de rapports gamma/neutron differents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riom, N.; Galle, P. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, Faculte de Medecine, 94 Creteil (France); Laugier, J. [Centre d' Etude du Bouchet, 97 - ert-le-Petit (France)


    Sensitivity of murine CFU-C progenitor cells was determined in-vivo for mixed radiations fields composed of variable {gamma}-rays and neutron components. Five {tau} ratios (D{sub y}/D{sub total}) were obtained (from 0.95 to 0.09). CFU-C radiosensitivity were increased with the lower {tau} values (excess of neutrons). The Biological Effectiveness D{sub 0} value varied from 3.3 {+-} 0.22 to 0.85 {+-} 0.04 Gy with the decrease of {tau}. The obtained Relative Biologic Efficiency (RBE) varied from 1.2 {+-} 0.08 to 4.7 {+-} 0.24. The relation between RBE and {tau} does not seem to be linear. A study of the radiation components combining effects showed an infra-additivity of the action of the {gamma} and the neutron component delivered simultaneously. These results indicate that variations of the quality of the mixed field in the haemopoietic local territory have great importance in terms of lethality and damages and, accordingly, in terms of haemopoietic restoration ability. (authors)

  11. Studies of the source complex behaviour and of the ultrasound radiation of contact flexible multi-element transducers; Etudes du comportement complexe de source et du rayonnement ultrasonore des traducteurs multi-elements flexibles au contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amory, V


    This work deals with the ultrasonic nondestructive testing of parts with complex geometries using soft multi-element sensors. The different types of contact control configurations are presented first. Then, the difficulties encountered with conventional contact transducers are explained and the multi-element piezoelectric transducers technology, developed to meet these difficulties, is presented. The second chapter presents the results of finite-element calculations showing the complexity of a transducer in a condition of testing utilization. In a same configuration, the radiated far field calculated by finite-elements is compared to the measurement in order to validate the way the source behaviour is calculated. However, despite the efficiency of the finite-elements simulation, this tool is numerically too costly and cannot be used to optimize a full multi-element transducer. Therefore, a realistic source model is built and implemented in a radiation code based on high-frequency asymptotic approximations where only L and T volume waves are calculated. The incapacity of this model to reproduce the behaviour of T waves in some directions of propagation has led to give a particular attention to the fore-waves, neglected in the radiation calculation. Chapter 3 treats of the building of an exact radiation model taking into consideration the fore-waves contribution emitted by a contact transducer exerting a random space-time distribution constraint at the surface of the considered medium. A radiation model, based on the calculation of exact Green functions of the Lamb problem is proposed. The exact model is particularly interesting in the case of sensor geometries with a long length with respect to other dimensions (2D case). Field calculation results are shown for an element of the matrix network (3D case) and for a linear element (2D case). A study of different existing approached models is carried out as well. The last chapter presents some results of the field radiated by a multi-element sensor as a whole, obtained with the exact radiation model. These results outline the importance of fore waves in the simulation of T waves testing using conformable multi-element transducers. (J.S.)

  12. Application of neural networks to measurement methods based on radiation interactions with matter; Application des reseaux de neurones aux methodes de mesure basees sur l'interaction rayonnement matiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilato, V


    The possibility of improving by neuronal techniques the preparation and interpretation of nuclear measurements was investigated. A general methodology was developed and applied to various problems in this field. Whatever the problem to be treated, to solve it comes to determine the relation which binds the inputs to the outputs. Neural networks based on supervised training, like the multilayer Perceptron, have the capability to calculate any relation between a set of input and output data. On the other hand, the training phase is often a long and delicate operation whose difficulties grow with the size of the network:it is thus interesting to reduce it by introducing knowledge a priori and/or by reducing the number of inputs in order to extract the relevant information. If the correlations between the inputs are linear, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and its neuronal equivalents make it possible to obtain by orthogonal projection a reduced number of input components while preserving the maximum of initial information. If the correlations are nonlinear, the Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) allows, by a unsupervised training, to carry out a nonlinear projection of the inputs in a space of reduced size. Besides, it is noticed that when the dimension of the input space is equal to the intrinsic dimension of the problem, this last is practically solved by CCA. We propose a general method which consists in characterizing as well as possible the problem by its inputs and then to extract and classify the information contained in those by projection in a space of reduced size. Association between the projected data and the problem outputs is then carried out by a supervised training network. Certain results having to be provided with their associated uncertainty, a statistical method based on the bootstrap algorithm is proposed. Potential applications other that those treated are considered. (author)

  13. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber. (United States)

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A


    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7 (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Finley, H.; Boogaard, L. A.; Guérou, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Carton, D.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, M.; Hamer, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnović, D.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.


    We report the discovery of a 104 kpc2 gaseous structure detected in [O II]λλ3727, 3729 in an over-dense region of the COSMOS-Gr30 galaxy group at z 0.725 with deep MUSE Guaranteed Time Observations. We estimate the total amount of diffuse ionised gas to be of the order of ( 5 ± 3) × 1010 M⊙ and explore its physical properties to understand its origin and the source(s) of the ionisation. The MUSE data allow the identification of a dozen group members that are embedded in this structure through emission and absorption lines. We extracted spectra from small apertures defined for both the diffuse ionised gas and the galaxies. We investigated the kinematics and ionisation properties of the various galaxies and extended gas regions through line diagnostics (R23, O32, and [O III]/Hβ) that are available within the MUSE wavelength range. We compared these diagnostics to photo-ionisation models and shock models. The structure is divided into two kinematically distinct sub-structures. The most extended sub-structure of ionised gas is likely rotating around a massive galaxy and displays filamentary patterns that link some galaxies. The second sub-structure links another massive galaxy that hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to a low-mass galaxy, but it also extends orthogonally to the AGN host disc over 35 kpc. This extent is likely ionised by the AGN itself. The location of small diffuse regions in the R23 vs. O32 diagram is compatible with photo-ionisation. However, the location of three of these regions in this diagram (low O32, high R23) can also be explained by shocks, which is supported by their high velocity dispersions. One edge-on galaxy shares the same properties and may be a source of shocks. Regardless of the hypothesis, the extended gas seems to be non-primordial. We favour a scenario where the gas has been extracted from galaxies by tidal forces and AGN triggered by interactions between at least the two sub-structures. Based on observations made with

  15. Ion recombination correction factor in scanned light-ion beams for absolute dose measurement using plane-parallel ionisation chambers. (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Horn, J; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Mairani, A; Ciocca, M; Floquet, V; Romano, F; Rodriguez Garcia, D; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H


    Based on international reference dosimetry protocols for light-ion beams, a correction factor (k s) has to be applied to the response of a plane-parallel ionisation chamber, to account for recombination of negative and positive charges in its air cavity before these charges can be collected on the electrodes. In this work, k s for IBA PPC40 Roos-type chambers is investigated in four scanned light-ion beams (proton, helium, carbon and oxygen). To take into account the high dose-rates used with scanned beams and LET-values, experimental results are compared to a model combining two theories. One theory, developed by Jaffé, describes the variation of k s with the ionization density within the ion track (initial recombination) and the other theory, developed by Boag, describes the variation of k s with the dose rate (volume recombination). Excellent agreement is found between experimental and theoretical k s-values. All results confirm that k s cannot be neglected. The solution to minimise k s is to use the ionisation chamber at high voltage. However, one must be aware that charge multiplication may complicate the interpretation of the measurement. For the chamber tested, it was found that a voltage of 300 V can be used without further complication. As the initial recombination has a logarithmic variation as a function of 1/V, the two-voltage method is not applicable to these scanned beams.

  16. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) Provides Accurate Direct from Culture Species Identification within the Genus Candida. (United States)

    Cameron, Simon J S; Bolt, Frances; Perdones-Montero, Alvaro; Rickards, Tony; Hardiman, Kate; Abdolrasouli, Alireza; Burke, Adam; Bodai, Zsolt; Karancsi, Tamas; Simon, Daniel; Schaffer, Richard; Rebec, Monica; Balog, Julia; Takáts, Zoltan


    Members of the genus Candida, such as C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, are important human pathogens. Other members of this genus, previously believed to carry minimal disease risk, are increasingly recognised as important human pathogens, particularly because of variations in susceptibilities to widely used anti-fungal agents. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of clinical Candida isolates is fundamental in ensuring timely and effective treatments are delivered. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) has previously been shown to provide a high-throughput platform for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to commercially available matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF), REIMS based methods require no preparative steps nor time-consuming cell extractions. Here, we report on the ability of REIMS-based analysis to rapidly and accurately identify 153 clinical Candida isolates to species level. Both handheld bipolar REIMS and high-throughput REIMS platforms showed high levels of species classification accuracy, with 96% and 100% of isolates classified correctly to species level respectively. In addition, significantly different (FDR corrected P value < 0.05) lipids within the 600 to 1000 m/z mass range were identified, which could act as species-specific biomarkers in complex microbial communities.

  17. Solvent separating secondary metabolites directly from biosynthetic tissue for surface-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Rudd, David; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Voelcker, Nicolas H


    Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS) methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI) and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of "on surface" solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  18. Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry for lipid profiling and structural analysis of mammalian oocytes, preimplantation embryos and stem cells. (United States)

    Ferreira, Christina R; Jarmusch, Alan K; Pirro, Valentina; Alfaro, Clint M; González-Serrano, Andres F; Niemann, Heiner; Wheeler, Matthew B; Rabel, Rathnaweera A C; Hallett, Judy E; Houser, Rebecca; Kaufman, Annemarie; Cooks, R Graham


    Lipids play fundamental roles in mammalian embryo preimplantation development and cell fate. Triacylglycerol accumulates in oocytes and blastomeres as lipid droplets, phospholipids influence membrane functional properties, and essential fatty acid metabolism is important for maintaining the stemness of cells cultured in vitro. The growing impact that lipids have in the field of developmental biology makes analytical approaches to analyse structural information of great interest. This paper describes the concept and presents the results of lipid profiling by mass spectrometry (MS) of oocytes and preimplantation embryos, with special focus on ambient ionisation. Based on our previous experience with oocytes and embryos, we aim to convey that ambient MS is also valuable for stem cell differentiation analysis. Ambient ionisation MS allows the detection of a wide range of lipid classes (e.g. free fatty acids, cholesterol esters, phospholipids) in single oocytes, embryos and cell pellets, which are informative of in vitro culture impact, developmental and differentiation stages. Background on MS principles, the importance of underused MS scan modes for structural analysis of lipids, and statistical approaches used for data analysis are covered. We envisage that MS alone or in combination with other techniques will have a profound impact on the understanding of lipid metabolism, particularly in early embryo development and cell differentiation research.

  19. Leaf anatomy and photochemical behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. plants from seeds irradiated with low-LET ionising radiation. (United States)

    De Micco, V; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G; De Pascale, S; Quarto, M; Arena, C


    Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. "Microtom" grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy). Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency.

  20. Assessing the surroundings for effects of ionising radiation on the granting of permits, DOVIS A. Emissions to air and water

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauboer, R O


    In the Netherlands, as in most other countries, one generally needs a permit to produce (including the manufacture, processing, control and storage), to apply or to dispose of radioactive materials, or to use equipment that produces ionising radiation. This permit must be in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. Limits that are set for radioactive material can be found in the Decree on radiation protection ('Besluit stralings-bescherming') which has been in force since March 1, 2002. Along with the application for a permit, calculation results have to be submitted on the radiation dose that members of the public receive as a consequence of (possible) emissions of radioactive material (into the atmosphere or surface water) or as a consequence of external irradiation. Fairly rough estimates, based on simple rules, will often be satisfactory. These rules can be found in an annex of a Ministerial Order on the assessment of consequences of ionising radiation (mr-AGIS). However, in some cases this will not be ade...

  1. Art des mets… art des mots


    Parizot, Anne


    Cette étude, effectuée dans le cadre d’une recherche en sciences de la communication, s’intéresse à la raison pour laquelle un convive choisit un plat en fonction de son énoncé, dans un restaurant gastronomique. La dénomination des plats sur un menu est un élément déclencheur du désir du convive, mais également le reflet de l’identité du chef. Nous replacerons donc l’intitulé dans le contexte de création du chef qui, par-delà les mots, nous livre une part de son identité. Ensuite nous présent...

  2. Rupture des temps, union des espaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire


    Full Text Available Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, preußischer Kulturbesitz. Musée de Sachsenhausen, Oranienburg. (1 1925, Ostpreußen. Selbstbestimmung oder Gewalt . « Prusse orientale. L'auto-détermination ou la violence ». Exposée dans le camp de concentration de Sachsenhausen, près de Berlin, édifié par les nazis avant de servir aux Soviétiques jusqu'en 1954, la carte témoigne des dégâts que firent les frontières définies par le traité de Versailles. La violence de la paranoïa que ...

  3. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  4. Etat des controverses des approches cognitive et ecologique en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette revue de question vise à présenter dans le champ de l'apprentissage moteur, le sens des postulats des approches cognitive et écologique de même que les critiques formulées à leur encontre. Des documents scientifiques et articles de revues indexées et publiés dans la banque de données MEDLINE, ont été ...

  5. Prevision des ventes et efficacite des chaines logistiques - Essai de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit aussi de clarifier le mode d'utilisation des données de prévision, dans la modélisation mathématique des chaines logistiques, qui se distinguent par la multiplicité des objectifs. L'application de ces méthodes se fera dans une entreprise algérienne (la laiterie de RIO) spécialisée dans la production du yaourt.

  6. Collection d'entretiens avec des chercheurs participant à des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Entretien avec…propose des entrevues vidéos avec des chercheurs participant à des projets portant sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques réalisés en Afrique, en Asie ainsi qu'en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes que le CRDI subventionne par le truchement de son programme Changements climatiques et eau ...

  7. Contribution a l'amelioration des techniques de diagnostic des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces vecteurs transmettent à l'homme des maladies bactériennes, telles que les borrélioses. La borréliose se manifeste par une fièvre élevée avec des céphalées, des vomissements, de la fatigue et une sensation de froid. Ces symptômes la font soit confondre avec le paludisme soit ranger parmi les fièvres non paludiques ...

  8. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse axée sur les politiques. La présence et l'influence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) continuent de s'élargir et de s'accroître, tout comme leurs répercussions sur le développement économique. Toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup ...

  9. Commercialisation des pintades dans la region des savanes au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Togo et plus précisément dans la Région des Savanes, l'élevage des pintades occupe une place capitale dans la vie économique des paysans à travers sa commercialisation. Ce travail vise à étudier le système de commercialisation de ces volailles dans cet espace géographique du Togo. Pour atteindre cet objectif, ...

  10. Impact des microcredits sur les conditions sociosanitaires des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    échantillonnage est raisonné et la méthode de signifiance des cas a été utilisée pour la collecte des données. Les données collectées ont été soumises aux traitements statistiques. L'analyse des résultats est la dernière étape de la démarche. Les résultats ...

  11. Conditions environnementales des maladies des enfants de moins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats révèlent une dominance du paludisme (49%), suivi des IRA (26%), les anémies (13%), les affections gastro-intestinales (7%) et les maladies diarrhéiques (5%) dans un contexte de manque d'assainissement où la nature demeure le mode de gestion des ordures (95%) et des excrétas (92%). Les liens entre ...

  12. Analyse Des Perceptions Locales Et Des Facteurs Determinant L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une Analyse en Composantes Principales a été appliquée à la matrice des données de fréquences des organes utilisés. Une régression logistique binaire a été utilisée pour identifier les facteurs déterminant le souhait des populations à cultiver J. curcas. Les résultats ont montré que les populations locales consentissent ...

  13. Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des tests de panification à base de farines composées incorporant 20 % des farines issues des différentes variétés de sorgho ont été effectués aussi au niveau de la boulangerie pilote de l'Institut de Technologie Alimentaire de Dakar. Les pains obtenus ont présenté un bon volume, une bonne texture de la mie, de la ...

  14. etude epidemiologique clinique et therapeutique des fractures des plataux tibiaux




    Il est important de réaliser un bilan clinique initial complet dans le cadre des fractures des plateaux tibiaux. Le bilan para clinique comprendra au minimum des radiographies simples, et au besoin un scanner afin de définir le type de fracture. L'IRM permet surtout l'analyse des structures ligamentaires, ainsi que la mise en évidence de fractures occultes. Le traitement est orthopédique ou chirurgical. La chirurgie per - cutanée assistée ou non par arthroscopie est parfo...

  15. Des Chiffres et des Lettres : distraction, variations, habitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laborde


    Full Text Available Cet article envisage une des émissions les plus anciennes du Paysage Audiovisuel Français : Des Chiffres et des Lettres. La sérialité que l’émission met en œuvre au cours de son histoire est faite de variations qui témoignent à la fois des évolutions des techniques audiovisuelles, des logiques de programmations, des attentes spectatorielles. Ce jeu télévisé, toujours le même et pourtant toujours différent, permet à la fois la reconnaissance immédiate et la perception d'un changement, double adresse qui explique sans doute sa longévité et fait de ce programme un parangon de la sérialité télévisuelle.This article considers one of the oldest programs in the French media landscape: « Des Chiffres et des Lettres ». Seriality that implements the program in its history is made changes that reflect both the evolution of audiovisual techniques, of logic programming and expectations spectatorial. This TV show, always the same and yet still different, allows both the immediate recognition and perception of a change which probably explains its longevity and made this program a paragon of seriality in television.

  16. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)


    -barcoding, invertebrate DNA barcoding, DNA methylation, and other molecular endpoints is ongoing, together with studies of possible adaptation of plants, invertebrates and microorganisms. Preliminary results show significant differences in diversity for many species between contaminated and reference sites. However, more research is needed to draw conclusions about the cause of such observations. Nevertheless, by combining a through site characterisation and exposure assessment with a variety of ecologically relevant biomarker and endpoint measurements, the data produced should be a valuable contribution to international activities looking at the impacts of chronic exposure of ionising radiation on non-human species. Project participants: Elena Belykh, Anna Kaneva, Boris Kondratenok, Alla Kolesnikova, Alexey Kurdin, Tatinana Majstrenko, Taskayeva Anastasia Oleshya Vakhrusheva, Illa Velegzhaninov, Vladimir Zainullin (IoB, Komi Republic, Russia); S. Haciyakupoglu (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey); Rahime Oral, Sabriye Yusan, Filiz Gur Filiz (Ege University, Turkey); Murat Belivermis, Onder Kilic (Istanbul University, Turkey); Fatma Kocbas (Celal Bayar University, Turkey); Mustafa Akiner, (Rize University, Turkey); Claire Coutris, Erik Joner (Bioforsk, Norway); Turid Hertel-Aas, Emmanuel Lapied, Yevgeniya Tomkiv, Brit Salbu, Lindis Skipperud (Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, UMB, Norway). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  17. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  18. Ethique des affaires



    L’affaire Enron aura redynamisé outre-Rhin la réflexion sur l’éthique des affaires. Mais la globalisation aussi apporte son lot de questions : un patron a-t-il moralement le droit de fermer un site qui n’est plus rentable ? Les impératifs de compétitivité exigent-ils de lui qu’il le fasse ? Comment juger des performances d’un collaborateur ? C’est à toute une série de questions de ce type que tente de répondre un président de directoire allemand, ancien consultant au cabinet Boston Consulting...





    Un monde sans jeux vidéo semble impossible de nos jours. L'industrie des jeux est considérée comme l’une des plus importantes avec un impact affectant tous les domaines (économie, l'éducation, la culture, ...). Notre objectif est de faire la conception et la réalisation d’un produit destiné particulièrement à notre société. Nous avons remarqué qu’il existe un très grand nombre de jeux, mais malheureusement très peu d’entre eux sont dotés d’une version en langue arabe. Ceci n...

  20. Chimie des processus biologiques


    Fontecave, Marc


    Enseignement Cours : Clusters métalliques et enzymes : le vivant inorganique Il est communément considéré que la matière vivante est organique. En réalité, on sait aujourd’hui qu’une très grande quantité de processus naturels dépendent de l’intervention d’un ou de plusieurs ions métalliques. Par exemple, près de 40 % des protéines ne fonctionnent que parce qu’elles fixent un ou plusieurs ions métalliques (sodium, magnésium, calcium, fer, zinc, cuivre, etc.) On les appelle des métalloprotéines...

  1. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It is suggested that Si contributes greatly to passivation in case of high iron silicon alloys. Key words: cathode sputtering magnetron; thin films; nanostructure; corrosion; alloys Fe-Si. 1. ... Anode : Intensité (A)/ Tension (V). 40/20. 5/25. Distance cible-substrat (mm). 80. Vitesse de dépôt (µm.h-1). 5. 2.2 Caractérisation des ...

  2. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Biologie ... Le parc national d‟El Kala (Nord est algérien) est caractérisé par une grande biodiversité génétique. Dans le cadre de nos ... Mots clés: Biodiversité ;Lichen ; Parc National dEl Kala- nord- est algérien ; Algérie. Abstract.

  3. Die Problematik des Pauschalurteils


    Hansen, Klaus P.


    Klaus P. Hansen betont in seinem Beitrag über die "Problematik des Pauschalurteils", dass sich Verallgemeinerungen über ein Kollektiv nur auf die partiellen Gemeinsamkeiten dieser Gruppe, nicht aber auf Individuen beziehen dürfen. Der Kulturtheoretiker erinnert an die menschliche Multikollektivität, plädiert für eine dichte Zuschreibung beobachteter Merkmale zu einzelnen Gruppenmitgliedschaften und entwirft eine Typologie unterschiedlicher Kollektivformen. Nationen konzipiert er als Dachkolle...

  4. Table des figures



    1. Carte générale de Colombie 733 2. Le Nouveau Royaume de Grenade 734 3. Nouvelle Grenade — Région centre 735 4. Nouvelle Grenade — Région nord 736 5. Nouvelle Grenade — Région sud-ouest 737 6. Schéma des institutions chargées de l’implantation de la foi dans le Nouveau Monde 738

  5. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms


    Roosen A


    Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand ...

  6. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  7. Dictionnaire des risques psychosociaux

    CERN Document Server

    Zawieja, Philippe


    Stress, suicide, harcèlement, épuisement professionnel, workaholism... Au-delà de la souffrance qu'elles désignent, ces notions souvent récentes constituent une approche inédite, et demandent à mieux être comprises, dans leur ensemble et isolément. C'est tout l'enjeu de ce dictionnaire, pionnier en son genre. Le lecteur y trouvera représentés, avec les 314 entrées (rédigées par 251 contributeurs) qui le composent, tous les champs disciplinaires s'intéressant à la souffrance au travail : psychologie du travail et des organisations, psychologie sociale et psychosociologie, psychanalyse, psychopathologie et psychiatrie, ergonomie, sociologie du travail et des organisations, médecine du travail, droit du travail et de la sécurité sociale, sciences de gestion, philosophie... Y sont détaillés les principaux concepts, notions, approches, méthodes, théories, outils, études, etc., ayant cours dans l'étude des risques psychosociaux, mais aussi certaines professions emblématiques (infirmières,...

  8. Rapid and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and their main metabolites (hydroxylated and methyl sulfonyl) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: comparison of different ionisation modes. (United States)

    Castro-Puyana, M; Herrero, L; González, M J; Gómara, B


    Instrumental methods based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been developed and compared using two different MS ionisation modes, electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionisation (ECNI), for the fast, quantitative and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their main metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs, OH-PCBs, and methyl sulfone PCBs, MeSO2-PCBs). Parameters affecting chromatographic separation and MS detection were evaluated in order to achieve the highest selectivity and sensitivity for both operation modes. The analytical characteristics of the developed methods were studied and compared in terms of linear range, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), and instrumental precision (repeatability and intermediate precision). Both ionisation methods showed similar precision, being relative standard deviations (RSD, %) lower than 9% and 14% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. However, better LODs (from 0.01 to 0.14 pg injected for the three families of congeners studied) were achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. The suitability of the developed method was demonstrated through their application to fish liver oil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena


    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L...

  10. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes. (United States)

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J


    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Laser post-ionisation combined with a high resolving power orbitrap mass spectrometer for enhanced MALDI-MS imaging of lipids. (United States)

    Ellis, S R; Soltwisch, J; Paine, M R L; Dreisewerd, K; Heeren, R M A


    Coupling laser post-ionisation with a high resolving power MALDI Orbitrap mass spectrometer has realised an up to ∼100-fold increase in the sensitivity and enhanced the chemical coverage for MALDI-MS imaging of lipids relative to conventional MALDI. This could constitute a major breakthrough for biomedical research.

  12. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves


    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attract...

  14. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.


    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was

  15. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array – electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Wanrooij, J.; van Bommel, M.; Quye, A.


    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI–MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different

  16. Lemna minor plants chronically exposed to ionising radiation: RNA-seq analysis indicates a dose rate dependent shift from acclimation to survival strategies. (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Arne; Horemans, Nele; Nauts, Robin; Van Hees, May; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Blust, Ronny


    Ecotoxicological research provides knowledge on ionising radiation-induced responses in different plant species. However, the sparse data currently available are mainly extracted from acute exposure treatments. To provide a better understanding of environmental exposure scenarios, the response to stress in plants must be followed in more natural relevant chronic conditions. We previously showed morphological and biochemical responses in Lemna minor plants continuously exposed for 7days in a dose-rate dependent manner. In this study responses on molecular (gene expression) and physiological (photosynthetic) level are evaluated in L. minor plants exposed to ionising radiation. To enable this, we examined the gene expression profiles of irradiated L. minor plants by using an RNA-seq approach. The gene expression data reveal indications that L. minor plants exposed at lower dose rates, can tolerate the exposure by triggering acclimation responses. In contrast, at the highest dose rate tested, a high number of genes related to antioxidative defense systems, DNA repair and cell cycle were differentially expressed suggesting that only high dose rates of ionising radiation drive L. minor plants into survival strategies. Notably, the photosynthetic process seems to be unaffected in L. minor plants among the tested dose rates. This study, supported by our earlier work, clearly indicates that plants shift from acclimation responses towards survival responses at increasing dose rates of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Potentilla fulgens roots by NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation with time-of-flight MS, electrospray ionisation MS/MS and HPLC/UV. (United States)

    Choudhary, Alka; Radhika, Manukonda; Chatterjee, Anupam; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Singh, Inder Pal


    Potentilla fulgens is a commonly used folk medicine by natives of northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan and is rich in polyphenolic and triterpene constituents. To identify chemomarkers in the roots of P. fulgens by an interplay of (13)C-NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation with time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) MS, electrospray ionisation (ESI) MS/MS and HPLC/UV. The (13)C-NMR spectrum of crude methanolic extract was recorded in deuterated dimethyl sulphoxide. For MALDI/TOF/MS analysis, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was used as the matrix. For determination of chemical constituents, two independent simple isocratic HPLC/UV methods for monomeric/oligomeric flavanols and triterpene acids were developed and validated. The (13)C-NMR spectrum of the methanolic extract indicated the presence of B-type oligomeric polyphenolics containing mainly epicatechin/catechin (epicat/cat) and epiafzelechin/afzelechin (epiafz/afz) as the monomeric units. Several isobaric monomeric and oligomeric flavanols and triterpenoids were tentatively identified by MALDI/TOF/MS and ESI/MS/MS. Fourteen compounds (four monomeric and five dimeric flavanols and five triterpene acids) were isolated using repeated column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, and were quantitated using HPLC/UV. It is evident from these analyses that roots of P. fulgens contain flavans, including oligomeric flavanols, as major constituents followed by triterpene acids. The methods described can be applied to other Potentilla species to identify their constituents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment; Recherche de matiere sombre non-baryonique au moyen d`un bolometre a ionisation dans le cadre de l`experience edelweiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, Ph. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author) 196 refs.

  19. Contribution à la modélisation du soudage TIG des tôles minces d'acier austénitique 304L par un modèle source bi-elliptique, avec confrontation expérimentale (United States)

    Aissani, M.; Maza, H.; Belkessa, B.; Maamache, B.


    Ce travail contribue dans la modélisation du phénomène du soudage de l'acier inoxydable Austénitique 304L, afin d'étudier le comportement thermique d'un joint de soudure, obtenu par le procédé de soudage à l'arc électrique TIG (Tungsten-Inert-Gas). Le modèle simulant la source d'énergie de soudage, utilise une distribution surfacique Gaussienne du flux de chaleur provenant de l'arc électrique. La forme de cette source est supposée circulaire pour un premier cas et de forme bi-elliptique pour un second cas, tout en procédant à l'évaluation des champs et cycles thermiques à chaque instant, pour déterminer l'étendu des zones à risque, et l'effet de la vitesse de soudage sur ces dernières. Permettant ainsi de remonter par la suite, aux problèmes de contraintes résiduelles et déformations générées dans l'assemblage soudé. L'équation de chaleur régissant le problème est discrétisée par la méthode des volumes finis. Les calculs sont effectués en considérant que les propriétés physiques et thermiques ainsi que les conditions aux limites de convection et rayonnement, sont dépendante de la température. Pour évaluer la précision du modèle, une comparaison avec des mesures expérimentales de température d'un essai de soudage a été effectuée, les résultats indiquent un bon accord.

  20. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques (United States)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  1. Determination of food emulsifiers in commercial additives and food products by liquid chromatography/atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Suman, M; Silva, G; Catellani, D; Bersellini, U; Caffarra, V; Careri, M


    A new, reliable liquid chromatography/atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of food emulsifiers composed of mono- and diacylglycerols of fatty acids (E471 series) in complex food matrices. These additives are extremely interesting for the food industry because of their useful properties. Indeed, they improve the manufacture of products by acting as foams and creams stabilisers, crumb-softeners, or antistaling agents. The proposed method also allows us to qualitatively characterise new food emulsifiers composed of other acid esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (E472 series). The validation of the method was performed on blank minicake spiked samples for detection limits (reaching ppm levels), linearity, recovery, precision, and accuracy. The method was then successfully applied to commercial additives containing mixtures of emulsifiers, as well as to food products such as margarines and minicakes.

  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging (United States)


    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF) mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples. PMID:21726462

  3. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E


    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  4. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air (United States)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.


    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  5. Brain Radiation Information Data Exchange (BRIDE): integration of experimental data from low-dose ionising radiation research for pathway discovery. (United States)

    Karapiperis, Christos; Kempf, Stefan J; Quintens, Roel; Azimzadeh, Omid; Vidal, Victoria Linares; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Bazyka, Dimitry; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Scouras, Zacharias G; Tapio, Soile; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi; Ouzounis, Christos A


    The underlying molecular processes representing stress responses to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR) in mammals are just beginning to be understood. In particular, LDIR effects on the brain and their possible association with neurodegenerative disease are currently being explored using omics technologies. We describe a light-weight approach for the storage, analysis and distribution of relevant LDIR omics datasets. The data integration platform, called BRIDE, contains information from the literature as well as experimental information from transcriptomics and proteomics studies. It deploys a hybrid, distributed solution using both local storage and cloud technology. BRIDE can act as a knowledge broker for LDIR researchers, to facilitate molecular research on the systems biology of LDIR response in mammals. Its flexible design can capture a range of experimental information for genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The data collection is available at: .

  6. Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï forestier et cordons pierreux, sur la réhabilitation de la végétation herbacée à l'Ouest du Burkina Faso. ... et Loudetia arundinacea Hochst. ex Steud. dans les espaces aménagés. Ceci témoigne d'une restauration progressive de ces parcelles aménagées.

  7. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : La présente étude vise à évaluer les pratiques phytosanitaires des maraîchers et à fournir une meilleure connaissance des risques liés aux pratiques de ... Conclusion et application : La gestion et l'utilisation très peu rigoureuses des pesticides constatés dans ces sites pourraient constituer une menace pour le ...

  8. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), le tabac est la seule et unique source de revenus. Les cultivateurs de tabac, au Malawi ...

  9. Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un contexte de poly traumatisme: a propos de deux observations. ... They insist on good clinical assessment of abdominal trauma doubled the achievement of imaging tests to not overlook lesions of the urinary tract that can put patient's life threatening. Keywords: ...

  10. Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le soutien logistique represente par le soutien materiel, l'approvisionnement en medicaments, le nettoyage des locaux, le brancardage, occupaient des taux respectifs de 100 %, 91 %, 42% et 73 %. La sollicitation fmanciere et le soutien psychologique de 1' accompagnateur ont ete soulignes respectivement dans 68 % et ...

  11. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter, (Germany)


    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  12. Etude des niches alimentaires des lombriciens dans un contexte urbain.


    Diemby, Marie Virginie


    Dans ce travail, les préférences alimentaires pour les espèces végétales consommées par les lombriciens peuplant certains îlots des pelouses de l’avenue Roosevelt ont été étudiées. L’analyse des contenus digestifs et des fèces des vers a montré que les plantes identifiées dans les pelouses ne sont pas toutes consommées. Mesurée par l’indice d’Ivlev, la sélectivité des items végétaux est variable en fonction de l’espèce de ver, de la classe d’âge et de la saison. Lorsque les dicotylédones s...

  13. 212 Analyse de la dynamique des pâturages autour des ouvrages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ali B. Béchir

    ils ont permis de lever les contraintes qui empêchent leur exploitation en saison sèche. Toutefois, leur ... permettre l'exploitation des pâturages pendant la saison sèche, plusieurs puits pastoraux y ont été installés depuis des ... des plaines, des chaines de montagnes, des ravins, des dunes et des bas-fonds. Les sols sont ...

  14. Caracteristiques microbiologiques des peritonites aigues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans notre serie, une sensibilire plus elevee des germes ala gentamicine, ala ceftriaxone eta la Ciprofloxacine a ere notee. Ces resultats suggerent une antibiotherapie probabiliste des peritonites dans notre contexte associant les cephalosporines de troisieme generation (C3G) aux aminosides plus un imidazole pour ...

  15. Philosophie des Protestantismus: Immanuel Kant


    Graf, Friedrich W. (Prof.)


    Philosophie des Protestantismus: Immanuel Kant : 1724-1804 / Friedrich Wilhelm Graf u. Klaus Tanner. - In: Profile des neuzeitlichen Protestantismus / hrsg. von Friedrich Wilhelm Graf. - Gütersloh : Mohn. - Bd. 1. Aufklärung, Idealismus, Vormärz. - 1990. - S. 86-112. - (Gütersloher Taschenbücher Siebenstern ; 1430)


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'échantillonnage a été réalisé en fonction du système d'élevage (battérie ou sol) et des classes d'âge. Au sujet de la prévalence ... Despite the fact that some breeding haven't been infected and of which the set title is zero, some birds on the contrary revealed 21720 for AE, 25342 for REO and 19990 for AIV.The result of ...

  17. Die Versprachlichung des Sakralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind


    in religion and which is of fundamental significance for the integration of pre-modern societies is taken over by modern societies in forms of deliberation. Habermas develops his thesis in a discussion of Durkheim’s religious-sociological considerations. Habermas presents his thesis about the linguistic......Habermas claims in connection with his development of the theory of communicative action that the sacred is transformed in a positive way and can take the form of free deliberation in society, the so-called Versprachlichung des Sakralen. The thesis is that the authority which could be found...

  18. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  19. Des hommes incomplets à Java


    Headley, Stephen C.


    Les mythes des personnes incomplètes à Java décrivent leur naissance, la nourriture spéciale qui leur est donnée et la façon dont ils se sont rassemblés. Présentés dans une première partie, ces mythes concernent : un roi et son royaume (Jarasanda) ; un demi-dieu mangeur d’hommes (Kala) ; la déesse du riz (Sri) ; des femmes fécondées par des météores ; des fils qui cherchent leur père Allah. Dans la seconde partie, les mythes des moitiés d’hommes sont abordés dans leurs variations balinaise, m...

  20. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  1. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    30 sept. 2017 ... l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, cultures maraîchères, pesticides, risques, Burkina Faso. Evaluation of farming practices of leafy vegetables: the case of uses of pesticides and ...

  2. Le silence des agneaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ce texte est avant tout une réflexion sur la notion d'obéissance, initiée à partir de deux évènements impliquant étroitement des membres de la profession infirmière. L'auteur se réjouit de la prise de parole et de l'implication directe d'infirmières dans le contexte du printemps érable. Il estime que la posture de ces infirmières s'inscrit dans ce que l'éthicien Guy Durand, appelle une obéissance autonome qui peut, du coup, mener à la désobéissance civile, à l'objection de conscience. En prenant exemple sur le silence des infirmières dans le contexte de la fermeture de postes d'infirmières en Minganie, l'auteur estime que cette posture est marginale chez les infirmières qui, majoritairement, adoptent une position de soumission et d'obéissance hétéronome.

  3. Chirurgie des grassmanniennes

    CERN Document Server

    Lafforgue, Laurent


    Les compactifications diverses de variétés de modules sont un thème important et récurrent des mathématiques modernes, et elles connaissent un grand nombre d'applications. Ce livre traite le cas de cellules de Schubert minces, qui sont de sous-variétés naturelles de grassmanniennes. L'auteur a été amené à traiter ces questions par un cas particulier lié à ses travaux sur le programme de Langlands. Dans cette monographie, il en développe une théorie plus systématique, présentant le fortes similarités avec celle des modules du courbes stables. The various compactifications of moduli spaces are an important recurrent theme of modern mathematics, and they have a large number of applications. This book treats the case of thin Schubert varieties, which are natural subvarieties of Grassmannians. The author was led to these questions by a particular case linked to his work on the Langlands program. In this monograph, he develops the theory in a more systematic way, which exhibits strong similarities...

  4. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian


    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  5. Agent des projets et des partenariats (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion de projets. L'agent(e) : fournit un encadrement technique, notamment en analysant les rapports d'étape, en participant à des ateliers, en effectuant des recherches documentaires, en trouvant et dirigeant des personnes-ressources et des consultants afin d'appuyer des projets;. passe en revue les rapports finaux ...

  6. Contamination des eaux souterraines par le lixiviat des décharges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La percolation du lixiviat en provenance des dechets des decharges constitue une source de pollution des ressources en eau souterraine par infiltration, constituant ... un modele type de deterioration des ressources en eaux par un effet de contamination du lixiviat en provenance de la decharge et des pratiques agricoles.

  7. Effets comparés des pratiques paysannes et des bonnes pratiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets comparés des pratiques paysannes et des bonnes pratiques agricoles de gestion de la fertilité des sols sur les propriétés des sols et les rendements des cultures dans la zone sud soudanienne du Burkina Faso.

  8. Construction of an apparatus for nuclear orientation measurements at low temperatures. Application to neodymium-cobalt alloy; Realisation d'un appareil pour des mesures d'orientation nucleaire a basse temperature. Application a l'alliage neodyme-cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    We describe experiments along which has been studied the anisotropy of {gamma} radiations emitted by oriented nuclei. We have used the great hyperfine fields acting on nuclei in ferromagnetic metals so as to produce alignment at low temperature. By irradiation we obtained a few cobalt 60 nuclei in our samples which were then cooled down to 0,01 K. The anisotropic rate of the 1,33 MeV {gamma} radiation was measured in function of the sample temperature, using as thermometer the anisotropy of {gamma} radiation emitted by cobalt 60 nuclei in a cobalt single crystal. Cobalt 60 was lined up in a cobalt nickel alloy (40% Ni). The hyperfine field at the cobalt was measured compared to the effective field in metallic cobalt: Heff(Co Ni)/Heff(Co metal) = 0.71 {+-} 0.12. These results are in good agreement with specific heat measurements made previously. Cobalt 60 has been polarised in a neodymium-cobalt alloy (NdCo{sub 5}). The field at the cobalt in NdCo{sub 5} has been measured compared to the field in metallic cobalt and taking the non-saturation into account we found 165000 oersteds < Heff(NdCo{sub 5}) < 220000 oersteds. (author) [French] Nous decrivons des experiences au cours desquelles nous avons etudie l'anisotropie de rayonnements {gamma} emis par des noyaux orientes. Nous avons utilise les grands champs hyperfins agissant sur las noyaux dans les metaux ferromagnetiques pour produire l'alignement a basse temperature. Par irradiation nous avons obtenu quelques noyaux de cobalt 60 dans nos echantillons qui furent ensuite refroidis a 0,01 K. Le degre d'anisotropie du rayonnement {gamma} de 1,33 MeV fut mesure en fonction de la temperature de l'echantillon en utilisant l'anisotropie du rayonnement {gamma} de noyaux de cobalt 60 dans un monocristal de cobalt metallique utilise comme thermometre. Le cobalt 60 a ete aligne dans un alliage de cobalt-nickel (40% Ni). Le champ hyperfin au niveau du cobalt a ete mesure par rapport au champ effectif

  9. Gestion des ressources naturelles : des solutions avantageuses à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des variétés résistantes de bambou et de rotin au coeur d'un renouveau environnemental. En Asie, en Afrique et en Amérique latine, des initiatives de premier plan axées sur le bambou et le rotin permettent de contrer le réchauffement de la planète, d'enrayer l'érosion des sols, de protéger les forêts et d'améliorer l'accès ...

  10. Gestion des dechets biomedicaux a cotonou : Etat des lieux et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente recherche est une contribution à la bonne gestion des déchets biomédicaux dans la ville de Cotonou. La démarche méthodologique utilisée comprend l'observation directe sur le terrain, la collecte des données, leur traitement et l'analyse des résultats. L'enquête socio-anthropologique a été menée en utilisant ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La planification a été, pendant longtemps, l'oeuvre des structures d'intervention et dans une moindre mesure des populations rurales lettrées. C'est dans le souci de combler cette insuffisance que nous avons choisi, dans le cadre des planifications sectorielles, de travailler dans un secteur dominé par des analphabètes.

  12. Mycotrophie Et Connaissances Paysannes Des Essences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une comparaison des modes de gestion des terres au Sud Cameroun montre que les agroforêts-cacao sont moins dommageables à l'environnement que les autres formes de gestion des sols. A cet effet, une étude en vue de valider les perceptions paysannes des essences ligneuses fertilitaires associées dans les ...


    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    khaled fourati

    Le présent prospectus est destiné à des organisations comme des instituts de recherche, des centres universitaires, des think tanks, des organisations non gouvernementales (ONG), des académies scientifiques et des parties prenantes qui exprimeront leur intérêt à collaborer à une nouvelle initiative visant à renforcer les.

  14. Characterisation of nicotine and related compounds using electrospray ionisation with ion trap mass spectrometry and with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and their detection by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Smyth, Thomas J; Ramachandran, V N; McGuigan, Alex; Hopps, Jason; Smyth, W Franklin


    Electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) has been used to study the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and nine of its related compounds. From this study certain characteristic fragmentations are apparent with generally the pyrrolidine or piperidine ring being subject to chemical modifications. The structures of the product ions proposed for the ESI-MS(n) study have been supported by results from electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). Compounds with pyrrolidine and piperidine rings that possess an unsubstituted N atom have been shown to lose NH(3) at the MS(2) stage. Those compounds with N-methyl groups lose CH(3)NH(2) at the MS(2) stage. The loss of NH(3) or CH(3)NH(2) leaves the corresponding rings opened and this is followed by ring closure at the pyridine-2 carbon atom. Mono-N-oxides fragment in a similar way but the di-N-oxide can also fragment by cleavage of the bond between the pyridine and pyrrolidine rings. Cotinine also can undergo cleavage of this bond between the rings. This data therefore provides useful information on how substituents and the nature of the non-pyridine ring can affect the fragmentation patterns of nicotine and its related compounds. This information can be used in the characterisation of these compounds by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) which results in the separation of nicotine and its related compounds with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 15 to 105 ng/mL. The use of LC/ESI-MS to study nicotine-containing samples resulted in the simultaneous and unambiguous identification of seven of the compounds discussed in this paper: cotinine identified at retention time 12.5 min (with its [M+H](+) ion at m/z 177), nornicotine 16.0 min (m/z 149), anatabine 18.0 min (m/z 161), myosmine 18.5 min (m/z 147), anabasine 20.4 min (m/z 163), nicotine 22.2 min (m/z 163), and nicotyrine 31.4 min (m/z 159). For quality control of nicotine

  15. Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E D; Donets, E D no 1; Ilyushchenko, V I no 1


    Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

  16. Des changements en Asie, surtout pour les femmes | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 mars 2016 ... J'ai eu l'occasion de rencontrer des penseurs, des industriels, des politiciens, des représentants des médias, des ONG, et des chercheurs. Le dénominateur ... La violence sexuelle et familiale ainsi que l'impunité sont des sujets qui ne sont abordés que tout récemment en Asie. De bien des façons, ...

  17. Effets biocides des alcaloïdes, des saponines et des flavonoïdes extraits de Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae) sur Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aziz Bouchelta; Abelali Blenzar; Ahmed Boughdad


    ... et des flavonoïdes extraits des fruits de Capsicum frutescens L. sur la survie des œufs et des adultes de Bemisia tabaci infestant les plants de tomates, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Daniella, a été...

  18. Adaptation des organismes communautaires d'approvisionnement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sur la base de cette analyse, l'équipe mènera ensuite une enquête auprès des ménages et des fournisseurs d'eau des trois pays et évaluera les coûts et les avantages ... Des spécialistes canadiens participent à des travaux de recherche portant sur les risques auxquels sont exposés les milieux humides le long de la côte ...

  19. Approche historique des classifications en psychiatrie


    Garrabé, J.


    Resume Des le milieu du xixe siecle s?est posee la question des criteres de classification des maladies. Pour les maladies mentales, diverses classifications ont alors ete proposees par des auteurs francais (Morel) et allemands (Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). A partir de la fin du xixe siecle, le Bureau International de Statistique (Paris) a publie a une Classification Internationale des Maladies, a revision decennale (J. Bertillon). Cette tache a ete poursuivie dans l?entre-deux-guerres pa...

  20. Materialwissenschaftliche Untersuchung des Dragierverhaltens von Zuckeralkoholen


    Haseleu, Andrea


    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung des komplexen und komplizierten Dragierprozesses, um nach der systematischen Analyse des Prozeses einfache und nachvollziehbare Zusammenhänge ableiten zu können. Aus diesem Grund wird der Prozeß in drei Hauptuntersuchungsgebiete aufgeteilt: Beschaffenheit des Kernrohlings; Formulierung des Dragiermediums und Prozeßparameter des Dragierens; und in jedem Gebiet materialwissenschaftliche Kennwerte ermittelt. Darüber hinaus wird ein vierter Bereic...

  1. Virginie Albe, Enseigner des controverses


    Blanchard, Antoine


    Alors que les sujets controversés (OGM, créationnisme...) sont généralement redoutés par les enseignants et médiateurs scientifiques, qui se trouvent démunis et optent pour le retrait, des didacticiens tentent depuis la fin des années 1990 d'attaquer de front l'enseignement des controverses (ou "questions socialement vives"). En France, l'ENS Cachan, l'École nationale de formation agronomique de Toulouse et l'université de Provence sont les hauts lieux de cette pédagogie qui s'inscrit dans la...

  2. Une approche des structurations symboliques


    Matamoros Ponce, Fernando


    Los seres humanos hacen su propia historia,aunque bajo circunstancias influidas por el pasado Karl Marx (1818-1883) Les espaces de lutte, de réforme et de contre-réforme sont une partie du Tout Social. Ils sont le lieu d’une mémoire conflictuelle où se définissent subjectivement les accords et les désaccords. Ainsi, pour comprendre la mise en place de la politique des États et des institutions religieuses, nous devons partir des contradictions inhérentes aux mouvements sociaux en lutte, qui r...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pas de signe de gravité (hématocèie, rup— ture de l'albuginée, volumineux hématome intra testiculaire)? Les altérations du sper— mogramme observées ont été rapportées dans le suivi des patients ayant présenté un traumatisme des bourses et s'expliqueraient par l'atrophie testiculaire avec réduction de l'activité des ...

  4. Online antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry for chemical fingerprinting of Indian polyherbal formulations. (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Shahid M; Bhutani, Kamlesh K


    A HPLC-DAD-DPPH method was developed for evaluating the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of ethylacetate extracts of different polyherbal formulations (draksarista, draksava, lohasava and arvindasava) by using RP-18e column. The ethylacetate extract from polyherbal, 'draksarista' exhibited maximum free radical scavenging activity (99.9 ± 0.38%) followed by draksava (99.8 ± 0.34%), lohasava (98.5 ± 0.30%) and arvindasava (42.3 ± 0.34%) at 100 μg mL(-1). Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study chemical composition of the ethylacetate extracts of formulations. The characteristic electrospray mass ionisation reveals the dominance of polyphenols and their glycosides in the four polyherbal formulations.

  5. Analysis of triacetone triperoxide complexes with alkali metal ions by electrospray and extractive electrospray ionisation combined with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Hill, Alex R; Edgar, Mark; Chatzigeorgiou, Maria; Reynolds, James C; Kelly, Paul F; Creaser, Colin S


    The complexation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with a range of alkali metals has been studied by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry yield [M+Cat](+) ions for all of the alkali metals. The formation of [2TATP+Li+LiX](+) (X = Br, Cl) sandwich complexes was also observed. Collision cross- sections for the lithium-containing complexes of TATP were measured by travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry, and compared well with computationally determined structures. Extractive electrospray ionisation (EESI) using a lithium doped electrospray is demonstrated for the detection of TATP vapours desorbed from a metal surface. The limit of detection for EESI was shown to be 20 ng using the [TATP+Li](+) ion.

  6. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de transformation des aliments et de commerce de détail, les marchés agroalimentaires évoluent vers une plus ...

  7. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz est l'aliment principal pour la quasi-totalité des populations vivant en Côte d'Ivoire. Cependant, les adventices sont considérées comme la contrainte biologique la plus importante faisant obstacle à la production rizicole. L'objectif de cette étude menée en 2015 était d'évaluer différentes techniques de gestion des ...

  8. Etude Des Lesions Rencontrees Sur Des Carcasses De Petits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sur les 277 saisies de poumons, il y a 12 suspicions de tuberculose, 101 de parasitoses, 96 de pneumopathies et 68 dues à des abcès divers. Les lésions suspectées de tuberculose sont très rares (0;15 et 0,07%) respectivement chez les ovins et caprins. La tuberculose des petits ruminants à ce niveau de prévalence

  9. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes : Une étude de cas sur le Burkina Faso, le Kenya et la Côte d'Ivoire. Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et ... Institution. Centre ivoirien de recherches économiques et sociales. Pays d' institution. Ivory Coast. Site internet. ...

  10. Optimisation structurelle des gridshells


    Bouhaya, Lina


    Le terme gridshell désigne une coque discrète qui est obtenue par déformation élastique d'une grille bidirectionnelle continue plane sans rigidité en cisaillement puis rigidifiée par une troisième direction de barres. Ainsi défini, un gridshell a un potentiel structural intéressant et peut répondre à des exigences architecturales complexes. La recherche de forme de ces structures a été menée à travers l'histoire principalement par deux méthodes, la méthode du filet inversé et la relaxation dy...

  11. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle


    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  12. Le fiacre des propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Michon


    Full Text Available Après avoir identifié quelques arguments pour illustrer ce dont traite la philosophie analytique de la religion, je défends que celle-ci a la pertinence de la spéculation classique sur le contenu de la foi. L’une et l’autre reposent sur la contrainte logique qui suit de l’acceptation d’une proposition — refus de ce qui la contredit, acceptation de ses conséquences — et sur le fait que la Révélation chrétienne contient des propositions, certaines paradoxales. J’illustre cette pertinence par trois exemples pris dans la « philosophie continentale de la religion ».

  13. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (United States)


    Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural) within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput. PMID:21896164

  14. Visualisation of abscisic acid and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid in immature Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds using desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry


    Enomoto, Hirofumi; Sensu, Takuya; Sato, Kei; Sato, Futoshi; Paxton, Thanai; Yumoto, Emi; Miyamoto, Koji; Asahina, Masashi; Yokota, Takao; Yamane, Hisakazu


    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the jasmonic acid related-compound 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) play crucial roles in seed development, dormancy, and germination. However, a lack of suitable techniques for visualising plant hormones has restricted the investigation of their biological mechanisms. In the present study, desorption electrospray ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (DESI-IMS), a powerful tool for visualising metabolites in biological tissues, was used to visualise AB...

  15. Risks of low dose ionising radiation exposures Riesgos derivados de la exposición a dosis bajas de radiación ionizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Real Gallego


    Full Text Available Although ionising radiation has been shown to have several beneficial applications for humans, it can also produce detrimental effects in humans and the environment. To adequately protect man and environment from the potential harmful effects of ionising radiation, is essential to know in detail the biological effects produced by it, its characteristics and the various factors that influence these effects. That is the objective of this article, describe the current status of knowledge about biological effects induced by ionising radiation, with special emphasis on those effects occurring after low dose exposures.La radiación ionizante ha mostrado tener diversas aplicaciones beneficiosas para el hombre, pero también puede dañar la salud de las personas y el medio ambiente. Para proteger adecuadamente al hombre de los posibles efectos nocivos de la radiación ionizante es imprescindible conocer en detalle los efectos biológicos producidos por esta, sus características y los distintos factores que influyen en dichos efectos. Ese es el objetivo de este artículo: describir el estado actual del conocimiento sobre los efectos biológicos que puede producir la radiación ionizante, con especial énfasis en aquellos efectos que se producen tras la exposición a dosis bajas.

  16. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445 (United States)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.


    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  17. A comparative study of matrix- and nano-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry of isolated and synthetic lignin. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Koichi; Ando, Daisuke; Watanabe, Takashi


    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer next to cellulose. However, because of the complexity of the heterogeneous macromolecules, it is difficult to elucidate the polymeric structures of lignin by conventional analytical methods. To obtain the detailed structures of lignin, we comparatively applied nano-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (NALDI-TOF MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Synthetic lignin from coniferyl alcohol and an isolated lignin from Pinus densiflora were subjected to NALDI- and MALDI-TOF MS. We first obtained NALDI-TOF MS of synthetic and isolated lignin. Mass increments of 178 and 196 Da were observed in NALDI- and MALDI-TOF mass spectra of the synthetic and isolated lignin. The mass intervals indicated that radical coupling forming β-O-4 bonds is the major pathway. Peaks in the low molecular mass region between m/z 500 and 800 were observed more extensively using NALDI-TOF MS than MALDI-TOF MS, which enabled detailed analysis of the interunit linkages in lignin. Owing to the ionisation profile differentiation from MALDI-TOF MS, NALDI-TOF MS is useful for the structural analysis of lignin. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prise en compte du gonflement des terrains dans le dimensionnement des revêtements des tunnels


    Bultel, Frédéric


    Travail préparé au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC-Paris) dans le cadre d'une convention CIFRE avec la société Scetauroute,Composition du jury : MM. R. KASTNER professeur à l'Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (rapporteur),I. SHAHROUR professeur à l'Ecole Universitaire Des Ingénieurs de Lille (rapporteur), P. EGGER professeur à l'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Examinateur), B. GAUDIN expert géotechnique à Scetauroute-DTTS (Examinateur), J.P. MAGNAN D...

  19. Des équilibres instables


    Schweisguth, Danielle; Plane, Mathieu; Blot, Christophe; Cochard, Marion; Le Bayon, Sabine


    Le déficit courant des États-Unis se dégrade continuellement depuis 1991 et a atteint un niveau record de 6,6 % du PIB en 2006. Il résulte en premier lieu d’un déséquilibre interne entre l’épargne nationale et l’investissement. La propension à consommer des ménages américains favorisée par l’envolée des cours boursiers à la fin des années 1990 puis le développement du marché hypothécaire ont modifié l’arbitrage entre consommation et épargne au détriment de cette dernière. Par ailleurs, les fi...

  20. Le valais, colonie des CFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Debarbieux


    Full Text Available Voici une affiche placardée par les chemins de fer helvétiques (CFF pendant des semaines, au printemps 2009, dans les gares de Suisse romande. Un slogan l'accompagnait: «Rencontrez des peuples authentiques en Valais avec nos offres et excursions en Valais». L'image fait directement référence au célèbre carnaval du Lötschental et aux masques que l'on sculpte pour l'occasion depuis des générations. Au-delà elle s'enracine dans un imaginaire bien connu des peuples sauvages qui a fleuri à partir...

  1. Pourquoi faire des varietes synthetiques?


    Gallais, A


    Dans cette discussion sur les variétés synthétiques, les avantages et les inconvénients connus de ce type de variétés sont rappelés. Puis la valeur des meilleures variétés synthétiques possibles à partir d’une population est comparée à la valeur des meilleures hybrides simples (ou des meilleurs clones) et à la valeur des meilleures lignées. Il est montré que les meilleurs variétés synthétiques sont toujours inférieures aux meilleurs hybrides simples et à peine supérieures (de 0 à 10%) à la va...

  2. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARESUME:- 115 déblais de sondage et des logs éléctriques ont été soumis aux analyses biostratigraphiques et paléoenvironnementales pour déterminer la lithologie, l'âge, et l'environnement de dépôt des sédiments provenant du puits Opolo-1 dans le Delta du Niger, Nigeria. Les résultats montre que du bas vers le haut ...

  4. Die Moosgesellschaften des Nationalparks Harz


    Schubert, Rudolf


    Die Auswertung der in den Jahren 2002–2007 erarbeiteten Vegetationsaufnahmen im Nationalpark Harz ergab ihre Einordnung in 77 unterschiedliche Moosgesellschaften. 17 Moosgesellschaften gehören zu den bedrohten Lebensgemeinschaften der Länder Niedersachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt, womit die Bedeutung des Nationalparks Harz für die Erhaltung und den Schutz der Moosflora des Harzes deutlich wird. The evaluation of vegetation mapping of moss-communities in the National Park Harz in 2002–2007 result...

  5. Déplacements des gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Transport. 1. Contexte a) Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) est une société d'État canadienne à laquelle la loi confère le mandat de lancer, d'encourager, d'appuyer et de mener des recherches sur les problèmes des régions du monde en voie de développement et sur la mise en.

  6. Observations of a groove in the interplanetary Lyman alpha pattern as the signature of enhanced ionisation in the neutral sheet (United States)

    Bertaux, J. L.; Quemerais, E.; Lallement, R.; Summanen, T.; Kyrola, E.


    We report several observations of the Lyman alpha interplanetary emission recorded by a photometer flown in 1976-1977 on board the Soviet spacecraft Prognoz-5 and Prognoz-6. Several scans made in a plane perpendicular to the sun were cutting through the maximum emission region. where the interstellar hydrogen is approaching nearest to the sun (upwind region). On each of these scans is observed a dip in the intensity curve near the ecliptic plane. about 30 deg wide and approximately equals 10% deep. They reveal the presence of a new feature of the interplanetary emission. a 'groove' aligned approximately with the ecliptic plane. This groove is present only near the upwind direction, and is interpreted as the result of enhanced ionisation of interstellar H by charge-exchange with the solar wind in a sheet of approximately 30 deg around the average position of the neutral sheet at this time of solar this Lyman alpha groove is a prime target for future observations with SWAN experiment on SOHO.

  7. Headspace analysis of new psychoactive substances using a Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometer (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe; Lanza, Matteo; Agarwal, Bishu; Jürschik, Simone; Sulzer, Philipp; Breiev, Kostiantyn; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Märk, Lukas; Mayhew, Chris A.; Märk, Tilmann D.


    The rapid expansion in the number and use of new psychoactive substances presents a significant analytical challenge because highly sensitive instrumentation capable of detecting a broad range of chemical compounds in real-time with a low rate of false positives is required. A Selective Reagent Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (SRI-ToF-MS) instrument is capable of meeting all of these requirements. With its high mass resolution (up to m/Δm of 8000), the application of variations in reduced electric field strength (E/N) and use of different reagent ions, the ambiguity of a nominal (monoisotopic) m/z is reduced and hence the identification of chemicals in a complex chemical environment with a high level of confidence is enabled. In this study we report the use of a SRI-ToF-MS instrument to investigate the reactions of H3O+, O2+, NO+ and Kr+ with 10 readily available (at the time of purchase) new psychoactive substances, namely 4-fluoroamphetamine, methiopropamine, ethcathinone, 4-methylethcathinone, N-ethylbuphedrone, ethylphenidate, 5-MeO-DALT, dimethocaine, 5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and nitracaine. In particular, the dependence of product ion branching ratios on the reduced electric field strength for all reagent ions was investigated and is reported here. The results reported represent a significant amount of new data which will be of use for the development of drug detection techniques suitable for real world scenarios. PMID:25844048

  8. The characterisation of shellac resin by flow injection and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tamburini, Diego; Dyer, Joanne; Bonaduce, Ilaria


    A strategy based on electrospray ionisation (ESI) in negative mode coupled with quadrupole-time of flight (Q-ToF) detection techniques was adopted to characterise some samples of shellac resin. Flow injection analysis (FIA) was used to investigate the distribution of the components of the resin. Eight groups of compounds with increasing masses were detected and assigned to free acids, esters and polyesters with up to eight units. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) enabled the compounds to be chromatographically separated. Accurate molecular masses and tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra interpretation were used to characterise the different compounds, assigning and/or suggesting molecular structures. In some cases, highly detailed information about the ester linkages was provided by the MS/MS spectra, enabling the different isomers to be distinguished. Oxidation products were also identified in the samples and differences were observed in terms of hydrolysis and oxidation. In addition to providing the first characterisation of shellac by HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF and an atlas of MS/MS spectra of shellac components, this work demonstrates the suitability of the proposed strategy for characterising the resin, and provides the identification of previously unknown degradation products and minor components. This represents a significant step forward in the chemical knowledge of this material.

  9. Identification of synthetic dyes in early colour photographs using capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    López-Montes, Ana Ma; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Desmazières, Bernard; Lavédrine, Bertrand


    Capillary electrophoresis with photodiode array detection (CE-PDA) and with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) was used for the separation and the identification of 23 synthetic organic dyes, among those used in early 20th century colour photographs such as autochromes. Both cationic and anionic dyes could be separated within 15min using a single CE-PDA method. The method was used as the basis to develop a CE-ESI-MS methodology through the optimisation of the relevant ESI and MS parameters. Sheath liquid composition, nebulising gas pressure, drying gas flow rate and drying gas temperature were found to influence the sensitivity of the detection. These parameters were optimised in positive and negative ion modes for cationic dyes and anionic dyes, respectively. The two analyses could be carried out successively on a single sample. In view of the application to cultural heritage objects, the CE-ESI-MS analytical procedure was applied to identify the dyes in a Filmcolor artefact, late version of the autochrome. The results complemented and enhanced current knowledge as four cationic dyes and three anionic dyes were identified. Four additional dyes are proposed as possibly present as traces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk


    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutral and acidic products derived from hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of arabinotriose assessed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Moreira, Ana S P; da Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário M


    The oxidation of α-(1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose (Ara3), an oligosaccharide structurally related to side chains of coffee arabinogalactans, was studied in reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated under conditions of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)/H2O2). The acidic and neutral oxidation products were separated by ligand exchange/size-exclusion chromatography, subsequently identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and structurally characterised by tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). In acidic fraction were identified several oxidation products containing an acidic residue at the corresponding reducing end of Ara3, namely arabinonic acid, and erythronic, glyceric and glycolic acids formed by oxidative scission of the furanose ring. In neutral fractions were identified derivatives containing keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy moieties, as well as derivatives resulting from the ring scission at the reducing end of Ara3. In both acidic and neutral fractions, beyond the trisaccharide derivatives, the corresponding di- and monosaccharide derivatives were identified indicating the occurrence of oxidative depolymerisation. The structural characterisation of these oxidation products by ESI-MS/MS allowed the differentiation of isobaric and isomeric species of acidic and neutral character. The species identified in this study may help in detection of roasting products associated with the free radical-mediated oxidation of coffee arabinogalactans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effects of low-dose ionising radiation on pituitary adenoma: is there a role for L-type calcium channel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]. E-mail:


    Pituitary adenomas constitute about 6-18% of brain tumours in adults. Activation of voltage gated calcium currents can account for growth hormone over secretion in some GH-secreting pituitary adenomas that produce an acromegaly appearance and increase mortality. Ca{sup 2+} ions, as mediators of intracellular signalling, are crucial for the development of apoptosis. However, the role of [Ca{sup 2+}] in the development of apoptosis is ambiguous. In this study, the effects of low-dose ionising gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) on rat pituitary adenoma cells survival and proliferation and the role of calcium channels on the apoptosis radio-induced were evaluated. Doses as low as 3 Gy were found to inhibit GH3 cell proliferation. Even though there was a significant number of live cells,168 hours following irradiation, they were not able to proliferate. The results indicate that the blockade of extracellular calcium influx through these channels does not interfere in the radiation-induced apoptosis in GH3 cells. (author)

  13. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen


    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs.

  14. Determination of the plant growth regulator chlormequat in food by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Hau, J; Riediker, S; Varga, N; Stadler, R H


    A confirmatory method for the determination of trace levels of chlormequat in a variety of different food matrices was developed. It entails a single clean-up step over a solid-phase cation exchange resin and subsequent liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry using a stable isotopically labelled internal standard. Mass spectral acquisition was done in selected reaction monitoring mode, selecting the transitions from both the 35Cl and the 37Cl isotope of chlormequat. Recoveries after extraction and clean-up, determined with radio-labelled chlormequat and averaged over the spiking range (16-65 microg kg(-1)) in four different commodities, were within 88-96%, with a coefficient of variation better than 8%. The method can be applied to pears, pear juice concentrates, fruit purées, and cereal products, with typical limits of detection for chlormequat estimated at 2-5 microg kg(-1). A survey of different food commodities revealed that chlormequat was detectable--albeit at very low levels--in many of the food samples analysed, with the highest concentration recorded in pears purchased in Switzerland and of South African origin (5.5 mg kg(-1)). Measurements were also conducted on two LC-MS instruments and demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the method and its applicability to instruments of different ion source design.

  15. Usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identifying clinical Trichosporon isolates. (United States)

    de Almeida Júnior, J N; Figueiredo, D S Y; Toubas, D; Del Negro, G M B; Motta, A L; Rossi, F; Guitard, J; Morio, F; Bailly, E; Angoulvant, A; Mazier, D; Benard, G; Hennequin, C


    Trichosporon spp. have recently emerged as significant human pathogens. Identification of these species is important, both for epidemiological purposes and for therapeutic management, but conventional identification based on biochemical traits is hindered by the lack of updates to the species databases provided by the different commercial systems. In this study, 93 strains, or isolates, belonging to 16 Trichosporon species were subjected to both molecular identification using IGS1 gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. Our results confirmed the limits of biochemical systems for identifying Trichosporon species, because only 27 (36%) of the isolates were correctly identified using them. Different protein extraction procedures were evaluated, revealing that incubation for 30 min with 70% formic acid yields the spectra with the highest scores. Among the six different reference spectra databases that were tested, a specific one composed of 18 reference strains plus seven clinical isolates allowed the correct identification of 67 of the 68 clinical isolates (98.5%). Although until recently it has been less widely applied to the basidiomycetous fungi, MALDI-TOF appears to be a valuable tool for identifying clinical Trichosporon isolates at the species level. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F.


    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  17. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)


    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  18. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water using a large volume ionisation chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Isam; Pettersson, Haakan E-mail:; Lund, Eva


    A new method for measuring {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra in water has been devised. It is based on exhaling radon to a void volume by continuous bubbling of air through the water. The exhaled radon is then transferred in a closed circuit to a modified radon gas pulse ionisation chamber for alpha-spectrometric measurements. About 86% of the radon in water is transferred from 0.75 l of water to the void volume (3.2 l). The set-up offers direct and specific {sup 222}Rn measurements for a wide range of concentrations and shows a low detection limit (LLD=45 mBq l{sup -1} for 8 h counting time). Radium in water is measured, via radon, after sample storage for a month. The method was compared with gamma ray spectrometry for radon and for radium, the latter after pre-concentration by co-precipitation with MnO{sub 2} from 10 l water samples. An excellent agreement between the two techniques was obtained. As a part of a radon survey, the method was employed for analysis of drinking water from bedrock wells.

  19. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves. (United States)

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami


    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PHYSIQUE NUCLÉAIRE. — Sur la diffusion en arrière des électrons. (United States)

    Charpak, Georges; Suzor, Francis

    Nous avons décrit dans plusieurs (1) nos expériences relatives à la diffusion en arrière du rayonnement β dans un angle solide 2π, par la feuille d'aluminium servant de support à la source radioactive…