Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...
White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) can cause “trembles” and “milk sickness” in livestock and humans, respectively. Tremetol, a complex mixture of sterols and derivatives of methyl ketone benzofuran has been extracted from white snakeroot and rayless gol...
The objectives of this study were to determine the dosage of benzofuran ketone compounds (tremetone, 3-hydroxytremetone, dehydrotremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyltremetone) and the duration of exposure to these compounds required to produce clinical signs and the associated pathological changes of rayles ...
Full Text Available Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L. is an invasive plant species in many countries except North America but a cut-flower species worldwide. There is a need to generate and propagate goldenrod clones efficiently for research and commercial purposes. A callus induction and plantlet regeneration system was developed by studying the influence of explant type and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The highest callus production from leaf segments was obtained on Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Adventitious shoots could be regenerated directly from leaf explants without an intermediate callus phase with the highest shoot induction percentage of 87.2%. The largest number of adventitious shoots per leaf explant (3.2 was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/L NAA and 2.0 mg/L BA. MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 1.0 mg/L BA was the best medium for axillary shoot regeneration from nodal segments. The highest root number and longest roots occurred on half-strength MS without the addition of any growth regulator. Rooted plantlets were then transferred to a soil-based growth medium, placed in a greenhouse, and acclimatized with 100% success. All surviving plants grew normally without showing any morphological variation when compared to those grow from seed. This regeneration protocol may be used to produce certain biotypes of goldenrod suitable for genetic transformation rapid propagation of goldenrod for commercial purposes or for screening fungi and toxins as potential biocontrol agents against this weed.
Inoguchi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Sanae; Kondo, Hirokiyo
Hairy roots of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.) were induced by infecting axenic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Growth and allelopathic polyacetylene (cis-dehydromatricaria ester, cis-DME) production of two independent hairy root clones were examined in several culture media and light regimes. cis-DME contents in hairy roots were at the same level as those in normal roots. cis-DME production in root cultures was several-fold lower than that of native plants and greatly repressed by light.
Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Van Megen, H.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Helder, J.
Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to Nor
Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Megen, van H.H.B.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Helder, J.
Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to Nor
Quist, C.W.; Vervoort, M.T.W.; Van Megen, H.; Gort, G.; Bakker, J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Helder, J.
Apart from relatively well-studied aboveground effects, invasive plant species will also impact the soil food web. So far, most research has been focusing on primary decomposers, while studies on effects at higher trophic levels are relatively scarce. Giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea, native to
Li, Jie; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N; Lv, Wei; Deng, Ye; Vincent, Michael A; Slack, Jay P; McCluskey, T Scott; Jia, Zhonghua; Cushman, Mark; Kinghorn, A Douglas
In a screening of extracts of selected plants native to Ohio against the human bitterness receptor hTAS2R31, a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Solidago canadensis (Canada goldenrod) was determined to have hTAS2R31 antagonistic activity and, thus, was fractionated for isolation of potential bitterness-masking agents. One new labdane diterpenoid, solidagol (1), and six known terpenoids, including two labdane diterpenoids (2 and 3), three clerodane diterpenoids (6β-angeloyloxykolavenic acid, 6β-tigloyloxykolavenic acid, and crotonic acid), and a triterpenoid (longispinogenin), were isolated. Among these compounds, 3β-acetoxycopalic acid (2) was found to be the first member of the labdane diterpene class shown to have inhibitory activity against hTAS2R31 activation (IC50 8 μM). A homology model of hTAS2R31 was constructed, and the molecular docking of 2 to this model indicated that this diterpenoid binds well to the active site of hTAS2R31, whereas this was not the case for the closely structurally related compound 3 (sempervirenic acid). The content of 2 in the chloroform-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of S. canadensis was up to 2.24 g/100 g dry weight, as determined by HPLC.
Philip, Benjamin N; Yi, Shu-Xia; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E
Survival of freezing not only requires organisms to tolerate ice formation within their body, but also depends on the rapid redistribution of water and cryoprotective compounds between intra- and extracellular compartments. Aquaporins are transmembrane proteins that serve as the major pathway through which water and small uncharged solutes (e.g. glycerol) enter and leave the cell. Consequently, we examined freeze-tolerant larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, to determine whether aquaporins are present and if their presence promotes freeze tolerance of specific tissues. Immunoblotting with mammalian anti-AQP2, -AQP3 and -AQP4 revealed corresponding aquaporin homologues in E. solidaginis, whose patterns of expression varied depending on acclimation temperature and desiccation treatment. To examine the role of aquaporins in freeze tolerance, we froze fat body, midgut and salivary gland tissues in the presence and absence of mercuric chloride, an aquaporin inhibitor. Survival of fat body and midgut cells was significantly reduced when mercuric chloride was present. In contrast, survival of the salivary gland did not decrease when it was frozen with mercuric chloride. Overall, this study supports our hypothesis that naturally occurring aquaporins in E. solidaginis are regulated during desiccation and promote cell survival during freezing.
Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru
Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials.
Mountain bladderfern Danthonia intexrnedia Vasey Timber danthonia FAC I eschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv. Tufted hairgrass FACW 2’. eiongata (Hook...Munro Slender hairgrass FACW Eichanthelium acuminatum (Swartz) Gould Pacific panicum FAC DRA & C. A. Clarke istichZis spicata (L.) Greene Seashore...King & Joe-pyeweed FACW+ Boneset OBL ,c" :. ;reene Bushy golden-rod FACW \\utt. Grass -leaved goldenrod FACW -,ut. Goldenrod OBL Red fescue FAC ""(L
with exposure to airborne asbestos fibers include asbestosis, lung cancer , and mesothelioma. Although the USEPA promulgated a ban on asbestos and...include: broomsedge, little bluestem, barnyard grass, several species of foxtail, Canada thistle, milkweed , early goldenrod, and common reed
Hexazinone (3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-trazine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) was applied as a soil drench to 1-year-old rooted hardwood cuttings of highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) blueberry plants. No differences in susceptibility to hexazinone were detected among 10 highbush and 3 rabbiteye cultivars grown in a fine sandy soil. The tolerance of two highbush and two rabbiteye cultivars to hexazinone were studied in low, medium, and high organic matter soils. Hexazinone at 1 or 2 kg/ha had no inhibitory effect on blueberry growth in the high organic matter soil, inhibited growth slightly on the medium organic matter soil, and caused severe injury in the low organic matter soil. Hexazinone toxicity, absorption, translocation, metabolism, and effect on photosynthesis were investigated with highbush and rabbiteye blueberry and goldenrod (Solidago fistulosa Miller), which were growing in hydroponic culture. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberry plants were three times more tolerant to root applications of hexazinone than was goldenrod. Blueberry plants absorbed an average of 7.9% of the root applied /sup 14/C-hexazinone and the goldenrod absorbed an average of 10.1%. An average of 6.8% of the root absorbed hexazinone (/sup 14/C-label) was translocated from the root system of the blueberry plants to stem and leaves. Radioactivity in the goldenrod plants was equally distributed between the roots and shoots. The majority of the radioactivity in blueberry and goldenrod plants was recovered in the form of hexazinone. Root absorbed hexazinone caused a rapid inhibition of photosynthesis in intact goldenrod leaves at rates of 10 ..mu..M. Root absorbed hexazinone inhibited photosynthesis in intact blueberry leaves at hexazinone concentrations of 100 ..mu..M.
contain a variety of sedges , reeds, and aquatic plants suitable for waterfowl (McMaster et al. 1982). 2.4 SOILS AND GEOLOGY 2.4.1 Soils The U.S...Solidago sp. Goldenrod Taraxacum officinale Dandelion Cyperaceae Carex spp. Carex Ericaceae Gualtheria procumbens Checkerberry Epigaea repens Trailing
in in in in VO VO VO VO n to 33 1 - beginning growth 2 - vegetation stage 3 - mature ( flowering or fruiting) 4 - seed ripe 5 - dormant d...common sorrel Bladder Campion False Solomon’s-seal Species of Goldenrod Species of chickweed Rose Twisted-stalk Species of Dandelion Starflower
goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and death camus (Zygadenus elegans). Shrub species occur on rocky slopes at higher elevations within the deployment area...Federal Lands Highway Projects Office, Lakewood, CO. November. Thuman, Albert and Richard Miller, 1976. Secrets of Noise Control. 2nd ed. Atlanta
include milkweed , goldenrod, thistle, wild carrot, burdock, teasel, wild onion, and dande- lion. Flood plain vegetation at certain locations along the...BRILL CLARENCE BUGS ’ PlIALEN TERRY P. DAI.HA \\ PI.L Genie DIreto Meye C t..ger November 29, 1977 Mr. Neal E. Jenkins U. S. Army Corps of Engineers P. 0
goldenrod and milkweed predominated. Shrublands represented a successional intermediary between open fields and deciduous forests and were dominated by...river. Isopoda (aquatic sow bugs ) are usually found among rocks, vegetation, and debris in unpolluted shallows, usually one meter or less. They are...Crustacea Subclass Malacostraca Division Peracarida Order Isopoda (Aquatic sow bugs ) Order Amphipoda (Scuds) Class Arachnoidea Family Hydrachnellae
姜涛; 黄宝康; 秦路平
@@ Herbal medicine has been used for treating different diseases in China for thousands of years. The genus Solidago L., commonly known as goldenrod, is one of the largest genera of the Asteraceae family, with 120 species, most of them growing wildly in North America.
for wildlife in Grand Forks County. Pastures, meadows, and other non- cultivated areas create a prairie-land mosaic of grasses, legumes, and wild... alfalfa . Herbaceous plants include little bluestem, goldenrod, green needle grass, western wheat grass, and bluegrama. Shrubs such as Juneberry...consists primarily of cultivated crops with remaining land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal
Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...
grass Setaria geniculata Canada goldenrod Solidago canadensis Canadian wild rye Elymus canadensis cocklebur Xanthium strumarium... grasses consisting of species such as big bluestem, little bluestem, switch grass , Indian grass , and various forbs and legumes. However, after...430-acre GM parcel has been totally disturbed and replaced with introduced grass species consisting primarily of fescue and Bermuda grass , which are
Simms, E L
Evolutionary Ecology across Three Trophic Levels: Goldenrods, Gallmakers and Natural Enemies by W.G. Abrahamson and A.E. Weis Princeton University Press, Monographs in Population Biology, 1997. $29.95/£24.95 hbk (xiii+456 pages) ISBN 0 691 01208 3.
Bush honeysuckle JuneberryI Downy arrowwood q erbs: Wild sarsaparilla Pennsylvania sedge Columbine Early meadow-rue Large-leaved aster Star-flowered...valley Canada anemone Snakeroot Wild sarsaparilla " Northern bedstraw Br.-leaved goldenrod False Solomon’s seal Carrion flower Small-flowered Large
Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.
Deals with various myths about animals and plants. Discusses bats (not blind), toads (do not cause warts), dragonflies (will not sew up your mouth), horseshoe crabs (will not sting with their tails), owls (not so smart), and goldenrod (does not cause hayfever). (MH)
single entrance to the site. The success of that plan is contingent upon upgrading the existing road over the dam. The Waterways Experiment Station has...Severe weather conditions during the winter months curtail much of the mineral extraction and harvesting work. During spring and fall, forestry and...Honeysuckle Mourning Dove Raspberry Woodpecker HERBS Crow Lily of the Valley Warblers Bracken Fern Wood Thrush Goldenrod REPTILES & AMPHIBIANS Frog
are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover, and alfalfa. Herbaceous plants include little bluestem, goldenrod, green... wildflower species. Two hundred and fifty five taxa were identified in the ND Natural Heritage Inventory and the BS Bioserve biological inventory update...for Grand Forks Air Force Base. Two rare orchid species are known to exist on Grand Forks AFB, the Large and Small Yellow Lady’s Slipper, identified
Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) Finding of No Practicable Alternative (FONPA): Construct of a New Fire Station, Demolition of Buildings 530 and 606 and Relocation of the Hazardous Cargo Area at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota
vegetation species are tall wheat grass, brome grass, Kentucky bluegrass, sweet clover and alfalfa. Herbaceous plants include little bluestem, goldenrod...bluestem, little bluestem, Indian grass, switchgrass, blue gramma, buffalo grass and many native wildflower species. The Grand Forks AFB Natural...date, 216 species of birds have been identified as present on base property. Several rare and state-listed species have been observed on base near
cover of yellow sweet clover, red clover, and a small amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate...clover, brome grass , and switchgrass ( Paspalum virgatum) with small amounts of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) poison ivy, milkweed (Amaranthus sp.), thistle...amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate size shagbark hickory, sumac (Rhus glabra), and white
stem (A. scoparious), and danthonia ( Danthonia spicata). Collectively, these grasses were more important than the lespedeza or the camphor. Other...species in this cleared site. Several grasses were well established, including panic grass ( Panicum spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), and foxtail...of soils is abandoned, perennial herbs become established, in- cluding asters, goldenrods, poverty grass , and dozens of associated spe- cies. If soil
inundation. Ground-layer species include giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea), red-stem aster (Aster puniceus), marsh milkweed (Asclepias incarnata...wetland delineation is designed to characterize the site in question rapidly. A balance must be established between the need to accomplish the work...quickly and the need to characterize the site’s heterogeneity accurately and at an appropriate scale. The following guidance on vegetation sampling is
Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji
Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.
Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji
Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2–3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant–plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary. PMID:28134284
Manhong YE,Lei ZHANG,Jiaqi GE,Haifeng SUN,Jingjing NI,Shengmei YANG,Wanhong WEI
Full Text Available Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis is one of the most destructive invasive weeds in South-eastern China. To evaluate its potential application as dietary supplement in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, the antibacterial properties of aqueous and ethanol extracts of this plant against three major pathogenic bacteria in crayfish aquaculture were examined. Inhibition zone tests and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration revealed that the extracts had lower antibacterial activity than extracts from two traditional medicinal plants that possess antibacterial properties, garlic (Allium sativum and cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense. However, they did exhibit greater antibacterial effects than extracts from another widely used medicinal plant, Sophora flavescens, and an aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides. Aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod gave greater inhibition than the ethanol extracts. Crayfish fed a diet with 2% these aqueous extracts exhibited significantly higher enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, catalase and phenoloxidase (P<0.05. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that aqueous extracts of Canadian goldenrod are highly promising for the development of new dietary supplement for use in crayfish aquaculture.
Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance
Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W
Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both
Ziska, Lewis H; Pettis, Jeffery S; Edwards, Joan; Hancock, Jillian E; Tomecek, Martha B; Clark, Andrew; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Loladze, Irakli; Polley, H Wayne
At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and winter survival. Using floral collections obtained from the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, we quantified Ca-induced temporal changes in pollen protein concentration of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), the most wide spread Solidago taxon, from hundreds of samples collected throughout the USA and southern Canada over the period 1842-2014 (i.e. a Ca from approx. 280 to 398 ppm). In addition, we conducted a 2 year in situtrial of S. Canadensis populations grown along a continuous Ca gradient from approximately 280 to 500 ppm. The historical data indicated a strong significant correlation between recent increases in Ca and reductions in pollen protein concentration (r(2)= 0.81). Experimental data confirmed this decrease in pollen protein concentration, and indicated that it would be ongoing as Ca continues to rise in the near term, i.e. to 500 ppm (r(2)= 0.88). While additional data are needed to quantify the subsequent effects of reduced protein concentration for Canada goldenrod on bee health and population stability, these results are the first to indicate that increasing Ca can reduce protein content of a floral pollen source widely used by North American bees.
Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.
fasiculata patridge pea Chenopodiu album lambs quarters Chenopodiui ambrosioides mexican tea Erigeon bnarinsishors ewe ed Erigeron canadensis horseweed...6empe/WZ’tenh SEASIDE GOLDENROD) Amb.’w6ia atemiAZ.jotia RAG~IMED Hetemtheca .6ubaxJitL& Chenopodium ambuioAodesh IOEUCAN-TE K3zteA tenui~otaw5...Phytoacc ameA.Leana Pathenoczzhu qwunqu~ejota vnuM M Rhu4 to xi odend’wn POISON IVY VitIA aevtiva&W POSSUM GPAfl EAZigwn czanadeun44HR Chenopodium
Empirically, a variety of plants are used for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The variety of phytopharmaceuticals with valid results is much smaller. There is a variety of observational studies about Cranberry, bearsgrape leaves, birch leaves and European goldenrod. This also justifies a recommendation in the pharmacy in a complementary medical treatment. Desireably, larger placebo-controlled studies, which proove the empirical healing, would provide more evidence. Children, pregnant women, men and patients with fever, severe cramps and blood in the urine should not medicate themselve. The patient should be referred to a doctor.
Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory
Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.
Crutsinger, Gregory M; Cadotte, Marc W; Sanders, Nathan J
Recent research in community genetics has examined the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on species diversity in local communities. However, communities can be structured by a combination of both local and regional processes and to date, few community genetics studies have examined whether the effects of instraspecific genetic variation are consistent across levels of diversity. In this study, we ask whether host-plant genetic variation structures communities of arthropod inquilines within distinct habitat patches--rosette leaf galls on tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima). We found that genetic variation determined inquiline diversity at both local and regional spatial scales, but that trophic-level responses varied independently of one another. This result suggests that herbivores and predators likely respond to heritable plant traits at different spatial scales. Together, our results show that incorporating spatial scale is essential for predicting the effects of genetically variable traits on different trophic levels and levels of diversity within the communities that depend on host plants.
Schloemer, Julie A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Burkhart, Craig G
Airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD) is an inflammatory reaction involving the skin upon exposure to allergenic agents or irritants suspended in air. In allergic ABCD, the hypersensitivity is classified as a type IV reaction. Substances responsible for such reactions can be of plant or non-plant origin. Commonly reported plants include those of the Compositae family, which includes ragweed, goldenrod, and sunflowers. Establishing an accurate diagnosis is critical for preventing exposure and improving symptoms in patients. Obtaining a detailed history and performing a physical examination to determine the sites of involvement, as well as patch testing to establish the causative allergen, are the main methods of arriving at the correct diagnosis. Treatment often involves avoidance of the allergens or irritants when possible and may also include the application of topical barrier creams or systemic therapy in more severe cases. This article reviews the topic of ABCD and highlights its most common etiologies in the USA.
Stephen B. Heard
Full Text Available Ecological speciation via host shifting has contributed to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects. The importance for host shifting of trait differences between alternative host plants is well established, but much less is known about trait variation within hosts. I outline a conceptual model, the “gape-and-pinch” (GAP model, of insect response to host-plant trait variation during host shifting and host-associated differentiation. I offer four hypotheses about insect use of plant trait variation on two alternative hosts, for insects at different stages of host-associated differentiation. Collectively, these hypotheses suggest that insect responses to plant trait variation can favour or oppose critical steps in herbivore diversification. I provide statistical tools for analysing herbivore trait-space use, demonstrate their application for four herbivores of the goldenrods Solidago altissima and S. gigantea, and discuss their broader potential to advance our understanding of diet breadth and ecological speciation in phytophagous insects.
KUSUM J NAITHANI
Full Text Available This study investigates the relative influence of biotic and abiotic factors on community dynamics using an integrated approach and highlights the influence of space on genotypic and phenotypic traits in plant community structure. We examined the relative influence of topography, environment, spatial distance, and intra- and interspecific interactions on spatial distribution and performance of Boechera stricta (rockcress, a close perennial relative of model plant Arabidopsis. First, using Bayesian kriging, we mapped the topography and environmental gradients and explored the spatial distribution of naturally occurring rockcress plants and two neighbors, Taraxacum officinale (dandelion and Solidago missouriensis (goldenrod found in close proximity within a typical diverse meadow community across topographic and environmental gradients. We then evaluated direct and indirect relationships among variables using Mantel path analysis and developed a network displaying abiotic and biotic interactions in this community. We found significant spatial autocorrelation among rockcress individuals, either because of common microhabitats as displayed by high density of individuals at lower elevation and high soil moisture area, or limited dispersal as shown by significant spatial autocorrelation of naturally occurring inbred lines, or a combination of both. Goldenrod and dandelion density around rockcress does not show any direct relationship with rockcress fecundity, possibly due to spatial segregation of resources. However, dandelion density around rockcress shows an indirect negative influence on rockcress fecundity via herbivory, indicating interspecific competition. Overall, we suggest that common microhabitat preference and limited dispersal are the main drivers for spatial distribution. However, intra-specific interactions and insect herbivory are the main drivers of rockcress performance in the meadow community.
Sturz, A V; Matheson, B G; Arsenault, W; Kimpinski, J; Christie, B R
The influence of plant growth promoting (PGP) activity of bacterial communities recovered from each of six weed species (barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusfalli (L.) Beauv.), corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.), goldenrod (Sonchus sp.), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), lamb's-quarters (Chenopodium album L.), and quack grass (Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.)) was examined in relation to the effect it had on the growth of the potato cultivar Russet Burbank. Bacterial species composition and community structure were compared, species-abundance relationships were determined, and those members conferring positive benefits for potato growth and development were identified. Of the genera identified, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were the most common, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was the most frequent species recovered across all sources. Significantly higher population densities were found in the root zones of quack grass, compared with Italian ryegrass and lamb's-quarters. There were no significant differences in species richness among the root zones; however, evenness indices (species distribution) were significantly lower in corn spurrey (P = 0.05). Significantly higher diversity indices (Hill-1 and Hill-2 numbers) (P = 0.05) were found in the root zone soil communities of potato and goldenrod, indicating a decrease in the proportional abundance of common and very abundant species, respectively, while in barnyard grass, corn spurrey, and Italian ryegrass the reverse was the case. In both years of the study, Italian ryegrass and corn spurrey were consistently better sources of PGP rhizobacteria for potatoes, significantly (P rhizobacterial biodiversity and functional versatility can influence the numbers and types of PGP bacterial strains, and consequently may serve to improve soil quality.
Stromberg, J. C.; Katz, G.
Despite being the most prevalent stream type in the American Southwest, far less is known about riparian ecosystems associated with ephemeral streams than with perennial streams. Patterns of plant composition and structure reflect complex environmental gradients, including water availability and flood intensity, which in turn are related to position in the stream network. A survey of washes in the Sonoran Desert near Tucson, Arizona showed species composition of small ephemeral washes to be comprised largely of upland species, including large seeded shrubs such as Acacia spp. and Larrea tridentata. Small seeded disturbance adapted xerophytic shrubs, such as Baccharis sarothroides, Hymenoclea monogyra and Isocoma tenuisecta, were common lower in the stream network on the larger streams that have greater scouring forces. Because ephemeral streams have multiple water sources, including deep (sometimes perched) water tables and seasonally variable rain and flood pulses, multiple plant functional types co-exist within a stream segment. Deep-rooted phreatophytes, including Tamarix and nitrogen-fixing Prosopis, are common on many washes. Such plants are able to access not only water, but also pools of nutrients, several meters below ground thereby affecting nutrient levels and soil moisture content in various soil strata. In addition to the perennial plants, many opportunistic and shallow-rooted annual species establish during the bimodal wet seasons. Collectively, wash vegetation serves to stabilize channel substrates and promote accumulation of fine sediments and organic matter. In addition to the many streams that are ephemeral over their length, ephemeral reaches also occupy extensive sections of interrupted perennial rivers. The differences in hydrologic conditions that occur over the length of interrupted perennial rivers influence plant species diversity and variability through time. In one study of three interrupted perennial rivers, patterns of herbaceous species
Zeller, W; de Gols, M; Hausen, B M
Experimental studies in guinea pigs using ether extracts of 20 different species of the Compositae plant family were carried out with the open epicutaneous method (OET) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT). The results demonstrate that Cnicus benedictus (blessed thistle), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (marguerite, ox-eye daisy) and Helianthus debilis (dwarf sunflower) are strong sensitizers while Helenium amarum (bitterweed), Gaillardia amblyodon (blanket flower), Artemisia ludoviciana (prairie sage), Ambrosia trifida (giant ragweed) and Solidago virgaurea (goldenrod) are medium sensitizers. Twelfe species revealed only a weak or no sensitizing capacity; among those were corn flower, wormwood, mugwort, coltsfoot and dandelion. Cross-reactivities were observed in a considerable number of the investigated plant species. The sensitizing power as well as the observed cross-reactions depend on the occurrence of sesquiterpene lactones which have an alpha-methylene group exocyclic to the lactone in common ("immunologic requisite"). As a practical consequence, patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis due to Compositae species are strictly requested to avoid contact with the offending species and all related species to prevent recurrences of their skin lesions.
Morales, Manuel A; Zink, Andrew G
Understanding the spatial structure of populations and communities has been a dominant focus of ecological research, and spatial structure is increasingly seen as critical for understanding population dynamics. Habitat (or host) preference is a proximate mechanism that can generate aggregation or overdispersion, lending insight into the ultimate consequences of observed spatial distributions. Publilia concava is a univoltine phloem-feeding insect that forms mutualistic associations with ants, which consume honeydew and protect treehoppers from predation. Treehopper adults and nymphs are aggregated at the scale of goldenrod plant stems, and previous studies have suggested that this aggregation is an adaptive response that increases feeding performance or maximizes benefits of ant-tending. Previous studies have also shown experimentally that individual treehoppers preferentially oviposit on plants with ants present, but a complimentary hypothesis that treehoppers prefer to oviposit near conspecifics (e.g., to take advantage of density-dependent ant attraction) remains untested. We show that, as expected, the probability of treehopper oviposition increases with ant-presence and relative ant abundance. However, we also find that treehopper oviposition decreases with increasing treehopper density. Thus our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that treehopper aggregation is a socially cooperative strategy to attract ants; we suggest that aggregation is a form of conflict and an unavoidable by-product of individual responses to ant-tending levels.
Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia
The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.
Full Text Available Gout (arthritis, is a disease belonging to the group of rheumatoid disorders. As a result of some disorders in the uric acid metabolism, deposition of its crystals takes place in tissues and organs. It causes pain of joints and forming of tophi and tophi in kidney. The limit of uric acid in the blood is 6.5 mg%. Worldwide, especially in well-developed countries, the frequency of gout incidence is still increasing – more in men than women. The incidence among women is increasing only in the postmenopausal period. Methods of gout treatment are based on a comprehensive approach to patients and include primarily lifestyle changes (introduction of special diets and increased physical activity and introduction of drugs that act as analgesic and anti-inflammatory, as well as are able to remove an excess of uric acid. For ages, in gout treatment also plant raw materials have been applied. They show a potency comparable to medicines, but usually exhibit weaker side effects. Medicine pays special attention, while curing gout, to such plants as: Aegopodium podagraria L., Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw, willow bark, birch leaves, mud meadowsweet flower, sour cherries, but also common goldenrod, nettle, horsetail and wild rose.
Full Text Available Thirty honey samples (18 monofloral, 6 multifloral and 6 honeydew were collected directly from apiaries localized in the South-Eastern Poland. Monosaccharide profiles (glucose/fructose ratio in honey were examined by HPLC method with ELSD-detection. The results were compared with other parameters used in honey sugar analysis, i.e. a level of reducing sugars measured by Lane-Eynon, sugar extract (refractometric, specific rotation angle and glucose content determined with Reflectoquant® test (Merck. Moreover, some physicochemical parameters such as: water content, free acids and HMF content by White method were tested. The content of monosaccharides determined by HPLC (as sum of glucose and fructose and Lane-Eynon methods were compared (r=0.83 and changed from 68% in rape honey to 78% on average in goldenrod honey. All studied honeys showed the ratio of fructose/glucose above 1.5. The measurement of the specific optical rotation allowed to distinguish nectar (- and honeydew (+ honey, but due to the heterogeneity of the results, they could not be used for identification of the floral honeys. The results of reflectometric test for glucose level were positively correlated with values measured by HPLC method (r=0.73.
Viviana Loaiza; Jayne L. Jonas; Anthony Joern
Key elements such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are often limiting relative to the nutritional needs of herbivores that feed on them. While N often limits insect herbivores in natural terrestrial ecosystems, the effect of P is poorly studied in the field, even though compelling hypotheses from the ecological stoichiometry literature predict its importance. We evaluated small-scale spatial distributions of, and herbivory by, grasshoppers among neighboring plots that vary in foliar-N and -P in tallgrass prairie.Grasshopper densities were 67％ greater in N-fertilized plots but detected no effect to grasshopper densities from P-fertilizer. Leaf damage to the dominant grass Andropogon gerardii was 32％ greater in N-fertilized plots, but no response to foliar-P was detected.Herbivore damage to a common forb, goldenrod (Solidago missouriensis), was not strongly linked by fertilizer treatments, although there was increased leaf damage in N-fertilizer treatments when no P was applied (a significant N × P interaction). Under field conditions at local scales, we conclude that spatially heterogeneous distributions of grasshoppers are primarily affected by foliar-N in host plants with little evidence that P-levels contribute to the spatial patterns.
Sidle, R.C.; Sopper, W.E.
Treated municipal waste water was irrigated in an abandoned old field area from 1964 to 1974 and in a mixed hardwood area (old gamelands) from 1964 to 1974. Total applications of Cd in the old field and old gamelands areas were 0.47 and 0.61 kg/ha, respectively. White spruce (Picea glauca Moench Voss.) and wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duchesne) foilage sampled from the old field showed no increase in Cd concentrations due to effluent irrigation, while goldenrod (Solidago sp. Ait.) had lower Cd levels in the treated area than in the unirrigated control area. Foilage sampled from red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.), in the old gamelands, showed no increase in Cd as a result of waste water irrigation. Soil Cd levels were not significantly affected by waste water irrigation in either area, except for the increase in soil Cd in the 0 to 5 cm depth of the old gamelands. The Cd/Zn ratios of the vegetation foilage were not significantly different between the treated and control areas.
ENGEL-COX,J.; ZIMMERMAN,E.; LEE,R.; WILLIAMS,J.; GREEN,T.; PAQUETTE,D.; HOODA,B.; SCARPITTA,S.; GENZER,P.; ET AL
Throughout the scientific community, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is renowned for its leading-edge research in physics, medicine, chemistry, biology, materials, and the environment. BNL is committed to supporting its world-class scientific research with an internationally recognized environmental protection program. The 1999 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's mission. BNL is located on 5,265 acres of pine barrens in Suffolk County in the center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated above a sole source aquifer at the headwaters of the Peconic River; therefore, protecting ground and surface water quality is a special concern. Approximately 3,600 acres of the site are undeveloped and serve as habitat for a wide variety of animals and plants, including one New York State endangered species, the tiger salamander, and two New York State threatened species, the banded sunfish and the stiff goldenrod. Monitoring, preserving, and restoring these ecological resources is a high priority for the Laboratory.
Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L
Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts.
Fuiano, N; Incorvaia, C; Riario-Sforza, G G; Casino, G
A case of anaphylaxis to honey in a 19 year old female sensitized to Compositae pollen is described. The patient suffered from summer rhinoconjunctivitis since seven years; in January 2006, ten minutes after eating bread and honey she developed angioedema of the lips and tongue, runny nose, cough, dyspnoea, and collapse, requiring hospitalization and treatment with high dose corticosteroids and anti-histamines. After two weeks, skin prick tests (SPT) with a standard panel of inhalant allergens and prick + prick with a number of kinds of honey were performed. SPTs were positive to mugwort, ragweed, dandelion, and goldenrod. Concerning honey, the prick + prick was positive to "Millefiori" (obtained from bees foraging on Compositae) and also to sunflower, limetree, and gum tree honey, while was negative for other kinds of honey, including the frequently used chestnut honey and acacia honey. The allergenic component responsible of anaphylaxis in this case seems to be a molecule occurring in Compositae pollens, as previously reported for other three reports, but also in pollen from plants of different families. Honey contains a large number of components derived from bees, such as gland secretions and wax, as well as from substances related to their foraging activity, such flower nectar and pollens (1, 2). Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and particularly to anaphylaxis (3-6). Among the pollens, the role of Compositae is somewhat controversial, since its responsibility is clear in some studies (3, 5, 6) but considered negligible in others (7). Here we present the case of a patient sensitized to Compositae pollen who had an anaphylactic reaction to the ingestion of honey obtained from bees foraging on Compositae flowers and was tested with a number of different varieties of honey.
Teets, Nicholas M; Yi, Shu-Xia; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L
The ability to rapidly respond to changes in temperature is a critical adaptation for insects and other ectotherms living in thermally variable environments. In a process called rapid cold hardening (RCH), insects significantly enhance cold tolerance following brief (i.e., minutes to hours) exposure to nonlethal chilling. Although the ecological relevance of RCH is well-established, the underlying physiological mechanisms that trigger RCH are poorly understood. RCH can be elicited in isolated tissues ex vivo, suggesting cold-sensing and downstream hardening pathways are governed by brain-independent signaling mechanisms. We previously provided preliminary evidence that calcium is involved in RCH, and here we firmly establish that calcium signaling mediates cold sensing in insect tissues. In tracheal cells of the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, chilling to 0 °C evoked a 40% increase in intracellular calcium concentration as determined by live-cell confocal imaging. Downstream of calcium entry, RCH conditions significantly increased the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) while reducing phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr306 residue. Pharmacological inhibitors of calcium entry, calmodulin activation, and CaMKII activity all prevented ex vivo RCH in midgut and salivary gland tissues, indicating that calcium signaling is required for RCH to occur. Similar results were obtained for a freeze-intolerant species, adults of the flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata, suggesting that calcium-mediated cold sensing is a general feature of insects. Our results imply that insect tissues use calcium signaling to instantly detect decreases in temperature and trigger downstream cold-hardening mechanisms.
Uresk, D.W.; Uresk, V.A.
Forty-four food items were identified in the fecal pellets of the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) on three areas of the Hanford Site. Microscopic analysis of plant fragments indicated that bitterbrush was the most common species occurring in the diets of deer from the B-C Cribs area. Russian thistle (Salsola kali) and goldenrod (Solidago sp.) were the most abundant plants found in the fecal pellets collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats, respectively. The similarity in diets among the habitats was low, ranging from 10% to 16%. Preference indices of forage plants among sites were not similar (7% to 19%). The B-C Cribs, B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond habitats were characterized for canopy cover and frequency of occurrence of plant species. Twelve species were sampled in the B-C Cribs and B Pond areas; 22 species were identified on the Gable Mountain site. The most commonly occurring plant was cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in all three sites. The similarity in frequency and canopy cover of plants was low among sites. Mule deer inhabiting the Hanford site can serve as a pathway for movement of radioactive material from low-level radioactive waste management areas to man. Maximum levels of /sup 137/Cs found in deer pellet groups collected from B Pond and Gable Mountain Pond areas were 100 pCi/g and 128 pCi/g, respectively. Background levels were reported at B-C Cribs area. Maximum /sup 90/Sr values found in deer pellets at B Pond were 107 pCi/g and 184 pCi/g at Gable Mountain Pond.
Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.
Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo
Concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in different tissues of edible wild herbaceous plants, that is, leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur (Petasites japonicas (Siebold et Zucc.) Maxim.), and leaf, stem and strobilus for fertile shoot of field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) were measured in 2012-2014 to clarify the effect in Japan from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of (137)Cs decreased with time with effective half-lives of ca. 450 d and 360 d for giant butterbur and field horsetail, respectively. The ANOVA test revealed that (40)K and (137)Cs distributions in leaf blade and petiole for giant butterbur and leaf and stem for field horsetail were different. Therefore, other plants, leaf and stem for Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr.) and Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.), and leaf blade and petiole for gingko (Ginkgo biloba L.) and Someiyoshino cherry (Cerasus × yedoensis (Matsum.) A.V.Vassil. 'Somei-yoshino') were collected from the same sampling field and their (137)Cs and (40)K concentrations were compared to those in the giant butterbur and field horsetail parts. For (137)Cs, concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 1.1-6.0 times higher than those in petiole and stem parts for all six plants. On the other hand, (40)K concentrations in leaf blade and leaf parts were 0.40-0.97 of those observed in petiole and stem parts. Discrimination ratios of (40)K/(137)Cs of leaf blade to petiole or leaf to stem were then calculated and they ranged from 0.09 to 0.57. These results suggested that Cs and K did not behave similarly in these plants. Thus, to understand the radiocesium fate in plants, K measurement results should not be used as an analog for Cs behavior although Cs is known to have a similar chemical reactivity to that of K.
Diana Bizecki Robson
Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.
Gantz, J D; Lee, Richard E
Rapid cold-hardening (RCH) is a highly conserved response in insects that induces physiological changes within minutes to hours of exposure to low temperature and provides protection from chilling injury. Recently, a similar response, termed drought-induced RCH, was described following as little as 6h of desiccation, producing a loss of less than 10% of fresh mass. In this study, we investigated the limits and mechanisms of this response in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, Tephritidae). The cold-hardiness of larvae increased markedly after as few as 2h of desiccation and a loss of less than 1% fresh mass, as organismal survival increased from 8% to 41% following exposure to -18 °C. Tissue-level effects of desiccation were observed within 1h, as 87% of midgut cells from desiccated larvae remained viable following freezing compared to 57% of controls. We also demonstrated that drought-induced RCH occurs independently of neuroendocrine input, as midgut tissue desiccated ex vivo displayed improved freeze-tolerance relative to control tissue (78-11% survival, respectively). Finally, though there was an increase in hemolymph osmolality beyond the expected effects of the osmo-concentration of solutes during dehydration, we determined that this increase was not due to the synthesis of glycerol, glucose, sorbitol, or trehalose. Our results indicate that E. solidaginis larvae are extremely sensitive to desiccation, which is a triggering mechanism for one or more physiological pathways that confer enhanced freeze-tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David S. Maehr
Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add