Reflectometry using longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves.
Chen, W; Wu, J
2000-09-01
A new technique of reflectometry using longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves is presented. Reflection coefficient as a function of angle incidence of an ultrasound beam with a finite beamwidth was measured for water-aluminum, water-brass, and water-glass interfaces. The measured values have matched very favorably with the results of numerical calculations based on the angular spectrum of waves method. It has been shown that the speeds of longitudinal, shear and Rayleigh waves of a solid can be determined very accurately by measuring a spectacularly reflected signal versus angle of incidence.
Gravity waves observation of wind field in stratosphere based on a Rayleigh Doppler lidar.
Zhao, Ruocan; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Xue, Xianghui; Zheng, Jun; Han, Yuli; Chen, Tingdi; Wang, Guocheng; Zhou, Yingjie
2016-03-21
Simultaneous wind and temperature measurements in stratosphere with high time-spatial resolution for gravity waves study are scarce. In this paper we perform wind field gravity waves cases in the stratosphere observed by a mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar. This lidar system with both wind and temperature measurements were implemented for atmosphere gravity waves research in the altitude region 15-60 km. Observations were carried out for two periods of time: 3 months started from November 4, 2014 in Xinzhou, China (38.425°N,112.729°E) and 2 months started from October 7, 2015 in Jiuquan, China (39.741°N, 98.495°E) . The mesoscale fluctuations of the horizontal wind velocity and the two dimensional spectra analysis of these fluctuations show the presence of dominant oscillatory modes with wavelength of 4-14 km and period of around 10 hours in several cases. The simultaneous temperature observations make it possible to identify gravity wave cases from the relationships between different variables: temperature and horizontal wind. The observed cases demonstrate the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar's capacity to study gravity waves.
Leaky Rayleigh wave investigation on mortar samples.
Neuenschwander, J; Schmidt, Th; Lüthi, Th; Romer, M
2006-12-01
Aggressive mineralized ground water may harm the concrete cover of tunnels and other underground constructions. Within a current research project mortar samples are used to study the effects of sulfate interaction in accelerated laboratory experiments. A nondestructive test method based on ultrasonic surface waves was developed to investigate the topmost layer of mortar samples. A pitch and catch arrangement is introduced for the generation and reception of leaky Rayleigh waves in an immersion technique allowing the measurement of their propagation velocity. The technique has been successfully verified for the reference materials aluminium, copper, and stainless steel. First measurements performed on mortar specimens demonstrate the applicability of this new diagnostic tool.
Seismic Rayleigh Wave Digital Processing Technology
Jie, Li
2013-04-01
In Rayleigh wave exploration, the digital processing of data plays a very important position. This directly affects the interpretation of ground effect. Therefore, the use of accurate processing software and effective method in the Rayleigh wave exploration has important theoretical and practical significance. Previously, Rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained by the one-dimensional phase analysis. This method requires channel spacing should be less than the effective wavelength. And minimal phase error will cause great changes in the phase velocity of Rayleigh wave. Damped least square method is a local linear model. It is easy to cause that inversion objective function cannot find the global optimal solution. Therefore, the method and the technology used in the past are difficult to apply the requirements of the current Rayleigh wave exploration. This study focused on the related technologies and algorithms of F-K domain dispersion curve extraction and GA global non-linear inversion, and combined with the impact of Rayleigh wave data acquisition parameters and the characteristics. Rayleigh wave exploration data processing software design and process technology research is completed. Firstly, the article describes the theoretical basis of Rayleigh wave method. This is also part of the theoretical basis of following treatment. The theoretical proof of existence of Rayleigh wave Dispersive in layered strata. Secondly, F-K domain dispersion curve extraction tests showed that the method can overcome the one-dimensional digital processing technology deficiencies, and make full use of multi-channel Rayleigh wave data record information. GA global non-linear inversion indicated that the inversion is not easy getting into local optimal solution. Thirdly, some examples illustrate each mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curve characteristics in the X-T domain. Tests demonstrated the impact on their extraction of dispersion curves. Parameters change example (including the X
Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray
Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang
2016-07-01
The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.
Workman, Eli; Lin, Fan-Chi; Koper, Keith D.
2017-01-01
We present a single station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 s the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 s, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher (˜2 per cent) and significantly higher (>20 per cent), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e. Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves and tilt noise.
Declercq, Nico Felicien
2014-02-01
When a bounded beam is incident on an immersed plate Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves can be generated. Because the amplitude of a bounded beam is not constant along its wave front, a specific beam profile is formed that influences the local efficiency of energy conversion of incident sound into Lamb waves or Rayleigh waves. Understanding this phenomenon is important for ultrasonic immersion experiments of objects because the quality of such experiments highly depends on the amount of energy transmitted into the object. This paper shows by means of experiments based on monochromatic Schlieren photography that the area within the bounded beam responsible for Lamb wave generation differs from that responsible for Rayleigh wave generation. Furthermore it provides experimental verification of an earlier numerical study concerning Rayleigh wave generation.
High-Frequency Rayleigh-Wave Method
Jianghai Xia; Richard D Millerg; Xu Yixian; Luo Yinhe; Chen Chao; Liu Jiangping; Julian Ivanov; Chong Zeng
2009-01-01
High-frequency (≥2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannei recording sys-tem have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave tech-niques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a nou-iuvasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution.
S SAHA; A CHATTOPADHYAY; K C MISTRI; A K SINGH
2017-09-01
The present study aims to study the propagation of Rayleigh-type wave in a layer, composed of isotropic viscoelastic material of Voigt type, with the effect of yielding base and rigid base in two distinct cases.With the aid of an analytical treatment, closed-form expressions of phase velocity and damped velocity for both the cases are deduced. As a special case of the problem it is found that obtained results are in good agreement with the established standard results existing in the literature. It is established through the study that volume viscoelastic and shear-viscoelastic material parameter and yielding parameter have significant effect on phaseand damped velocities of Rayleigh-type wave in both the cases. Numerical calculations and graphical illustration have been carried out for both the considered cases in the presence and the absence of viscoelasticity. Acomparative study has been performed to analyse the effect of layer with yielding base, traction-free base and rigid base on the phase and damped velocities of Rayleigh-type wave.
Seismic Tomography Around the Eastern Edge of the Alps From Ambient-Noise-Based Rayleigh Waves
Zigone, Dimitri; Fuchs, Florian; Kolinsky, Petr; Gröschl, Gidera; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Qorbani, Ehsan; Schippkus, Sven; Löberich, Eric; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group
2016-04-01
Inspecting ambient noise Green's functions is an excellent tool for monitoring the quality of seismic data, and for swiftly detecting changes in the configuration of a seismological station. Those Green's functions readily provide stable information about structural variations near the Earth's surface. We apply the technique to a network consisting of about 40 broadband stations in the area of the Easternmost Alps, in particular those operated by the University of Vienna (AlpArrayAustria) and the Vienna University of Technology. Those data are used to estimate Green's functions between station pairs; the Green's function consist mainly of surface waves, and we use them to investigate crustal structure near the Eastern edge of the Alps. To obtain better signal-to-noise ratios in the noise correlation functions, we adopt a procedure using short time windows (2 hr). Energy tests are performed on the data to remove effects of transient sources and instrumental problems. The resulting 9-component correlation tensor is used to make travel time measurements on the vertical, radial and transverse components. Those measurements can be used to evaluate dispersion using frequency-time analysis for periods between 5-30 seconds. After rejecting paths without sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we invert the velocity measurements using the Barmin et al. (2001) approach on a 10 km grid size. The obtained group velocity maps reveal complex structures with clear velocity contrasts between sedimentary basins and crystalline rocks. The Bohemian Massif and the Northern Calcareous Alps are associated with fast-velocity bodies. By contrast, the Vienna Basin presents clear low-velocity zones with group velocities down to 2 km/s at period of 7 s. The group velocities are then inverted to 3D images of shear wave speeds using the linear inversion method of Herrmann (2013). The results highlight the complex crustal structure and complement earthquake tomography studies in the region. Updated
Tian, Zhen; Huo, Linsheng; Gao, Weihang; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing
2017-10-01
Wave-based concrete structural health monitoring has attracted much attention. A stress wave experiences significant attenuation in concrete, however there is a lack of a unified method for predicting the attenuation coefficient of the stress wave. In this paper, a simple and effective absorption attenuation model of stress waves in concrete is developed based on the Rayleigh damping model, which indicates that the absorption attenuation coefficient of stress waves in concrete is directly proportional to the square of the stress wave frequency when the damping ratio is small. In order to verify the theoretical model, related experiments were carried out. During the experiments, a concrete beam was designed in which the d33-model piezoelectric smart aggregates were embedded to detect the propagation of stress waves. It is difficult to distinguish direct stress waves due to the complex propagation paths and the reflection and scattering of stress waves in concrete. Hence, as another innovation of this paper, a new method for computing the absorption attenuation coefficient based on the time-reversal method is developed. Due to the self-adaptive focusing properties of the time-reversal method, the time-reversed stress wave focuses and generates a peak value. The time-reversal method eliminates the adverse effects of multipaths, reflection, and scattering. The absorption attenuation coefficient is computed by analyzing the peak value changes of the time-reversal focused signal. Finally, the experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model.
Demonstration of Shear Waves, Lamb Waves, and Rayleigh Waves by Mode Conversion.
Leung, W. P.
1980-01-01
Introduces an experiment that can be demonstrated in the classroom to show that shear waves, Rayleigh waves, and Lamb waves can be easily generated and observed by means of mode conversion. (Author/CS)
Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia
José Badal
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.
Coexisting Raman- and Rayleigh-Enhanced Four-Wave Mixing in Femtosecond Polarization Beats
NIE Zhi-Qiang; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Yan-Peng; GAN Chen-Li; ZHENG Huai-Sin; LI Chang-Biao; LU Ke-Qing
2009-01-01
Based on the polarization interference of Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing processes,heterodyne detection of the Raman,Rayleigh and coexisting Raman and Rayleigh femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats is investigated in the cw and the three Markovian stochastic models,respectively.These two processes exhibit asymmetric and symmetric spectra,respectively,and the thermal effect in them can be suppressed by a field-correlation method.Such studies of coexisting Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing processes can have important applications in coherence quantum control,and quantum information processing.
Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko
2017-01-01
SUMMARYIn recent years there has been increasing interest in the study of seismic noise interferometry as it can provide a complementary approach to active source or earthquake based methods for imaging and continuous monitoring the shallow structure of the Earth. This meaningful information is extracted from wavefields propagating between those receiver positions at which seismic noise was recorded. Until recently, noise-based imaging relied mostly on Rayleigh waves. However, considering similar wavelengths, a combined use of Rayleigh and Love wave tomography can succeed in retrieving velocity heterogeneities at depth due to their different sensitivity kernels. Here we present a novel one-step algorithm for simultaneously inverting Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion data aiming at identifying and describing complex 3D velocity structures. The algorithm may help to accurately and efficiently map the shear-wave velocities and the Poisson ratio of the surficial soil layers. In the high-frequency range, the scattered part of the correlation functions stabilizes sufficiently fast to provide a reliable estimate of the velocity structure not only for imaging purposes but also allows for changes in the medium properties to be monitored. Such monitoring can be achieved with a high spatial resolution in 3D and with a time resolution as small as a few hours. In this article, we describe a recent array experiment in a volcanic environment in Solfatara (Italy) and we show that this novel approach has identified strong velocity variations at the interface between liquids and gas-dominated reservoirs, allowing localizing a region which is highly dynamic due to the interaction between the deep convection and its surroundings.
Selective Manipulation of Microscopic Particles with Precursor Swirling Rayleigh Waves
Riaud, Antoine; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Becerra, Loic; Thomas, Jean-Louis
2017-02-01
Contactless manipulation of microparticles is demonstrated with single-beam acoustical tweezers based on precursor swirling Rayleigh waves. These surface waves degenerate into acoustical vortices when crossing a stack made of a fluid layer and its solid support, hence creating a localized acoustical trap in a fluid cavity. They can be synthesized with a single interdigitated transducer whose spiraling shape encodes the phase of the field like a hologram. For applications, these tweezers have many attractive features: they are selective, flat, easily integrable, and compatible with disposable substrates.
Sensitivity comparisons of layered Rayleigh wave and Love wave acoustic devices
Pedrick, Michael K.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.
2007-04-01
Due to their high sensitivity, layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are ideal for various film characterization and sensor applications. Two prominent wave types realized in these devices are Rayleigh waves consisting of coupled Shear Vertical and Longitudinal displacements and Love waves consisting of Shear Horizontal displacements. Theoretical calculations of sensitivity of SAW devices to pertubations in wave propagation are limited to idealized scenarios. Derivations of sensitivity to mass change in an overlayer are often based on the effect of rigid body motion of the overlayer on the propagation of one of the aforementioned wave types. These devices often utilize polymer overlayers for enhanced sensitivity. The low moduli of such overlayers are not sufficiently stiff to accommodate the rigid body motion assumption. This work presents device modeling based on the Finite Element Method. A coupled-field model allows for a complete description of device operation including displacement profiles, frequency, wave velocity, and insertion loss through the inclusion of transmitting and receiving IDTs. Geometric rotations and coordinate transformations allow for the modeling of different crystal orientations in piezoelectric substrates. The generation of Rayleigh and Love Wave propagation was realized with this model by examining propagation in ST Quartz both normal to and in the direction of the X axis known to support Love Waves and Rayleigh Waves, respectively. Sensitivities of layered SAW devices to pertubations in mass, layer thickness, and mechanical property changes of a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and SU-8 overlayers were characterized and compared. Experimental validation of these models is presented.
Stoklasová, Pavla; Sedlák, Petr; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal
2015-02-01
We show that the Ritz-Rayleigh method can be used for calculation of velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) propagating in a general direction of an anisotropic medium of arbitrary symmetry class. The main advantage of this method is that expanding the displacement field of SAW into a fixed functional basis transforms the calculation of SAW velocities into a simple linear eigenvalue problem. The correctness and reliability of the proposed approach are verified on experimental SAW data obtained for generally oriented planes of an indium phosphide single crystal. The same experimental datasets are then used to discuss the invertibility of the method, i.e. the possibility of determination of elastic coefficients from SAW measurements in general directions. It is shown that the SAW data obtained on a single generally oriented plane are sufficient for such an inverse calculation for a cubic material only if they are complemented by measurements of velocities of bulk quasi-longitudinal (qL) waves propagating along the same free surface. Moreover, when the SAW and qL data are available from three almost perpendicular faces of a single specimen, the complete elastic tensor (21 independent constants) can be inversely determined, without considering a priori any symmetry constraints to the material.
Rayleigh-Wave Group-Velocity Tomography of Saudi Arabia
Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani
2017-04-01
We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.
Rayleigh wave inversion using heat-bath simulated annealing algorithm
Lu, Yongxu; Peng, Suping; Du, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Ma, Zhenyuan; Lin, Peng
2016-11-01
The dispersion of Rayleigh waves can be used to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. This is performed mainly by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves, which has been proven to be a highly nonlinear and multimodal problem, and it is unsuitable to use local search methods (LSMs) as the inversion algorithm. In this study, a new strategy is proposed based on a variant of simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. SA, which simulates the annealing procedure of crystalline solids in nature, is one of the global search methods (GSMs). There are many variants of SA, most of which contain two steps: the perturbation of model and the Metropolis-criterion-based acceptance of the new model. In this paper we propose a one-step SA variant known as heat-bath SA. To test the performance of the heat-bath SA, two models are created. Both noise-free and noisy synthetic data are generated. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and a variant of SA, known as the fast simulated annealing (FSA) algorithm, are also adopted for comparison. The inverted results of the synthetic data show that the heat-bath SA algorithm is a reasonable choice for Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion. Finally, a real-world inversion example from a coal mine in northwestern China is shown, which proves that the scheme we propose is applicable.
Pseudo Rayleigh wave in a partially saturated non-dissipative porous solid
Sharma, M. D.
2016-09-01
Propagation of surface waves is studied at the pervious boundary of a porous solid saturated with a mixture of two immiscible fluids. An approach, based on continuum mixture theory, is used to derive a secular equation for the propagation of harmonic waves at the stress-free plane surface of this non-dissipative medium. Numerical analysis shows that this secular equation may not represent the propagation of true surface wave in the porous aggregate. Then, this equation is solved numerically for the propagation of pseudo Rayleigh wave or the leaky surface waves. To ensure the existence of pseudo Rayleigh wave, capillary effect between two (wetting and non-wetting) pore-fluids is related to the partial saturation. Effects of porosity and partial saturation coupled with capillary effect are observed on the phase velocity of pseudo Rayleigh waves in sandstone saturated with water-CO2 mixture.
Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media.
Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel
2005-10-01
When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime.
Attenuation of Rayleigh Surface Waves in a Porous Material
DEBBOUB Salima; BOUMA(I)ZA Youcef; BOUDOUR Amar; TAHRAOUI Tarek
2012-01-01
Using acoustic microscopy at higher frequency,we show the velocity evolutions of surface acoustic waves,in particular Rayleigh waves that depend on porosity for a mesoporous silicon layer.The velocities are obtained from different V(z) curves,which are determined experimentally at a frequency of 600MHz.The analysis of V(z) data yields attenuation that is directly dependent on porosity.On the other hand,αN attenuation has been modeled and allows us to investigate its influence on the velocity VR of the propagation for Rayleigh waves.%Using acoustic microscopy at higher frequency, we show the velocity evolutions of surface acoustic waves, in particular Rayleigh waves that depend on porosity for a mesoporous silicon layer. The velocities are obtained from different V(z) curves, which are determined experimentally at a frequency of 600 MHz. The analysis of V(z) data yields attenuation that is directly dependent on porosity. On the other hand, αN attenuation has been modeled and allows us to investigate its influence on the velocity VR of the propagation for Rayleigh waves.
Retrieval of Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity from Ambient Vibration Recordings
Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat
2017-01-01
The analysis of ambient vibrations is a useful tool in microzonation and geotechnical investigations. Ambient vibrations are composed to a large part of surface waves, both Love and Rayleigh waves. One reason to analyse surface waves is that they carry information about the subsurface. The dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves and Love waves can be retrieved using array processing techniques. The Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation of the particle motion, can also be retrieved using array techniques. These quantities are used in an inversion procedure aimed at obtaining a structural model of the subsurface. The focus of this work is the retrieval of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. We show applications of the (ML) method presented in Maranó et al. (2012) to a number of sites in Switzerland. The sites examined are chosen to reflect a wide range of soil conditions that are of interest in microzonation studies. Using a synthetic wavefield with known structural model, we compare our results with theoretical ellipticity curves and we show the accuracy of the considered algorithm. The sense of rotation of the particle motion (prograde vs. retrograde) is also estimated. In addition, we show that by modelling the presence of both Love and Rayleigh waves it is possible to mitigate the disruptive influence of Love waves on the estimation of Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Using recordings from several real sites, we show that it is possible to retrieve the ellipticity curve over a broad range of frequencies. Fundamental modes and higher modes are retrieved. Singularities of the ellipticity, corresponding to a change of the sense of rotation from prograde to retrograde (or vice versa), are detected with great accuracy. Knowledge of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, including the sense of rotation, is useful in several ways. The ellipticity angle allows us to pinpoint accurately the frequency of singularities (i.e., peaks and zeros of the H/V representation of the
Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Tsoflias, G.P.
2011-01-01
Conventional surface wave inversion for shallow shear (S)-wave velocity relies on the generation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. This constrains the method to only laterally homogeneous (or very smooth laterally heterogeneous) earth models. Waveform inversion directly fits waveforms on seismograms, hence, does not have such a limitation. Waveforms of Rayleigh waves are highly related to S-wave velocities. By inverting the waveforms of Rayleigh waves on a near-surface seismogram, shallow S-wave velocities can be estimated for earth models with strong lateral heterogeneity. We employ genetic algorithm (GA) to perform waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for S-wave velocities. The forward problem is solved by finite-difference modeling in the time domain. The model space is updated by generating offspring models using GA. Final solutions can be found through an iterative waveform-fitting scheme. Inversions based on synthetic records show that the S-wave velocities can be recovered successfully with errors no more than 10% for several typical near-surface earth models. For layered earth models, the proposed method can generate one-dimensional S-wave velocity profiles without the knowledge of initial models. For earth models containing lateral heterogeneity in which case conventional dispersion-curve-based inversion methods are challenging, it is feasible to produce high-resolution S-wave velocity sections by GA waveform inversion with appropriate priori information. The synthetic tests indicate that the GA waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves has the great potential for shallow S-wave velocity imaging with the existence of strong lateral heterogeneity. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Effects on PP waves and Rayleigh waves of water column approximation
Zhou, Y.; Ni, S.
2015-12-01
Spectral-element method (SEM) combines the flexibility of the finite-element method and the accuracy of the pseudo-spectral method. It can handle the complexity of the 3-D earth model, such as heterogeneity of velocity and density, anisotropy, anelasticity, sharp velocity and density contrasts, topography. And with water column approximation, it can also deal with oceans. Because of its powerful ability, there are a wide range of application of SEM in studies of PP waves and Rayleigh waves. PP wave and its precursors have been used in measuring topography of 410 km or 660 km. Rayleigh waves are the most recognizable part of the seismograms and have been broadly applied in crustal and uppermost mantle tomography. In global SEM simulation, oceans are usually assumed to be incompressible, which means that the entire water column moves as a whole as a result of the normal displacement of the seafloor. It is necessary to investigate the accuracy of water column approximation when thickness of ocean approaches wavelength of the wave in the ocean water. In this paper, based on plane wave assumption, we study both the accurate form and water column approximate form of effective boundary condition. The reflection coefficient equation of PP waves with effective boundary of water was derived. Accurate and approximate PP reflection coefficient with oceans in different depth is demonstrated. The formula of Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion with effective water boundary is also investigated. It is shown that water column approximation in global SEM simulation is not sufficient for some parts of the ocean.
Seismic metasurfaces: Sub-wavelength resonators and Rayleigh wave interaction
Colquitt, D J; Craster, R V; Roux, P; Guenneau, S R L
2016-01-01
We consider the canonical problem of an array of rods, which act as resonators, placed on an elastic substrate; the substrate being either a thin elastic plate or an elastic half-space. In both cases the flexural plate, or Rayleigh surface, waves in the substrate interact with the resonators to create interesting effects such as effective band-gaps for surface waves or filters that transform surface waves into bulk waves; these effects have parallels in the field of optics where such sub-wavelength resonators create metamaterials, and metasurfaces, in the bulk and at the surface respectively. Here we carefully analyse this canonical problem by extracting the dispersion relations analytically thereby examining the influence of both the flexural and compressional resonances on the propagating wave. For an array of resonators atop an elastic half-space we augment the analysis with numerical simulations. Amongst other effects, we demonstrate the striking effect of a dispersion curve that transitions from Rayleigh...
RAYLEIGH LAMB WAVES IN MICROPOLAR ISOTROPIC ELASTIC PLATE
Rajneesh Kumar; Geeta Partap
2006-01-01
The propagation of waves in a homogeneous isotropic micropolar elastic cylindrical plate subjected to stress free conditions is investigated. The secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric wave mode propagation are derived. At short wave limit,the secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric waves in a stress free circular plate reduces to Rayleigh surface wave frequency equation. Thin plate results are also obtained. The amplitudes of displacements and microrotation components are obtained and depicted graphically. Some special cases are also deduced from the present investigations. The secular equations for symmetric and skew symmetric modes are also presented graphically.
Zhang, Xiaoming
2016-11-01
The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to demonstrate an effective method for estimating viscoelasticity based on measurements of the Rayleigh surface wave speed. It is important to identify the surface wave mode for measuring surface wave speed. A concept of start frequency of surface waves is proposed. The surface wave speeds above the start frequency should be used to estimate the viscoelasticity of tissue. The motivation was to develop a noninvasive surface wave elastography (SWE) technique for assessing skin disease by measuring skin viscoelastic properties. Using an optical based SWE system, the author generated a local harmonic vibration on the surface of phantom using an electromechanical shaker and measured the resulting surface waves on the phantom using an optical vibrometer system. The surface wave speed was measured using a phase gradient method. It was shown that different standing wave modes were generated below the start frequency because of wave reflection. However, the pure symmetric surface waves were generated from the excitation above the start frequency. Using the wave speed dispersion above the start frequency, the viscoelasticity of the phantom can be correctly estimated.
Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media
Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.
2011-01-01
Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P
On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues
Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)
2011-10-21
Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.
On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues.
Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F
2011-10-21
Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40–500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.
Lognonné, Philippe; Karakostas, Foivos; Rolland, Lucie; Nishikawa, Yasuhiro
2016-08-01
Acoustic coupling between solid Earth and atmosphere has been observed since the 1960s, first from ground-based seismic, pressure, and ionospheric sensors and since 20 years with various satellite measurements, including with global positioning system (GPS) satellites. This coupling leads to the excitation of the Rayleigh surface waves by local atmospheric sources such as large natural explosions from volcanoes, meteor atmospheric air-bursts, or artificial explosions. It contributes also in the continuous excitation of Rayleigh waves and associated normal modes by atmospheric winds and pressure fluctuations. The same coupling allows the observation of Rayleigh waves in the thermosphere most of the time through ionospheric monitoring with Doppler sounders or GPS. The authors review briefly in this paper observations made on Earth and describe the general frame of the theory enabling the computation of Rayleigh waves for models of telluric planets with atmosphere. The authors then focus on Mars and Venus and give in both cases the atmospheric properties of the Rayleigh normal modes and associated surface waves compared to Earth. The authors then conclude on the observation perspectives especially for Rayleigh waves excited by atmospheric sources on Mars and for remote ionospheric observations of Rayleigh waves excited by quakes on Venus.
Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Xia, Jian-ping
2015-06-01
The propagation characteristics of laser-generated Rayleigh waves in coating-substrate structures with anisotropic and viscoelastic properties have been investigated quantitatively. Based on the plane strain theory, finite element models for simulating laser-generated Rayleigh waves in coating-substrate structures are established, in which the carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composite and aluminum are used as the coating and/or the substrate alternately. The numerical results exhibit that the characteristics of the laser-generated Rayleigh waves, including attenuation, velocity, and dispersion, are mainly and closely related to the anisotropic and viscoelastic properties of the composite in the coating-substrate structures.
On Lamb and Rayleigh Wave Convergence in Viscoelastic Tissues
Nenadic, Ivan Z.; Urban, Matthew W.; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A.; Humphrey, Tye C.; Greenleaf, James F.
2012-01-01
Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (LDUV) to quantify mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ’s surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40–500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium. PMID:21970846
Nonlinear mixing of laser generated narrowband Rayleigh surface waves
Bakre, Chaitanya; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan
2017-02-01
This research presents the nonlinear mixing technique of two co-directionally travelling Rayleigh surface waves generated and detected using laser ultrasonics. The optical generation of Rayleigh waves on the specimen is obtained by shadow mask method. In conventional nonlinear measurements, the inherently small higher harmonics are greatly influenced by the nonlinearities caused by coupling variabilities and surface roughness between the transducer and specimen interface. The proposed technique is completely contactless and it should be possible to eliminate this problem. Moreover, the nonlinear mixing phenomenon yields not only the second harmonics, but also the sum and difference frequency components, which can be used to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of the specimen. In this paper, we will be addressing the experimental configurations for this technique. The proposed technique is validated experimentally on Aluminum 7075 alloy specimen.
Rayleigh wave scattering at the foot of a mountain
P. S. Deshwal
1987-01-01
Full Text Available A theoretical study of scattering of seismic waves at the foot of a mountain is discussed here. A mountain of an arbitrary shape and of width a (0≤x≤a, z=0 in the surface of an elastic solid medium (z≥0 is hit by a Rayleigh wave. The method of solution is the technique of Wiener and Hopf. The reflected, transmitted and scattered waves are obtained by inversion of Fourier transforms. The scattered waves behave as decaying cylindrical waves at distant points and have a large amplitude near the foot of the mountain. The transmitted wave decreases exponentially as its distance from the other end of the mountain increases.
Experimental and theoretical study of Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation
Rogers, Wayne P.; Datta, Subhendu K.; Ju, T. H.
1990-01-01
Many space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom, contain critical thin-walled components. The structural integrity of thin-walled plates and shells can be monitored effectively using acoustic emission and ultrasonic testing in the Rayleigh-Lamb wave frequency range. A new PVDF piezoelectric sensor has been developed that is well suited to remote, inservice nondestructive evaluation of space structures. In the present study the new sensor was used to investigate Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation in a plate. The experimental apparatus consisted of a glass plate (2.3 m x 25.4 mm x 5.6 mm) with PVDF sensor (3 mm diam.) mounted at various positions along its length. A steel ball impact served as a simulated acoustic emission source, producing surface waves, shear waves and longitudinal waves with dominant frequencies between 1 kHz and 200 kHz. The experimental time domain wave-forms were compared with theoretical predictions of the wave propagation in the plate. The model uses an analytical solution for the Green's function and the measured response at a single position to predict response at any other position in the plate. Close agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results.
Crustal Structure of the Pakistan Himalayas from Ambient Noise and Seismic Rayleigh Wave Inversion
Li, A.
2007-05-01
The western Himalayan syntaxi is a unique feature resulted from the India-Asia collision and its formation remains poorly understood. To image crustal structure in the western syntaxi, we analyze Rayleigh waves from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data recorded during the Pakistan Broadband Seismic Experiment. The Pakistan experiment included 9 broadband stations with an aperture of ~200 km and operated from September to December in 1992. We compute cross-correlations of ambient noise data on an hourly base and stack all the cross-correlations for 70 days to produce the estimated Green functions. Power spectrum analysis shows that the dominant energy is from 0.15 to 0.25 Hz and from 0.05 to 0.07 Hz, consistent with the well-know background seismic noise. A phase with large amplitude appears at near zero time on almost all stacked cross- correlations and its origin is not clear to us at this moment. Rayleigh waves can be clearly observed for station pairs at the distance of 80 km and larger but are contaminated by the near zero time phase at shorter station spacing. Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods of 4 to 15 s will be produced from the ambient noise data. Using regional and teleseismic earthquakes, we expect to obtain Rayleigh wave dispersions at periods from 15 to 50 s. The phase velocities from both datasets will be inverted for crustal thickness and shear-wave structure beneath the Pakistan Himalayas.
Application of particle swarm optimization to interpret Rayleigh wave dispersion curves
Song, Xianhai; Tang, Li; Lv, Xiaochun; Fang, Hongping; Gu, Hanming
2012-09-01
Rayleigh waves have been used increasingly as an appealing tool to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. However, inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this study, we proposed and tested a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a global optimization strategy that simulates the social behavior observed in a flock (swarm) of birds searching for food. A simple search strategy in PSO guides the algorithm toward the best solution through constant updating of the cognitive knowledge and social behavior of the particles in the swarm. To evaluate calculation efficiency and stability of PSO to inversion of surface wave data, we first inverted three noise-free and three noise-corrupted synthetic data sets. Then, we made a comparative analysis with genetic algorithms (GA) and a Monte Carlo (MC) sampler and reconstructed a histogram of model parameters sampled on a low-misfit region less than 15% relative error to further investigate the performance of the proposed inverse procedure. Finally, we inverted a real-world example from a waste disposal site in NE Italy to examine the applicability of PSO on Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrate that particle swarm optimization can be used for quantitative interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. PSO seems superior to GA and MC in terms of both reliability and computational efforts. The great advantages of PSO are fast in locating the low misfit region and easy to implement. Also there are only three parameters to tune (inertia weight or constriction factor, local and global acceleration constants). Theoretical results exist to explain how to tune these parameters.
Rayleigh scattering of a spherical sound wave.
Godin, Oleg A
2013-02-01
Acoustic Green's functions for a homogeneous medium with an embedded spherical obstacle arise in analyses of scattering by objects on or near an interface, radiation by finite sources, sound attenuation in and scattering from clouds of suspended particles, etc. An exact solution of the problem of diffraction of a monochromatic spherical sound wave on a sphere is given by an infinite series involving products of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials. In this paper, a simple, closed-form solution is obtained for scattering by a sphere with a radius that is small compared to the wavelength. Soft, hard, impedance, and fluid obstacles are considered. The solution is valid for arbitrary positions of the source and receiver relative to the scatterer. Low-frequency scattering is shown to be rather sensitive to boundary conditions on the surface of the obstacle. Low-frequency asymptotics of the scattered acoustic field are extended to transient incident waves. The asymptotic expansions admit an intuitive interpretation in terms of image sources and reduce to classical results in appropriate limiting cases.
RAYLEIGH WAVE STUDIES OF CATHODIC H-CHARGING OF Fe
Lunarska, E.; Fiore, N.
1981-01-01
The attenuation of 2-6 MHz Rayleigh waves /RW/ was measured in sheet samples of Fe which were undergoing electrolytic charging with H. The cathodic polarization and As2O3 addition into electrolyte were found to effect the attenuation and velocity of the surface waves. The attenuation changes were retarded by the deposition of a thin /2µm/ layer of Cu on the Fe surface, with the Cu acting as a H-permeation barrier. The decrease in attenuation was caused by the entry of H into solid solution at...
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Gritto, R.
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of {minus}100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k{sub p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Roux-Marchand, Thibaut; Beyssen, Denis; Sarry, Frederic; Elmazria, Omar
2015-04-01
When a microdroplet is put on the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave path, longitudinal waves are radiated into the liquid and induce several phenomena such as the wellknown surface acoustic wave streaming. At the same time, the temperature of the microdroplet increases as it has been shown. In this paper, we study the temperature uniformity of a microdroplet heated by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave for discrete microfluidic applications such as biological reactions. To precisely ascertain the temperature uniformity and not interfere with the biological reaction, we used an infrared camera. We then tested the temperature uniformity as a function of three parameters: the microdroplet volume, the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave frequency, and the continuous applied radio frequency power. Based on these results, we propose a new device structure to develop a future lab on a chip based on reaction temperatures.
Field-Correlation Effects on Rayleigh-Enhanced Nondegenerate Four-Wave Mixing
王延帮; 姜谦; 米辛; 俞祖和; 傅盘铭
2002-01-01
We study Rayleigh-enhanced nondegenerate four-wave mixing (NFWM) with time-delayed, correlated fluctuating fields. The importance of the field correlation is revealed in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM spectrum when the time delay is varied. The Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM is employed to study the ultrafast processes in the frequency domain. A relaxation time as short as 220 fs was deduced in the Rayleigh-enhanced NFWM experiments in carbon disulphide.
Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile
T.A. Sanny
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.
Estimating Rayleigh wave particle motion from three-component array analysis of ambient vibrations
Poggi, Valerio; Fäh, Donat
2010-01-01
Several methods have been proposed in the past years to extract the Rayleigh wave ellipticity from horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of single station ambient noise recordings. The disadvantage of this set of techniques is the difficulty in clearly identifying and separating the contribution of higher modes. In most cases, only the fundamental mode of ellipticity can be identified. Moreover, it is generally difficult to correct for the energy of SH and Love waves present in the horizontal components of the ambient vibration wavefield. We introduce a new methodology to retrieve Rayleigh wave ellipticity using high-resolution frequency-wavenumber array analysis. The technique is applied to the three components of motion and is based on the assumption that an amplitude maximum in the f-k cross-spectrum must represent the true power amplitude of the corresponding signal. In the case of Rayleigh waves, therefore, the ratio between maxima obtained from the horizontal (radial-polarized) and vertical components of motion will also represent the frequency-dependent ellipticity function. Consequently, if we can identify the Rayleigh dispersion curves of several modes on the f-k plane, then the corresponding modal ellipticity patterns can also be separated and extracted. To test the approach, synthetic and real data sets were processed. In all tested cases, a reliable estimation of segments of the fundamental mode ellipticity was obtained. The identification of higher modes is possible in most cases. The quality of results depends on the selected array geometry and the signal-to-noise ratio, with a major improvement achieved by increasing the number of receivers employed during the survey. An experiment conducted in the town of Visp (Switzerland) allowed the retrieval of portions of ellipticity curves up to the second Rayleigh higher mode, using two concentric circular array configurations of 14 and 11 receivers each.
Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai
2012-12-01
A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.
Torello, David [GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech and GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States)
2015-03-31
This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.
Numerical simulation for recognition of coalfield fire areas by Rayleigh waves
Hu Mingshun; Pan Dongming; Chen Shenen; Dong Shouhua; Li Juanjuan
2013-01-01
Effective recognition of a coalfield fire area improves fire-fighting efficiency and helps avoid potential geological hazards.Coalfield fire areas are hard to detect accurately using general geophysical methods.This paper describes simulations of shallow,buried coalfield fires based on real geological conditions.Recognizing the coalfield fire by Rayleigh wave is proposed.Four representative geological models are constructed,namely; the non-burning model,the pseudo-burning model,the real-burning model,and the hidden-burning model.Numerical simulation using these models shows many markedly different characteristics between them in terms of Rayleigh wave dispersion and Eigen displacement.These characteristics,as well as the shear wave velocity obtained by inverting the fundamental dispersion,make it possible to distinguish the type of the coalfield fire area and indentify the real and serious coalfield fire area.The results are very helpful for future application of Rayleigh waves for the detection of coalfield fire area.
Zhao, Kaifeng; Luo, Yinhe; Xie, Jun
2017-02-01
In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging broad-band (10-150 s) Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps on a continental scale using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We obtain broad-band Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise data between all station pairs of USArray and measure the dispersion curves from these cross-correlations at a period band of 10-150 s. The large-scale dense USArray enables us to obtain over 500 000 surface wave paths which cover the contiguous United States densely. Using these paths, we generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps at 10-150 s periods. Our phase velocity maps are similar to other reported phase velocity maps based on ambient noise data at short periods (phase velocity maps from ANT can be used to construct 3-D lithospheric and asthenospheric velocity structures.
Rayleigh-type waves in nonlocal micropolar solid half-space.
Khurana, Aarti; Tomar, S K
2017-01-01
Propagation of Rayleigh type surface waves in nonlocal micropolar elastic solid half-space has been investigated. Two modes of Rayleigh-type waves are found to propagate under certain approximations. Frequency equations of these Rayleigh type modes and their conditions of existence have been derived. These frequency equations are found to be dispersive in character due to the presence of micropolarity and nonlocality parameters in the medium. One of the frequency equations is a counterpart of the classical Rayleigh waves and the other is new and has appeared due to micropolarity of the medium. Phase speeds of these waves are computed numerically for Magnesium crystal and their variation against wavenumber are presented graphically. Comparisons have been made between the phase speeds of Rayleigh type waves through nonlocal micropolar, local micropolar and elastic solid half-spaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spectral Ratios for Crack Detection Using P and Rayleigh Waves
Enrique Olivera-Villaseñor
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain numerical results to help the detection and characterization of subsurface cracks in solids by the application of P and Rayleigh elastic waves. The response is obtained from boundary integral equations, which belongs to the field of elastodynamics. Once the implementation of the boundary conditions has been done, a system of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind and order zero is found. This system is solved using the method of Gaussian elimination. Resonance peaks in the frequency domain allow us to infer the presence of cracks using spectral ratios. Several models of cracked media were analyzed, where effects due to different crack orientations and locations were observed. The results obtained are in good agreement with those published in the references.
Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate
Kamas, Tuncay; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Lin, Bin
2015-03-01
This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Quasi-Rayleigh waves in butt-welded thick steel plate
Kamas, Tuncay, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu; Lin, Bin, E-mail: kamas@email.sc.edu, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu, E-mail: linbin@cec.sc.edu [Mechanical Engineering University of South Carolina, 300 Main Str., Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)
2015-03-31
This paper discusses theoretical and experimental analyses of weld guided surface acoustic waves (SAW) through the guided wave propagation (GWP) analyses. The GWP analyses have been carried out by utilizing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) for in situ structural inspection of a thick steel plate with butt weld as the weld bead is ground flush. Ultrasonic techniques are commonly used for validation of welded structures in many in-situ monitoring applications, e.g. in off-shore structures, in nuclear and pressure vessel industries and in a range of naval applications. PWAS is recently employed in such ultrasonic applications as a resonator as well as a transducer. Quasi-Rayleigh waves a.k.a. SAW can be generated in relatively thick isotropic elastic plate having the same phase velocity as Rayleigh waves whereas Rayleigh waves are a high frequency approximation of the first symmetric (S0) and anti-symmetric (A0) Lamb wave modes. As the frequency becomes very high the S0 and the A0 wave speeds coalesce, and both have the same value. This value is exactly the Rayleigh wave speed and becomes constant along the frequency i.e. Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive guided surface acoustic waves. The study is followed with weld-GWP tests through the pitch-catch method along the butt weld line. The tuning curves of quasi-Rayleigh wave are determined to show the tuning and trapping effect of the weld bead that has higher thickness than the adjacent plates on producing a dominant quasi-Rayleigh wave mode. The significant usage of the weld tuned and guided quasi-Rayleigh wave mode is essentially discussed for the applications in the in-situ inspection of relatively thick structures with butt weld such as naval offshore structures. The paper ends with summary, conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Rayleigh Waves in a Rotating Orthotropic Micropolar Elastic Solid Half-Space
Baljeet Singh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A problem on Rayleigh wave in a rotating half-space of an orthotropic micropolar material is considered. The governing equations are solved for surface wave solutions in the half space of the material. These solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at free surface of the half-space to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. For numerical purpose, the frequency equation is approximated. The nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed and shown graphically versus nondimensional frequency and rotation-frequency ratio for both orthotropic micropolar elastic and isotropic micropolar elastic cases. The numerical results show the effects of rotation, orthotropy, and nondimensional frequency on the nondimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.
Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) using Earthquake and Ambient Noise Data
Aleqabi, G. I.; Wiens, D.; Wysession, M. E.; Shen, W.; van der Lee, S.; Revenaugh, J.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.
2015-12-01
The structure of the North American Mid-Continent Rift Zone (MCRZ) is examined using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes and ambient seismic noise recorded by the Superior Province Rifting EarthScope Experiment (SPREE). Eighty-four broadband seismometers were deployed during 2011-2013 in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA, and Ontario, CA, along three lines; two across the rift axis and the third along the rift axis. These stations, together with the EarthScope Transportable Array, provided excellent coverage of the MCRZ. The 1.1 Ga Mesoproterozoic failed rift consists of two arms, buried under post-rifting sedimentary formations that meet at Lake Superior. We compare two array-based tomography methods using teleseismic fundamental mode Rayleigh waves phase and amplitude measurements: the two-plane wave method (TPWM, Forsyth, 1998) and the automated surface wave phase velocity measuring system (ASWMS, Jin and Gaherty, 2015). Both array methods and the ambient noise method give relatively similar results showing low velocity zones extending along the MCRZ arms. The teleseismic Rayleigh wave results from 18 - 180 s period are combined with short period phase velocity results (period 8-30 s) obtained from ambient noise by cross correlation. Phase velocities from the methods are very similar at periods of 18-30 where results overlap; in this period range we use the average of the noise and teleseismic results. Finally the combined phase velocity curve is inverted using a Monte-Carlo inversion method at each geographic point in the model. The results show low velocities at shallow depths (5-10 km) that are the result of very deep sedimentary fill within the MCRZ. Deeper-seated low velocity regions may correspond to mafic underplating of the rift zone.
Caffagni, Enrico; Cattaneo, Marco; Bordoni, Paola
2016-04-01
Spectral ratio techniques, such as the Horizontal-to-Vertical (HV) and Standard (SSR) may exhibit different trends in specific frequency bands when conducted in alluvial basins. A possible explanation of this discrepancy can be provided by the presence of Rayleigh oscillations, that are considered responsible of an amplification of the vertical component with respect to the horizontal. We propose a new methodology for the identification of Rayleigh waves arrivals, to test on small-size basins. With this procedure, candidate Rayleigh waves are localized in time-frequency domain on an instantaneous polarization plane which is constructed by defining the instantaneous maximum vertical and horizontal spectral amplitudes. Validation of the candidate Rayleigh arrivals is performed by evaluating the instantaneous ellipticity. This step yields to a quantitative measure of the polarization, providing an indicator of the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion. We tested this methodology in the Norcia basin (central Italy) using a 18 selected earthquakes (2.0 L'Aquila sequence (2009). We demonstrate the robustness of our methodology by localizing evidences of Rayleigh wave arrivals immediately from (1 s) up to 30 s after the first S-wave group, even for low-magnitude events (Ml < 3.0). The generation of the detected Rayleigh waves analyzed in time-frequency range, appears to be magnitude-dependent and in function of the location in the basin. Our quantitative estimate of the Rayleigh polarization resulted to be comparable to the HV response value in specific frequency bands, for example in deamplification, demonstrating a plausible connection with Rayleigh oscillations. The authors encourage the usage or implementation of similar procedures conducted in basin studies, in order to determine quantitatively the Rayleigh contribution to ground motion, for a better characterization of the local seismic response.
Rayleigh waves ellipticity and mode mis-identification in multi-channel analysis of surface waves
Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Strobbia, Claudio
dispersion curve which is then inverted. Typically, single component vertical and multi channel receivers are used. In most cases the inversion of the dispersion properties is carried out assuming that the experimental dispersion curve corresponds to a single mode, mostly the fundamental Rayleigh mode......-identification known as ‘osculation’ (‘kissing’). In general it is called ‘osculation point’ the point where the energy peak shifts at low frequencies from the fundamental to the first higher mode. This jump occurs, with a continuous smooth transition, around a well-define frequency where the two modes get very close...... the vertical component of ground motion, as the mode osculation is linked to the Rayleigh wave ellipticity polarization, and therefore we conclude that multi-component data, using also horizontal receivers, can help discern the multi-modal nature of surface waves. Finally we introduce a-priori detectors...
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2011-01-01
This letter reports experimental observation of a direct correlation between the acoustic nonlinearity parameter (NP) measured with nonlinear Rayleigh waves and the accumulation of plasticity damage in an AZ31 magnesium alloy plate specimen.Rayleigh waves are generated and detected with wedge transducers,and the NPs are measured at different stress levels.The results show that there is a significant increase in the NPs with monotonic tensile loads surpassing the material's yielding stress.The research sugge...
Enhanced sensing and conversion of ultrasonic Rayleigh waves by elastic metasurfaces.
Colombi, Andrea; Ageeva, Victoria; Smith, Richard J; Clare, Adam; Patel, Rikesh; Clark, Matt; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V
2017-07-28
Recent years have heralded the introduction of metasurfaces that advantageously combine the vision of sub-wavelength wave manipulation, with the design, fabrication and size advantages associated with surface excitation. An important topic within metasurfaces is the tailored rainbow trapping and selective spatial frequency separation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves using graded metasurfaces. This frequency dependent trapping and spatial frequency segregation has implications for energy concentrators and associated energy harvesting, sensing and wave filtering techniques. Different demonstrations of acoustic and electromagnetic rainbow devices have been performed, however not for deep elastic substrates that support both shear and compressional waves, together with surface Rayleigh waves; these allow not only for Rayleigh wave rainbow effects to exist but also for mode conversion from surface into shear waves. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only elastic Rayleigh wave rainbow trapping, by taking advantage of a stop-band for surface waves, but also selective mode conversion of surface Rayleigh waves to shear waves. These experiments performed at ultrasonic frequencies, in the range of 400-600 kHz, are complemented by time domain numerical simulations. The metasurfaces we design are not limited to guided ultrasonic waves and are a general phenomenon in elastic waves that can be translated across scales.
Orienting ocean-bottom seismometers from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarizations
Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin; Crawford, Wayne C.; Deen, Martha
2017-03-01
We present two independent, automated methods for estimating the absolute horizontal misorientation of seismic sensors. We apply both methods to 44 free-fall ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) of the RHUM-RUM experiment (http://www.rhum-rum.net/). The techniques measure the 3-D directions of particle motion of (1) P-waves and (2) Rayleigh waves of earthquake recordings. For P-waves, we used a principal component analysis to determine the directions of particle motions (polarizations) in multiple frequency passbands. We correct for polarization deviations due to seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities using a simple fit equation, which yields significantly more accurate OBS orientations. For Rayleigh waves, we evaluated the degree of elliptical polarization in the vertical plane in the time and frequency domain. The results obtained for the RHUM-RUM OBS stations differed, on average, by 3.1° and 3.7° between the methods, using circular mean and median statistics, which is within the methods' estimate uncertainties. Using P-waves, we obtained orientation estimates for 31 ocean-bottom seismometers with an average uncertainty (95 per cent confidence interval) of 11° per station. For 7 of these OBS, data coverage was sufficient to correct polarization measurements for underlying seismic anisotropy and dipping discontinuities, improving their average orientation uncertainty from 11° to 6° per station. Using Rayleigh waves, we obtained misorientation estimates for 40 OBS, with an average uncertainty of 16° per station. The good agreement of results obtained using the two methods indicates that they should also be useful for detecting misorientations of terrestrial seismic stations.
Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures
Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena
We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.
Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocity by inversion of Rayleigh waves
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.
1999-01-01
The shear-wave (S-wave) velocity of near-surface materials (soil, rocks, pavement) and its effect on seismic-wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering, and environmental studies. Rayleigh-wave phase velocity of a layered-earth model is a function of frequency and four groups of earth properties: P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and thickness of layers. Analysis of the Jacobian matrix provides a measure of dispersion-curve sensitivity to earth properties. S-wave velocities are the dominant influence on a dispersion curve in a high-frequency range (>5 Hz) followed by layer thickness. An iterative solution technique to the weighted equation proved very effective in the high-frequency range when using the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques. Convergence of the weighted solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Synthetic examples demonstrated calculation efficiency and stability of inverse procedures. We verify our method using borehole S-wave velocity measurements.Iterative solutions to the weighted equation by the Levenberg-Marquardt and singular-value decomposition techniques are derived to estimate near-surface shear-wave velocity. Synthetic and real examples demonstrate the calculation efficiency and stability of the inverse procedure. The inverse results of the real example are verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements.
Crustal structure of northern Italy from the ellipticity of Rayleigh waves
Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.
2017-04-01
Northern Italy is a diverse geological region, including the wide and thick Po Plain sedimentary basin, which is bounded by the Alps and the Apennines. The seismically slow shallow structure of the Po Plain is difficult to retrieve with classical seismic measurements such as surface wave dispersion, yet the detailed structure of the region greatly affects seismic wave propagation and hence seismic ground shaking. Here we invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements in the period range 10-60 s for 95 stations in northern Italy using a fully non linear approach to constrain vertical vS,vP and density profiles of the crust beneath each station. The ellipticity of Rayleigh wave ground motion is primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity beneath the recording station, which reduces along-path contamination effects. We use the 3D layering structure in MAMBo, a previous model based on a compilation of geological and geophysical information for the Po Plain and surrounding regions of northern Italy, and employ ellipticity data to constrain vS,vP and density within its layers. We show that ellipticity data from ballistic teleseismic wave trains alone constrain the crustal structure well. This leads to MAMBo-E, an updated seismic model of the region's crust that inherits information available from previous seismic prospection and geological studies, while fitting new seismic data well. MAMBo-E brings new insights into lateral heterogeneity in the region's subsurface. Compared to MAMBo, it shows overall faster seismic anomalies in the region's Quaternary, Pliocene and Oligo-Miocene layers and better delineates the seismic structures of the Po Plain at depth. Two low velocity regions are mapped in the Mesozoic layer in the western and eastern parts of the Plain, which seem to correspond to the Monferrato sedimentary basin and to the Ferrara-Romagna thrust system, respectively.
Assessing the viscoelasticity of chicken liver by OCE and a Rayleigh wave model
Han, Zhaolong; Liu, Chih-hao; Singh, Manmohan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Raghunathan, Raksha; Wu, Chen; Larin, Kirill V.
2017-02-01
This study investigates the feasibility of quantifying the viscoelasticity of soft tissues with a dynamic noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) technique coupled with a Rayleigh wave model. Spectral analysis of an air-pulse induced elastic wave as measured by OCE provided the elastic wave dispersion curve. The dispersion curve was fitted to an analytical solution of the Rayleigh wave model to determine the Young's modulus and shear viscosity of samples. In order to validate the method, 10% gelatin phantoms with and without different concentrations of oil were prepared and tested by OCE and mechanical testing. Results demonstrated that the elasticities as assessed by the Rayleigh wave model generally agreed well with mechanical testing, and that the viscosity in the phantom with oil samples was higher than the phantoms without oil, which is in agreement with the literature. Further, this method was applied to quantify the viscoelasticity of chicken liver. The Young's modulus was E=2.04+/-0.88 kPa and the shear viscosity was η=1.20+/-0.13 Pa·s with R2=0.96+/-0.04 between the OCE-measured dispersion curve and Rayleigh wave model analytical solution. Combining OCE and the Rayleigh wave model shows promise as an effective tool for noninvasively quantifying the viscoelasticity of soft tissues.
Assessment of precipitation in alloy steel using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves
Thiele, Sebastian; Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Wall, James J.; Jacobs, Laurence J.
2014-02-01
Nonlinear ultrasonic waves have shown to be sensitive to various microstructural changes in metals including coherent precipitates; these precipitates introduce a strain field in the lattice structure. The thermal aging of certain alloy steels leads to the formation of coherent precipitates, which pin dislocations and contribute to the generation of a second harmonic component. A precipitate hardenable material namely 17-4 PH stainless steel is thermally treated in this research to obtain different precipitation stages, and then the influence of precipitates on the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is assessed. Conclusions about the microstrucutural changes in the material are drawn based on the results from a nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave measurement and complementary thermo-electric power, hardness and ultrasonic velocity measurements. The results show that the nonlinear parameter is sensitive to coherent precipitates in the material and moreover that precipitation characteristics can be characterized based on the obtained experimental data.
Analysis of Rayleigh waves with circular wavefront: a maximum likelihood approach
Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Bergamo, Paolo; Fäh, Donat
2017-09-01
Analysis of Rayleigh waves is an important task in seismology and geotechnical investigations. In fact, properties of Rayleigh waves such as velocity and polarization are important observables that carry information about the structure of the subsoil. Applications analysing Rayleigh waves include active and passive seismic surveys. In active surveys, there is a controlled source of seismic energy and the sensors are typically placed near the source. In passive surveys, there is not a controlled source, rather, seismic waves from ambient vibrations are analysed and the sources are assumed to be far outside the array, simplifying the analysis by the assumption of plane waves. Whenever the source is in the proximity of the array of sensors or even within the array it is necessary to model the wave propagation accounting for the circular wavefront. In addition, it is also necessary to model the amplitude decay due to geometrical spreading. This is the case of active seismic surveys in which sensors are located near the seismic source. In this work, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach for the analysis of Rayleigh waves generated at a near source. Our statistical model accounts for the curvature of the wavefront and amplitude decay due to geometrical spreading. Using our method, we show applications on real data of the retrieval of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity. We employ arrays with arbitrary geometry. Furthermore, we show how it is possible to combine active and passive surveys. This enables us to enlarge the analysable frequency range and therefore the depths investigated. We retrieve properties of Rayleigh waves from both active and passive surveys and show the excellent agreement of the results from the two surveys. In our approach we use the same array of sensors for both the passive and the active survey. This greatly simplifies the logistics necessary to perform a survey.
Dalton, David R.; Slawinski, Michael A.; Stachura, Piotr; Stanoev, Theodore
2016-01-01
We examine two types of guided waves: the Love and the quasi-Rayleigh waves. Both waves propagate in the same model of an elastic isotropic layer above an elastic isotropic halfspace. From their dispersion relations, we calculate their speeds as functions of the elasticity parameters, mass densities, frequency and layer thickness. We examine the sensitivity of these relations to the model and wave properties.
Harmonic excitation of mantle Rayleigh waves by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
Kanamori, Hiroo; MORI, Jim
1992-01-01
An unusually long (at least two hours) seismic wave train having periods of about 230 sec was recorded at many worldwide seismic stations during the major eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines on June 15, 1991. This wave train exhibits two sharp spectral peaks at 228 and 270 sec. The group velocity, phase velocity, and the particle motion of this wave train indicate that it is a Rayleigh wave. The most probable excitation mechanism is acoustic coupling of atmospheric oscillations that...
Rayleigh-wave mode separation by high-resolution linear radon transform
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.
2009-01-01
Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is an effective tool for obtaining vertical shear wave profiles from a single non-invasive measurement. One key step of the MASW method is generation of a dispersion image and extraction of a reliable dispersion curve from raw multichannel shot records. Because different Rayleigh-wave modes normally interfere with each other in the time and space domain, it is necessary to perform mode separation and reconstruction to increase the accuracy of phase velocities determined from a dispersion image. In this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) as a means of separating and reconstructing multimode, dispersive Rayleigh-wave energy. We first introduce high-resolution LRT methods and Rayleigh-wave mode separation using high-resolution LRT. Next, we use synthetic data and a real-world example to demonstrate the effectiveness of Rayleigh-wave mode separation using high-resolution LRT. Our synthetic and real-world results demonstrate that (1) high-resolution LRT successfully separates and reconstructs multimode dispersive Rayleigh-wave energy with high resolution allowing the multimode energy to be more accurately determined. The horizontal resolution of the Rayleigh-wave method can be increased by extraction of dispersion curves from a pair of traces in the mode-separated shot gather and (2) multimode separation and reconstruction expand the usable frequency range of higher mode dispersive energy, which increases the depth of investigation and provides a means for accurately determining cut-off frequencies. ?? 2009 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2009 RAS.
Propagation of Rayleigh surface waves with small wavelengths in nonlocal visco-elastic solids
D P Acharya; Asit Mondal
2002-12-01
This paper investigates Rayleigh waves, propagating on the surface of a visco-elastic solid under the linear theory of nonlocal elasticity. Dispersion relations are obtained. It is observed that the waves are dispersive in nature for small wavelengths. Numerical calculations and discussions presented in this paper lead us to some important conclusions.
Estimating the location of a tunnel using correlation and inversion of Rayleigh wave scattering
Kasililar, A.; Harmankaya, U.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Draganov, D.S.
2013-01-01
The investigation of near-surface scatterers, such as cavities, tunnels, abandoned mine shafts, and buried objects, is important to mitigate geohazards and environmental hazards. By inversion of travel times of cross-correlated scattered waves, due to the incident Rayleigh waves, we estimate the loc
On the reliability of direct Rayleigh-wave estimation from multicomponent cross-correlations
Xu, Zongbo; Mikesell, T. Dylan
2017-09-01
Seismic interferometry is routinely used to image and characterize underground geology. The vertical component cross-correlations (CZZ) are often analysed in this process; although one can also use radial component and multicomponent cross-correlations (CRR and CZR, respectively), which have been shown to provide a more accurate Rayleigh-wave Green's function than CZZ when sources are unevenly distributed. In this letter, we identify the relationship between the multicomponent cross-correlations (CZR and CRR) and the Rayleigh-wave Green's functions to show why CZR and CRR are less sensitive than CZZ to non-stationary phase source energy. We demonstrate the robustness of CRR with a synthetic seismic noise data example. These results provide a compelling reason as to why CRR should be used to estimate the dispersive characteristics of the direct Rayleigh wave with seismic interferometry when the signal-to-noise ratio is high.
Radi, Zohir; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Corchete, Victor; Guettouche, Salim
2017-09-01
We resolve the crust and upper mantle structure beneath Northeast Algeria at depths of 0-400 km, using inversion of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave. Our data set consists of 490 earthquakes recorded between 2007 and 2014 by five permanent broadband seismic stations in the study area. Applying a combination of different filtering technics and inversion method shear wave velocities structure were determined as functions of depth. The resolved changes in Vs at 50 km depth are in perfect agreement with crustal thickness estimates, which reflect the study area's orogenic setting, partly overlying the collision zone between the African and Eurasian plates. The inferred Moho discontinuity depths are close to those estimated for other convergent areas. In addition, there is good agreement between our results and variations in orientations of regional seismic anisotropy. At depths of 80-180 km, negative Vs anomalies at station CBBR suggest the existence of a failed subduction slab.
Nonlinear dynamic acousto-elasticity measurement by Rayleigh wave in concrete cover evaluation
Vu, Quang Anh; Garnier, Vincent; Payan, Cédric; Chaix, Jean-François; Lott, Martin; Eiras, Jesús N.
2015-10-01
This paper presents local non-destructive evaluation of concrete cover by using surface Rayleigh wave in nonlinear Dynamic Acousto-Elasticity (DAE) measurement. Dynamic non classical nonlinear elastic behavior like modulus decrease under applied stress and slow dynamic process has been observed in many varieties of solid, also in concrete. The measurements conducted in laboratory, consist in qualitative evaluation of concrete thermal damage. Nonlinear elastic parameters especially conditioning offset are analyzed for the cover concrete by Rayleigh wave. The results of DAE method show enhanced sensitivity when compared to velocity measurement. Afterward, this technique broadens measurements to the field.
Methods to increase the depth and precision of transient Rayleigh wave exploration
ZHANG Jian-jun(张建军); WEI Xiu-cheng(魏修成); LIU Yang(刘洋)
2004-01-01
In order to increase the exploration depth of Rayleigh wave, new idea that different from the former principles in data acquisition was applied. Suitable data acquisition parameter was given out on the basis of large amount of experiments. By reducing the group interval, the low frequency signal are enhanced instead of been attenuated. Furthermore, to solve the problem that the precision of Rayleigh wave exploration method count much to the signal-to-noise ratio, some preprocessing methods were put forward. By using zero shift rectifying, digital F-K filtering and cutting, noises can be effectively eliminated.
Detection of near-surface cavities by generalized S-transform of Rayleigh waves
Shao, Guang-zhou; Tsoflias, George P.; Li, Chang-jiang
2016-06-01
The near-surface cavities can cause a huge hidden trouble for urban infrastructure construction, such as, foundation settlement and roadbed subsidence, and so on. So, it is an important task to detect the underground cavities effectively for many engineering projects. At the same time, because of the complexity of near-surface materials and the limited resolution of geophysical methods, detecting the location of the hidden cavities quantitatively is still a technical challenge which needs to be studied further. Base on the study of Xia et al. (Xia et al., 2007), we performed a little modification to the travel time equation for the Rayleigh-wave diffraction. We put forward another way to detect the shallow subsurface voids. The generalized S-transform was adopted to extract the arrival times of the diffracted Rayleigh waves from the near and far-offset boundaries of the void at a certain receiver. Then the arrival times were used to calculate the boundary locations of the void. Three half-space void models and a two-layered void model were used to demonstrate the feasibility and effect of detecting a void with the generalized S-transform. A rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method was adopted in wave field modeling to obtain the synthetic seismic record. Finally, a real world field data was used to verify the detecting effect. The theoretical models and the real world example showed that it is feasible and effective to use the generalized S-transform to detect the near-surface cavities.
Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Raghunathan, Raksha; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Twa, Michael D; Larin, Kirill V
2017-02-01
The biomechanical properties of the cornea play a critical role in forming vision. Diseases such as keratoconus can structurally degenerate the cornea causing a pathological loss in visual acuity. UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) is a clinically available treatment to stiffen the cornea and restore its healthy shape and function. However, current CXL techniques do not account for pre-existing biomechanical properties of the cornea nor the effects of the CXL treatment itself. In addition to the inherent corneal structure, the intraocular pressure (IOP) can also dramatically affect the measured biomechanical properties of the cornea. In this work, we present the details and development of a modified Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation model for quantifying corneal biomechanical properties. After comparison with finite element modeling, the model was utilized to quantify the viscoelasticity of in situ porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration before and after CXL based on noncontact optical coherence elastography measurements. Moreover, the viscoelasticity of the untreated and CXL-treated eyes was quantified at various IOPs. The results showed that the stiffness of the cornea increased after CXL and that corneal stiffness is close to linear as a function of IOP. These results show that the modified Rayleigh-Lamb wave model can provide an accurate assessment of corneal viscoelasticity, which could be used for customized CXL therapies.
Tanimoto, T; Hadziioannou, C; H. Igel; Wasserman, J.; U. Schreiber; Gebauer, A.
2015-01-01
©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Using a colocated ring laser and an STS-2 seismograph, we estimate the ratio of Rayleigh-to-Love waves in the secondary microseism at Wettzell, Germany, for frequencies between 0.13 and 0.30 Hz. Rayleigh wave surface acceleration was derived from the vertical component of STS-2, and Love wave surface acceleration was derived from the ring laser. Surface wave amplitudes are comparable; near the spectral peak about 0.22 Hz, Rayleigh wave a...
The acoustoelastic effect on Rayleigh waves in elastic-plastic deformed layered rocks
Liu Jin-Xia; Cui Zhi-Wen; Wang Ke-Xie
2007-01-01
On the basis of the acoustoelastic theory for elastic-plastic materials, the influence of statically deformed states including both the elastic and plastic deformations induced by applied uniaxial stresses on the Rayleigh wave in layered rocks is investigated by using a transfer matrix method. The acoustoelastic effects of elastic-plastic strains in rocks caused by static deformations, are discussed in detail. The Rayleigh-type and Sezawa modes exhibit similar trends in acoustoelastic effect: the acoustoelastic effect increasing rapidly with the frequency-thickness product and the phase velocity change approaching a constant value for thick layer and high frequency limit. Elastic-plastic deformations in the Castlegate layered rock obviously modify the phase velocity of the Rayleigh wave and the cutoff points for the Sezawa modes. The investigation may be useful for seismic exploration, geotechnical engineering and ultrasonic detection.
Direction dependent Love and Rayleigh wave noise characteristics using multiple arrays across Europe
Juretzek, Carina; Perleth, Magdalena; Hadziioannou, Celine
2016-04-01
Seismic noise has become an important signal source for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism band is still limited. This applies in particular for constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the different polarized wave types in the primary and secondary microseism noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured and a dependence on direction is found, especially in the primary microseism band. Estimates of the kinetic energy density ratios propose a dominance of coherent Love waves in the primary, but not in the secondary microseism band. The seasonality of the noise field characteristics is examined by using a full year of data in 2013 and is found to be stable.
Trichandi, Rahmantara, E-mail: rachmantara.tri@gmail.com [Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132, Bandung (Indonesia); Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Zulhan, Zulfakriza [Earth Science Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Saygin, Erdinc [Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)
2015-04-24
Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.
Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc
2015-04-01
Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green's function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green's function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.
Imaging Rayleigh Wave Attenuation and Phase Velocity beneath North America with USArray
Bao, X.; Dalton, C. A.; Jin, G.; Gaherty, J. B.
2014-12-01
The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle of United States at a novel scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data contain spatial variations in velocity; however, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity, and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave travel time and amplitude are measured using an interstation cross-correlation version of the Generalized Seismological Data Functional algorithm, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Our data are from 670 large teleseismic earthquakes that occurred from 2006 to 2014 and were recorded by 1,764 Transportable Array stations. More than 4.8 million measurements at periods between 20 and 100 s are collected into our database. Isolating the signal of attenuation in the amplitude observations is challenging because amplitudes are sensitive to a number of factors in addition to attenuation, such as focusing/defocusing and local site amplification. We generate several Rayleigh wave attenuation maps at each period, using several different approaches to account for source and receiver effects on amplitude. This suite of attenuation maps allows us to distinguish between the robust features in the maps and the features that are sensitive to the treatment of source and receiver effects. We apply Helmholtz surface-wave tomography (Lin et al., 2012) to determine velocity and attenuation maps. A significant contrast in velocity and attenuation is observed in the transition between the western and central United States along the Rocky Mountain front. We find low Q values in the western US, along the eastern coast, and the Gulf plain. These areas are also
S. M. Ahmed
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation of Rayleigh and Stoneley waves in a thermoelastic orthotropic granular half-space supporting a different layer under the influence of initial stress and gravity field is studied. The frequency equation of Rayleigh waves in the form of twelfth-order determinantal expression and the frequency equation of Stoneley waves in the form of eighth-order determinantal expression are obtained. The standard equation of dispersion is discussed to obtain Rayleigh and Stoneley waves that have complex roots; the real part gives the velocity of Rayleigh or Stoneley waves but the imaginary part gives the attenuation coefficient. Finally, the numerical results have been given and illustrated graphically, and their physical meaning has been explained.
Krylov, Victor V
2015-01-01
In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.
Tanimoto, Toshiro; Hadziioannou, Céline; Igel, Heiner; Wassermann, Joachim; Schreiber, Ulrich; Gebauer, André; Chow, Bryant
2016-04-01
Monthly variations in the ratio of Rayleigh-to-Love waves in the secondary microseism are obtained from a colocated ring laser and an STS-2 seismograph at Wettzell, Germany. Two main conclusions are derived for the Rayleigh-to-Love wave kinetic energy ratios in the secondary microseism; first, the energy ratio is in the range 0.8-0.9 (Love wave energy is larger than Rayleigh wave energy most of the year by about 10-20%. Second, this ratio suddenly increases to 1.0-1.2 in June and July, indicating a larger fraction of Rayleigh wave energy. This change suggests that the locations and behaviors of excitation sources are different in these months.
Highly Sensitive Rayleigh Wave Hydrogen Sensors with WO3 Sensing Layers at Room Temperature
WANG Cheng; FAN Li; ZHANG Shu-Yi; YANG Yue-Tao; ZHOU Ding-Mao; SHUI Xiu-Ji
2011-01-01
Rayleigh wave hydrogen sensors based on 128° YX-LiNbO3 substrates with WO3 sensing layers operating at room temperature are studied.The experimental results indicate that the WO3 layers obtained by a sol-gel method have much higher sensitivities because the sensing layers produced by the sol-gel method have small grains and high roughness and porosity.It is also confirmed that in the sol-gel method,keeping WO3 solutions at low temperature and/or decreasing the viscosity of the solutions can decrease the grain sizes and increase the hydrogen-absorbability of the sensing layer.Under the optimized preparation conditions,the high sensitivity of the hydrogen sensors at room temperature is obtained,in which 1％ hydrogen in natural air induces the frequency shift of 72 kHz at the operating frequency of 124.2 MHz.Surface acoustic wave (SAW) hydrogen sensors have attracted a great deal of attention so far,in which the sensors have achieved high sensitivity as the sensors were often operated at high temperature,such as higher than 100℃.[1-4] However,in these experiments,a heater and a thermostat were required,which induced the sensors to be more complicated and unfavorable for miniaturization,and limited their application at room temperature.Furthermore,the heater can induce extra power loss and risks of fire and explosion.%Rayleigh wave hydrogen sensors based on 128° YX-LiNbO3 substrates with WO3 sensing layers operating at room temperature are studied. The experimental results indicate that the WO3 layers obtained by a sol-gel method have much higher sensitivities because the sensing layers produced by the sol-gel method have small grains and high roughness and porosity. It is also confirmed that in the sol-gel method, keeping WO3 solutions at low temperature and/or decreasing the viscosity of the solutions can decrease the grain sizes and increase the hydrogen-absorbability of the sensing layer. Under the optimized preparation conditions, the high sensitivity of the
Local Effects on Strain Seismograms at Matsushiro Seismological Observatory - 2. Rayleigh Waves
Taishi Okamoto
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluate local effects on strain seismograms for a Rayleigh wave observed at Matsushiro Seismological Observatory, Japan Meteorological Agency, central Japan, by applying a method proposed in a previous report (Okamoto et al. 2007. The method involves examination of polarization angles, local phase velocity, and accuracy of velocity seismograms. The results are as follows: 1 Polarization angles of observed strain seismograms agree with expected ones from those of velocity seismograms also observed at Matsushiro; 2 Local phase velocity estimated by comparison between strain and velocity seismograms is 54% larger than the theoretical value calculated from the PREM velocity model; 3 Velocity spectra observed at Matsushiro have almost the same amplitude as an average of those at F-net observation stations near Matsushiro. These results indicate that both EW and NS component strain seismograms observed at Matsushiro have been reduced by 35% in amplitude for a Rayleigh wave due to local heterogeneity. The local effects on a Rayleigh wave are quite different from that on a Love wave obtained in the previous report.
Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results
Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai
2016-12-01
We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.
Joint Inversion for Earthquake Depths Using Local Waveforms and Amplitude Spectra of Rayleigh Waves
Jia, Zhe; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Zhan, Zhongwen
2017-01-01
Reliable earthquake depth is fundamental to many seismological problems. In this paper, we present a method to jointly invert for centroid depths with local (distance distance of 5°-15°) Rayleigh wave amplitude spectra on sparse networks. We use earthquake focal mechanisms and magnitudes retrieved with the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) method to compute synthetic amplitude spectra of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave for a range of depths. Then we grid search to find the optimal depth that minimizes the joint misfit of amplitude spectra and local waveforms. As case studies, we apply this method to the 2008 Wells, Nevada Mw6.0 earthquake and a Mw5.6 outer-rise earthquake to the east of Japan Trench in 2013. Uncertainties estimated with a bootstrap re-sampling approach show that this joint inversion approach constrains centroid depths well, which are also verified by independent teleseismic depth-phase data.
Elastic characterization of Au thin films utilizing laser induced acoustic Rayleigh waves
Haim, A.; Bar-Ad, S.; Azoulay, A.
2011-01-01
Wide frequency-band Rayleigh waves (~100 MHz) were utilized to characterize the elastic constants of thin Au/Cr films deposited on glass substrates. The Rayleigh waves were excited utilizing laser induced thermoelastic mechanism and detected using a knife-edge technique apparatus. The dispersion of the signals in glass substrates coated with Au/Cr was measured and fitted to theory using a non-linear regression algorithm. From the fitting, the Au films Young modulus and the film thickness were extracted. The results were analyzed with regards to AFM scans performed on the samples and independent thickness measurement done by a dektak3 profiler. Results show a good agreement between the two measurements.
Elastic characterization of Au thin films utilizing laser induced acoustic Rayleigh waves
Haim, A; Azoulay, A [Ultrasonic Section, NDT Department, Soreq - Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Bar-Ad, S, E-mail: arbelhai@gmail.com [School of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2011-01-01
Wide frequency-band Rayleigh waves ({approx}100 MHz) were utilized to characterize the elastic constants of thin Au/Cr films deposited on glass substrates. The Rayleigh waves were excited utilizing laser induced thermoelastic mechanism and detected using a knife-edge technique apparatus. The dispersion of the signals in glass substrates coated with Au/Cr was measured and fitted to theory using a non-linear regression algorithm. From the fitting, the Au films Young modulus and the film thickness were extracted. The results were analyzed with regards to AFM scans performed on the samples and independent thickness measurement done by a dektak{sup 3} profiler. Results show a good agreement between the two measurements.
Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin
2016-04-01
sensor orientations. In this study, we analyzed particle motions of P-waves (P-pol) and of Rayleigh waves (R-pol) to quantify the orientation of each of the 57 OBS. We performed 213 polarization measurements based on 35 earthquakes for P-pol, and 381 polarization measurements based on 48 earthquakes for R-pol. This allowed us to successfully determine the North/South orientations for 40 out of 57 OBS: 13 stations were devoid of usable data and 4 stations were too noisy. From twice the standard deviation (95% confidence interval), we estimate the errors between 1° and 20°.
S-wave velocity structure in the Nankai accretionary prism derived from Rayleigh admittance
Tonegawa, Takashi; Araki, Eiichiro; Kimura, Toshinori; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nakano, Masaru; Suzuki, Kensuke
2017-04-01
Two cabled seafloor networks with 22 and 29 stations (DONET 1 and 2: Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis) have been constructed on the accretionary prism at the Nankai subduction zone of Japan since March 2010. The observation periods of DONET 1 and 2 exceed more than 5 years and 10 months, respectively. Each station contains broadband seismometers and absolute and differential pressure gauges. In this study, using Rayleigh waves of microseisms and earthquakes, we calculate the Rayleigh admittance (Ruan et al., 2014, JGR) at the seafloor for each station, i.e., an amplitude transfer function from pressure to displacement, particularly for the frequencies of 0.1-0.2 Hz (ambient noise) and 0.04-0.1 Hz (earthquake signal), and estimate S-wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath stations in DONET 1 and 2. We calculated the displacement seismogram by removing the instrument response from the velocity seismogram for each station. The pressure record observed at the differential pressure gauge was used in this study because of a high resolution of the pressure observation. In addition to Rayleigh waves of microseisms, we collected waveforms of Rayleigh waves for earthquakes with an epicentral distance of 15-90°, M>5.0, and focal depth shallower than 50 km. In the frequency domain, we smoothed the transfer function of displacement/pressure with the Parzen window of ±0.01 Hz. In order to determine one-dimensional Vs profiles, we performed a nonlinear inversion technique, i.e., simulated annealing. As a result, Vs profiles obtained at stations near the land show simple Vs structure, i.e., Vs increases with depth. However, some profiles located at the toe of the acceretionary prism have a low-velocity zone (LVZ) at a depth of 5-7 km within the accretinary sediment. The velocity reduction is approximately 5-20 %. Park et al. (2010) reported such a large reduction in P-wave velocity in the region of DONET 1 (eastern network and southeast of the Kii
Source parameters of the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake determined from long-period Rayleigh waves
Zhang, Jiajun; Lay, Thorne
1990-07-01
The source parameters of the Loma Prieta earthquake are determined using long-period Rayleigh waves recorded by USGS/ERIS, IDA/IRIS, and GEOSCOPE stations. The source mechanism is well-constrained by the Rayleigh wave radiation pattern, with a dip = 70 (±5)°, strike = 130 (±5)°, rake = 135 (±5)°, and moment = 3.4 (±0.5) × 1019 Nm (Mw = 7.0). This mechanism is generally consistent with independent body wave determinations. The most stable long-period waves, with periods from 200 to 275 s, indicate that the source process has a centroid time of about 10 s, somewhat longer than that indicated by body waves (about 5-6 s). This discrepancy cannot be uniquely attributed to source effects because of uncertainties in the propagation corrections. The importance of using surface waves with short propagation paths for analysis of moderate size earthquakes such as the Loma Prieta event is demonstrated by the unreasonably long source durations inferred from R3 arrivals.
Zhou, Yong; Ni, Sidao; Chu, Risheng; Yao, Huajian
2016-08-01
Numerical solvers of wave equations have been widely used to simulate global seismic waves including PP waves for modelling 410/660 km discontinuity and Rayleigh waves for imaging crustal structure. In order to avoid extra computation cost due to ocean water effects, these numerical solvers usually adopt water column approximation, whose accuracy depends on frequency and needs to be investigated quantitatively. In this paper, we describe a unified representation of accurate and approximate forms of the equivalent water column boundary condition as well as the free boundary condition. Then we derive an analytical form of the PP-wave reflection coefficient with the unified boundary condition, and quantify the effects of water column approximation on amplitude and phase shift of the PP waves. We also study the effects of water column approximation on phase velocity dispersion of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave with a propagation matrix method. We find that with the water column approximation: (1) The error of PP amplitude and phase shift is less than 5 per cent and 9° at periods greater than 25 s for most oceanic regions. But at periods of 15 s or less, PP is inaccurate up to 10 per cent in amplitude and a few seconds in time shift for deep oceans. (2) The error in Rayleigh wave phase velocity is less than 1 per cent at periods greater than 30 s in most oceanic regions, but the error is up to 2 per cent for deep oceans at periods of 20 s or less. This study confirms that the water column approximation is only accurate at long periods and it needs to be improved at shorter periods.
Control of Rayleigh-like waves in thick plate Willis metamaterials
Diatta, André; Achaoui, Younes; Brûlé, Stéphane; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien
2016-12-01
Recent advances in control of anthropic seismic sources in structured soil led us to explore interactions of elastic waves propagating in plates (with soil parameters) structured with concrete pillars buried in the soil. Pillars are 2 m in diameter, 30 m in depth and the plate is 50 m in thickness. We study the frequency range 5 to 10 Hz, for which Rayleigh wave wavelengths are smaller than the plate thickness. This frequency range is compatible with frequency ranges of particular interest in earthquake engineering. It is demonstrated in this paper that two seismic cloaks' configurations allow for an unprecedented flow of elastodynamic energy associated with Rayleigh surface waves. The first cloak design is inspired by some approximation of ideal cloaks' parameters within the framework of thin plate theory. The second, more accomplished but more involved, cloak design is deduced from a geometric transform in the full Navier equations that preserves the symmetry of the elasticity tensor but leads to Willis' equations, well approximated by a homogenization procedure, as corroborated by numerical simulations. The two cloaks's designs are strickingly different, and the superior efficiency of the second type of cloak emphasizes the necessity for rigour in transposition of existing cloaks's designs in thin plates to the geophysics setting. Importantly, we focus our attention on geometric transforms applied to thick plates, which is an intermediate case between thin plates and semi-infinite media, not studied previously. Cloaking efficiency (reduction of the disturbance of the wave wavefront and its amplitude behind an obstacle) and protection (reduction of the wave amplitude within the center of the cloak) are studied for ideal and approximated cloaks' parameters. These results represent a preliminary step towards designs of seismic cloaks for surface Rayleigh waves propagating in sedimentary soils structured with concrete pillars.
Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Surface Breaking Crack Using Rayleigh Wave Measurement.
Lee, Foo Wei; Chai, Hwa Kian; Lim, Kok Sing
2016-03-05
An improved single sided Rayleigh wave (R-wave) measurement was suggested to characterize surface breaking crack in steel reinforced concrete structures. Numerical simulations were performed to clarify the behavior of R-waves interacting with surface breaking crack with different depths and degrees of inclinations. Through analysis of simulation results, correlations between R-wave parameters of interest and crack characteristics (depth and degree of inclination) were obtained, which were then validated by experimental measurement of concrete specimens instigated with vertical and inclined artificial cracks of different depths. Wave parameters including velocity and amplitude attenuation for each case were studied. The correlations allowed us to estimate the depth and inclination of cracks measured experimentally with acceptable discrepancies, particularly for cracks which are relatively shallow and when the crack depth is smaller than the wavelength.
Propagation of Rayleigh waves in anisotropic layer overlying a semi-infinite sandy medium
P.C. Pal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the propagation of Rayleigh waves in anisotropic layer overlying a sandy medium. Anisotropic material is in the nature of most general case i.e. of triclinic crystal and sandy medium is of alluvial soil type. The solutions for layer and half-space are obtained analytically. The displacement components in x and z directions are obtained for both the media. The dispersion relation is obtained subjected to certain boundary conditions. The special cases are considered. The numerical results are presented in the form of wave number and phase velocity (k − c analytical curves.
Elastic properties of amorphous thin films studied by Rayleigh waves
Schwarz, R.B.; Rubin, J.B.
1993-08-01
Physical vapor deposition in ultra-high vacuum was used to co-deposit nickel and zirconium onto quartz single crystals and grow amorphous Ni{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x} (0.1 < x < 0.87) thin film. A high-resolution surface acoustic wave technique was developed for in situ measurement of film shear moduli. The modulus has narrow maxima at x = 0. 17, 0.22, 0.43, 0.5, 0.63, and 0.72, reflecting short-range ordering and formation of aggregates in amorphous phase. It is proposed that the aggregates correspond to polytetrahedral atom arrangements limited in size by geometrical frustration.
Yan, Zewu; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Gras, Slawomir; Baringa, Pablo; Blair, David G.
2005-01-01
This article describes an automatic Rayleigh scattering mapping system (ARSMS), which enables quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of inhomogeneities in optical materials. The ARSMS allows large high-grade test mass samples for gravitational wave detectors to be evaluated to ensure that an adequate low level of scattering is achieved. The ARSMS combines proprietary camera software with data analysis software and control software to achieve fully automatic operation with graphical user interfaces. This article presents the instrument concept and examples of the output. Device mapping in all degrees of freedom is shown to be better than 0.5mm, with scattering sensitivity better than 0.5ppm/cm. This system is able to scan and map the Rayleigh scattering of large samples in both of cylindrical and rectangular samples using cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates.
Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions
Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.
1974-01-01
A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order functions.
A. M. Abd-Alla
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The surface waves propagation in generalized magneto-thermo-viscoelastic granular medium subjected to continuous boundary conditions has been investigated. In addition, it is also subjected to thermal boundary conditions. The solution of the more general equations are obtained for thermoelastic coupling. The frequency equation of Rayleigh waves is obtained in the form of a determinant containing a term involving the coefficient of friction of a granular media which determines Rayleigh waves velocity as a real part and the attenuation coefficient as an imaginary part, and the effects of rotation, magnetic field, initial stress, viscosity, and gravity field on Rayleigh waves velocity and attenuation coefficient of surface waves have been studied in detail. Dispersion curves are computed numerically for a specific model and presented graphically. Some special cases have also been deduced. The results indicate that the effect of rotation, magnetic field, initial stress, and gravity field is very pronounced.
Dispersion of Rayleigh waves produced by nuclear explosions. Crustal structure of western Europe
G. PAYO
1964-06-01
Full Text Available Most of the nuclear explosion fired near Novaya-Zemlya
island from September 1961 to J a n u a r y 1963 (21 in total have been recorded
on the seismographs of Toledo Observatory. The study of these records,
mainly concerning the dispersion of Rayleigh waves, has been the purpose
of this paper.
A crust-mantle s t r u c t u r e for t h e Zemlya-Toledo p a t h has been determined
by means of group velocity curves and especially by the phase velocity
ones obtained from Rayleigh waves of explosions. This structure supposes
a crust of about 40 kms thick with an upper sedimentary layer with a
thickness of about 5,5 kms and a shear velocity of 2,3 km/sec.
The average shear velocity in the granitic and basaltic layers jointly,
is about 3,65 km/sec, permitting a small ambiguity at the position of the
Conrad discontinuity between them.
A velocity of 4,5 km/sec has been assigned for the underlying crust
material, but a better agreement with the data recorded is obtained by
taking 0.28 for the Poisson ratio value.
Dispersion of Rayleigh waves of these explosions has been compared
to the Rayleigh dispersion of some earthquakes of Eurasia, three of them
with epicentral distances similar to those of the explosions and other four
with the same azimuth in respect to that of Toledo-Zemlya, but more
distants.
The results do not show any notable difference either in dispersion
between explosion and earthquakes or in structure of the path considered.
The phase velocity between Toledo and Malaga Observatories supports
t h e same above structure for this short path.
The velocity of Lg waves, which clearly appears on the record of the
explosions, confirms this admitted structure, which serves to deduce t h e more
probable transmission mechanism for these channel waves.
Also atmospheric pressure waves have been recorded on the three
The uppermost crust structure of Ischia (southern Italy) from ambient noise Rayleigh waves
Strollo, R.; Nunziata, C.; Iannotta, A.; Iannotta, D.
2015-05-01
Ambient noise measurements were performed at the island of Ischia (southern Italy) along alignments of 2.4-7 km by using two three-component seismic stations. Synchronous noise recordings of 2-20 h were cross-correlated over 20-30 s windows, stacked and iteratively band-pass filtered to enhance the dispersive wave trains. Frequency time analysis was performed on the vertical and radial components of cross-correlations and the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocity was obtained. Validation of the dispersion data was possible with those obtained from an earthquake recording along a close path. The non-linear inversion of average Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves along 13 paths (receiver inter-distances) allowed the definition of shear wave velocity models in the uppermost 1-2 km of the crust. The correlation of VS profiles vs. depth and drilling stratigraphy allowed to attribute VS lower than 1 km/s to tuffs and VS of 1.41 km/s to very fractured lavas. Higher VS are found in the central area of the island, in correspondence of the resurgent area. The top of the trachytic lava basement, with VS of 2.2-2.4 km/s and density of 2.3 g/cm3 is about 0.6-0.7 km deep b.s.l. in the centre of Ischia, below altered, very fractured lava or thermally altered tuff.
The thermal structure of cratonic lithosphere from global Rayleigh wave attenuation
Dalton, Colleen A.; Bao, Xueyang; Ma, Zhitu
2017-01-01
The resolution of and level of agreement between different attenuation models have historically been limited by complexities associated with extracting attenuation from seismic-wave amplitudes, which are also affected by the source, the receiver, and propagation through velocity heterogeneities. For intermediate- and long-period Rayleigh waves, removing the amplitude signal due to focusing and defocusing effects is the greatest challenge. In this paper, three independent data sets of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitude are analyzed to investigate how three factors contribute to discrepancies between the attenuation models: uncertainties in the amplitude measurements themselves, variable path coverage, and the treatment of focusing effects. Regionalized pure-path and fully two-dimensional attenuation models are derived and compared. The approach for determining attenuation models from real data is guided by an analysis of amplitudes measured from synthetic spectral-element waveforms, for which the input Earth model is perfectly known. The results show that differences in the amplitude measurements introduce only very minor differences between the attenuation models; path coverage and the removal of focusing effects are more important. The pure-path attenuation values exhibit a clear dependence on tectonic region at shorter periods that disappears at long periods, in agreement with pure-path phase-velocity results obtained by inverting Rayleigh wave phase delays. The 2-D attenuation maps are highly correlated with each other to spherical-harmonic degree 16 and can resolve smaller features than the previous generation of global attenuation models. Anomalously low attenuation is nearly perfectly associated with continental cratons. Variations in lithospheric thickness are determined by forward modeling the global attenuation variations as a thermal boundary layer of variable thickness. Temperature profiles that satisfy the attenuation values systematically
Gal, M.; Reading, A. M.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.
2017-06-01
In the secondary microseism band (0.1-1.0 Hz) the theoretical excitation of Rayleigh waves (Rg/LR), through oceanic wave-wave interaction, is well understood. For Love waves (LQ), the excitation mechanism in the secondary microseism band is less clear. We explore high-frequency secondary microseism excitation between 0.35 and 1 Hz by analyzing a full year (2013) of records from a three-component seismic array in Pilbara (PSAR), Australia. Our recently developed three-component waveform decomposition algorithm (CLEAN-3C) fully decomposes the beam power in slowness space into multiple point sources. This method allows for a directionally dependent power estimation for all separable wave phases. In this contribution, we compare quantitatively microseismic energy recorded on vertical and transverse components. We find the mean power representation of Rayleigh and Love waves to have differing azimuthal distributions, which are likely a result of their respective generation mechanisms. Rayleigh waves show correlation with convex coastlines, while Love waves correlate with seafloor sedimentary basins. The observations are compared to the WAVEWATCH III ocean model, implemented at the Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), which describes the spatial and temporal characteristics of microseismic source excitation. We find Love wave energy to originate from raypaths coinciding with seafloor sedimentary basins where strong Rayleigh wave excitation is predicted by the ocean model. The total power of Rg waves is found to dominate at 0.35-0.6 Hz, and the Rayleigh/Love wave power ratio strongly varies with direction and frequency.
Xu, Yanlong
2015-01-21
We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.
Victor M. García-Chocano
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.
Rayleigh and acoustic gravity waves detection on magnetograms during the Japanese Tsunami, 2011
Klausner, Virginia; Muella, Marcio T A H; Mendes, Odim; Domingues, Margarete O; Papa, Andres R R
2015-01-01
The continuous geomagnetic field survey holds an important potential in future prevention of tsunami damages, and also, it could be used in tsunami forecast. In this work, we were able to detected for the first time Rayleigh and ionospheric acoustic gravity wave propagation in the Z-component of the geomagnetic field due to the Japanese tsunami, 2011 prior to the tsunami arrival. The geomagnetic measurements were obtained in the epicentral near and far-field. Also, these waves were detected within minutes to few hours of the tsunami arrival. For these reasons, these results are very encouraging, and confirmed that the geomagnetic field monitoring could play an important role in the tsunami warning systems, and also, it could provide additional information in the induced ionospheric wave propagation models due to tsunamis.
Menke, William
2017-02-01
We prove that the problem of inverting Rayleigh wave phase velocity functions c( k ) , where k is wavenumber, for density ρ ( z ) , rigidity μ ( z ) and Lamé parameter λ ( z ) , where z is depth, is fully non-unique, at least in the highly-idealized case where the base Earth model is an isotropic half space. The model functions completely trade off. This is one special case of a common inversion scenario in which one seeks to determine several model functions from a single data function. We explore the circumstances under which this broad class of problems is unique, starting with very simple scenarios, building up to the somewhat more complicated (and common) case where data and model functions are related by convolutions, and then finally, to scale-independent problems (which include the Rayleigh wave problem). The idealized cases that we examine analytically provide insight into the kinds of nonuniqueness that are inherent in the much more complicated problems encountered in modern geophysical imaging (though they do not necessarily provide methods for solving those problems). We also define what is meant by a Backus and Gilbert resolution kernel in this kind of inversion and show under what circumstances a unique localized average of a single model function can be constructed.
Menke, William
2017-04-01
We prove that the problem of inverting Rayleigh wave phase velocity functions c( k ), where k is wavenumber, for density ρ ( z ), rigidity μ ( z ) and Lamé parameter λ ( z ), where z is depth, is fully non-unique, at least in the highly-idealized case where the base Earth model is an isotropic half space. The model functions completely trade off. This is one special case of a common inversion scenario in which one seeks to determine several model functions from a single data function. We explore the circumstances under which this broad class of problems is unique, starting with very simple scenarios, building up to the somewhat more complicated (and common) case where data and model functions are related by convolutions, and then finally, to scale-independent problems (which include the Rayleigh wave problem). The idealized cases that we examine analytically provide insight into the kinds of nonuniqueness that are inherent in the much more complicated problems encountered in modern geophysical imaging (though they do not necessarily provide methods for solving those problems). We also define what is meant by a Backus and Gilbert resolution kernel in this kind of inversion and show under what circumstances a unique localized average of a single model function can be constructed.
Modelling of Rayleigh-type seam waves in disturbed coal seams and around a coal mine roadway
Essen, Katja; Bohlen, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang; Meier, Thomas
2007-08-01
Wave propagation in coal seams is numerically modelled in order to identify approaches towards the reconnaissance beyond the heading face of an advancing coal mine roadway. Complete synthetic wavefields including P-SV body waves and Rayleigh-type seam waves are calculated using a Green's function approach for simple, laterally homogeneous models and a parallel elastic 2-D/3-D finite difference modelling code for more realistic geometries. For a simple three-layer model the wavefield within the seam is dominated by a fundamental Rayleigh seam mode symmetrical with respect to the centre of the seam on the vertical component and antisymmetrical on the horizontal component. If the seam contains an interleaved dirt band with higher velocities and density, higher modes dominate the wave propagation, depending on the thickness of the dirt band. Wave propagation in laterally inhomogeneous coal seam models with disturbances like seam ends, faults, thinning, washouts and seam splitting is strongly influenced by the type of disturbance. Amplitudes of seam waves reflected from these disturbances strongly depend on the fault throw and the degree of thinning or washout. In some cases, conversion to higher modes can occur. In all investigated models, those Rayleigh seam wave phases are preferably reflected, which have frequencies above the fundamental mode Airy phase. Lower frequency phases are preferably transmitted. However, seam waves are not reflected from a seam splitting disturbance. Thus a detection of seam splitting with reflected seam waves appears to be impossible. FD computations for 3-D models containing an ending tunnel parallel to the seam and a source beyond the heading face of the tunnel show that seam waves are converted into Rayleigh waves at the tunnel face. They propagate along the surface of the tunnel and interfere with the seam waves propagating beside the tunnel. This effect has to be taken into account for subsequent treatment of experimental data, where
A trade-off between model resolution and variance with selected Rayleigh-wave data
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.
2008-01-01
Inversion of multimode surface-wave data is of increasing interest in the near-surface geophysics community. For a given near-surface geophysical problem, it is essential to understand how well the data, calculated according to a layered-earth model, might match the observed data. A data-resolution matrix is a function of the data kernel (determined by a geophysical model and a priori information applied to the problem), not the data. A data-resolution matrix of high-frequency (??? 2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, therefore, offers a quantitative tool for designing field surveys and predicting the match between calculated and observed data. First, we employed a data-resolution matrix to select data that would be well predicted and to explain advantages of incorporating higher modes in inversion. The resulting discussion using the data-resolution matrix provides insight into the process of inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities with higher mode data to estimate S-wave velocity structure. Discussion also suggested that each near-surface geophysical target can only be resolved using Rayleigh-wave phase velocities within specific frequency ranges, and higher mode data are normally more accurately predicted than fundamental mode data because of restrictions on the data kernel for the inversion system. Second, we obtained an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of an inverted model by the singular value decomposition of a trade-off function of model resolution and variance. In the end of the paper, we used a real-world example to demonstrate that selected data with the data-resolution matrix can provide better inversion results and to explain with the data-resolution matrix why incorporating higher mode data in inversion can provide better results. We also calculated model-resolution matrices of these examples to show the potential of increasing model resolution with selected surface-wave data. With the optimal damping vector, we can improve and assess an inverted
Constraints on Shear Velocity in the Cratonic Upper Mantle From Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity
Hirsch, A. C.; Dalton, C. A.
2014-12-01
In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (200-300 km), defined by a depleted composition and a steady-state conductively cooled temperature structure, has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth and anomalously high attenuation in the uppermost mantle, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected with a thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. Here, we used forward-modeling to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves that primarily traversed cratons in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. We considered two approaches; with the first, depth profiles of shear velocity were predicted from thermal models of the cratonic upper mantle that correspond to a range of assumed values of mantle potential temperature, surface heat flow, and radiogenic heat production in the crust and upper mantle. With the second approach, depth profiles of shear velocity were randomly generated. In both cases, Rayleigh wave phase velocity was calculated from the Earth models and compared to the observed values. We show that it is very difficult to match the observations with an Earth model containing a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle; instead, the best-fit models contain a flat or positive velocity gradient with depth. We explore the implications of this result for the thermal and
Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves in basin and hard-rock sites in Northern Italy
Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.
2016-07-01
We measure ellipticity of teleseismic Rayleigh waves at 95 seismic stations in Northern Italy, for wave period between 10 and 110 s, using an automatic technique and a large volume of high-quality seismic recordings from over 500 global earthquakes that occurred in 2008-2014. Northern Italy includes a wide range of crustal structures, from the wide and deep Po Plain sedimentary basin to outcropping sedimentary and crystalline rocks in the Northern Apennines and Alps. It thus provides an excellent case for studying the influence of shallow earth structure on polarization of surface waves. The ellipticity measurements show excellent spatial correlation with geological features in the region, such as high ellipticity associated with regions of low seismic velocity in the Po Plain and low ellipticity values in faster, hard rock regions in the Alps and Apennine mountains. Moreover, the observed ellipticity values also relate to the thickness of the basement, as highlighted by observed differences beneath the Alps and the Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region show substantial fit, particularly for T ˜ 38 s data. Discrepancy for shorter wave period suggests that slight modifications of the model are needed, and that the ellipticity measurements could help to better constrain the shallow crustal structure of the region. Predictions for the Po Plain are larger than the observations by a factor of four or more and transition from retrograde to prograde Rayleigh wave motion at the surface for periods of T ˜ 10-13 s is predicted for seismic stations in the plain. Analysis of corresponding real data indicates a possible detection of teleseismic prograde particle motion, but the weak teleseismic earthquake signals are mixed with ambient noise signals at the predicted, short, transition periods. Detection of the period of polarity inversion from the joint analysis of earthquake and ambient noise
de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Michele, Maddalena; Emolo, Antonio; Tallarico, Andrea
2017-02-01
In the present study, fundamental Rayleigh waves with varying period from 10 to 80 s are used to obtain group velocity maps in the northwest Deccan Volcanic Province of India. About 350 paths are obtained using 53 earthquakes (4.8 ≤ M ≥ 7.9) recorded by the SeisNetG (Seismic Network of Gujarat). Individual dispersion curves of group velocity of Rayleigh wave for each source-station path are estimated using multiple filter technique. These curves are used to determine lateral distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocity by tomographic inversion method. Our estimated Rayleigh group velocity at varying depths showed conspicuous corroboration with three tectonic blocks [Kachchh Rift Basin (KRB), Saurashtra Horst (SH), and Mainland Gujarat (MG)] in the region. The seismically active KRB with a thicker crust is characterized as a low velocity zone at a period varying from 10 to 30 s as indicative of mantle downwarping or sagging of the mantle beneath the KRB, while the SH and MG are found to be associated with higher group velocities, indicating the existence of the reduced crustal thickness. The trend of higher group velocity was found prevailed adjacent to the Narmada and Cambay rift basins that also correspond to the reduced crust, suggesting the processes of mantle upwarping or uplifting due to mantle upwelling. The low velocities at periods longer than 40 s beneath the KRB indicate thicker lithosphere. The known Moho depth correlates well with the observed velocities at a period of about 30 s in the Gujarat region. Our estimates of relatively lower group velocities at periods varying from 70 to 80 s may correspond to the asthenospheric flow beneath the region. It is interesting to image higher group velocity for the thinner crust beneath the Arabian Sea adjacent to the west coast of Gujarat at the period of 40 s that may correspond to the upwarped or upwelled mantle beneath the Arabian Sea. Our results have better resolution estimated by a radius of equivalent
Petrescu, Laura; Darbyshire, Fiona; Bastow, Ian; Totten, Eoghan; Gilligan, Amy
2017-05-01
The thick, seismically fast lithospheric keels underlying continental cores (cratons) are thought to have formed in the Precambrian and resisted subsequent tectonic destruction. A consensus is emerging from a variety of disciplines that keels are vertically stratified, but the processes that led to their development remain uncertain. Eastern Canada is a natural laboratory to study Precambrian lithospheric formation and evolution. It comprises the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Craton, surrounded by multiple Proterozoic orogenic belts. To investigate its lithospheric structure, we construct a frequency-dependent anisotropic seismic model of the region using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations across eastern Canada. The joint interpretation of phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy patterns reveals a seismically fast and anisotropically complex Superior Craton. The upper lithosphere records fossilized Archean tectonic deformation: anisotropic patterns align with the orientation of the main tectonic boundaries at periods ≤110 s. This implies that cratonic blocks were strong enough to sustain plate-scale deformation during collision at 2.5 Ga. Cratonic lithosphere with fossil anisotropy partially extends beneath adjacent Proterozoic belts. At periods sensitive to the lower lithosphere, we detect fast, more homogenous, and weakly anisotropic material, documenting postassembly lithospheric growth, possibly in a slow or stagnant convection regime. A heterogeneous, anisotropic transitional zone may also be present at the base of the keel. The detection of multiple lithospheric fabrics at different periods with distinct tectonic origins supports growing evidence that cratonization processes may be episodic and are not exclusively an Archean phenomenon.
Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity in the Upper Mantle Beneath the Indian Ocean
Godfrey, K. E.; Dalton, C. A.; Ritsema, J.
2016-12-01
Most of what is currently understood about the seismic properties of oceanic upper mantle is based on either global studies or regional studies of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific Ocean. However, global seismic models and geochemical studies of mid-ocean ridge basalts indicate differences in the properties of the upper mantle beneath the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans. Though the Indian Ocean is not as well studied seismically, it is host to a number of geologically interesting features including 16,000 km of mid-ocean ridge with a range of spreading rates from 14 mm/yr along the Southwest Indian Ridge to 55-75 mm/yr along the Southeast Indian Ridge. The Indian Ocean also contains multiple volcanic hotspots, the Australian-Antarctic Discordance, and a low geoid anomaly south of India, and it overlies a portion of a large low-shear-velocity province. We are using Rayleigh waves to construct a high-resolution seismic velocity model of the Indian Ocean upper mantle. We utilize a global dataset of phase delays measured at 20 periods, between 37 and 375 seconds; the dataset includes between 700 and 20,000 that traverse our study region exclusively, with a larger number of paths at shorter periods. We explore variations in phase velocity using two separate approaches. One, we allow phase velocity to vary only as a function of seafloor age. Two, we perform a damped least-squares inversion to solve for 2-D phase velocity maps at each period. Preliminary results indicate low velocities along the Southeast Indian Ridge and Central Indian Ridge, but the expected low velocities are less apparent along the slow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. We observe a region of fast velocities extending from Antarctica northward between the Kerguelen and Crozet hotspots, and lower than expected velocities beneath the Reunion hotspot. Additionally, we find low velocities associated with a region of extinct seafloor spreading in the Wharton basin.
Ben Salah, Issam; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2012-02-01
An exact approach is used to investigate Rayleigh waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi infinite homogenous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized when the six fold symmetry axis is put along the propagation direction x(1). The FGPM character imposes that the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. Contrary to the analytical approach, the adopted numerical methods, including the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and the stiffness matrix method (SMM), treat separately the electrical and mechanical gradients. The influences of graded variations applied to FGPM film coefficients on the dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves are discussed. The effects of gradient coefficients on electromechanical coupling factor, displacement fields, stress distributions and electrical potential, are reported. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. Opposite effects are observed on the coupling factor when graded variations are applied separately. A particular attention has been devoted to the maximum of the coupling factor and it dependence on the stratification rate and the gradient coefficient. This work provides with a theoretical foundation for the design and practical applications of SAW devices with high performance.
Control of Rayleigh-like waves in thick plate Willis metamaterials
Diatta, Andre; Brûlé, Stéphane; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Recent advances in control of anthropic seismic sources in structured soil led us to explore interactions of elastic waves propagating in plates (with soil parameters) structured with concrete pillars buried in the soil. Pillars are $40$ m in depth and the plate is $100$ m in thickness, so that typical frequencies under study are in the frequency range 4 to 8 Hz, which is compatible with frequency ranges of particular interest in earthquake engineering. It is demonstrated in this paper that two seismic cloaks' configurations allow for an unprecedented flow of elastodynamic energy associated with Rayleigh surface waves. These designs are inspired by some ideal cloaks' parameters deduced from a geometric transform in the Navier equations that preserves the symmetry of the elasticity tensor but leads to Willis' equations as corroborated by numerical simulations. Importantly, we focus our attention on geometric transforms applied to thick plates, which is an intermediate case between thin plates and semi-infinite...
Analysis of group-velocity dispersion of high-frequency Rayleigh waves for near-surface applications
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.
2011-01-01
The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile using the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves. Most MASW researchers mainly apply Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity dispersion for S-wave velocity estimation with a few exceptions applying Rayleigh-wave group-velocity dispersion. Herein, we first compare sensitivities of fundamental surface-wave phase velocities with group velocities with three four-layer models including a low-velocity layer or a high-velocity layer. Then synthetic data are simulated by a finite difference method. Images of group-velocity dispersive energy of the synthetic data are generated using the Multiple Filter Analysis (MFA) method. Finally we invert a high-frequency surface-wave group-velocity dispersion curve of a real-world example. Results demonstrate that (1) the sensitivities of group velocities are higher than those of phase velocities and usable frequency ranges are wider than that of phase velocities, which is very helpful in improving inversion stability because for a stable inversion system, small changes in phase velocities do not result in a large fluctuation in inverted S-wave velocities; (2) group-velocity dispersive energy can be measured using single-trace data if Rayleigh-wave fundamental-mode energy is dominant, which suggests that the number of shots required in data acquisition can be dramatically reduced and the horizontal resolution can be greatly improved using analysis of group-velocity dispersion; and (3) the suspension logging results of the real-world example demonstrate that inversion of group velocities generated by the MFA method can successfully estimate near-surface S-wave velocities. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Hadjoub, Zahia; Touati, Ibtissem; Doghmane, Malika; Doghmane, Abdellaziz
2008-10-01
This work concerns the investigation of loading layers/substrate structures in order to determine the critical thickness at which Rayleigh wave characteristics of layers can be completely distinguished from those of the substrates. To do so, we first calculate Rayleigh velocity dispersion curves of several thin film materials (about thirty) deposited on different slow and fast substrates (Be, Al 2O 3, AlN, Si, SiO 2, Mg, SiC, TiN, WC and Pyrex). Then, from the beginning of curve saturation (corresponding to the onset of intrinsic layer characteristics) we deduced normalized thickness transition for all layers/substrates combinations. Thus, we were able to deduce an analytical linear expression relating the critical thickness to combined effects of densities and velocities of both layers and substrates. Such a simple relation can be used, as an alternative method, to predict the transition critical thickness for any layer/substrate combination without the usual lengthy calculation of dispersion curves. To cite this article: Z. Hadjoub et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).
ULTRASONIC INFLUENCE OF POROSITY LEVEL ON CFRP COMPOSITE LAMINATES USING RAYLEIGH PROBE WAVES
Je-Woong Park; Do-Jung Kim; Kwang-Hee Im; Sang-Kyu Park; David K.Hsu; Adam H.Kite; Sun-Kyu Kim; Kil-Sung Lee; In-Young Yang
2008-01-01
It was found that a pitch-catch signal was more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave to subtle flaw conditions in the composites (damages,fiber orientation,low level porosity,ply waviness,and cracks).Both the strength and stiffness depend on the fiber orientation and porosity volume in the composites.The porosity content of a composite structure is critical to the strength and performance of the structure in general.The depth of the sampling volume where the pitch-catch signal came from was relatively shallow with the head to-head miniature Rayleigh probes,but the depth can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes.Also,a method was utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay-up by processing micrograph images of the laminate.A free software package was utilized to process micrograph images of the test sample.The results from the image processing method were compared with existing data.Beam profile was characterized in unidirectional CFRP(carbon fiber reinforced plastics) using pitch-catch Rayleigh probes and the one-sided pitch-catch technique was utilized to produce C-scan images with the aid of the automatic scanner.
Esteban Flores-Mendez
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.
Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Bogdan
2014-05-01
Variations in crustal thickness in Romania where determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion. We present new models of shear wave velocity structure of the crust beneath Romanian broad band stations. The data set consist in more than 500 teleseismic earthquake with epicentral distance between 30° and 95°, magnitude greater than 6 and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for the P-wave pulse. Most epicenters are situated along the northern Pacific Rim and arrive with backazimuths (BAZs) between 0° and 135° at the Romanian seismic network. We combine receiver functions with fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh wave group velocities to further constrain the shear-wave velocity structure.To extract the group velocities we applied the Multiple Filter Technique analysis to the vertical components of the earthquakes recordings. This technique allowed us to identify the Rayleigh wave fundamental mode and to compute the dispersion curves of the group velocities at periods between 10 and 150 s allowing us to resolve shear wave velocities to a depth of 100 km. The time-domain iterative deconvolution procedure of Ligorrıa and Ammon (1999) was employed to deconvolve the vertical component of the teleseismic P waveforms from the corresponding horizontal components and obtain radial and transverse receiver functions at each broadband station. The data are inverted using a joint, linearized inversion scheme (Hermann, 2002) which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations, and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations, constructing a smooth model, and matching a priori constraints. The results show a thin crust for stations located inside the Pannonian basin (28-30 km) and a thicker crust for those in the East European Platform (36-40 km). The stations within the Southern and Central Carpathian Orogen are characterized by crustal depths of ~35 km. For stations located in the Northern
Rayleigh surface wave interaction with the 2D exciton Bose-Einstein condensate
Boev, M. V.; Kovalev, V. M., E-mail: vadimkovalev@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We describe the interaction of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) traveling on the semiconductor substrate with the excitonic gas in a double quantum well located on the substrate surface. We study the SAW attenuation and its velocity renormalization due to the coupling to excitons. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric mechanisms of the SAW-exciton interaction are considered. We focus on the frequency and excitonic density dependences of the SAW absorption coefficient and velocity renormalization at temperatures both above and well below the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the excitonic gas. We demonstrate that the SAW attenuation and velocity renormalization are strongly different below and above the critical temperature.
Benoit, M H; Nyblade, A A; Pasyanos, M E
2006-01-17
The East African and Ethiopian Plateaus have long been recognized to be part of a much larger topographic anomaly on the African Plate called the African Superswell. One of the few places within the African Superswell that exhibit elevations of less than 1 km is southeastern Sudan and northern Kenya, an area containing both Mesozoic and Cenozoic rift basins. Crustal structure and uppermost mantle velocities are investigated in this area by modeling Rayleigh wave dispersion. Modeling results indicate an average crustal thickness of 25 {+-} 5 km, some 10-15 km thinner than the crust beneath the adjacent East African and Ethiopian Plateaus. The low elevations can therefore be readily attributed to an isostatic response from crustal thinning. Low Sn velocities of 4.1-4.3 km/s also characterize this region.
Metzler, Adam M; Siegmann, William L; Collins, Michael D
2012-02-01
The parabolic equation method with a single-scattering correction allows for accurate modeling of range-dependent environments in elastic layered media. For problems with large contrasts, accuracy and efficiency are gained by subdividing vertical interfaces into a series of two or more single-scattering problems. This approach generates several computational parameters, such as the number of interface slices, an iteration convergence parameter τ, and the number of iterations n for convergence. Using a narrow-angle approximation, the choices of n=1 and τ=2 give accurate solutions. Analogous results from the narrow-angle approximation extend to environments with larger variations when slices are used as needed at vertical interfaces. The approach is applied to a generic ocean waveguide that includes the generation of a Rayleigh interface wave. Results are presented in both frequency and time domains.
Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave
Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2017-02-15
Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.
Crustal structure below Popocat\\'epetl Volcano (Mexico) from analysis of Rayleigh waves
De Barros, Louis; Métaxian, J -P; Valdés-Gonzales, C; Lesage, Philippe
2007-01-01
An array of ten broadband stations was installed on the Popocat\\'epetl volcano (Mexico) for five months between October 2002 and February 2003. 26 regional and teleseismic earthquakes were selected and filtered in the frequency time domain to extract the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave. The average dispersion curve was obtained in two steps. Firstly, phase velocities were measured in the period range [2-50] s from the phase difference between pairs of stations, using Wiener filtering. Secondly, the average dispersion curve was calculated by combining observations from all events in order to reduce diffraction effects. The inversion of the mean phase velocity yielded a crustal model for the volcano which is consistent with previous models of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. The overall crustal structure beneath Popocat\\'epetl is therefore not different from the surrounding area, and the velocities in the lower crust are confirmed to be relatively low. Lateral variations of the structure were also investigated ...
Benabid, F.; Notcutt, M.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.
1999-10-01
We present the level of noise induced by Rayleigh-scattered light from sapphire test mass, the limit of scattering loss on build-up power inside the interferometer and finally the tolerable absorption loss in order to meet the specification of the interferometer sensitivity. The results show that the Rayleigh scattering induced noise remains below h˜10 -25 Hz -1/2 and a higher tolerance on the absorption level in sapphire substrate compared with silica substrate.
Ekaterina I. Radeva; Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Avramov, Ivan D.
2012-01-01
Temperature induced frequency shifts may compromise the sensor response of polymer coated acoustic wave gas-phase sensors operating in environments of variable temperature. To correct the sensor data with the temperature response of the sensor the latter must be known. This study presents and discusses temperature frequency characteristics (TFCs) of solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) polymer coated sensor resonators using the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (RSAW) mode on ST-cut quartz. Using ...
Mapping buried parts of a megalithic tomb with multichannel analysis of Rayleigh-waves and GPR
Wilken, D.; Erkul, E.; Glomb, V.; Rabbel, W.
2012-04-01
The objective of the presented study was to image buried parts of a megalithic tomb in northern Germany with GPR and multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW). The latter method was applied with the aim of testing its feasibility when used on intermediate scale archaeological targets. As we do not expect MASW of being able to resolve archaeological objects in terms of inverted velocity structure, we look for spectral effects due to subsurface heterogeneity. Identifying and mapping these effects would give a distribution of possibly archaeological objects. The presented seismic dataset shows an amplitude shift between normal and a guided Rayleigh-wave mode. When mapped along parallel profiles the spatial distribution of this effect matches the geometry of the grave. The observed anomalies show good correlation to GPR results that included strong reflectors inside the grave border. Elastic finite difference modelling of the surface-wave propagation showed that the spectral effect can be reproduced by a compacted or bulked column above the GPR anomaly depth indicating that the observed anomalies may be caused by construction activities or load effects during multiple construction phases of the tomb. Observed GPR reflectors thus indicate the bottom of the disturbed zones and MASW effects map the distribution of disturbed subsoil columns.
Electromagnetic fields induced at the seafloor by Rayleigh-Stoneley waves
Webb, S.; Cobb, C.
1982-05-10
We model oceanic acoustic and seismic disturbances as Rayeigh-Stoneley waves in the layered medium consisting of ocean, sediment and rock. The waves induce electromagnetic fields because of motion of conducting materials through the geomagnetic field. Low-frequency disturbances in deep water are efficient electromagnetic generators because the motions are coherent over large volumes of highly conducting seawater. For wave frequencies below 0.1 Hz in deep water, the geomagnetic field is nearly frozen to the moving water. Consequently, the electric field measured by a voltmeter attached to the seabed is approximately ..delta..u x F, where ..delta..u is the difference between the velocity of the water and of the voltmeter itself as it is moved by the motion of the seafloor, and F is the geomagnetic field. This result applied to Love waves suggests that the electric field will result largely from the movement of the detector but detailed calculations have not been made. Although the fields are weak they should be detectable because the main interference is from ionospheric sources and the fields from, these sources are greatly attenuated at the seabed by the overlying oceanic shield. The effectiveness of the shield diminishes sharply at frequencies below 0.03 Hz. At high frequencies the principal limitation to detectability is in the inherent noise level of detectors whether electric or magnetic. At present, electric detectors are more effective than magnetic. They appear to be competitive with accelerometers for seismic detection in the deep ocean in a restricted frequency band near 0.05 Hz. A layer of unconsolidated sediment underlying the ocean profoundly affects the dispersion relation of Rayleigh-Stonely waves and thereby affects the electromagnetic induction process.
Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Chen, C.
2006-01-01
A Gibson half-space model (a non-layered Earth model) has the shear modulus varying linearly with depth in an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. In a half-space of sedimentary granular soil under a geostatic state of initial stress, the density and the Poisson's ratio do not vary considerably with depth. In such an Earth body, the dynamic shear modulus is the parameter that mainly affects the dispersion of propagating waves. We have estimated shear-wave velocities in the compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. An analytical dispersion law of Rayleigh-type waves in a compressible Gibson half-space is given in an algebraic form, which makes our inversion process extremely simple and fast. The convergence of the weighted damping solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Calculation efficiency is achieved by reconstructing a weighted damping solution using singular value decomposition techniques. The main advantage of this algorithm is that only three parameters define the compressible Gibson half-space model. Theoretically, to determine the model by the inversion, only three Rayleigh-wave phase velocities at different frequencies are required. This is useful in practice where Rayleigh-wave energy is only developed in a limited frequency range or at certain frequencies as data acquired at manmade structures such as dams and levees. Two real examples are presented and verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements. The results of these real examples are also compared with the results of the layered-Earth model. ?? Springer 2006.
Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur
2010-01-01
We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the ﬁrst step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by deﬁning a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local ﬁts to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images conﬁrm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat ﬂow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high
Godfrey, Holly J.; Fry, Bill; Savage, Martha K.
2017-04-01
Models of the velocity structure of volcanoes can help define possible magma pathways and contribute to calculating more accurate earthquake locations, which can help with monitoring volcanic activity. However, shear-wave velocity of volcanoes is difficult to determine from traditional seismic techniques, such as local earthquake tomography (LET) or refraction/reflection surveys. Here we use the recently developed technique of noise cross correlation of continuous seismic data to investigate the subsurface shear-wave velocity structure of the Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TgVC) of New Zealand, focusing on the active Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. We observe both the fundamental and first higher-order modes of Rayleigh and Love waves within our noise dataset, made from stacks of 15 min cross-correlation functions. We manually pick group velocity dispersion curves from over 1900 correlation functions, of which we consider 1373 to be high quality. We subsequently invert a subset of the fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves both independently and jointly for one dimensional shear-wave velocity (Vs) profiles at Ruapehu and Tongariro Volcanoes. Vs increases very slowly at a rate of approximately 0.2 km/s per km depth beneath Ruapehu, suggesting that progressive hydrothermal alteration mitigates the effects of compaction driven velocity increases. At Tongariro, we observe larger Vs increases with depth, which we interpret as different layers within Tongariro's volcanic system above altered basement greywacke. Slow Vs, on the order of 1-2 km/s, are compatible with P-wave velocities (using a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.7) from existing velocity profiles of areas within the TgVC, and the observations of worldwide studies of shallow volcanic systems that used ambient noise cross-correlation methods. Most of the measured group velocities of fundamental mode Love-waves across the TgVC are 0.1-0.4 km/s slower than those of fundamental mode Rayleigh-waves in the
Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility
Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.
2002-01-01
A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.
Anderson, Dale N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Jessie L [WESTON GEOPHYSICAL; Stroujkova, Anastasia [WESTON GEOPHYSICAL; Shumway, Robert [UC/DAVIS; Russell, David R [AFTAC
2009-01-01
Our objective is to improve seismic event screening using the properties of surface waves, We are accomplishing this through (1) the development of a Love-wave magnitude formula that is complementary to the Russell (2006) formula for Rayleigh waves and (2) quantifying differences in complexities and magnitude variances for earthquake and explosion-generated surface waves. We have applied the M{sub s} (VMAX) analysis (Bonner et al., 2006) using both Love and Rayleigh waves to events in the Middle East and Korean Peninsula, For the Middle East dataset consisting of approximately 100 events, the Love M{sub s} (VMAX) is greater than the Rayleigh M{sub s} (VMAX) estimated for individual stations for the majority of the events and azimuths, with the exception of the measurements for the smaller events from European stations to the northeast. It is unclear whether these smaller events suffer from magnitude bias for the Love waves or whether the paths, which include the Caspian and Mediterranean, have variable attenuation for Love and Rayleigh waves. For the Korean Peninsula, we have estimated Rayleigh- and Love-wave magnitudes for 31 earthquakes and two nuclear explosions, including the 25 May 2009 event. For 25 of the earthquakes, the network-averaged Love-wave magnitude is larger than the Rayleigh-wave estimate. For the 2009 nuclear explosion, the Love-wave M{sub s} (VMAX) was 3.1 while the Rayleigh-wave magnitude was 3.6. We are also utilizing the potential of observed variances in M{sub s} estimates that differ significantly in earthquake and explosion populations. We have considered two possible methods for incorporating unequal variances into the discrimination problem and compared the performance of various approaches on a population of 73 western United States earthquakes and 131 Nevada Test Site explosions. The approach proposes replacing the M{sub s} component by M{sub s} + a* {sigma}, where {sigma} denotes the interstation standard deviation obtained from the
Huajian Yao
2015-01-01
Seismic anisotropy provides important constraints on deformation patterns of Earth's material.Rayleigh wave dispersion data with azimuthal anisotropy can be used to invert for depth-dependent shear wavespeed azimuthal anisotropy,therefore reflecting depth-varying deformation patterns in the crust and upper mantle.In this study,we propose a two-step method that uses the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) for the point-wise inversion of depth-dependent shear wavespeeds and azimuthal anisotropy from Rayleigh wave azimuthally anisotropic dispersion data.The first step employs the NA to estimate depthdependent Vsv (or the elastic parameter L) as well as their uncertainties from the isotropic part Rayleigh wave dispersion data.In the second step,we first adopt a difference scheme to compute approximate Rayleigh-wave phase velocity sensitivity kernels to azimuthally anisotropic parameters with respect to the velocity model obtained in the first step.Then we perform the NA to estimate the azi.muthally anisotropic parameters Gc/L and Gs/L at depths separately from the corresponding cosine and sine terms of the azimuthally anisotropic dispersion data.Finally,we compute the depth-dependent magnitude and fast polarization azimuth of shear wavespeed azimuthal anisotropy.The use of the global search NA and Bayesian analysis allows for more reliable estimates of depth-dependent shear wavespeeds and azimuthal anisotropy as well as their uncertainties.We illustrate the inversion method using the azimuthally anisotropic dispersion data in SE Tibet,where we find apparent changes of fast axes of shear wavespeed azimuthal anisotropy between the crust and uppermost mantle.
Duquennoy, Marc; Ouaftouh, Mohammadi; Ourak, Mohamed; Jenot, Frédéric
2002-06-01
The characterization of stress states in materials is often necessary in some industrial application. The ultrasonic methods can be potentially convenient since stress states inside materials can be obtained even if materials are opaque. Nevertheless, the knowledge of acousto-elastic coefficients is generally necessary to estimate residual stresses by ultrasonic methods, but the experimental determination of these acousto-elastic coefficients can be difficult in some cases. In this paper, Rayleigh wave (RW) acousto-elastic coefficients of an orthotropic material are theoretically determined according to its characteristics, i.e. the density and the secondand third-order elastic constants. Then, these RW acousto-elastic coefficients are directly measured during an experimental stage and a comparison between calculated and measured coefficients is realized. This study allows on the one hand to check the theoretical development and on the other hand to show that it is possible to calculate acousto-elastic coefficients theoretically from intrinsic characteristics of the material rather than measuring them directly during a calibration phase which is sometimes long and difficult to realize.
Azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves beneath the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas
2008-01-01
The crustal and upper mantle azimuthal anisotropy of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas was studied by Rayleigh wave tomography. We collected sufficient broadband digital seismograms trav-ersing the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas from available stations, including especially some data from the temporary stations newly deployed in Yunnan, eastern Tibet, and western Sichuan. They made an adequate path coverage in most regions to achieve a reasonable resolution for the inversion. The model resolution tests show that the anisotropic features of scope greater than 400 km and strength greater than 2% are reliable. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern inside the Tibetan Plateau was similar to the characteristic of tectonic partition. The crustal anisotropy strength is greater than 2% in most re-gions of East Tibet, and the anisotropy shows clockwise rotation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Vertically, the anisotropy direction indicates a coherent pattern within the upper crust, lower crust, and lithosphere mantle of the Tibetan Plateau, which also is consistent with GPS velocity field and SKS fast polarization directions. The result supports that the crust-mantle deformation beneath the Tibetan Plateau is vertically coherent. The anisotropy strength of crust and lithospheric upper mantle in Yunnan outside the Tibetan Plateau is lower than 2%, so SKS splitting from core-mantle boundary to station should largely be attributed to the anisotropy of asthenosphere.
Azimuthal anisotropy of Rayleigh waves beneath the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas
SU Wei; WANG ChunYong; HUANG ZhongXian
2008-01-01
The crustal and upper mantle azimuthal anisotropy of the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas was studied by Rayleigh wave tomography. We collected sufficient broadband digital seismograms traversing the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas from available stations, including especially some data from the temporary stations newly deployed in Yunnan, eastern Tibet, and western Sichuan. They made an adequate path coverage in most regions to achieve a reasonable resolution for the inversion. The model resolution tests show that the anisotropic features of scope greater than 400 km and strength greater than 2% are reliable. The azimuthal anisotropy pattern inside the Tibetan Plateau was similar to the characteristic of tectonic partition. The crustal anisotropy strength is greater than 2% in most regions of East Tibet, and the anisotropy shows clockwise rotation surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Vertically, the anisotropy direction indicates a coherent pattern within the upper crust, lower crust, and lithosphere mantle of the Tibetan Plateau, which also is consistent with GPS velocity field and SKS fast polarization directions. The result supports that the crust-mantle deformation beneath the Tibetan Plateau is vertically coherent. The anisotropy strength of crust and lithospheric upper mantle in Yunnan outside the Tibetan Plateau is lower than 2%, so SKS splitting from core-mantle boundary to station should largely be attributed to the anisotropy of asthenosphere.
Rayleigh surface wave modeling by finite difference method in biphasic media%双相介质瑞雷面波有限差分正演模拟
张伟; 甘伏平; 刘伟; 郑智杰
2014-01-01
为了研究双相介质瑞雷面波的形成机制及传播规律，促进瑞雷面波资料处理方法的发展。文章根据弹性波动方程，采用交错网格有限差分算法，对二维各向同性弹性介质做解析解与数值解的对比，在此基础上，将PML吸收边界条件，改进的镜像法应用于双相介质波动方程中，并作了稳定性分析，对双相介质水平层状、起伏分界面等典型模型瑞雷面波及体波在内的全波场进行研究。结果表明：基于弹性介质解析解与数值解的对比，在误差接受范围内，研究双相介质是可行的；把稍作改进的镜像法应用于双相介质中，能够有效地处理瑞雷面波自由边界问题；通过详细分析双相介质瑞雷面波及体波在内的全波场的信息，对以双相介质为基础的地震波勘探有一定的指导作用。%In order to study the mechanism and propagation of Rayleigh surface wave in biphasic media and promote the development of data⁃processing method of Rayleigh surface wave, the authors applied finite difference method with staggered grids to simulate the 2D i⁃sotropic elastic media based on the elastic wave equation, and made a comparison between the analytical and numerical solutions. On such a basis, the PML absorbing boundary condition and improved image method can be applied to the two⁃phase medium wave equa⁃tion to simulate the typical media model including horizontal layer and undulating interface, analyze the full wave information including the Rayleigh surface wave and body wave, and make a stability analysis. The results show that, on the basis of the comparison between the numerical solution and the analytical solution of the elastic media within the acceptable range of the error, the study of biphasic me⁃dium is feasible. The slight improvement of the image method can be applied to biphasic media to deal with free boundary condition problem of the Rayleigh surface wave
Paffenholz, Joseph; Fox, Jon W.; Gu, Xiaobai; Jewett, Greg S.; Datta, Subhendu K.
1990-01-01
Scattering of Rayleigh-Lamb waves by a normal surface-breaking crack in a plate has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The two-dimensionality of the far field, generated by a ball impact source, is exploited to characterize the source function using a direct integration technique. The scattering of waves generated by this impact source by the crack is subsequently solved by employing a Green's function integral expression for the scattered field coupled with a finite element representation of the near field. It is shown that theoretical results of plate response, both in frequency and time, are similar to those obtained experimentally. Additionally, implication for practical applications are discussed.
Tanimoto, Toshiro; Lin, Chin-Jen; Hadziioannou, Céline; Igel, Heiner; Vernon, Frank
2016-11-01
Using closely located seismographs at Piñon Flat (PFO), California, for 1 year long record (2015), we estimated the Rayleigh-to-Love wave energy ratio in the secondary microseism (0.1-0.35 Hz) in four seasons. Rayleigh wave energy was estimated from a vertical component seismograph. Love wave energy was estimated from rotation seismograms that were derived from a small array at PFO. Derived ratios are 2-2.5, meaning that there is 2-2.5 times more Rayleigh wave energy than Love wave energy at PFO. In our previous study at Wettzell, Germany, this ratio was 0.9-1.0, indicating comparable energy between Rayleigh waves and Love waves. This difference suggests that the Rayleigh-to-Love wave ratios in the secondary microseism may differ greatly from region to region. It also implies that an assumption of the diffuse wavefield is not likely to be valid for this low frequency range as the equipartition of energy should make this ratio much closer.
Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries
Titarchuk, Lev
2002-01-01
Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the
Miao, W.; Li, G.; Niu, F.
2016-12-01
Knowledge on the 3D sediment structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin is not only important to explore the oil and gas resources in the area, but also essential to decipher the deep crust and mantle structure beneath the margin with teleseismic data. In this study, we conduct a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocity at 6-40 s to construct a 3-D S wave velocity model in a rectangular area of 100°-87° west and 28°-37° north. We use ambient noise data from a total of 215 stations of the Transportable Array deployed under the Earthscope project. Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave Z/H (vertical to horizontal) amplitude ratio is mostly sensitive to shallow sediment structure, while the dispersion data are expected to have reasonably good resolution to uppermost mantle depths. The Z/H ratios measured from stations inside the Gulf Coastal Plain are distinctly lower in comparison with those measured from the inland stations. We also measured the phase velocity dispersion from the same ambient noise dataset. Our preliminary 3-D model is featured by strong low-velocity anomalies at shallow depth, which are spatially well correlated with Gulf Cost, East Texas, and the Lower Mississippi basins. We will discuss other features of the 3-D models once the model is finalized.
Rayleigh-wave Tomography and Seismic Anisotropic Structures in the Region of the Philippine Sea
Lee, Hsin-Yu; Legendre, Cédric P.; Chang, Emmy T. Y.
2016-04-01
The Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is surrounded by convergent boundaries, the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the PSP along the Izu-Bonin and Mariana trenches at the east, whereas the PSP is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate along the Nankai trough, Ryukyu trench and Philippine trench at the west. The PSP can be divided by three oceanic basins: the oldest West Philippine basin developing in 35-45 Ma in the west, and the Shikoku and Parece Vela basins in 15-30 Ma in the east. Previous studies show a large variety of the seismic anisotropy structures in the region of the PSP, which correspond different scenarios of tectonic evolution for this area. In this study, we analyze both isotropic and anisotropic Rayleigh-wave velocity structures of the PSP by means of two-station method. The earthquakes of magnitude (Mw) greater than 5.0 in-between the years 1998-2014 were acquired. Totally, 7914 teleseismic events are adopted to form the measurements of Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves along 467 station-pairs over the PSP. The measured dispersion curves are then inverted into the isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic (2ψ) velocity maps at different periods with the damped, lateral smoothing LSQR inversion. The inversion is framed by the triangular grids which knots are of 200 km spacing. The consequent velocity anomalies are referenced to the average of the phase velocity at the periods between 50 and 100 seconds. The resulting velocity anomalies show a consistent pattern with the locations of the sub-basins in the PSP at the periods of 50 and 60 sec, which can be considered to be the association of lithospheric velocity structure with basin ages. The positive velocity anomalies are seen in the West Philippine basin associating the relatively old lithosphere; whereas the negative anomalies are found in the Shikoku and Parece Vela basins which the lithospheric structures are relatively young. On the other hand, the resultant azimuthal anisotropy reveals an apparent
Lateral Variations of Rayleigh-Wave Dispersions in the Philippine Sea Region
Wen-Yen Chang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Fresh two-dimensional group and phase-velocity distribution maps of the Philippine Sea and surrounding areas are constructed using the tomographic inversion of more than 2500 Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves in the 20- to 120-sec period range. The results show that, for the periods used, both the group and phase-velocity variation patterns are very close to the geological and topographic features and are also consistent with previous studies of magnetic anomalies and evolutionary history of the Philippine Basin. On average, the periods of the peak group-velocity for the West Philippine Basin and the Oki-Daito ridge are about 40 and 32 sec for the Parece Vela and Shikoku basins. This implies that the lithosphere of the western Philippine Sea Basin is thicker, which is related to plate cooling and seafloor age. For most of the examined periods, the high velocity symmetry of the two sides of the Central Basin Ridge in the West Philippine Basin coincides well with the evolutionary history of the Philippine Sea Basin, and may be taken as additional evidence confirming the existence of the ridge. The group and phase-velocity distributions for periods longer than 80 sec are smooth throughout the whole Philippine Sea Basin, which implies that the upper mantle beneath the Philippine Sea Basin is nearly homogeneous at depths of 100 - 200 km. Moreover, the group and phase velocities in the region of the East Volcano Belt and Active Marginal Basin remain almost constant in the 36- to 80-sec period range, which indicates that the boundary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere is probably not obvious in this area.
Sridharan, S. [National Atmospheric Research Lab., Chittoor (India); Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S. [Indian Inst. of Geomagnetism, Tirunelveli (India). Equatorial Geophysical Research Lab.
2008-07-01
Three nights of simultaneous Rayleigh lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5 N,79.2 E) and medium frequency (MF) radar wind measurements over Tirunelveli (8.7 N,77.8 E) have been analyzed to illustrate the possible effects due to tidal-gravity wave interactions on upper mesospheric inversion layers. The occurrence of tidal gravity wave interaction is investigated using MF radar wind measurements in the altitude region 86-90 km. Of the three nights, it is found that tidal gravity wave interaction occurred in two nights. In the third night, diurnal tidal amplitude is found to be significantly larger. As suggested in Sica et al. (2007), mesospheric temperature inversion seems to be a signature of wave saturation in the mesosphere, since the temperature inversion occurs at heights, when the lapse rate is less than half the dry adiabatic lapse rate. (orig.)
Sridharan, S.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.
2008-11-01
Three nights of simultaneous Rayleigh lidar temperature measurements over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) and medium frequency (MF) radar wind measurements over Tirunelveli (8.7° N, 77.8° E) have been analyzed to illustrate the possible effects due to tidal-gravity wave interactions on upper mesospheric inversion layers. The occurrence of tidal gravity wave interaction is investigated using MF radar wind measurements in the altitude region 86 90 km. Of the three nights, it is found that tidal gravity wave interaction occurred in two nights. In the third night, diurnal tidal amplitude is found to be significantly larger. As suggested in Sica et al. (2007), mesospheric temperature inversion seems to be a signature of wave saturation in the mesosphere, since the temperature inversion occurs at heights, when the lapse rate is less than half the dry adiabatic lapse rate.
Tentative detection of clear-air turbulence using a ground-based Rayleigh lidar.
Hauchecorne, Alain; Cot, Charles; Dalaudier, Francis; Porteneuve, Jacques; Gaudo, Thierry; Wilson, Richard; Cénac, Claire; Laqui, Christian; Keckhut, Philippe; Perrin, Jean-Marie; Dolfi, Agnès; Cézard, Nicolas; Lombard, Laurent; Besson, Claudine
2016-05-01
Atmospheric gravity waves and turbulence generate small-scale fluctuations of wind, pressure, density, and temperature in the atmosphere. These fluctuations represent a real hazard for commercial aircraft and are known by the generic name of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Numerical weather prediction models do not resolve CAT and therefore provide only a probability of occurrence. A ground-based Rayleigh lidar was designed and implemented to remotely detect and characterize the atmospheric variability induced by turbulence in vertical scales between 40 m and a few hundred meters. Field measurements were performed at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP, France) on 8 December 2008 and 23 June 2009. The estimate of the mean squared amplitude of bidimensional fluctuations of lidar signal showed excess compared to the estimated contribution of the instrumental noise. This excess can be attributed to atmospheric turbulence with a 95% confidence level. During the first night, data from collocated stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar were available. Altitudes of the turbulent layers detected by the lidar were roughly consistent with those of layers with enhanced radar echo. The derived values of turbulence parameters Cn2 or CT2 were in the range of those published in the literature using ST radar data. However, the detection was at the limit of the instrumental noise and additional measurement campaigns are highly desirable to confirm these initial results. This is to our knowledge the first successful attempt to detect CAT in the free troposphere using an incoherent Rayleigh lidar system. The built lidar device may serve as a test bed for the definition of embarked CAT detection lidar systems aboard airliners.
何正勤; 丁志峰; 叶太兰; 孙为国; 张乃铃
2002-01-01
Based on the long period digital surface wave data recorded by 11 CDSN stations and 11 IRIS stations, the dispersion curves of the group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves along 647 paths, with the periods from 10 s to 92 s, were measured by multi-filter. Their distribution at 25 central periods within the region of 18((54(N, 70(~140(E was inverted by Dimtar-Yanovskaya method. Within the period from 10 s to 15.9 s, the group velocity distribution is laterally inhomogeneous and is closely related to geotectonic units, with two low velocity zones located in the Tarim basin and the East China Sea and its north regions, respectively. From 21 s to 33 s, the framework of tectonic blocks is revealed. From 36.6 s to 40 s, the lithospheric subdivision of the Chinese mainland is obviously uncovered, with distinct boundaries among the South-North seismic belt, the Tibetan plateau, the North China, the South China and the Northeast China. Four cross-sections of group velocity distribution with period along 30(N, 38(N, 90(E and 120(E, are discussed, respectively, which display the basic features of the crust and upper mantle of the Chinese mainland and its neighboring regions. There are distinguished velocity differences among the different tectonic blocks. There are low-velocity-zones (LVZ) in the middle crust of the eastern Tibetan plateau, high velocity featured as stable platform in the Tarim basin and the Yangtze platform, shallow and thick low-velocity-zone in the upper mantle of the North China. The upper mantle LVZ in the East China Sea and the Japan Sea is related to the frictional heat from the subduction of the Philippine slab and the strong extension since the Himalayan orogenic period.
Corchete, V.; Chourak, M.
2011-10-01
In this study, we present the lithospheric structure of the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula by means of a set of 2D images of shear velocity, for depths ranging from 0 to 50 km. This goal will be attained by means of the inversion of the Rayleigh wave dispersion. For it, the traces of 25 earthquakes occurred on the neighbouring of the study area, from 2001 to 2003, will be considered. These earthquakes have been registered by 11 broadband stations located on Iberia. All seismic events have been grouped in source zones to get an average dispersion curve for each source-station path. The dispersion curves have been measured for periods between 2 and 45 s, by combination of two digital filtering techniques: Multiple Filter Technique and Time Variable Filtering. The resulting set of source-station averaged dispersion curves has been inverted according to the generalized inversion theory, to get S-wave velocity models for each source-station path. Later, these models have been interpolated using the method of kriging, to obtain a 2D mapping of the S-wave velocity structure for the south-eastern part of Iberia. The results presented in this paper show that the techniques used here are a powerful tool to investigate the crust and upper mantle structure, through the dispersion analysis and its inversion to obtain shear velocity distributions with depth. By means of this analysis, principal structural features of the south-eastern part of Iberia, such as the existence of lateral and vertical heterogeneity in the whole study area, or the location of the Moho discontinuity at 30 km of depth (with an average S-velocity of uppermost mantle of 4.7 km/s), have been revealed. Other important structural features revealed by this analysis have been that the uppermost of Iberian massif shows higher velocity values than the uppermost of the Alpine domain, indicating that the massif is old and tectonically stable. The average velocity of the crust in Betic cordillera is of
Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile
2017-06-01
Rayleigh wave group velocities obtained from ambient noise tomography are inverted for an upper crustal model of the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta. Two methods were tried; the first uses SURF96, a least squares routine. It provides a good fit to the data, but convergence is dependent on the starting model. The second uses a genetic algorithm, whose starting model is random. This method was tried at several nodes in the model and compared to the output from SURF96. The genetic code is run five times and the variance of the output of all five models can be used to obtain an estimate of error. SURF96 produces a more regular solution mostly because it is typically run with a smoothing constraint. Models from the genetic code are generally consistent with the SURF96 code sometimes producing lower velocities at depth. The full model, calculated using SURF96, employed a 2-pass strategy, which used a variable damping scheme in the first pass. The resulting model shows low velocities near the surface in the Central Valley with a broad asymmetrical sedimentary basin located close to the western edge of the Central Valley near 122°W longitude. At shallow depths, the Rio Vista Basin is found nestled between the Pittsburgh/Kirby Hills and Midland faults, but a significant basin also seems to exist to the west of the Kirby Hills fault. There are other possible correlations between fast and slow velocities in the Central Valley and geologic features such as the Stockton Arch, oil or gas producing regions and the fault-controlled western boundary of the Central Valley.
M Subbiah; V Ganesh
2010-06-01
We consider the extended Rayleigh problem of hydrodynamic stability dealing with the stability of inviscid homogeneous shear flows in sea straits of arbitrary cross section. We prove a short wave stability result, namely, if $k>0$ is the wave number of a normal mode then $k>k_c$ (for some critical wave number $k_c$) implies the stability of the mode for a class of basic flows. Furthermore, if $K(z)=\\frac{-({U''}_0-T_0{U'}_0)}{U_0-U_{0s}}$, where $U_0$ is the basic velocity, $T_0$ (a constant) the topography and prime denotes differentiation with respect to vertical coordinate then we prove that a sufficient condition for the stability of basic flow is $0 < K(z)≤\\left(\\frac{^2}{D^2}+\\frac{T^2_0}{4}\\right)$, where the flow domain is $0≤ z≤ D$.
Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group
2016-01-01
The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They
Prajapati, Ramprasad
2016-07-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability is recently investigated is strongly coupled plasma looking to its importance in dense stellar systems and Inertial Confinement Fusion [1-3]. In the present work, the effect of quantum corrections are studied on Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and internal wave propagation in a strongly coupled, magnetized, viscoelastic fluid. The modified generalized hydrodynamic model is used to derive the analytical dispersion relation. The internal wave mode and dispersion relation are modified due to the presence of quantum corrections and viscoelastic effects. We observe that strong coupling effects and quantum corrections significantly modifies the dispersion characteristics. The dispersion relation is also discussed in weakly coupled (hydrodynamic) and strongly coupled (kinetic) limits. The explicit expression of R-T instability criterion is derived which is influenced by shear velocity and quantum corrections. Numerical calculations are performed in astrophysical and experimental relevance and it is examined that both the shear and quantum effects suppresses the growth rate of R-T instability. The possible application of the work is discussed in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) to discuss the suppression of R-T instability under considered situation. References: [1] R. P. Prajapati, Phys. Plasmas 23, 022106 (2016). [2] K. Avinash and A. Sen, Phys. Plasmas 22, 083707 (2015). [3] A. Das and P. Kaw, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 062102.
Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping
2008-01-01
This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9～3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.
Persaud, Patricia; Di Luccio, Francesca; Clayton, Robert W.
2015-03-01
Rayleigh wave tomography provides images of the shallow mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Low-velocity zones (LVZs) are found on axis between 26 and 50 km depth beneath the Guaymas Basin but mostly off axis under the other rift basins, with the largest feature underlying the Ballenas Transform Fault. We interpret the broadly distributed LVZs as regions of partial melting in a solid mantle matrix. The pathway for melt migration and focusing is more complex than an axis-centered source aligned above a deeper region of mantle melt and likely reflects the magmatic evolution of rift segments. We also consider the existence of solid lower continental crust in the Gulf north of the Guaymas Basin, where the association of the LVZs with asthenospheric upwelling suggests lateral flow assisted by a heat source. These results provide key constraints for numerical models of mantle upwelling and melt focusing in this young oblique rift.
Wagner, L. S.; Forsyth, D. W.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.
2009-12-01
The High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon represent an unusual track of bimodal volcanism extending from the southeastern-most corner of the state to its current position beneath the Newberry Volcano on the eastern margin of the Cascades. The silicic volcanism is time progressive along this track, beginning some 15 Ma near the Owyhee plateau and then trending to the north east. The timing and location of the start of the HLP coincides with that of the initial volcanism associated with the Yellowstone/Snake River Plain track (YSRP). While the YSRP has often been interpreted as the classic intra-continental hot spot track, the HLP, which trends almost normal to absolute plate motion, is harder to explain. This study uses the 100+ stations associated with the HLP seismic deployment together with another ~100 Earthscope Transportable Array stations (TA) to perform a high resolution inversion for Rayleigh wave phase velocities using the 2-plane-wave methodology of Forsyth and Li (2004). Because of the comparatively small grid spacing of this study, we are able to discern much finer scale structures than studies looking at the entire western U.S. with only TA stations. Preliminary results indicate very low velocities across the study area, especially at upper mantle depths. Especially low velocities are seen beneath the Owyhee plateau and along both the HLP and YSRP tracks. Final details about the exact geometries of these features will help constrain possible scenarios for the formation of the HLP volcanic sequence.
2012-03-22
Seismology Data Management Center (DMC), corrected for the instrument response to displacement in nanometers, and rotated to transverse, radial, and...estimated in the a) Middle East, b) Korean Peninsula region, and in c) central Italy . Figure 3. Ms(VMAX)-Love versus Ms (VMAX)- Rayleigh for...earthquakes in the a) Middle East, b) Korean Peninsula region, and in c) central Italy . The third dataset focused on the damaging L’Aquila earthquake (6
Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse
2016-01-01
If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries
Investigation into Mass Loading Sensitivity of Sezawa Wave Mode-Based Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
N. Ramakrishnan; Parthiban, R.; Sawal Hamid Md Ali; Md. Shabiul Islam; Ajay Achath Mohanan
2013-01-01
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film...
The viscous surface-internal wave problem: nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Wang, Yanjin
2011-01-01
We consider the free boundary problem for two layers of immiscible, viscous, incompressible fluid in a uniform gravitational field, lying above a rigid bottom in a three-dimensional horizontally periodic setting. The effect of surface tension is either taken into account at both free boundaries or neglected at both. We are concerned with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, so we assume that the upper fluid is heavier than the lower fluid. When the surface tension at the free internal interface is below a critical value, which we identify, we establish that the problem under consideration is nonlinearly unstable.
3D-ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland
Obermann, Anne; Lupi, Matteo; Mordret, Aurélien; Jakobsdóttir, Steinunn S.; Miller, Stephen A.
2016-05-01
From May to September 2013, 21 seismic stations were deployed around the Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland. We cross-correlate the five months of seismic noise and measure the Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves to gain more information about the geological structure of the Snæfellsjökull volcano. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of seismic wave anomalies in the first 6 km of crust. We regionalize the group velocity dispersion curves into 2-D velocity maps between 0.9 and 4.8 s. With a neighborhood algorithm we then locally invert the velocity maps to obtain accurate shear-velocity models down to 6 km depth. Our study highlights three seismic wave anomalies. The deepest, located between approximately 3.3 and 5.5 km depth, is a high velocity anomaly, possibly representing a solidified magma chamber. The second anomaly is also a high velocity anomaly east of the central volcano that starts at the surface and reaches approximately 2.5 km depth. It may represent a gabbroic intrusion or a dense swarm of inclined magmatic sheets (similar to the dike swarms found in the ophiolites), typical of Icelandic volcanic systems. The third anomaly is a low velocity anomaly extending up to 1.5 km depth. This anomaly, located directly below the volcanic edifice, may be interpreted either as a shallow magmatic reservoir (typical of Icelandic central volcanoes), or alternatively as a shallow hydrothermal system developed above the cooling magmatic reservoir.
Gaetani, G.A.; Cohen, A.L.; Wang, Z.; Crusius, J.
2011-01-01
This study presents a new approach to coral thermometry that deconvolves the influence of water temperature on skeleton composition from that of “vital effects”, and has the potential to provide estimates of growth temperatures that are accurate to within a few tenths of a degree Celsius from both tropical and cold-water corals. Our results provide support for a physico-chemical model of coral biomineralization, and imply that Mg2+ substitutes directly for Ca2+ in biogenic aragonite. Recent studies have identified Rayleigh fractionation as an important influence on the elemental composition of coral skeletons. Daily, seasonal and interannual variations in the amount of aragonite precipitated by corals from each “batch” of calcifying fluid can explain why the temperature dependencies of elemental ratios in coral skeleton differ from those of abiogenic aragonites, and are highly variable among individual corals. On the basis of this new insight into the origin of “vital effects” in coral skeleton, we developed a Rayleigh-based, multi-element approach to coral thermometry. Temperature is resolved from the Rayleigh fractionation signal by combining information from multiple element ratios (e.g., Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca) to produce a mathematically over-constrained system of Rayleigh equations. Unlike conventional coral thermometers, this approach does not rely on an initial calibration of coral skeletal composition to an instrumental temperature record. Rather, considering coral skeletogenesis as a biologically mediated, physico-chemical process provides a means to extract temperature information from the skeleton composition using the Rayleigh equation and a set of experimentally determined partition coefficients. Because this approach is based on a quantitative understanding of the mechanism that produces the “vital effect” it should be possible to apply it both across scleractinian species and to corals growing in vastly different environments. Where
Kogure, Masaru; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Nishiyama, Takanori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Tsuda, Takuo T.; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Abo, Makoto
2017-08-01
The potential energy of gravity waves (GWs) per unit mass (Ep), at altitudes of 15-70 km, has been examined from temperature profiles obtained by a Rayleigh/Raman lidar at Syowa Station (69°S, 40°E) from May 2011 to October 2013, with the exception of the summer months. The GWs with ground-based wave periods longer than 2 h and vertical wavelengths between 1.8 and 16 km were extracted from the temperature profiles. Ep was larger in winter than in spring and fall, although in 2012, at altitudes below 30 km, Ep was larger in spring than in winter and fall. Ep increased with a mean scale height of 11.3 km. Ep profiles showed a local maximum at an altitude of 20 km and a minimum at 25 km in almost every month, which has not been reported by previous studies observed by radiosondes. The values of Ep in October of 2012 were smaller at 35-60 km and larger at 20-35 km than those in October of 2011 and 2013. This difference in the Ep profile is most probably caused by different seasonal variations of zonal winds. The larger and smaller Ep values seem to be observed both below and above the altitude at which the zonal wind speed reached 0 m s-1. This result suggests that wind filtering of gravity waves with small phase speeds is significantly important in early spring.
Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc
2016-05-01
A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.
Levshin, Anatoli L.; Barmin, Mikhail P.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mendoza, Carlos; Ritzwoller, Michael H.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop and test a modiﬁcation to a previous method of regional seismic event location based on Empirical Green’s Functions (EGFs) produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long ambient noise time-series recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh- and Love-wave energy on the vertical and transverse components, respectively, and we utilize these signals between about 5 and 12 s period. The previous method, based exclusively on Rayleigh waves, may yield biased epicentral locations for certain event types with hypocentral depths between 2 and 5 km. Here we present theoretical arguments that show how Love waves can be introduced to reduce or potentially eliminate the bias. We also present applications of Rayleigh- and Love-wave EGFs to locate 10 reference events in the western United States. The separate Rayleigh and Love epicentral locations and the joint locations using a combination of the two waves agree to within 1 km distance, on average, but conﬁdence ellipses are smallest when both types of waves are used.
Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.
2014-05-01
For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.
Kumar, Arvind; Dutta, Pradip [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)], E-mail: pradip@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in
2008-08-07
Movement of solid crystals in the form of dendrite fragments causes severe macro-segregation in solidified products. Dendrite fragmentation in the developing mushy zone occurs as a result of remelting (causing dissolution) and subsequent breakage of dendritic side arms from the dendritic stalks. An understanding of the mechanisms of dendrite fragmentation is essential for predicting the transport of fragmented solid crystals for possible control of macro-segregation. In this work, a Rayleigh number based fragmentation criterion is developed for detachment of dendrites from the developing mushy zone, which determines the conditions favourable for fragmentation of dendrites. The Rayleigh number, defined in this paper, measures the ratio of the driving buoyancy force for the flow in the mushy zone to the retarding frictional force associated with the permeability of the mush. The criterion developed is a function of the concentration difference, liquid fraction, permeability, growth rate of mushy layer and thermophysical properties of the material.
Jin, G.; Gaherty, J. B.; Abers, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Eilon, Z.; Buck, W. R.; Verave, R.
2012-12-01
The D'Entrecasteaux Islands and adjacent Papuan peninsula in eastern Papua New Guinea are home to the earliest stages of extension associated with the Woodlark Rift system. Very young (7-8 Ma) ultra-high pressure (coesite-eclogite facies) rocks within metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) on the D'Entrecasteaux Islands indicates exhumation from 100 km depths at plate-tectonic rates. We investigate the dynamic processes driving uplift and extension using seismic images of crustal and mantle structure derived from surface waves across the region. From March 2010 to July 2011, 31 on-shore and 8 off-shore broadband seismic stations deployed across the extensional region recorded 68 earthquakes with high signal-to-noise Rayleigh waves. We utilize a multi-channel cross-correlation technique to measure the phase delay and amplitude across the array in a period band between 20-80 sec, which images a depth range from lower crust to approximately 150 km depth. The phase difference of Rayleigh-wave arrivals between nearby stations is measured for each earthquake by fitting the narrow-band filtered cross-correlation between the observed seismograms. We then invert these intra-array phase measurements for a slowness vector map using the Eikonal equation to get the dynamic phase velocity and propagation direction. Averaging the dynamic phase velocity of all available events produces set of final phase velocity maps that can be inverted for shear-velocity structure, and the variations in phase-velocity as a function of azimuth provide constraints on anisotropy. For most of the frequency bands, the region beneath the MCCs on Goodenough Island and Fergusson Island, adjacent to the tip of the Woodlark spreading center, shows slow phase velocity, suggestive of high temperatures and/or partial melt, perhaps related to localized mantle upwelling. In contrast, the region near the Trobriand Island to the north, and the Papuan peninsula to the south, shows consistently higher phase velocity
Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-ya
2017-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the impact of the coupling with shear horizontal (SH) surface acoustic wave (SAW) on the propagation of Rayleigh SAW in periodic grating structures on 128°YX-LiNbO3. First, the frequency dispersion behavior with longitudinal and lateral wavenumbers of Rayleigh SAW is calculated using the finite element method (FEM) software COMSOL. It is shown that the coupling causes (1) the satellite stopband and (2) variation of the anisotropy factor. It is also shown these phenomena remain even when the electromechanical coupling factor of SH SAW is zero. Then, the extended thin plate model which can take coupling between two SAWs into account, is applied to simulate the result of FEM. Good agreement between these results indicated that the mechanical coupling is responsible for these two phenomena. Finally, including electrical excitation and detection, the model is applied to the infinitely long interdigital transducer (IDT) structure and the calculated result is compared with that obtained by the three-dimensional FEM. The excellent agreement of both results confirms the effectiveness of the extended thin plate model.
Ekaterina I. Radeva
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Temperature induced frequency shifts may compromise the sensor response of polymer coated acoustic wave gas-phase sensors operating in environments of variable temperature. To correct the sensor data with the temperature response of the sensor the latter must be known. This study presents and discusses temperature frequency characteristics (TFCs of solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO polymer coated sensor resonators using the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (RSAW mode on ST-cut quartz. Using a RF-plasma polymerization process, RSAW sensor resonators optimized for maximum gas sensitivity have been coated with chemosensitive HMDSO films at 4 different thicknesses: 50, 100, 150 and 250 nm. Their TFCs have been measured over a (−100 to +110 °C temperature range and compared to the TFC of an uncoated device. An exponential 2,500 ppm downshift of the resonant frequency and a 40 K downshift of the sensor’s turn-over temperature (TOT are observed when the HMDSO thickness increases from 0 to 250 nm. A partial temperature compensation effect caused by the film is also observed. A third order polynomial fit provides excellent agreement with the experimental TFC curve. The frequency downshift due to mass loading by the film, the TOT and the temperature coefficients are unambiguously related to each other.
Pratt, M. J.; Shen, W.; Wiens, D.; Winberry, J. P.; Anandakrishnan, S.
2016-12-01
Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) ellipticity ratios of Rayleigh waves have been used to determine shallow (reflection imaging showing a deeper sedimentary package that extends to an unknown depth. It is also known that the frictional properties of the WIS ice-bed interface at 700 m depth are highly heterogeneous, including stick-spots of high friction, possibly as a result of compacted sediment or bedrock, and active subglacial lakes where frictional coefficients are effectively zero. Ambient noise cross-correlations are calculated between all station pairs, restricting the minimum interstation distance to 20 km, as well as constraining valid H/V ratios of radial and vertical sources between the same station pair to wave energy with good signal-to-noise between 6 s and 20 s that are sensitive to the shear velocity of the shallowest sedimentary layers beneath the ice stream and is combined with average phase and group velocity of the area to help constrain the inversion. H/V ratio modeling results suggest that ratios are highly susceptible to sedimentary layer thickness. Ratios also increase over the observed frequency band with the presence of a shallow, saturated sedimentary layer with high Vp/Vs. In preliminary results, we observe an increase in H/V ratio towards the grounding line as well as at stations where hydro-potential surface is high. These higher ratios can be attributed to higher water content within sediments, or an increase in the sedimentary layer thickness.
Tanimoto, T.; Anderson, D. L.
1983-01-01
The lateral heterogeneity and apparent anisotropy of the upper mantle are studied by measuring Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the period range 100-250 sec. Spherical harmonic descriptions of the lateral heterogeneity are obtained for order and degree up to 1=m=10. Slow regions are evident at the East Pacific rise, northeast Africa, Tibet, Tasman sea, southwestern North America and triple junctions in the Northern Atlantic and Indian oceans. Fast regions occur in Australia, western Pacific and the eastern Atlantic. Details which are not evident in previous studies include two fast regions in the central Pacific and the subduction zone in the Scotia Arc region. Inversion for azimuthal dependence showed (1) little correlation between the fast phase velocity directions and the plate motion vector in plate interiors, but (2) correlation of the fast direction with the perpendicular direction to trenches and ridges. Phase velocity is high when waves propagate perpendicular to these structures. Severe tradeoffs exist between heterogeneity and azimuthal dependence because of the yet unsatisfactory path coverage.
Tanimoto, T.; Anderson, D. L.
1985-01-01
The lateral heterogeneity and apparent anisotropy of the upper mantle are studied by measuring Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities in the period range 100-250 sec. Spherical harmonic descriptions of the lateral heterogeneity are obtained for order and degree up to 1=m=10. Slow regions are evident at the East Pacific rise, northeast Africa, Tibet, Tasman sea, southwestern North America and triple junctions in the Northern Atlantic and Indian oceans. Fast regions occur in Australia, western Pacific and the eastern Atlantic. Details which are not evident in previous studies include two fast regions in the central Pacific and the subduction zone in the Scotia Arc region. Inversion for azimuthal dependence showed (1) little correlation between the fast phase velocity directions and the plate motion vector in plate interiors, but (2) correlation of the fast direction with the perpendicular direction to trenches and ridges. Phase velocity is high when waves propagate perpendicular to these structures. Severe tradeoffs exist between heterogeneity and azimuthal dependence because of the yet unsatisfactory path coverage.
Banquet Speech Some Sketches Of Rayleigh
Howard, John N.
1985-11-01
Several short sketches are presented of Lord Rayleigh, to show his method of working and his interaction with his fellow scientists. The topics discussed are: his research on the blue of the sky (Rayleigh scattering); his rescue of Waterston from near-oblivion; his research on surface acoustic waves (Rayleigh waves); his collaboration with Agnes Pockels; his research on blackbody radiation (the Rayleigh-Jeans Law).
Huang, Y.; Yao, H.; Wu, F. T.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.; Lin, C.; Wen, K.
2013-12-01
Although orogeny seems to have stopped in western Taiwan large and small earthquakes do occur in the Taiwan Strait. Limited studies have focused on this region before and were barely within reach for comprehensive projects like TAICRUST and TAIGER for logistical reasons; thus, the overall crustal structures of the Taiwan Strait remain unknown. Time domain empirical Green's function (TDEGF) from ambient seismic noise to determine crustal velocity structure allows us to study an area using station pairs on its periphery. This research aims to resolve 1-D average crustal and upper mantle S-wave velocity (Vs) structures alone paths of several broadband station-pairs across the Taiwan Strait; 5-120 s Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion data derived by combining TDEGF and traditional surface wave two-station method (TS). The average Vs structures show significant differences in the upper 15 km as expected. In general, the highest Vs are observed in the coastal area of Mainland China and the lowest Vs appear along the southwest offshore of the Taiwan Island; they differ by about 0.6-1.1 km/s. For different parts of the Strait, the Vs are lower in the middle by about 0.1-0.2 km/s relative to those in the northern and southern parts. The overall crustal thickness is approximately 30 km, much thinner and less variable than under the Taiwan Island.
Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation on a fractional order viscoelastic plate.
Meral, F Can; Royston, Thomas J; Magin, Richard L
2011-02-01
A previous study of the authors published in this journal focused on mechanical wave motion in a viscoelastic material representative of biological tissue [Meral et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 3278-3285 (2009)]. Compression, shear and surface wave motion in and on a viscoelastic halfspace excited by surface and sub-surface sources were considered. It was shown that a fractional order Voigt model, where the rate-dependent damping component that is dependent on the first derivative of time is replaced with a component that is dependent on a fractional derivative of time, resulted in closer agreement with experiment as compared with conventional (integer order) models, such as those of Voigt and Zener. In the present study, this analysis is extended to another configuration and wave type: out-of-plane response of a viscoelastic plate to harmonic anti-symmetric Lamb wave excitation. Theoretical solutions are compared with experimental measurements for a polymeric tissue mimicking phantom material. As in the previous configurations the fractional order modeling assumption improves the match between theory and experiment over a wider frequency range. Experimental complexities in the present study and the reliability of the different approaches for quantifying the shear viscoelastic properties of the material are discussed.
Bell, Samuel; Ruan, Youyi; Forsyth, Donald W.
2016-10-01
Using Rayleigh wave tomography of noise-removed ocean bottom seismometer data from the Cascadia Initiative, we illuminate the structure of the upper mantle beneath the Juan de Fuca plate. Beneath the Juan de Fuca ridge, there is strong asymmetry, with a pronounced low-velocity zone in the 25-65 km depth range. Extending to the west from the spreading axis, this anomaly has velocities low enough to indicate the presence of melt. The asymmetry in velocity structure and the much greater abundance of seamounts on the west flank of the ridge suggest that dynamic, buoyant upwelling is important, perhaps triggered by thermal or compositional anomalies beneath Axial Seamount. In contrast, there is no evidence for asymmetry in the axial zone or lower than expected velocities beneath the Gorda ridge. On the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge, the shear velocity in the 25-65 depth range is higher than expected; the lithosphere appears to be colder and thicker than predicted by standard plate cooling models, perhaps caused by the downwelling counterpart of the upwelling on the west side of the ridge. Close to the trench, there is a sharp decrease in shear velocity. We interpret this as aqueous alteration caused by hydrothermal circulation through deep normal faults associated with bending of the plate. Beneath the Astoria and Nitinat fans, where abyssal plain sediment is thickest, the velocity decrease is much smaller, which is consistent with a thick sediment cap that prevents hydrothermal alteration of the plate.
Acoustical breakdown of materials by focusing of laser-generated Rayleigh surface waves
Veysset, David; Maznev, A. A.; Veres, István A.; Pezeril, Thomas; Kooi, Steven E.; Lomonosov, Alexey M.; Nelson, Keith A.
2017-07-01
Focusing of high-amplitude surface acoustic waves leading to material damage is visualized in an all-optical experiment. The optical setup includes a lens and an axicon that focuses an intense picosecond excitation pulse into a ring-shaped pattern at the surface of a gold-coated glass substrate. Optical excitation induces a surface acoustic wave (SAW) that propagates in the plane of the sample and converges toward the center. The evolution of the SAW profile is monitored using interferometry with a femtosecond probe pulse at variable time delays. The quantitative analysis of the full-field images provides direct information about the surface displacement profiles, which are compared to calculations. The high stress at the focal point leads to the removal of the gold coating and, at higher excitation energies, to damage of the glass substrate. The results open the prospect for testing material strength on the microscale using laser-generated SAWs.
Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Hung, Yew M; Tan, Ming K
2016-09-21
The deposition of a thin graphene film atop a chip scale piezoelectric substrate on which surface acoustic waves are excited is observed to enhance its performance for fluid transport and manipulation considerably, which can be exploited to achieve further efficiency gains in these devices. Such gains can then enable complete integration and miniaturization for true portability for a variety of microfluidic applications across drug delivery, biosensing and point-of-care diagnostics, among others, where field-use, point-of-collection or point-of-care functionality is desired. In addition to a first demonstration of vibration-induced molecular transport in graphene films, we show that the coupling of the surface acoustic wave gives rise to antisymmetric Lamb waves in the film which enhance molecular diffusion and hence the flow through the interstitial layers that make up the film. Above a critical input power, the strong substrate vibration displacement can also force the molecules out of the graphene film to form a thin fluid layer, which subsequently destabilizes and breaks up to form a mist of micron dimension aerosol droplets. We provide physical insight into this coupling through a simple numerical model, verified through experiments, and show several-fold improvement in the rate of fluid transport through the film, and up to 55% enhancement in the rate of fluid atomization from the film using this simple method.
Harmon, Nicholas; Rychert, Catherine A.
2016-08-01
We present a method for joint inversion of teleseismic and ambient noise Rayleigh wave data for phase velocity maps from 18 to 50 s period. We adapt the two-plane wave method for teleseismic data to include ambient noise phase data. We apply the method to data from Iceland's ICEMELT and HOTSPOT arrays. Checkerboard tests show that the joint inversion improves phase velocity model recovery over methods that use the data sets independently, particularly at 18 s period. The addition of ambient noise data also extends resolution to shallower depths and shorter periods in comparison to previous teleseismic results beneath Iceland. We show there are significant differences in the phase velocity maps from the joint approach in comparison to other approaches, for instance, using only teleseismic data, only ambient noise data, or the mean of the two. The difference in phase velocities in turn affects the resulting shear velocity models. The advantage of the joint inversion is that it produces a single phase velocity map that satisfies both data sets simultaneously. Our phase velocity maps show a transition from low velocities centered beneath the main volcanic centers in Iceland at 18-25 s period, primarily crustal depths, to a low-velocity region that traces the rift zones from the Reykjanes Ridge in the south to the Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north at 29-50 s period, greater depths. These results are consistent with previous studies, although with an extended and improved region of resolution, which extends further into the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean.
Bahman Tarvirdizade
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the estimation of stress-strength reliability based on lower record values when X and Y are independently but not identically inverse Rayleigh distributed random variables. The maximum likelihood, Bayes, and empirical Bayes estimators of R are obtained and their properties are studied. Confidence intervals, exact and approximate, as well as the Bayesian credible sets for R are obtained. A real example is presented in order to illustrate the inferences discussed in the previous sections. A simulation study is conducted to investigate and compare the performance of the intervals presented in this paper and some bootstrap intervals.
Ultrasonic Approach of Rayleigh Pitch-Catch Contact Ultrasound Waves on CFRP Laminated Composites
In-Young Yang; Kwang-Hee Im; Uk Heo; David K Hsu; Je-Woong Park; Hak-Joon Kim; Sung-Jin Song
2008-01-01
CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastics) composite materials have wide applicability because of their inherent design flexibility and improved material properties. However, impacted composite structures have 50%-75% less strength than undamaged structures. In this work, a CFRP composite material was nondestructively characterized in order to ensure product quality and structural integrity of CFRP and one-sided pitch-catch technique was developed to measure impacted-damaged area by using an automated-data acquisition system in an immersion tank. A pitch-catch signal was found to be more sensitive than normal incidence backwall echo of longitudinal wave under defect conditions in the composite.
Investigation into Mass Loading Sensitivity of Sezawa Wave Mode-Based Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors
N. Ramakrishnan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW device is investigated through finite element method (FEM simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
Investigation into mass loading sensitivity of sezawa wave mode-based surface acoustic wave sensors.
Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Islam, Md Shabiul; Ali, Sawal Hamid; Parthiban, R; Ramakrishnan, N
2013-02-06
In this work mass loading sensitivity of a Sezawa wave mode based surface acoustic wave (SAW) device is investigated through finite element method (FEM) simulation and the prospects of these devices to function as highly sensitive SAW sensors is reported. A ZnO/Si layered SAW resonator is considered for the simulation study. Initially the occurrence of Sezawa wave mode and displacement amplitude of the Rayleigh and Sezawa wave mode is studied for lower ZnO film thickness. Further, a thin film made of an arbitrary material is coated over the ZnO surface and the resonance frequency shift caused by mass loading of the film is estimated. It was observed that Sezawa wave mode shows significant sensitivity to change in mass loading and has higher sensitivity (eight times higher) than Rayleigh wave mode for the same device configuration. Further, the mass loading sensitivity was observed to be greater for a low ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio. Accordingly, highly sensitive SAW sensors can be developed by coating a sensing medium over a layered SAW device and operating at Sezawa mode resonance frequency. The sensitivity can be increased by tuning the ZnO film thickness to wavelength ratio.
Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E
2010-02-18
Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.
Liu, Zhongxian; Liang, Jianwen; Wu, Chengqing
2016-06-01
Two dimensional diffraction of Rayleigh waves by a fluid-saturated poroelastic alluvial valley of arbitrary shape in a poroelastic half-space is investigated using the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). To satisfy the free surface boundary conditions exactly, Green's functions of compressional (PI and PII) and shear (SV) wave sources buried in a fluid-saturated poroelastic half-space are adopted. Next, the procedure for solving the scattering wave field is presented. It is verified that the MFS is of excellent accuracy and numerical stability. Numerical results illustrate that the dynamic response strongly depends on such factors as the incident frequency, the porosity of alluvium, the boundary drainage condition, and the valley shape. There is a significant difference between the diffraction of Rayleigh waves for the saturated soil case and for the corresponding dry soil case. The wave focusing effect both on the displacement and pore pressure can be observed inside the alluvial valley and the amplification effect seems most obvious in the case of higher porosity and lower frequency. Additionally, special attention should also be paid to the concentration of pore pressure, which is closely related to the site liquefaction in earthquakes.
Gaddale Suresh
2015-06-01
Full Text Available We measure the inter-station Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities across the northwestern Indian Peninsular shield (NW-IP through cross-correlation and invert these velocities to evaluate the underneath crust and upper mantle velocity structure down to 400 km. We consider a cluster of three stations in the northern tip of the Peninsula and another cluster of eight stations in the south. We measure phase velocities along 28 paths for Rayleigh waves and 17 paths for Love waves joining two stations with one from each cluster and using broadband records of earthquakes which lie nearly on the great circle joining the pair of stations. The phase velocities are in the period range of 10 to 275 s for Rayleigh waves and of 10 to 120 s for Love waves. The isotropic model obtained through inversion of the phase velocities indicates 199.1 km thick lithosphere with 3-layered crust of thickness 36.3 km; the top two layers have nearly same velocities and both constitute the upper crust with thickness of 12.6 km. The upper crust is mafic, whereas the lower crust is felsic. In the mantle lid, velocities increase with depth. The velocities of mantle lid beneath NW-IP is lower than those beneath south Indian Peninsula showing the former is hotter than the later perhaps due to large Phanerozoic impact on NW-IP. The significant upper mantle low velocity zone beneath NW-IP indicates high temperature which could be attributed to the past existence of a broad plume head at the west-central part of the Peninsula.
Nonlinear hydrodynamic effects induced by Rayleigh surface acoustic wave in sessile droplets.
Alghane, M; Chen, B X; Fu, Y Q; Li, Y; Desmulliez, M P Y; Mohammed, M I; Walton, A J
2012-11-01
We report an experimental and numerical characterization of three-dimensional acoustic streaming behavior in small droplets of volumes (1-30 μl) induced by surface acoustic wave (SAW). We provide a quantitative evidence of the existence of strong nonlinear nature of the flow inertia in this SAW-driven flow over a range of the newly defined acoustic parameter F{NA}=Fλ/(σ/R_{d})≥0.01, which is a measure of the strength of the acoustic force to surface tension, where F is the acoustic body force, λ is the SAW wavelength, σ is the surface tension, and R{d} is the droplet radius. In contrast to the widely used Stokes model of acoustic streaming, which generally ignores such a nonlinearity, we identify that the full Navier-Stokes equation must be applied to avoid errors up to 93% between the computed streaming velocities and those from experiments as in the nonlinear case. We suggest that the Stokes model is valid only for very small acoustic power of ≤1 μW (F{NA}droplets.
MPSK Symbol-based Soft-Information-Forwarding Scheme in Rayleigh Fading Channels
Huamei Xin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a symbol-based multiple phase shift keying (MPSK soft-information-forwarding (SIF scheme for a two-hop parallel relay wireless network in Rayleigh fading channel. First the binary information streams at the source are mapped into MPSK symbols, and the relays construct the relay processing function by passing the intermediate soft decisions. Then the relays broadcast the processed symbols to the destination. After the maximum ratio combination, the received symbols at the destination can be decided by maximum-likelihood (ML decision. Four MPSK symbol-based forwarding schemes are investigated and the simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER performance of soft information forwarding scheme has better BER performance than the existing memoryless forwarding scheme based on MPSK modulation, and it is more practical than the SIF scheme based on BPSK modulation
Spica, Z. J.; Perton, M.; Calo, M.; Cordoba-Montiel, F.; Legrand, D.; Iglesias, A.
2015-12-01
Standard application of the seismic ambient noise tomography considers the existence of synchronous records at stations for green's functions retrieval. More recent theoretical and experimental observations showed the possibility to apply correlation of coda of noise correlation (C3) to obtain green's functions between stations of asynchronous seismic networks making possible to dramatically increase databases for imagining the Earth's interior. However, this possibility has not been fully exploited yet, and right now the data C3 are not included into tomographic inversions to refine seismic structures. Here we show for the first time how to incorporate the data of C1 and C3 to calculate dispersion maps of Rayleigh waves in the range period of 10-120s, and how the merging of these datasets improves the resolution of the structures imaged. Tomographic images are obtained for an area covering Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico and the southern U.S. We show dispersion maps calculated using both data of C1 and the complete dataset (C1+C3). The latter provide new details of the seismic structure of the region allowing a better understanding of their role on the geodynamics of the study area. The resolving power obtained in our study is several times higher than in previous studies based on ambient noise. This demonstrates the new possibilities for imaging the Earth's crust and upper mantle using this enlarged database.
Petrescu, L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Gilligan, A.; Bastow, I. D.; Totten, E. J.
2015-12-01
Cratons are Precambrian continental nuclei that are geologically distinct from modern continental regions and are typically underlain by seismically fast lithospheric roots (keels) to at least 200 km depth. Both plate and non-plate tectonic origin theories such as stacking of subducted slabs or multiple mantle plume underplating have been proposed to explain keel growth.Eastern Canada is an ideal continental region to investigate cratonization processes and the onset of plate tectonics. It comprises part of the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Province, flanked by a ~1.1 Ga Himalayan-scale orogenic belt, the Grenville Province, and the 500-300 Ma old Appalachian orogenic province, following the same general SW-NE axial trend. The region is also cross-cut by the Great Meteor Hotspot track, providing an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of hotspot tectonism with progressively younger lithospheric domains.We investigate the lithospheric structure of Precambrian Eastern Canada using teleseismic earthquake data recorded at permanent and temporary networks. We measure interstation dispersion curves of Rayleigh wave phase velocities between ~15 and 220 s, and compare the results to standard continental and cratonic reference models. We combine the dispersion curves via a tomographic inversion which solves for isotropic phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy across the region at a range of periods. The phase velocity maps indicate variations in lithospheric properties from the heart of the Superior craton to the SE Canadian coast.The new regional-scale models will help to understand the processes that generated, stabilized and reworked the cratonic roots through their billion-year tectonic history. We investigate how surface tectonic boundaries relate to deeper lithospheric structural changes, and consider the effects of the multiple Wilson cycles that affected Laurentia.
Distributed stress and temperature sensing based on Rayleigh scattering of low-coherence light
Gorshkov, B. G.; Taranov, M. A.; E Alekseev, A.
2017-08-01
A novel arrangement for fiber optic distributed stress and temperature sensing based on the Rayleigh scattering spectra correlation method is proposed. The principal feature of the arrangement is usage of low-coherence light in probe pulses, which ensures a wide dynamic range for measurements at moderate sensitivity. Such a characteristic corresponds to performance specifications for infrastructure monitoring systems. A theory of optical time domain reflectometry for arbitrary coherence light is developed describing the contrast in reflectograms and Rayleigh scattering spectra properties. The experimental setup uses a wideband source of light pulses and an electronically controlled micro-electro-mechanical system optical filter for wavelength tuning. Temperature change experiments show root mean square (RMS) noise levels of 0.13 °C, 0.24 °C and 0.3 °C for fiber lengths of 2 km, 8 km and 25 km, respectively, at a spatial resolution of about 1 m (for 10 min data collection). As much as 2000 µstrain dynamic range is demonstrated in the stress measurement experiment while the noise level (RMS error) is estimated to be 2 µstrain. Our experimental results are compared with the theory and a satisfactory match is demonstrated.
de Lucena, Rodrigo F.; Taioli, Fabio
2014-09-01
This paper presents a study on Rayleigh wave modeling. After model implementation using Matlab software, unpublished studies were conducted of dispersion curve sensitivity to percentage changes in parameter values, including S- and P-wave velocities, substrate density, and layer thickness. The study of the sensitivity of dispersion curves demonstrated that parameters such as S-wave velocity and layer thickness cannot be ignored as inversion parameters, while P-wave velocity and density can be considered as known parameters since their influence is minimal. However, the results showed limitations that should be considered and overcome when choosing the known and unknown parameters through determining a good initial model or/and by gathering a priori information. A methodology considering the sensitivity study of dispersion curves was developed and evaluated to generate initial values (initial model) to be included in the local search inversion algorithm, clearly establishing initial favorable conditions for data inversion.
Vinh, P. C.; Anh, V. T. N.; Linh, N. T. K.
2016-04-01
The secular equation of Rayleigh propagating in an orthotropic half-space coated by an orthotropic layer has been obtained by Sotiropolous [Sotiropolous, D. A. (1999), The e®ect of anisotropy on guided elastic waves in a layered half-space, Mechanics of Materials 31, 215-233] and by Sotiropolous & Tougelidis [Sotiropolous, D. A. and Tougelidis, G. (1998), Guided elastic waves in orthotropic surface layer, Ultrasonics 36, 371-374]. However, it is not totally explicit and some misprints have occurred in this secular equation in both papers. This secular equation was derived by expanding directly a six-order determinant originated from the traction-free conditions at the top surface of the layer and the continuity of displacements and stresses through the interface between the layer and the half-space. Since the expansion of this six-order determinant was not shown in both two papers, it has been difficult to readers to recognize these misprints. This paper presents a technique that provides a totally explicit secular equation of the wave. The technique makes clear the way from the traction-free and continuity conditions to the secular equation and enables us to recognize the misprints appearing in the reported secular equation. The technique can be employed to obtain explicit secular equations of Rayleigh waves for many other cases. Moreover, the paper introduces a transfer matrix in explicit form for an orthotropic layer that is much simpler in form than the one obtained previously.
Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang
2014-02-01
The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen.
Subhajit Nandy; Pinaki Chaudhury; S P Bhattacharyya
2004-08-01
A genetic algorithm-based recipe involving minimization of the Rayleigh quotient is proposed for the sequential extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix with and without basis optimization. Important features of the method are analysed, and possible directions of development suggested.
Palomeras, Imma; Villasenor, Antonio; Thurner, Sally; Levander, Alan; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun
2016-04-01
The Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin, constitute the westernmost Mediterranean. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, the result of interaction between the Iberian and Eurasian plates; the Iberian Massif, a region that has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes) and the Atlas Mountains, resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back and Eurasian-Nubian plate convergence. In this study we analyze data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations on the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco (Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the US PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km, comparable to USArray. We have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. The model shows differences in the crust for the different areas, where the highest shear velocities are mapped in the Iberian Massif crust. The crustal thickness is highly variable ranging from ~25 km beneath the eastern Betics to ~55km beneath the Gibraltar Strait, Internal Betics and Internal Rif. Beneath this region a unique arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (Gibraltar arc to ~55 km depth. Low upper mantle velocities (<4.2 km/s) are observed beneath the Atlas, the northeastern end of the Betic Mountains and the Late Cenozoic volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths
Aliashim Albani
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The demand for electricity in Malaysia is growing in tandem with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth. Malaysia is going to need even more energy as it strives to grow towards a high-income economy. Malaysia has taken steps to exploring the renewable energy (RE including wind energy as an alternative source for generating electricity. In the present study, the wind energy potential of the site is statistically analyzed based on 1-year measured hourly time-series wind speed data. Wind data were obtained from the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD weather stations at nine selected sites in Malaysia. The data were calculated by using the MATLAB programming to determine and generate the Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. Both Weibull and Rayleigh models are fitted and compared to the Field data probability distributions of year 2011. From the analysis, it was shown that the Weibull distribution is fitting the Field data better than the Rayleigh distribution for the whole year 2011. The wind power density of every site has been studied based on the Weibull and Rayleigh functions. The Weibull distribution shows a good approximation for estimation of wind power density in Malaysia.
Sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging via sparsity constraints based on a digital micro-mirror device
Chen, Jie; Gong, Wenlin, E-mail: gongwl@siom.ac.cn; Han, Shensheng, E-mail: sshan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn
2013-10-30
In a diffraction-limited system, the imaging resolution limit is given by Rayleigh criterion. When both the image's sparsity and the point spread function determined by the optical system's Rayleigh diffraction limit are taken as popular a priori, sub-Rayleigh ghost imaging, which is backed up by numerical simulation and experiments, is achieved by modulating the thermal light with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD). The differences between this approach and former ghost imaging without considering the optical system's point spread function are also discussed.
Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Golombek, Matthew P.; Ohrnberger, Matthias
2016-10-01
The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) instrument onboard the InSight mission will be the first seismometer directly deployed on the surface of Mars. From studies on the Earth and the Moon, it is well known that site amplification in low-velocity sediments on top of more competent rocks has a strong influence on seismic signals, but can also be used to constrain the subsurface structure. Here we simulate ambient vibration wavefields in a model of the shallow sub-surface at the InSight landing site in Elysium Planitia and demonstrate how the high-frequency Rayleigh wave ellipticity can be extracted from these data and inverted for shallow structure. We find that, depending on model parameters, higher mode ellipticity information can be extracted from single-station data, which significantly reduces uncertainties in inversion. Though the data are most sensitive to properties of the upper-most layer and show a strong trade-off between layer depth and velocity, it is possible to estimate the velocity and thickness of the sub-regolith layer by using reasonable constraints on regolith properties. Model parameters are best constrained if either higher mode data can be used or additional constraints on regolith properties from seismic analysis of the hammer strokes of InSight's heat flow probe HP3 are available. In addition, the Rayleigh wave ellipticity can distinguish between models with a constant regolith velocity and models with a velocity increase in the regolith, information which is difficult to obtain otherwise.
Zernike polynomial based Rayleigh-Ritz model of a piezoelectric unimorph deformable mirror
Long, CS
2012-04-01
Full Text Available , are routinely and conveniently described using Zernike polynomials. A Rayleigh-Ritz structural model, which uses Zernike polynomials directly to describe the displacements, is proposed in this paper. The proposed formulation produces a numerically inexpensive...
Initial versus tangent stiffness-based Rayleigh damping in inelastic time history seismic analyses
Jehel, Pierre; Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan
2013-01-01
In the inelastic time history analyses of structures in seismic motion, part of the seismic energy that is imparted to the structure is absorbed by the inelastic structural model, and Rayleigh damping is commonly used in practice as an additional energy dissipation source. It has been acknowledged that Rayleigh damping models lack physical consistency and that, in turn, it must be carefully used to avoid encountering unintended consequences as the appearance of artificial damping. There are concerns raised by the mass proportional part of Rayleigh damping, but they are not considered in this paper. As far as the stiffness proportional part of Rayleigh damping is concerned, either the initial structural stiffness or the updated tangent stiffness can be used. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive comparison of these two types of Rayleigh damping models so that a practitioner (i) can objectively choose the type of Rayleigh damping model that best fits her/his needs and (ii) is provided with u...
Adjoint-based approach to Enhancing Mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor Turbulence
Kord, Ali; Capecelatro, Jesse
2016-11-01
A recently developed adjoint method for multi-component compressible flow is used to measure sensitivity of the mixing rate to initial perturbations in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) turbulence. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of RT instabilities are performed at moderate Reynolds numbers. The DNS are used to provide an initial prediction, and the corresponding space-time discrete-exact adjoint provides a sensitivity gradient for a specific quantity of interest (QoI). In this work, a QoI is defined based on the time-integrated scalar field to quantify the mixing rate. Therefore, the adjoint solution is used to measure sensitivity of this QoI to a set of initial perturbations, and inform a gradient-based line search to optimize mixing. We first demonstrate the adjoint approach in the linear regime and compare the optimized initial conditions to the expected values from linear stability analysis. The adjoint method is then used in the high Reynolds number limit where theory is no longer valid. Finally, chaos is known to contaminate the accuracy of the adjoint gradient in turbulent flows when integrated over long time horizons. We assess the influence of chaos on the accuracy of the adjoint gradient to guide the work of future studies on adjoint-based sensitivity of turbulent mixing. PhD Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi
2016-04-01
People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.
Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A
2007-11-09
The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.
Abdalroof M S; Zhao Zhi-wen; Wang De-hui
2015-01-01
In this paper, the estimation of parameters based on a progressively type-I interval censored sample from a Rayleigh distribution is studied. Different methods of estimation are discussed. They include mid-point approximation estima-tor, the maximum likelihood estimator, moment estimator, Bayes estimator, sampling adjustment moment estimator, sampling adjustment maximum likelihood estimator and estimator based on percentile. The estimation procedures are discussed in details and compared via Monte Carlo simulations in terms of their biases.
Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yanmei; Tan, Xuanping; Huang, Yunmei; Yuan, Haiyan; Yang, Jidong
2017-09-01
A convenient method for determination of malathion (Mala) based on resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) enhancement of L-Tryptophan (L-Try)-Pd(II)-Mala system was proposed in this paper. The interaction between L-Try, Pd(II) and malathion in the system was investigated by fluorescence, RRS and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. In the optimum conditions, the RRS intensity of L-Try-Pd(II)-Mala system had a remarkable enhancement because the hydrolysis products of malathion would interact with Pd(II) and L-Try each other formed new complexes, which enhanced intensity was directly proportional to the malathion concentration within a certain range. Based on the RRS enhancement of L-Try-Pd(II) system by Mala, a novel, convenient and specific method for Mala determination was developed. To our knowledge, the method is the first RRS method for determination of Mala was reported. The detection limit for Mala was 6.7 ng/mL and the quantitative determination range was 0.06-0.6 μg/mL. The influence of coexisting substances on RRS was also investigated, and the RRS method exhibited good anti-interference ability. The new analytical method has been applied to determine of malathion in real samples with satisfactory results.
付代光; 刘江平; 周黎明; 徐浩; 廖锦芳; 陈松; 郭道龙
2015-01-01
获得较高精度的软夹层横波速度和厚度是瑞雷波频散曲线反演的难点之一，尤其对一些低敏感性的软夹层而言，单纯依靠传统的算法改进以及多模式反演，反演效果往往不是非常显著。首次尝试采用算法改进、多模式及非线性贝叶斯定理相结合反演低敏感性软夹层。算法改进体现在，将阻尼惯性权和混沌思想融入到粒子群算法中，但改进算法并未解决软夹层模型低敏感性的困扰；为从反演解的角度分析评价影响反演精度因素，采用无偏Metropolis-Hastings sampling（MHS）方法对后验概率进行数值积分，并通过参数旋转提高采用效率，积分得到的1D和混合边缘概率分布以及参数相关系数矩阵等参数反应了反演解的不确定性和参数间相关性等信息。为解决低敏感性反演精度低问题，尝试采用贝叶斯信息准则（BIC），判断出最佳参数化模型，而此准则得到的最佳模型与理论模型更为吻合。应用非线性贝叶斯方法和BIC准则反演实测防渗墙数据，得到的反演剖面也与已知防渗墙结构较好吻合。%Obtaining shear-wave velocity and thickness of soft interlayer with higher precision is always one of the difficulties in inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion curve, and it is not obviously improved when only depending on the improved algorithm and multimode inversion for low-sensitivity soft interlayer. The improved algorithm and combination of multimode and nonlinear Bayes' theorem are adopted to invert low-sensitivity soft interlayer. The damping inertia weight and chaos are added into the particle swarm optimization as improved algorithm. However, the improved algorithm does not solve the problem with low-sensitivity soft interlayer models. To analyze and evaluate the factors affecting the accuracy of inversion from the perspective of the inversion solution, the unbiased Metropolis-Hastings sampling (MHS) method
de Boer, Anne H; Wissink, Jeroen; Hagedoorn, Paul; Heskamp, Iwan; de Kruijf, Wilbur; Bünder, Ralf; Zanen, Pieter; Munnik, Paul; van Rijn, Cees; Frijlink, Henderik W
2008-01-01
Purpose: A new inhaler (Medspray(R)) for pulmonary drug delivery based on the principle of Rayleigh break-up has been tested with three different spray nozzles (1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mu m) using aqueous 0.1% (w/w) salbutamol and 0.9% (w/w) sodium chloride solutions. Materials and methods: Particle size d
Bagheri, Amirhossein; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Khojasteh, Ali; Rahimian, Mohammad
2015-10-01
The dispersion of interface waves is studied theoretically in a model consisting of a liquid layer of finite thickness overlying a transversely isotropic solid layer which is itself underlain by a transversely isotropic solid of dissimilar elastic properties. The method of potential functions and Hankel transformation was utilized to solve the equations of motion. Two frequency equations were developed: one for Love waves and the other for the remaining surface and interface waves. Numerical group and phase velocity dispersion curves were computed for four different classes of model, in which the substratum is stiffer or weaker than the overlying layer, and for various thickness combinations of the layers. Dispersion curves are presented for generalized Rayleigh, Scholte, Stoneley and Love waves, each of which are possible in all proposed models. They show the dependence of the velocity on layer thicknesses and material properties (elastic constants). Special cases involving zero thickness for the water layer or the solid layer, and/or isotropic material properties for the solid exhibit interesting features and agree favourably with previously published results for these simpler cases, thus validating the new formulation.
Jagodzinski, Jeremy James
2007-12-01
The development to date of a diode-laser based velocimeter providing point-velocity-measurements in unseeded flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is discussed. The velocimeter is based on modulated filtered Rayleigh scattering (MFRS), a novel variation of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS), utilizing modulated absorption spectroscopy techniques to detect a strong absorption of a relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal. A rubidium (Rb) vapor filter is used to provide the relatively strong absorption; alkali metal vapors have a high optical depth at modest vapor pressures, and their narrow linewidth is ideally suited for high-resolution velocimetry. Semiconductor diode lasers are used to generate the relatively weak Rayleigh scattered signal; due to their compact, rugged construction diode lasers are ideally suited for the environmental extremes encountered in many experiments. The MFRS technique utilizes the frequency-tuning capability of diode lasers to implement a homodyne detection scheme using lock-in amplifiers. The optical frequency of the diode-based laser system used to interrogate the flow is rapidly modulated about a reference frequency in the D2-line of Rb. The frequency modulation is imposed on the Rayleigh scattered light that is collected from the probe volume in the flow under investigation. The collected frequency modulating Rayleigh scattered light is transmitted through a Rb vapor filter before being detected. The detected modulated absorption signal is fed to two lock-in amplifers synchronized with the modulation frequency of the source laser. High levels of background rejection are attained since the lock-ins are both frequency and phase selective. The two lock-in amplifiers extract different Fourier components of the detected modulated absorption signal, which are ratioed to provide an intensity normalized frequency dependent signal from a single detector. A Doppler frequency shift in the collected Rayleigh scattered light due to a change
Graphene-coated rayleigh SAW resonators for NO2 detection
Thomas, Stephen M.; Cole, Marina; De Luca, A; Torrisi, F.; Ferrari, A. C.; Udrea, Florin; Gardner, J. W.
2014-01-01
This paper describes the development of a novel low-cost Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator (SAWR) device coated with a graphene layer that is capable of detecting PPM levels of NO2 in air. The sensor comprises two 262 MHz ST-cut quartz based Rayleigh SAWRs arranged in a dual oscillator configuration; where one resonator is coated with gas-sensitive graphene, and the other left uncoated to act as a reference. An array of NMP-dispersed exfoliated reduced graphene oxide dots was deposited...
Enjilela, Vali; Salimi, Davood; Tavasoli, Ali; Lotfi, Mohsen
2016-02-01
In the present work, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin vorticity-stream function (MLPG-VF) method is extended to solve two-dimensional laminar fluid flow and heat transfer equations for high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. The characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme which uses unity test function is employed for discretization, and the moving least square (MLS) method is used for interpolation of the field variables. Four test cases are considered to evaluate the present algorithm, namely lid-driven cavity flow with Reynolds numbers up to and including 104, flow over a backward-facing step at Reynolds number of 800, natural convection in a square cavity for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 108, and natural convection in a concentric square outer cylinder and circular inner cylinder annulus for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 107. In each case, the result obtained using the proposed algorithm is either compared with the results from the literatures or with those obtained using conventional numerical techniques. The present algorithm shows stable results at lower or equal computational cost compared to the other upwinding schemes usually employed in the MLPG method. Close agreements between the compared results as well as higher accuracy of the proposed method show the ability of this stabilized algorithm.
Modeling and Control Of Surface Acoustic Wave Motors
Feenstra, P.J.
2005-01-01
This thesis introduces Rayleigh waves and describes the generation of Rayleigh waves. Furthermore, the principle of operation of a SAW motor is analyzed. The analysis is based on a contact model, which describes the behavior between slider and stator. Due to the contact model, the microscopic and
H. Rouhi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlocal elastic shell model considering the small scale effects is developed to study the free vibrations of multiwalled carbon nanotubes subject to different types of boundary conditions. Based on the nonlocal elasticity and the Flügge shell theory, the governing equations are derived which include the interaction of van der Waals forces between adjacent and nonadjacent layers. To analytically solve the problem, the Rayleigh-Ritz method is employed. In the present analysis, different combinations of layerwise boundary conditions are taken into account. Some new intertube resonant frequencies and the associated noncoaxial vibrational modes are identified owing to incorporating circumferential modes into the shell model.
Deshpande, A. A.; Mohan, G.
2016-10-01
The northwestern Deccan volcanic province (NWDVP) of India, encompassing the Saurashtra peninsula and the adjoining Gulf of Cambay, is investigated through joint inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and teleseismic P receiver functions, to estimate the crustal and shallow upper mantle shear wave velocity (Vs) structure. The Mw ∼ 7.7 Bhuj earthquake and the post Bhuj regional events, recorded during the period 2001-2010 at 7 stations along 37 source-receiver paths were used along with 35 teleseismic events. A joint curve fitting inversion technique is applied to obtain a best fit for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves for time periods 5-50 s and high quality crustal P wave receiver functions obtained at each station. Significant crustal heterogeneity is observed within the study region with the average crustal Vs ranging from 3.5 km/s to 3.8 km/s with the paths cutting across the Gulf of Cambay exhibiting large reduction in shear wave velocities. Utilizing the average crustal Vs ≈ 3.66 km/s estimated for Saurashtra, together with the average crustal P wave velocity (Vp) ≈ 6.54 km/s derived independently through deep seismic sounding studies, yields a bulk Vp/Vs ratio of 1.786 or an equivalent crustal Poisson's ratio of 0.271. A major contribution to the high Poisson's ratio comes from the 12 to 16 km thick lower crustal layers with shear velocities ranging from 3.8 km/s to 4.19 km/s suggesting widespread magmatic underplating due to emplacement of mafic cumulates in the lower crust. The shallow uppermost mantle shear velocities are in the range 4.2-4.5 km/s averaging 4.36 km/s, which is less than that observed for the Indian shield, indicating the effects of residual thermal anomaly. The variation in the crustal Vs, high Poisson's ratios and low upper mantle shear velocities reflect the thermal and compositional effects of the Deccan volcanism which are manifested in terms of pervasive presence of mafic dykes
Shao Wei; Qian Zuping; Yuan Feng
2007-01-01
A robust phase-only Direct Data Domain Least Squares (D3LS) algorithm based on generalized Rayleigh quotient optimization using hybrid Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented in this letter. The optimization efficiency and computational speed are improved via the hybrid GA composed of standard GA and Nelder-Mead simplex algorithms. First, the objective function, with a form of generalized Rayleigh quotient, is derived via the standard D3LS algorithm. It is then taken as a fitness function and the unknown phases of all adaptive weights are taken as decision variables.Then, the nonlinear optimization is performed via the hybrid GA to obtain the optimized solution of phase-only adaptive weights. As a phase-only adaptive algorithm, the proposed algorithm is simpler than conventional algorithms when it comes to hardware implementation. Moreover, it processes only a single snapshot data as opposed to forming sample covariance matrix and operating matrix inversion. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a good signal recovery and interferences nulling performance, which are superior to that of the phase-only D3LS algorithm based on standard GA.
Luchsinger, Kristen; Redfield, Seth; Cauley, Paul W.; Barman, Travis S.; Jensen, Adam G.
2017-01-01
When studying planetary atmospheres, scattering signatures, such as Rayleigh scattering, can often be the most easily characterized signal. This is especially true in terrestrial atmospheres, where Rayleigh scattering is the dominant spectral feature in optical wavelengths. These scattering signatures, unlike molecular or atomic line absorption, are broad and continuous, and are char- acterized by a single slope. Rayleigh scattering provides an imporant glimpse into the atmospheric composition of an exoplanet's atmosphere, and a Rayleigh scattering detection on a smaller, ground-based telescope can be a useful method to identify interesting science targets for larger, space-based telescopes.We will present observations of three exoplanets using the HYDRA multi- object spectrometer on the WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained two transits each for WASP 12b and GJ 3470b, and one transit for HD 189733b, for a range of wavelengths between 4500 Å and 9201 Å. A successful Rayleigh scattering detection in the atmospheres of these planets using this in- strument would represent a step forward in our current detection capabilities and open up the study of planetary atmospheres to smaller, ground-based telescopes.Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from telescope time allocated to NN-EXPLORE through the scientific partnership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. This work was supported by a NASA WIYN PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.
High frequency surface acoustic wave resonator-based sensor for particulate matter detection
Thomas, Sanju; Cole, Marina; Villa-López, Farah Helue; Gardner, J. W.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the characterization of high frequency Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator-based (SAWR) sensors, for the detection of micron and sub-micron sized particles. The sensor comprises two 262 MHz ST-cut quartz based Rayleigh wave SAWRs where one is used for particle detection and the other as a reference. Electro-acoustic detection of different sized particles shows a strong relationship between mass sensitivity (Δf/Δm) and particle diameter (Dp). This enables frequency-dependent S...
谷音; 于志敏
2011-01-01
A 2D finite element model for a semi-infinite space with layered media and Rayleigh wave input was built by using equivalent viscous-elastic artificial boundary elements. The responses in free-field of even and layered media were computed. The results indicated that the finite element method has excellent estimation precision compared with the theore tical solutions. The dynamic response of a pile-soil-bridge structure with dynamic interaction under Rayleigh waves was analyzed. A typical rigid frame bridge was included in this case study. The influence of different site conditions, changes of location of soft interlayer, different Rayleigh wave input and pile length on Rayleigh wave propagation and the seismic response were considered. The influencing factors of the rigid frame bridge structure were also discussed.%基于等效粘弹性人工边界单元建立了可考虑成层介质及Rayleigh波输入的二维有限元时域模型,计算了Sayleih波作用下成层介质与均匀介质的自由场反应,与理论解比较表明有限元计算结果具有较好的工程精度.针对Rayleigh波作用下桩-土-典型刚构桥梁结构动力反应进行了分析,考虑了场地条件的不同、软夹层位置的改变、不同频率Rayleigh波的输入以及桩长对Rayleigh波传播与场地地震反应的影响,对影响因素进行了讨论.
2009-09-30
formulation of the teleseismic explosion identification problem with multiple discriminants, Bull. Seism . Soc.Am.9T. 1730-1741. Bonner, J.L., D...Application at Regional and Teleseismic Distances, Part II: Application and Ms-mh Performance. Bull. Seism . Soc. Am. 96: 678-696 Bonner, J. L., R. B...Herrmann, D. Harkrider, and M. Pasyanos (2008). The surface wave magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean nuclear explosion. Bull. Seism . Soc
Transmit selection for imperfect threshold-based receive MRC in Rayleigh fading channels
Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh
2010-01-01
The performance of multiple-antenna diversity systems in which the receiver combines signal replicas per thresholdbased maximal ratio combining (MRC) and the transmitter uses only a single antenna according to receive combined signal strength is studied. The impact of imperfect channel estimation is considered when the received signal replicas undergo independent and flat multipath fading. The analysis is applicable for arbitrary transmit antenna selection when the multiple-antenna channels experience identically distributed and non-identically distributed Rayleigh fading conditions. New closed-form expressions for the combined SNR statistics and some performance measures are presented. The system models adopted herein and the presented analytical results can be used to study the performance of different system architectures under various channel conditions when the implementation complexity is of interest. © 2009 IEEE.
Sub-Rayleigh imaging via undersampling scanning based on sparsity constraints
Xue, Chang-Bin; Yao, Xu-Ri; Li, Long-Zhen; Liu, Xue-Feng; Yu, Wen-Kai; Guo, Xiao-Yong; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing
2017-02-01
We demonstrate that, by undersampling scanning object with a reconstruction algorithm related to compressed sensing, an image with the resolution exceeding the finest resolution defined by the numerical aperture of the system can be obtained. Experimental results show that the measurements needed to achieve sub-Rayleigh resolution enhancement can be less than 10% of the pixels of the object. This method offers a general approach applicable to point-by-point illumination super-resolution techniques. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61605218 and 61601442), the National Defense Science and Technology Innovation Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. CXJJ-16S047), and the National Major Scientific Instruments Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595).
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING PLAN BASED ON TRUNCATED LIFE TESTS FOR COMPOUND RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION
Bhupendra Singh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper,a reliability sampling plan is developed assuming that lifetimes of the test units follow compound Rayleigh distribution and the life test is terminated at a pre-fixed time. This type of sampling plan is used to save the test time in practical situations. The minimum sample size required for ensuringthe specified mean life at specified consumer’s confidence level has been determined. The operating characteristic curve values of the sampling plans are examined with varying ratio of the true mean life to the specified life. The minimum such mean ratios are also obtained to minimize the producer’s risk at the specified level. For illustrative purpose, a numerical example has been discussed.
Mrg: A Magnitude Scale for 1 s Rayleigh Waves at Local Distances with Focus on Yield Estimation
2016-08-23
Bache, T. (1982), Estimating the yield of underground nuclear explosions, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 72, pp. S131-S168. Cho, K. H., R. B. Herrmann, C. J...Ammon, and K. Lee (2007), Imaging the upper crust of the Korean peninsula by surface-wave tomography, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 97, pp. 198-207. Denny...Monitoring the earthquake source process in North America, Bull. Seism . Soc. Am., 101, pp. 2609-2625. Kennett, B.L.N., E. R. Engdahl, and R. Buland
Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Saito, Tokumi; Ohashi, Hiromasa [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan)
1999-02-01
In conventional microtremor prospecting methods, underground structure is estimated using the phase velocity of Rayleigh-wave only. However, it is considered that the underground structure can be estimated at a higher accuracy by using two phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave that directly reflects S-wave velocity structure. Therefore, three-component microtremor array observation of a circle (equilateral triangle) with the maximum radius of 40 to 250 m was carried out at the center of Morioka city. Analysis was carried out by means of extended space with autocorrelation to obtain phase velocities of Love- and Rayleigh-waves. The frequency zone of the obtained Rayleigh-wave phase velocity is 1.5 Hz to 8.6 Hz, and the phase velocity is 2670 m/s to 733 m/s. The frequency zone of the obtained Love-wave phase velocity is 3 Hz to 8.6 Hz, and the phase velocity is 2100 m/s to 412 m/s. The underground structure obtained by using two observed phase velocities is clarified under a depth of 116 m. A stratum deemed to be the basement exists from a depth of 21 m (Vs=1100 m). As a result, the underground structure can be estimated at a higher accuracy if two phase velocities of Love-and Rayleigh-waves are used. (translated by NEDO)
Singh, Anant K; Senapati, Dulal; Wang, Shuguang; Griffin, Jelani; Neely, Adria; Candice, Perry; Naylor, Khaleah M; Varisli, Birsen; Kalluri, Jhansi Rani; Ray, Paresh Chandra
2009-07-28
The presence of E. coli in foodstuffs and drinking water is a chronic worldwide problem. The worldwide food production industry is worth about U.S. $578 billion, and the demand for biosensors to detect pathogens and pollutants in foodstuffs is growing day by day. Driven by the need, we report for the first time that two-photon Rayleigh scattering (TPRS) properties of gold nanorods can be used for rapid, highly sensitive and selective detection of Escherichia coli bacteria from aqueous solution, without any amplification or enrichment in 50 colony forming units (cfu)/mL level with excellent discrimination against any other bacteria. TPRS intensity increases 40 times when anti- E. coli antibody-conjugated nanorods were mixed with various concentrations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacterium. The mechanism of TPRS intensity change has been discussed. This bionanotechnology assay could be adapted in studies using antibodies specific for various bacterial pathogens for the detection of a wide variety of bacterial pathogens used as bioterrorism agents in food, clinical samples, and environmental samples.
Rivet, Diane; Campillo, Michel; Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.; Singh, Shri Krishna
2015-11-01
Dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves is performed to assess the velocity of complex structures such as sedimentary basins. At short periods several modes of the Rayleigh waves are often exited. To perform a reliable inversion of the velocity structure an identification of these modes is thus required. We propose a novel method to identify the modes of surface waves. We use the spectral ratio of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V) measured on seismic coda. We then compare the observed values with the theoretical H/V ratio for velocity models deduced from surface wave dispersion when assuming a particular mode. We first invert the Rayleigh wave measurements retrieved from ambient noise cross-correlation with the assumptions that (1) the fundamental mode and (2) the first overtone are excited. Then we use these different velocity models to predict theoretical spectral ratios of the ground velocity for the horizontal components over the vertical component (H/V). These H/V ratios are computed under the hypothesis of equipartition of a diffuse field in a layered medium. Finally we discriminate between fundamental and higher modes by comparing the theoretical H/V ratio with the H/V ratio measured on seismic coda. In an application, we reconstruct Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at seven broad-band stations in the Valley of Mexico. For paths within the soft quaternary sediments basin, the maximum energy is observed at velocities higher than expected for the fundamental mode. We identify that the dominant mode is the first higher mode, which suggests the importance of higher modes as the main vectors of energy in such complex structures.
Accardo, N. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Shillington, D. J.; Nyblade, A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mulibo, G. D.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Kamihanda, G.
2015-12-01
The Malawi Rift (MR) is an immature rift located at the southern tip of the Western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Pronounced border faults and tectonic segmentation are seen within the upper crust. Surface volcanism in the region is limited to the Rungwe volcanic province located north of Lake Malawi (Nyasa). However, the distribution of extension and magma at depth in the crust and mantle lithosphere is unknown. As the Western Rift of the EARS is largely magma-poor except for discrete volcanic provinces, the MR presents the ideal location to elucidate the role of magmatism in early-stage rifting and the manifestation of segmentation at depth. This study investigates the shear velocity of the crust and mantle lithosphere beneath the MR to constrain the thermal structure, the amount of total crustal and lithospheric thinning, and the presence and distribution of magmatism beneath the rift. Utilizing 55 stations from the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) passive-source seismic experiment operating in Malawi and Tanzania, we employed a multi-channel cross-correlation algorithm to obtain inter-station phase and amplitude information from Rayleigh wave observations between 20 and 80 s period. We retrieve estimates of phase velocity between 9-20 s period from ambient noise cross-correlograms in the frequency domain via Aki's formula. We invert phase velocity measurements to obtain estimates of shear velocity (Vs) between 50-200 km depth. Preliminary results reveal a striking low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the Rungwe volcanic province with Vs ~4.2-4.3 km/s in the uppermost mantle. Low velocities extend along the entire strike of Lake Malawi and to the west where a faster velocity lid (~4.5 km/s) is imaged. These preliminary results will be extended by incorporating broadband data from seven "lake"-bottom seismometers (LBS) to be retrieved from Lake Malawi in October of this year. The crust and mantle modeling will be
Bivariate Rayleigh Distribution and its Properties
Ahmad Saeed Akhter
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Rayleigh (1880 observed that the sea waves follow no law because of the complexities of the sea, but it has been seen that the probability distributions of wave heights, wave length, wave induce pitch, wave and heave motions of the ships follow the Rayleigh distribution. At present, several different quantities are in use for describing the state of the sea; for example, the mean height of the waves, the root mean square height, the height of the “significant waves” (the mean height of the highest one-third of all the waves the maximum height over a given interval of the time, and so on. At present, the ship building industry knows less than any other construction industry about the service conditions under which it must operate. Only small efforts have been made to establish the stresses and motions and to incorporate the result of such studies in to design. This is due to the complexity of the problem caused by the extensive variability of the sea and the corresponding response of the ships. Although the problem appears feasible, yet it is possible to predict service conditions for ships in an orderly and relatively simple manner Rayleigh (1980 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many independent sources. This distribution is also connected with one or two dimensions and is sometimes referred to as “random walk” frequency distribution. The Rayleigh distribution can be derived from the bivariate normal distribution when the variate are independent and random with equal variances. We try to construct bivariate Rayleigh distribution with marginal Rayleigh distribution function and discuss its fundamental properties.
山西地区面波相速度分布图像%Rayleigh-wave phase velocity distribution in Shanxi region
宋美琴; 何正勤; 郑勇; 吕芳; 刘春; 梁向军; 苏燕; 李丽
2013-01-01
In this work,seismic datas are taken from seismograms of over 100 earthquakes which are recorded from Feburary in 2009 to November in 2011 at 31 stations in Shanxi Province and other 6 broadband stations in adjacent areas,including Hebei,Henan,Shanxi and Neimeng Province.We obtained 350 high-quality Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode by removing the duplicate paths and low quality data.The periods of the dispersion curves range from 8 to 75 seconds.Based on the method of Ditmar & Yanovskaya,we obtained phase velocity dispersion maps in 33 periods with resolution ranges from 40 to 50 km.We analyzed the phase velocity distribution maps at four representative periods and the phase velocity section maps along three profiles.The phase velocity maps reveal the lateral heterogeneity of the velocity structure and the phase speed variation with depth in the crust and the upper mantle of the Shanxi fault depression zone.The phase velocity map at 10 s clearly shows the spatial differences between the rift zone and the uplift zones in the two sides,presenting low phase velocity anomalies in the maximum depression regions near the centers of several basins inside the rift zone Moderate to strong earthquakes(M≥6)in Shanxi are mostly concentrated in the transitional zones where dramatic phase velocity changes occur at 15 s.At 20～26 s period,significant phase velocity difference can be observed across the latitude of 38°N,where phase velocity is higher in the south side than that in the north,which is in consistent with the variation pattern of Moho depth in the depression zone.This kind of velocity pattern keeps constant with the increase of period,which is consistent with the feature that the blocks in the north Shanxi is relatively weaker than those in the south.Along 113°E,the phase velocities at periods of 25～75 s are higher in the north side of latitude 38°N than in the south.This is consistent with the result of the lithospheric
CORRIGENDUM: Atoms riding Rayleigh waves Atoms riding Rayleigh waves
Benedek, G.; Echenique, P. M.; Toennies, J. P.; Traeger, F.
2010-09-01
In the original paper the affiliation list is incorrect. The correct address list is as follows: G Benedek1, 5, P M Echenique1, 2, J P Toennies3 and F Traeger4 1 Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizábal 4, 20018 Donostia—San Sebastián, Spain 2 Departamento de Física de Materiales and CFM (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, E-20018 San Sebastián/Donostia, Spain 3 Max Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Bunsenstraße 10 D-37073 Göttingen, Germany 4 Fakultät für Chemie und Biochemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany 5 Permanent address: Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano, Italy
Parametric-based brain Magnetic Resonance Elastography using a Rayleigh damping material model.
Petrov, Andrii Y; Sellier, Mathieu; Docherty, Paul D; Chase, J Geoffrey
2014-10-01
The three-parameter Rayleigh damping (RD) model applied to time-harmonic Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) has potential to better characterise fluid-saturated tissue systems. However, it is not uniquely identifiable at a single frequency. One solution to this problem involves simultaneous inverse problem solution of multiple input frequencies over a broad range. As data is often limited, an alternative elegant solution is a parametric RD reconstruction, where one of the RD parameters (μI or ρI) is globally constrained allowing accurate identification of the remaining two RD parameters. This research examines this parametric inversion approach as applied to in vivo brain imaging. Overall, success was achieved in reconstruction of the real shear modulus (μR) that showed good correlation with brain anatomical structures. The mean and standard deviation shear stiffness values of the white and gray matter were found to be 3±0.11kPa and 2.2±0.11kPa, respectively, which are in good agreement with values established in the literature or measured by mechanical testing. Parametric results with globally constrained μI indicate that selecting a reasonable value for the μI distribution has a major effect on the reconstructed ρI image and concomitant damping ratio (ξd). More specifically, the reconstructed ρI image using a realistic μI=333Pa value representative of a greater portion of the brain tissue showed more accurate differentiation of the ventricles within the intracranial matter compared to μI=1000Pa, and ξd reconstruction with μI=333Pa accurately captured the higher damping levels expected within the vicinity of the ventricles. Parametric RD reconstruction shows potential for accurate recovery of the stiffness characteristics and overall damping profile of the in vivo living brain despite its underlying limitations. Hence, a parametric approach could be valuable with RD models for diagnostic MRE imaging with single frequency data. Copyright © 2014
Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves
Tanuma, Kazumi
2008-01-01
Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations
HIRDLS observations of global gravity wave absolute momentum fluxes: A wavelet based approach
John, Sherine Rachel; Kishore Kumar, Karanam
2016-02-01
Using wavelet technique for detection of height varying vertical and horizontal wavelengths of gravity waves, the absolute values of gravity wave momentum fluxes are estimated from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) temperature measurements. Two years of temperature measurements (2005 December-2007 November) from HIRDLS onboard EOS-Aura satellite over the globe are used for this purpose. The least square fitting method is employed to extract the 0-6 zonal wavenumber planetary wave amplitudes, which are removed from the instantaneous temperature profiles to extract gravity wave fields. The vertical and horizontal wavelengths of the prominent waves are computed using wavelet and cross correlation techniques respectively. The absolute momentum fluxes are then estimated using prominent gravity wave perturbations and their vertical and horizontal wavelengths. The momentum fluxes obtained from HIRDLS are compared with the fluxes obtained from ground based Rayleigh LIDAR observations over a low latitude station, Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and are found to be in good agreement. After validation, the absolute gravity wave momentum fluxes over the entire globe are estimated. It is found that the winter hemisphere has the maximum momentum flux magnitudes over the high latitudes with a secondary maximum over the summer hemispheric low-latitudes. The significance of the present study lies in introducing the wavelet technique for estimating the height varying vertical and horizontal wavelengths of gravity waves and validating space based momentum flux estimations using ground based lidar observations.
Muhammad Idrees AFRIDI; Jie ZHANG; Yousaf KHAN; Jiawei HAN; Aftab HUSSEIN; Shahab AHMAD
2013-01-01
The performance of colorless wavelength- division multiplexing passive optical network （WDM- PON） systems suffers from transmission impairments due to Rayleigh backscattering （RB）. A single feeder fiber colorless WDM-PON architecture was modeled, simulated and analyzed at 25 km distance that sustained the noise induced by RB. We analytically compared the performances between single feeder and dual feeder WDM-PON architectures based on array waveguide gratings （AWGs）. For single feeder WDM-PON, the high extinction ratios in both return-to-zeros （RZ）-shaped differential phase shift keying （DPSK） downstream and intensity remodulated upstream data signals helped to increase the tolerance to the noise induced by RB. However, a cost effective colorless system in dual feeder WDM-PON architecture was achieved without any optical amplification and dispersion compensation, low power penalty. These results illustrate that single feeder fiber architecture was cost effective in terms of deployment having a power penalty, while dual feeder fiber had lower power penalty thereby with better performance. Simulation results show that downstream and upstream signals achieved error-free performance at 10-Gbps with negligible penalty and enhanced tolerance to the noise induced by RB over 25 km single mode fiber.
Rayleigh reflections and nonlinear acoustics of solids
Breazeale, M. A.
1980-10-01
Schlierken studies of ultrasonic waves, and nonlinear acoustics of solids are addressed. A goniometer for use in a Schlieren system for visualization of ultrasonic waves in liquids is described. The goniometer is used to obtain Schlieren photographs of leaky Rayleigh waves excited on an Al2O3 layer on a stainless steel reflector immersed in water, showing that the Rayleigh wave velocity in this case is less than that of either a water Al203 layer or a water stainless steel layer. Also investigated are: (1) nonlinearity parameters and third order elastic constants of copper between 300 and 3 K; (2) measurement of nonlinearity parameters in small solid samples by the harmonic generation technique; (3) relationship between solid nonlinearity parameters and thermodynamic Gruneisen parameters; and (4) quantum mechanical theory of nonlinear interaction of ultrasonic waves.
Model-based internal wave processing
Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.
1995-06-09
A model-based approach is proposed to solve the oceanic internal wave signal processing problem that is based on state-space representations of the normal-mode vertical velocity and plane wave horizontal velocity propagation models. It is shown that these representations can be utilized to spatially propagate the modal (dept) vertical velocity functions given the basic parameters (wave numbers, Brunt-Vaisala frequency profile etc.) developed from the solution of the associated boundary value problem as well as the horizontal velocity components. Based on this framework, investigations are made of model-based solutions to the signal enhancement problem for internal waves.
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments
Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Kuranz, C. C. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Arnett, D. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2015-10-15
We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order.
Asymptotic Rayleigh instantaneous unit hydrograph
Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.
1988-01-01
The instantaneous unit hydrograph for a channel network under general linear routing and conditioned on the network magnitude, N, tends asymptotically, as N grows large, to a Rayleigh probability density function. This behavior is identical to that of the width function of the network, and is proven under the assumption that the network link configuration is topologically random and the link hydraulic and geometric properties are independent and identically distributed random variables. The asymptotic distribution depends only on a scale factor, {Mathematical expression}, where ?? is a mean link wave travel time. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.
Fan, Li; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui
2014-02-01
The phase velocities, electromechanical coupling coefficients, conductivity sensitivities, insert losses, and minimum detectable masses of Rayleigh and Lamb waves sensors based on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates are theoretically studied. The results are compared with the performances of the sensors based on conventional silicon substrates. It is found that the sensors using SiC substrates have higher electromechanical coupling coefficients and conductivity sensitivities than the conventional silicon-based sensors in virtue of piezoelectricity of the SiC. Moreover, higher phase velocities in SiC substrates can reduce the insert losses and minimum detectable masses of the sensors. In this case, in the detection of the gas with the tiny mass as the hydrogen, in which the conductivity sensitivity is more important than the mass sensitivity, the sensor based on the SiC substrate has a higher sensitivity and exhibits the potential to detect the gas with the concentration below the ppm level. According to the results, the performances of the sensors based on the Rayleigh and Lamb waves using the SiC substrates can be optimized by properly selecting piezoelectric films, structural parameters, and operating wavelengths.
Performance of Narrowband Signal Detection under Correlated Rayleigh Fading Based on Synthetic Array
Ali Broumandan
2009-01-01
design parameters of probability of detection (Pd and probability of false alarm (Pfa. An optimum detector based on Estimator-Correlator (EC is developed, and its performance is compared with that of suboptimal Equal-Gain (EG combiner in different channel correlation scenarios. It is shown that in moderate channel correlation scenarios the detection performance of EC and EG is identical. The sensitivity of the proposed method to knowledge of motion parameters is also investigated. An extensive set of measurements based on CDMA-2000 pilot signals using the static antenna and synthetic array are used to experimentally verify these theoretical findings.
吴腾飞; 吴荣新; 张平松; 程刚
2013-01-01
Advanced?detection?is?an?essential?technology?for?preventing?geology?hazards?in?the?construction?of?underground?engineering.?At?first,?this?paper?summarized?the?domestic?and?foreign?tunnel?detection?method,?and?focuses?on?analysis?of?the?Rayleigh?wave?detection?technology?in?tunnel?advanced?detection?advantages.?Introduces?the?detection?principle?and?the?field?construction?method?of?Rayleigh?wave,?and?uses?He-Fu?High?Speed?Rail?examples?to?prove?that?compared?to?traditional?tunnel?detection?methods,?Rayleigh?wave?has?advantages?of?simple?construction,?economical,?shallow?detection?higher?resolution?etc,?to?a?great?extent?can?find?out?tunnel?spread?range?of?geological?anomalies,?providing?a?reliable?basis?for?driving?security.?In?the?end,?the?future?research?direction?of?Rayleigh?wave?in?tunnel?advanced?detection?is?proposed?according?to?engineering?experiment.%超前探测是预防地下工程施工环节发生灾害的重要技术方法。此文先对国内外隧道超前探测技术方法进行了总结，并着重分析了瑞雷波探测技术在隧道超前探测中的优势。介绍了多道瞬态瑞雷波探测的技术原理和现场施工方法，通过合福高铁安徽段7标某隧道超前预报的应用实例，说明瑞雷波探测技术与其他隧道超前探测方法相比，具有施工简便、经济、浅层探测分辨率高等优点，可大限度地查明隧道掘进波及范围内地质异常情况，为掘进安全提供可靠技术依据。最后，笔者根据工程试验，提出了瑞雷波在隧道超前探测中今后的研究方向。
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels
Sameer A. Dawood
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATLAB to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The performance of DMWCST-based OFDM (DMWCST-OFDM was compared with that of the discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM (DWT-OFDM and the traditional FFT-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM over flat fading and frequency-selective fading channels. Results obtained indicate that the performance of the proposed DMWCST-OFDM system achieves significant improvement compared to those of DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM systems. DMWCST improves the performance of the OFDM system by a factor of 1.5–2.5 dB and 13–15.5 dB compared with the DWT and FFT, respectively. Therefore the proposed system offers higher data rate in wireless mobile communications.
无
2001-01-01
Wavelet transform is used to analyze the scaling rule convection flow from two aspects. By utilizing the method of extended self similarity (ESS), one can find the obtained scaling exponent agrees well with the one obtained from the temperature data in a experiment of wind tunnel. And then we propose a newly defined formula based on wavelet transform, and can determine the scaling exponent ξ(q) of temperature data. The obtained results demonstrate that we can correctly extract ξ(q) by using the method which is named as wavelet transform maximum modulus (WTMM).``
Andersen, Kurt Munk
1997-01-01
Rayleigh's principle expresses that the smallest eigenvalue of a regular Sturm-Liouville problem with regular boundary conditions is the minimum value of a certain functional, the so called Rayleigh's quotient, and that this value is attained at the corresponding eigenfunctions only. This can...... be proved by means of more advanced methods. However, it turns out that there is an elementary proof, which is presented in the report....
Caliendo, Cinzia
2012-01-01
The operation of electroacoustic devices based on surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagation along β-SiC/AlN and amorphous-SiC/AlN substrates is theoretically studied with respect to the AlN film thickness, the SAW propagation direction, temperature and electric boundary conditions. GHz-range, enhanced electroacoustic coupling coefficient, temperature compensated around 20 °C electroacoustic devices are the advantages of SiC/AlN composite structures. These structures are also suitable for the implementation of sensors with improved performances with respect to SAW devices based on bulk single crystal piezoelectric substrates. The structures feasibility was confirmed by structural investigation and quantitative analysis of sputtered amorphous-SiC and AlN films on Si substrates.
Wave-based liquid-interface metamaterials
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Fontana, P W; Shats, M
2017-01-01
The control of matter motion at liquid–gas interfaces opens an opportunity to create two-dimensional materials with remotely tunable properties. In analogy with optical lattices used in ultra-cold atom physics, such materials can be created by a wave field capable of dynamically guiding matter into periodic spatial structures. Here we show experimentally that such structures can be realized at the macroscopic scale on a liquid surface by using rotating waves. The wave angular momentum is transferred to floating micro-particles, guiding them along closed trajectories. These orbits form stable spatially periodic patterns, the unit cells of a two-dimensional wave-based material. Such dynamic patterns, a mirror image of the concept of metamaterials, are scalable and biocompatible. They can be used in assembly applications, conversion of wave energy into mean two-dimensional flows and for organising motion of active swimmers. PMID:28181490
Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging
Yan, Zewu; Ju, Li; Eon, François; Gras, Slawomir; Zhao, Chunnong; Jacob, John; Blair, David G.
2004-03-01
Rayleigh scattering in test masses can introduce noise and reduce the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this paper, we present laser Rayleigh scattering imaging as a technique to investigate sapphire test masses. The system provides three-dimensional Rayleigh scattering mapping of entire test masses and quantitative evaluation of the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering mapping of two sapphire samples reveals point defects as well as inhomogeneous structures in the samples. We present results showing significant non-uniform scattering within two 4.5 kg sapphire test masses manufactured by the heat exchanger method.
Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves
Li, Jing
2017-08-17
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves
Li, Jing
2017-02-08
We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.
ESTIMATION OF S-WAVE VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF FUKUI PLAIN BASED ON MICROTREMOR ARRAY OBSERVATION
Kojima, Keisuke; Moto, Koudai
The precise evaluations of Quaternary structure of the region are indispensable in order to accurately predict the seismic damage. However, deep borehole, PS-logging and elastic wave exploration have been executed only on limited points around the Fukui Plain. The problem analyzed in this study is statistical estimation of the 3D S-wave velocity structure down to the Tertiary bedrock of the Fukui Plain based on the data from 75 microtremor array observation sites. The Rayleigh wave phase velocities at each array site were calculated by the spatial autocorrelation method. The phase velocities at each site were inverted to a 1D S-wave profile using a genetic inversion. The 3-components single-site microtremor observations were carried out to compensate the array observations. The 3D S-wave velocity structure around the Fukui plain have been interpolated by using Kriging and Co-Kriging techniques. In the Co-Kriging procedure, the correlations between the estimated depths of Quaternary and the observed predominant periods of the sites were taken into account. The validity of the estimated structure from the microtremor observation was confirmed by comparing with the density structure and with the existing PS-logging data.
Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)
1996-05-01
To render the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method easier to use, a system has been constructed that can be used with ease on the site for the calculation of phase velocities. This system can perform two observation methods of the same frequency characteristics, that is, the simultaneous multi-point observation and one-point independent observation. The pickup is a velocity type seismograph of a natural period of 1 second that has been so electrically adjusted as to work on an apparent natural period of 7 seconds. Among the frequency characteristics, those related to phase are regarded as important because the SAC method is based on the measurement of coherence between two points. The analysis software runs on a waveform processing software DADiSP/WIN designed for personal computers. To know the operability of this system on the site and to accumulate records using the SAC method, observations were made at the depth of 100-500m at 6 locations in Saitama Prefecture where the underground structure was known thanks to prior PS logging. As the result, a dispersion curve was obtained by use of an array of appropriate dimensions at every location agreeing with the underground structure. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location
Tong, Ping; Yang, Dinghui; Liu, Qinya; Yang, Xu; Harris, Jerry
2016-04-01
We present a novel earthquake location method using acoustic wave-equation-based traveltime inversion. The linear relationship between the location perturbation (δt0, δxs) and the resulting traveltime residual δt of a particular seismic phase, represented by the traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) with respect to the earthquake location (t0, xs), is theoretically derived based on the adjoint method. Traveltime sensitivity kernel K(t0, xs) is formulated as a convolution between the forward and adjoint wavefields, which are calculated by numerically solving two acoustic wave equations. The advantage of this newly derived traveltime kernel is that it not only takes into account the earthquake-receiver geometry but also accurately honours the complexity of the velocity model. The earthquake location is obtained by solving a regularized least-squares problem. In 3-D realistic applications, it is computationally expensive to conduct full wave simulations. Therefore, we propose a 2.5-D approach which assumes the forward and adjoint wave simulations within a 2-D vertical plane passing through the earthquake and receiver. Various synthetic examples show the accuracy of this acoustic wave-equation-based earthquake location method. The accuracy and efficiency of the 2.5-D approach for 3-D earthquake location are further verified by its application to the 2004 Big Bear earthquake in Southern California.
Tremblay, Simon-Pierre; Karray, Mourad; Chekired, Mohamed; Bessette, Carole; Jinga, Livius
2017-01-01
The inspection of underground concrete utility structures can be a challenging task due to their inaccessibility. This article presents a nondestructive inspection technique for the lids of such structures based on the propagation of elastic waves where the variation in soil vertical acceleration following an impact is recorded along a given line at the surface of the soil. The structures investigated are made of reinforced concrete and are located below a shallow homogeneous soil layer which is covered by a pavement. It is shown through finite difference numerical modeling that elastic waves are affected by the state of degradation of the underground concrete structure. It is also shown that the difference in dynamic properties between the soil and the concrete structure causes the latter to act as a waveguide that affects the variation of the vertical acceleration measured at the surface of the model. The propagation of elastic waves within different underground profiles is studied in terms of the variation of their energy and of their group and phase velocity. Theoretical models, computed using the propagator matrix technique, are presented in the appendix to demonstrate the importance of the waveguide effects, caused by the presence of the concrete structure, on the group and phase velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. Finally, some of the results obtained from the inspection of two different real underground structures are also presented. These results show that the proposed inspection technique, developed based on 1D and 2D numerical testing, is also effective for real structures.
Wave measurement based on light refraction
SUN Hequan; QIU Dahong; SHEN Yongming; WANG Yongxue
2004-01-01
Some authors have developed a few methods of measuring wave slopes based on light refraction, including the measurement method via the distribution of light intensity or color under water. A new method based on light refraction is specified for the measurement of wave surface elevation in wave flume via imaging technology. A plane painted with black and white stripes is put on the flume floor as an indication plane, which can be arranged easily and cheaply. Compared with the previous methods, the present method is less sensitive to the noise and nonlinear effects of optical process, which can be taken as a digital method. The CCD camera is fixed above the flume with its optical axis arranged vertically to grab the images of stripes modulated by the wave surface. The modulated value can be calculated from the Hilbert transform, and then the wave surface elevation can be obtained. The algorithm and experimental procedure are specified in detail, and some experimental results are provided to show the validity of the present method.
The inverse problem based on a full dispersive wave equation
Gegentana Bao; Naranmandula Bao
2012-01-01
The inverse problem for harmonic waves and wave packets was studied based on a full dispersive wave equation. First, a full dispersive wave equation which describes wave propagation in nondissipative microstructured linear solids is established based on the Mindlin theory, and the dispersion characteristics are discussed. Second, based on the full dispersive wave equation, an inverse problem for determining the four unknown coefficients of wave equa- tion is posed in terms of the frequencies and corresponding wave numbers of four different harmonic waves, and the inverse problem is demonstrated with rigorous mathematical theory. Research proves that the coefficients of wave equation related to material properties can be uniquely determined in cases of normal and anomalous dispersions by measuring the frequen- cies and corresponding wave numbers of four different harmonic waves which propagate in a nondissipative microstructured linear solids.
Space Based Gravitational Wave Observatories (SGOs)
Livas, Jeff
2014-01-01
Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatories (SGOs) will enable the systematic study of the frequency band from 0.0001 - 1 Hz of gravitational waves, where a rich array of astrophysical sources is expected. ESA has selected The Gravitational Universe as the science theme for the L3 mission opportunity with a nominal launch date in 2034. This will be at a minimum 15 years after ground-based detectors and pulsar timing arrays announce their first detections and at least 18 years after the LISA Pathfinder Mission will have demonstrated key technologies in a dedicated space mission. It is therefore important to develop mission concepts that can take advantage of the momentum in the field and the investment in both technology development and a precision measurement community on a more near-term timescale than the L3 opportunity. This talk will discuss a mission concept based on the LISA baseline that resulted from a recent mission architecture study.
Maria Anna De Rosa
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called “cell discretization method” (CDM in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.
De Rosa, Maria Anna; Lippiello, Maria
2014-01-01
The free vibration response of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) is investigated. The DWCNTs are modelled as two beams, interacting between them through the van der Waals forces, and the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The governing equations of motion are derived using a variational approach and the free frequencies of vibrations are obtained employing two different approaches. In the first method, the two double-walled carbon nanotubes are discretized by means of the so-called "cell discretization method" (CDM) in which each nanotube is reduced to a set of rigid bars linked together by elastic cells. The resulting discrete system takes into account nonlocal effects, constraint elasticities, and the van der Waals forces. The second proposed approach, belonging to the semianalytical methods, is an optimized version of the classical Rayleigh quotient, as proposed originally by Schmidt. The resulting conditions are solved numerically. Numerical examples end the paper, in which the two approaches give lower-upper bounds to the true values, and some comparisons with existing results are offered. Comparisons of the present numerical results with those from the open literature show an excellent agreement.
Lü Shu-hui; WANG Kui-hua; WU Wen-bing; C. J. LEO
2015-01-01
The dynamic response of pile in layered soil is theoretically investigated when considering the transverse inertia effect. Firstly, the fictitious soil-pile model is employed to simulate the dynamic interaction between the pile and the soil layers beneath pile toe. The dynamic interactions of adjacent soil layers along the vertical direction are simplified as distributed Voigt models. Meanwhile, the pile and fictitious soil-pile are assumed to be viscoelastic Rayleigh-Love rods, and both the radial and vertical displacement continuity conditions at the soil-pile interface are taken into consideration. On this basis, the analytical solution for dynamic response at the pile head is derived in the frequency domain and the corresponding quasi-analytical solution in the time domain is then obtained by means of the convolution theorem. Following this, the accuracy and parameter value of the hypothetical boundaries for soil-layer interfaces are discussed. Comparisons with published solution and measured data are carried out to verify the rationality of the present solution. Parametric analyses are further conducted by using the present solution to investigate the relationships between the transverse inertia effects and soil-pile parameters.
Modulational instability arising from collective Rayleigh scattering.
Robb, G R M; McNeil, B W J
2003-02-01
It is shown that under certain conditions a collection of dielectric Rayleigh particles suspended in a viscous medium and enclosed in a bidirectional ring cavity pumped by a strong laser field can produce a new modulational instability transverse to the wave-propagation direction. The source of the instability is collective Rayleigh scattering i.e., the spontaneous formation of periodic longitudinal particle-density modulations and a backscattered optical field. Using a linear stability analysis a dispersion relation is derived which determines the region of parameter space in which modulational instability of the backscattered field and the particle distribution occurs. In the linear regime the pump is modulationally stable. A numerical analysis is carried out to observe the dynamics of the interaction in the nonlinear regime. In the nonlinear regime the pump field also becomes modulationally unstable and strong pump depletion occurs.
Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography
Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik
2016-03-01
Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.
A multimodal wave spectrum-based approach for statistical downscaling of local wave climate
Hegermiller, Christie; Antolinez, Jose A A; Rueda, Ana C; Camus, Paula; Perez, Jorge; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Mendez, Fernando J.
2017-01-01
Characterization of wave climate by bulk wave parameters is insufficient for many coastal studies, including those focused on assessing coastal hazards and long-term wave climate influences on coastal evolution. This issue is particularly relevant for studies using statistical downscaling of atmospheric fields to local wave conditions, which are often multimodal in large ocean basins (e.g. the Pacific). Swell may be generated in vastly different wave generation regions, yielding complex wave spectra that are inadequately represented by a single set of bulk wave parameters. Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric systems and local wave conditions is complicated by variations in arrival time of wave groups from different parts of the basin. Here, we address these two challenges by improving upon the spatiotemporal definition of the atmospheric predictor used in statistical downscaling of local wave climate. The improved methodology separates the local wave spectrum into “wave families,” defined by spectral peaks and discrete generation regions, and relates atmospheric conditions in distant regions of the ocean basin to local wave conditions by incorporating travel times computed from effective energy flux across the ocean basin. When applied to locations with multimodal wave spectra, including Southern California and Trujillo, Peru, the new methodology improves the ability of the statistical model to project significant wave height, peak period, and direction for each wave family, retaining more information from the full wave spectrum. This work is the base of statistical downscaling by weather types, which has recently been applied to coastal flooding and morphodynamic applications.
A Boussinesq Equation-Based Model for Nearshore Wave Breaking
余建星; 张伟; 王广东; 杨树清
2004-01-01
Based on the wave breaking model by Li and Wang (1999), this work is to apply Dally' s analytical solution to the wave-height decay irstead of the empirical and semi-empirical hypotheses of wave-height distribution within the wave breaking zone. This enhances the applicability of the model. Computational results of shoaling, location of wave breaking, wave-height decay after wave breaking, set-down and set-up for incident regular waves are shown to have good agreement with experimental and field data.
Magnetometer Based On Spin Wave Interferometer
Balynsky, M; Chiang, H; Kozhevnikov, A; Filimonov, Y; Balandin, A A; Khitun, A
2016-01-01
We describe magnetic field sensor based on spin wave interferometer. Its sensing element consists of a magnetic cross junction with four micro-antennas fabricated at the edges. Two of these antennas are used for spin wave excitation and two others antennas are used for the detection of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. Two waves propagating in the orthogonal arms of the cross may accumulate significantly different phase shifts depending on the magnitude and the direction of the external magnetic field. This phenomenon is utilized for magnetic field sensing. The sensitivity has maximum at the destructive interference condition, where a small change of the external magnetic field results in a drastic increase of the inductive voltage as well as the change of the output phase. We report experimental data obtained on a micrometer scale Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 cross structure. The change of the inductive voltage near the destructive interference point exceeds 40 dB per 1 Oe. At the same time, the ...
Rayleigh scattering: blue sky thinking for future CMB observations
Lewis, Antony
2013-01-01
Rayleigh scattering from neutral hydrogen during and shortly after recombination causes the CMB anisotropies to be significantly frequency dependent at high frequencies. This may be detectable with Planck, and would be a strong signal at in any future space-based CMB missions. The later peak of the Rayleigh visibility compared to Thomson scattering gives an increased large-scale CMB polarization signal that is a greater than 4% effect for observed frequencies greater than 500GHz. There is a similar magnitude suppression on small scales from additional damping. Due to strong correlation between the Rayleigh and primary signal, measurement of the Rayleigh component is limited by noise and foregrounds, not cosmic variance of the primary CMB, and should observable over a wide range of angular scales at frequencies between roughly 200GHz and 800GHz. I give new numerical calculations of the temperature and polarization power spectra, and show that future CMB missions could measure the temperature Rayleigh cross-spe...
High-sensitivity open-loop electronics for gravimetric acoustic-wave-based sensors.
Rabus, David; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Ballandras, Sylvain; Martin, Gilles; Carry, Emile; Blondeau-Patissier, Virginie
2013-06-01
Detecting chemical species in gas phase has recently received an increasing interest mainly for security control, trying to implement new systems allowing for extended dynamics and reactivity. In this work, an open-loop interrogation strategy is proposed to use radio-frequency acoustic transducers as micro-balances for that purpose. The resulting system is dedicated to the monitoring of chemical compounds in gaseous or liquid-phase state. A 16 Hz standard deviation is demonstrated at 125 MHz, with a working frequency band in the 60 to 133 MHz range, answering the requirements for using Rayleigh- and Love-wave-based delay lines operating with 40-μm acoustic wavelength transducers. Moreover, this electronic setup was used to interrogate a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR) microbalance, a new sensor class allowing for multi-mode interrogation for gravimetric measurement improvement. The noise source still limiting the system performance is due to the analog-to-digital converter of the microcontroller, thus leaving open degrees-of-freedom for improving the obtained results by optimizing the voltage reference and board layout. The operation of the system is illustrated using a calibrated galvanic deposition at the surface of Love-wave delay lines to assess theoretical predictions of their gravimetric sensitivity and to compare them with HBAR-based sensor sensitivity.
Reconstruction of Rayleigh-Lamb dispersion spectrum based on noise obtained from an air-jet forcing
Larose, Eric; Campillo, Michel
2007-01-01
The time-domain cross-correlation of incoherent and random noise recorded by a series of passive sensors contains the impulse response of the medium between these sensors. By using noise generated by a can of compressed air sprayed on the surface of a plexiglass plate, we are able to reconstruct not only the time of flight but the whole waveforms between the sensors. From the reconstruction of the direct $A_0$ and $S_0$ waves, we derive the dispersion curves of the flexural waves, thus estimating the mechanical properties of the material without a conventional electromechanical source. The dense array of receivers employed here allow a precise frequency-wavenumber study of flexural waves, along with a thorough evaluation of the rate of convergence of the correlation with respect to the record length, the frequency, and the distance between the receivers. The reconstruction of the actual amplitude and attenuation of the impulse response is also addressed in this paper.
A simple analytic approximation to the Rayleigh-Bénard stability threshold
Prosperetti, Andrea
2011-01-01
The Rayleigh-Bénard linear stability problem is solved by means of a Fourier series expansion. It is found that truncating the series to just the first term gives an excellent explicit approximation to the marginal stability relation between the Rayleigh number and the wave number of the perturbatio
Wave Superposition Based Sound Field Reconstruction
LI Jia-qing; CHEN Jin; YANG Chao
2008-01-01
In order to overcome the obstacle of singular integral in boundary element method (BEM), wepresented an efficient sound field reconstruction technique based on the wave superposition method (WSM). Itsprinciple includes three steps: first, the sound pressure field of an arbitrary shaped radiator is measured witha microphone array; then, the exterior sound field of the radiator is computed backward and forward using theWSM; at last, the final results are visualized in terms of sound pressure contours or animations. With thesevisualized contours or animations, noise sources can be easily located and quantified; also noise transmissionpath can be found out. By numerical simulation and experimental results, we proved that the technique aresuitable and accurate for sound field reconstruction. In addition, we presented a sound field reconstruction sys-tem prototype on the basis of this technique. It makes a foundation for the application of wave superpositionin the sound field reconstruction in industry situations.
李胜; 祁晓鑫; 李军文
2015-01-01
In the front of excavation face, there exist abnormal geological structures such as fault, karst cave, col-lapsed pillars and aquifer, which usually bring about hazards like “pervious to water” and “roof fall” etc. How to accurately and effectively detect the geological structure in the front of excavation face has became a problem ur-gently needed to solve during production in coal mine. TYR (D) Rayleigh wave detector was adopted in advanced detection in driving face 7603 of Wuyang mine. The collected data were processed and analyzed, the conclusion is basically consistent with the engineering verification, thus obtaining good application effect.%掘进工作面前方存在断层、溶洞、陷落柱、含水层等地质构造，常常导致透水、冒顶等灾害性事故。采用YTR(D)瑞利波探测仪对山西潞安集团五阳煤矿7603掘进工作面进行超前探测，并对现场采集的数据进行处理和分析。结果显示，2个测点共发现9处异常区，通过后期工程验证，有7处探测异常区与实际揭露的结果基本一致，探测与实际揭露异常区域位置误差均在4m以内。
QUADRO: A SUPERVISED DIMENSION REDUCTION METHOD VIA RAYLEIGH QUOTIENT OPTIMIZATION.
Fan, Jianqing; Ke, Zheng Tracy; Liu, Han; Xia, Lucy
We propose a novel Rayleigh quotient based sparse quadratic dimension reduction method-named QUADRO (Quadratic Dimension Reduction via Rayleigh Optimization)-for analyzing high-dimensional data. Unlike in the linear setting where Rayleigh quotient optimization coincides with classification, these two problems are very different under nonlinear settings. In this paper, we clarify this difference and show that Rayleigh quotient optimization may be of independent scientific interests. One major challenge of Rayleigh quotient optimization is that the variance of quadratic statistics involves all fourth cross-moments of predictors, which are infeasible to compute for high-dimensional applications and may accumulate too many stochastic errors. This issue is resolved by considering a family of elliptical models. Moreover, for heavy-tail distributions, robust estimates of mean vectors and covariance matrices are employed to guarantee uniform convergence in estimating non-polynomially many parameters, even though only the fourth moments are assumed. Methodologically, QUADRO is based on elliptical models which allow us to formulate the Rayleigh quotient maximization as a convex optimization problem. Computationally, we propose an efficient linearized augmented Lagrangian method to solve the constrained optimization problem. Theoretically, we provide explicit rates of convergence in terms of Rayleigh quotient under both Gaussian and general elliptical models. Thorough numerical results on both synthetic and real datasets are also provided to back up our theoretical results.
Tün, Muammer; Karabulut, Savaş; Özel, Oğuz
2015-04-01
Ground motion estimation for future earthquakes is one of the most challenging problems in seismology and earthquake engineering. The bedrock depth has a considerable seismic risk for the urban area of Eskişehir. In this study, multiple station microtremor measurement methods which are more practical, non-distructive, fast and economical compared to seismic reflection method were implemented. These method using microtremor recordings have become a very useful data for microzonation studies because of their simple acquisition and analysis. Extensive ambient noise measurements were performed in the basin of Eskisehir from June 2010 to spring 2012. We use data recorded by a broadband seismometer and digitizer CMG-6TD, Guralp seismometer. Some of the measurement locations, the CMG-6TD sensor was located into 30 cm-deep holes in the ground to avoid strongly wind-generated, long-period noise. Dominant frequency (f), bed-rock depth (h) and shear-wave velocity (Vs) were determined from Spatial Autocorrelation (SPAC) methods. With the SPAC Method, it is possible to constrain the velocity structure underlying the site using microtremor array measurements. The results obtained were compared to the 96-channel seismic reflection data with explosive energy source. Several seismic reflection surveys with P-Gun seismic source have been performed on the same place with array measurements. We used two types of seismic sources: 36 cartridge Gun. Shot interval was 10 meters, group interval (one geophone per group, 48 geophones in total) was 10 meters, near offset was 10 meters, far offset was 480 meters, CDP interval was 5 meters. We adapted the 'Off-End Spread' technique while using the Gun. Reflection images within the sedimentary section correlate well with the velocity structure obtained from SPAC.
Wave-Based Subsurface Guide Star
Lehman, S K
2011-07-26
Astronomical or optical guide stars are either natural or artificial point sources located above the Earth's atmosphere. When imaged from ground-based telescopes, they are distorted by atmospheric effects. Knowing the guide star is a point source, the atmospheric distortions may be estimated and, deconvolved or mitigated in subsequent imagery. Extending the guide star concept to wave-based measurement systems to include acoustic, seismo-acoustic, ultrasonic, and radar, a strong artificial scatterer (either acoustic or electromagnetic) may be buried or inserted, or a pre-existing or natural sub-surface point scatterer may be identified, imaged, and used as a guide star to determine properties of the sub-surface volume. That is, a data collection is performed on the guide star and the sub-surface environment reconstructed or imaged using an optimizer assuming the guide star is a point scatterer. The optimization parameters are the transceiver height and bulk sub-surface background refractive index. Once identified, the refractive index may be used in subsequent reconstructions of sub-surface measurements. The wave-base guide star description presented in this document is for a multimonostatic ground penetrating radar (GPR) but is applicable to acoustic, seismo-acoustic, and ultrasonic measurement systems operating in multimonostatic, multistatic, multibistatic, etc., modes.
Biglar, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza; Danesh, Mohammad
2014-02-01
In this study, the active vibration control and configurational optimization of a cylindrical shell are analyzed by using piezoelectric transducers. The piezoelectric patches are attached to the surface of the cylindrical shell. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is used for deriving dynamic modeling of cylindrical shell and piezoelectric sensors and actuators based on the Donnel-Mushtari shell theory. The major goal of this study is to find the optimal locations and orientations of piezoelectric sensors and actuators on the cylindrical shell. The optimization procedure is designed based on desired controllability and observability of each contributed and undesired mode. Further, in order to limit spillover effects, the residual modes are taken into consideration. The optimization variables are the positions and orientations of piezoelectric patches. Genetic algorithm is utilized to evaluate the optimal configurations. In this article, for improving the maximum power and capacity of actuators for amplitude depreciation of negative velocity feedback strategy, we have proposed a new control strategy, called "Saturated Negative Velocity Feedback Rule (SNVF)". The numerical results show that the optimization procedure is effective for vibration reduction, and specifically, by locating actuators and sensors in their optimal locations and orientations, the vibrations of cylindrical shell are suppressed more quickly.
Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height
Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.
1998-01-01
wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....
HUANG Lin; JIAN Guang-de; QIU Xiao-ming
2007-01-01
The synergistic stabilizing effect of gyroviscosity and sheared axial flow on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions is studied by means of the incompressible viscid magneto-hydrodynamic equations. The gyroviscosity (or finite Larmor radius) effects are introduced in the momentum equation through an anisotropic ion stress tensor. Dispersion relation with the effect of a density discontinuity is derived. The results indicate that the short-wavelength modes of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are easily stabilized by the gyroviscosity effects. The long wavelength modes are stabilized by the sufficient sheared axial flow. However, the synergistic effects of the finite Larmor radius and sheared axial flow can heavily mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This synergistic effect can compress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability to a narrow wave number region. Even with a sufficient gyroviscosity and large enough flow velocity, the synergistic effect can completely suppressed the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in whole wave number region.
Wave-equation Based Earthquake Location
Tong, P.; Yang, D.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.; Harris, J.
2014-12-01
Precisely locating earthquakes is fundamentally important for studying earthquake physics, fault orientations and Earth's deformation. In industry, accurately determining hypocenters of microseismic events triggered in the course of a hydraulic fracturing treatment can help improve the production of oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs. We develop a novel earthquake location method based on solving full wave equations to accurately locate earthquakes (including microseismic earthquakes) in complex and heterogeneous structures. Traveltime residuals or differential traveltime measurements with the waveform cross-correlation technique are iteratively inverted to obtain the locations of earthquakes. The inversion process involves the computation of the Fréchet derivative with respect to the source (earthquake) location via the interaction between a forward wavefield emitting from the source to the receiver and an adjoint wavefield reversely propagating from the receiver to the source. When there is a source perturbation, the Fréchet derivative not only measures the influence of source location but also the effects of heterogeneity, anisotropy and attenuation of the subsurface structure on the arrival of seismic wave at the receiver. This is essential for the accuracy of earthquake location in complex media. In addition, to reduce the computational cost, we can first assume that seismic wave only propagates in a vertical plane passing through the source and the receiver. The forward wavefield, adjoint wavefield and Fréchet derivative with respect to the source location are all computed in a 2D vertical plane. By transferring the Fréchet derivative along the horizontal direction of the 2D plane into the ones along Latitude and Longitude coordinates or local 3D Cartesian coordinates, the source location can be updated in a 3D geometry. The earthquake location obtained with this combined 2D-3D approach can then be used as the initial location for a true 3D wave
Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Ángel F.; Fernández, José L.; Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; López-Vázquez, J. Carlos
2014-10-01
This article presents a method aimed at the characterization of the narrowband transient acoustic field radiated by an ultrasonic plane transducer into a homogeneous, isotropic and optically opaque prismatic solid, and the assessment of the performance of the acoustic source. The method relies on a previous technique based on the full-field optical measurement of an acoustic wavepacket at the surface of a solid and its subsequent numerical backpropagation within the material. The experimental results show that quantitative transversal and axial profiles of the complex amplitude of the beam can be obtained at any plane between the measurement and excitation surfaces. The reconstruction of the acoustic field at the transducer face, carried out on a defective transducer model, shows that the method could also be suitable for the nondestructive testing of the performance of ultrasonic sources. In all cases, the measurements were performed with the transducer working under realistic loading conditions.
PS-wave Q estimation based on the P-wave Q values
Wang, Y.; Lu, J.; Shi, Y.; Yang, C. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Geology & Geophysics
2009-12-15
Through assumption of the equivalent velocity and equivalent quality factor of the PS-wave, in visco-elastic media, PS-wave Q estimation can be realized with the P-wave quality factor and P- to S-wave velocity ratio. For sedimentary rock, which has strong agglutination, the internal friction is mainly contributed by the shear friction along crevices or inter-granular crevices, so that a relationship between PS-wave Q values and P-wave Q values can be built up even when the S-wave Q values are unknown. In the estimation of the PS-wave quality factor, the P- to S-wave velocity ratio can be computed based on two-way traveltimes of PP and PS events respectively, in order to avoid the influence of the inaccuracy of P- and S-wave velocities. The method is demonstrated with a zero-offset VSP data in a coal-mining field. The results of P-wave and PS-wave Q values estimated show a consistency with lithology revealed from drilling.
Multichannel analysis of surface waves
Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.
1999-01-01
The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of
Berngardt, O I; Podlesnyi, A V; Kurkin, V I; Zherebtsov, G A
2016-01-01
Based on the Irkutsk fast monostatic chirp ionosonde data we made a statistical analysis of ionospheric effects for 28 earthquakes which appeared in 2011-2016 years. These effects are related with surface (Rayleigh) seismic waves far from epicenter. The analysis has shown that nine of these earthquakes were accompanied by vertical midscale ionospheric irregularities (multicusp). To estimate the ionospheric efficiency of the seismic waves we proposed new index $K_{W}$. The index estimates the maximal amplitude of the acoustic shock wave generated by given spatial distribution of seismic vibrations and related with maximal spectral power of seismic oscillations. Based on the analysis of experimental data we have shown that earthquake-related multicusp is observed mostly at daytime [07:00-17:00]LST for $K_{W}\\ge4.7$. The observations of intrinsic gravity waves by GPS technique in the epicenter vicinity do not show such a daytime dependence. Based on 24/05/2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake example, we demonstrated that...
Stability of Rayleigh-Taylor Vortices in Dusty Plasma
MA Jun; CHEN Yin-Hua; GAN Bao-Xia; WANG Fei-Hu; WANG Dong
2006-01-01
@@ The evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor mode in dusty plasma with vortex-flow is investigated. Based on fluid theory and Bayly's method, we derive the coupling equations describing the Rayleigh-Taylor mode in the core of vortex,and research the evolution characteristics of the perturbation amplitude with time numerically. It is shown that the eccentric of vortex and the content of dust have considerable effects on the amplitude evolutions.
A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone
YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei
2015-01-01
When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.
Wave front distortion based fluid flow imaging
Iffa, Emishaw; Heidrich, Wolfgang
2013-03-01
In this paper, a transparent flow surface reconstruction based on wave front distortion is investigated. A camera lens is used to focus the image formed by the micro-lens array to the camera imaging plane. The irradiance of the captured image is transformed to frequency spectrum and then the x and y spatial components are separated. A rigid spatial translation followed by low pass filtering yields a single frequency component of the image intensity. Index of refraction is estimated from the inverse Fourier transform of the spatial frequency spectrum of the irradiance. The proposed method is evaluated with synthetic data of a randomly generated index of refraction value and used to visualize a fuel injection volumetric data.
Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies
Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran
2002-06-01
A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.
ALE simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Anbarlooei, H.R. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, K. [Univ. of Tarbiyat Modares, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Kiumars@modares.ac.ir; Bidabadi, M. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2004-07-01
This paper investigates the use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique for the simulation of a single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A compatible Lagrangian algorithm is used on a simply connected quadrilateral grid in Lagrangian Phase. This algorithm includes subzonal pressures, which are used to control spurious grid motion, and an edge centered artificial viscosity. We use Reference Jacobians optimization based rezone algorithm in the rezoning phase of ALE method. Also a second order sign preserving method is used for remapping. To force monotonocity in remapping phase a Repair algorithm is used. Finally, for remapping of nodal variables we used a second order transformer to transfer these data to cell centers. It is shown that the usage of these algorithms for an ALE method can improve the simulation of a single mode Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. (author)
ZHANG Xiaodong; BI Guangguo
2001-01-01
A wavelet packet function based multiple access (WPMA) system is developed in this paper to maximize capacity and improve receiver performance over frequency selective multipath fading channels. To design an efficient receiver that mitigates residual multiple access interference (MAI) and intersymbol interference, while improving received signal-to-interference and noise ratio (SINR) simultaneously on the uplink, a multichannel decision feedback equalizer (DFE) following a wavelet packet function based RAKE receiver is proposed. Simulation results show that, over GSM TU channels the developed receiver performs quite well if the power of each user is perfectly controlled or the space diversity combining (SDC) technique is applied.
Gosselin, Jeremy M.; Dosso, Stan E.; Cassidy, John F.; Quijano, Jorge E.; Molnar, Sheri; Dettmer, Jan
2017-10-01
This paper develops and applies a Bernstein-polynomial parametrization to efficiently represent general, gradient-based profiles in nonlinear geophysical inversion, with application to ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave dispersion data. Bernstein polynomials provide a stable parametrization in that small perturbations to the model parameters (basis-function coefficients) result in only small perturbations to the geophysical parameter profile. A fully nonlinear Bayesian inversion methodology is applied to estimate shear wave velocity (VS) profiles and uncertainties from surface wave dispersion data extracted from ambient seismic noise. The Bayesian information criterion is used to determine the appropriate polynomial order consistent with the resolving power of the data. Data error correlations are accounted for in the inversion using a parametric autoregressive model. The inversion solution is defined in terms of marginal posterior probability profiles for VS as a function of depth, estimated using Metropolis-Hastings sampling with parallel tempering. This methodology is applied to synthetic dispersion data as well as data processed from passive array recordings collected on the Fraser River Delta in British Columbia, Canada. Results from this work are in good agreement with previous studies, as well as with co-located invasive measurements. The approach considered here is better suited than `layered' modelling approaches in applications where smooth gradients in geophysical parameters are expected, such as soil/sediment profiles. Further, the Bernstein polynomial representation is more general than smooth models based on a fixed choice of gradient type (e.g. power-law gradient) because the form of the gradient is determined objectively by the data, rather than by a subjective parametrization choice.
袁伟; 周洪生; 刘成东; 李江鹏; 张薇
2013-01-01
Rayleigh wave exploration as a non-destructive in situ detection method has been increasingly used in geotechnical engineering testing and environmental engineering. Extraction of dispersion curves is an important step in the surface wave velocity. This will be short-time Fourier transform and the generalized S transform two linear time - frequency analysis method for Rayleigh wave dispersion curve extraction. According to the analysis of the theoretical model and real seismic data, it is concluded that; ①Short-time Fourier transform only for shallow high-frequency part of the energy of strong Rayleigh wave dispersion curve extraction is better, while the low-frequency energy extraction is the weaker part of the poor.②Generalized S transform X and p by the introduction of two parameters to the signal frequency according to the level of automatic mediation shape and size of the window function, with multi-resolution features, so while the high and low frequency of the Rayleigh wave signal better treatment effect, and thus help to improve the exploration depth of the Rayleigh wave.%瑞雷面波勘探作为一种无损原位检测方法,已越来越多的应用于岩土工程测试与环境工程中,其中频散曲线的提取则是得到面波速度的重要一步.这里将短时傅里叶变换与广义S变换两种线性时～频分析方法用于瑞雷面波的频散曲线提取,并加以对比分析它们的应用效果.通过理论模型与实际地震记录分析得出:①短时傅里叶变换只能对浅部能量较强的高频部份的瑞雷面波的频散曲线提取效果较好,而对低频能量较弱的部份提取效果则不佳；②广义S变换通过λ和ρ两个参数的引入,使其能根据信号频率的高低自动调解窗函数的形态与大小,具有多分辨的特性,使其同时对高频、低频的瑞雷面波信号有更好的处理效果,从而有利于提高瑞雷波的勘探深度.
Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption
Troch, Peter; De Rouck, Julien; Frigaard, Peter
2001-01-01
The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented.......The performance of a new active wave generating-absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented....
Video-based ocean wave spectra
Harbitz, Alf
1994-07-01
A particular video spot detector provides an irradiance time series from an arbitrarily chosen pixel in the video frame. The detector is applied to video records of the ocean surface, and the correspondence between the 1D irradiance frequency spectrum and the corresponding ocean surface elevation spectrum is studied. A major experimental results is that the frequency peak in the irradiance spectrum for a typical wind-driven sea is significantly enhanced compared to the surface slope spectrum. Video experiments from the oil rig Gullfaks A in the North Sea show an excellent agreement between the enhanced peak frequency in the irradiance spectrum and the peak frequency in the surface elevation spectrum measured by a microwave remote ocean surveillance wave radar. The enhancement of the peak in the irradiance spectrum is explained by a strong nonlinear geometrical projection effect. This is due to the rather small look angle with the horizontal, which is chosen so as to neglect irradiance contributions from beneath the sea surface. Based on a simple stochastic model that takes the geometric effect into account, irradiance spectra are simulated and are in good agreement with the experimental spectra.
Statistical distribution of nonlinear random wave height
HOU; Yijun; GUO; Peifang; SONG; Guiting; SONG; Jinbao; YIN; Baoshu; ZHAO; Xixi
2006-01-01
A statistical model of random wave is developed using Stokes wave theory of water wave dynamics. A new nonlinear probability distribution function of wave height is presented. The results indicate that wave steepness not only could be a parameter of the distribution function of wave height but also could reflect the degree of wave height distribution deviation from the Rayleigh distribution. The new wave height distribution overcomes the problem of Rayleigh distribution that the prediction of big wave is overestimated and the general wave is underestimated. The prediction of small probability wave height value of new distribution is also smaller than that of Rayleigh distribution. Wave height data taken from East China Normal University are used to verify the new distribution. The results indicate that the new distribution fits the measurements much better than the Rayleigh distribution.
Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers
W. B. Colson
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.
Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials.
Yasuda, H; Chong, C; Charalampidis, E G; Kevrekidis, P G; Yang, J
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system. We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.
Formation of rarefaction waves in origami-based metamaterials
Yasuda, H.; Chong, C.; Charalampidis, E. G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Yang, J.
2016-04-01
We investigate the nonlinear wave dynamics of origami-based metamaterials composed of Tachi-Miura polyhedron (TMP) unit cells. These cells exhibit strain softening behavior under compression, which can be tuned by modifying their geometrical configurations or initial folded conditions. We assemble these TMP cells into a cluster of origami-based metamaterials, and we theoretically model and numerically analyze their wave transmission mechanism under external impact. Numerical simulations show that origami-based metamaterials can provide a prototypical platform for the formation of nonlinear coherent structures in the form of rarefaction waves, which feature a tensile wavefront upon the application of compression to the system. We also demonstrate the existence of numerically exact traveling rarefaction waves in an effective lumped-mass model. Origami-based metamaterials can be highly useful for mitigating shock waves, potentially enabling a wide variety of engineering applications.
Ripesi, P; Schifano, S F; Tripiccione, R
2014-01-01
We study the turbulent evolution originated from a system subjected to a Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a double density at high resolution in a 2 dimensional geometry using a highly optimized thermal Lattice Boltzmann code for GPUs. The novelty of our investigation stems from the initial condition, given by the superposition of three layers with three different densities, leading to the development of two Rayleigh-Taylor fronts that expand upward and downward and collide in the middle of the cell. By using high resolution numerical data we highlight the effects induced by the collision of the two turbulent fronts in the long time asymptotic regime. We also provide details on the optimized Lattice-Boltzmann code that we have run on a cluster of GPUs
Surface Wave Tomography with Spatially Varying Smoothing Based on Continuous Model Regionalization
Liu, Chuanming; Yao, Huajian
2017-03-01
Surface wave tomography based on continuous regionalization of model parameters is widely used to invert for 2-D phase or group velocity maps. An inevitable problem is that the distribution of ray paths is far from homogeneous due to the spatially uneven distribution of stations and seismic events, which often affects the spatial resolution of the tomographic model. We present an improved tomographic method with a spatially varying smoothing scheme that is based on the continuous regionalization approach. The smoothness of the inverted model is constrained by the Gaussian a priori model covariance function with spatially varying correlation lengths based on ray path density. In addition, a two-step inversion procedure is used to suppress the effects of data outliers on tomographic models. Both synthetic and real data are used to evaluate this newly developed tomographic algorithm. In the synthetic tests, when the contrived model has different scales of anomalies but with uneven ray path distribution, we compare the performance of our spatially varying smoothing method with the traditional inversion method, and show that the new method is capable of improving the recovery in regions of dense ray sampling. For real data applications, the resulting phase velocity maps of Rayleigh waves in SE Tibet produced using the spatially varying smoothing method show similar features to the results with the traditional method. However, the new results contain more detailed structures and appears to better resolve the amplitude of anomalies. From both synthetic and real data tests we demonstrate that our new approach is useful to achieve spatially varying resolution when used in regions with heterogeneous ray path distribution.
Remarks on the Rayleigh-Benard Convection on Spherical Shells
Wang, Shouhong
2011-01-01
The main objective of this article is to study the effect of spherical geometry on dynamic transitions and pattern formation for the Rayleigh-Benard convection. The study is mainly motivated by the importance of spherical geometry and convection in geophysical flows. It is shown in particular that the system always undergoes a continuous (Type-I) transition to a $2l_c$-dimensional sphere $S^{2lc}$, where lc is the critical wave length corresponding to the critical Rayleigh number. Furthermore, it has shown in [12] that it is critical to add nonisotropic turbulent friction terms in the momentum equation to capture the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. We show in particular that the system with turbulent friction terms added undergoes the same type of dynamic transition, and obtain an explicit formula linking the critical wave number (pattern selection), the aspect ratio, and the ratio between the horizontal and vertical turbulent friction coefficients.
Palladium nanoparticle-based surface acoustic wave hydrogen sensor.
Sil, Devika; Hines, Jacqueline; Udeoyo, Uduak; Borguet, Eric
2015-03-18
Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (5-20 nm) are used as the sensing layer on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for detecting H2. The interaction with hydrogen modifies the conductivity of the Pd nanoparticle film, producing measurable changes in acoustic wave propagation, which allows for the detection of this explosive gas. The nanoparticle-based SAW sensor responds rapidly and reversibly at room temperature.
Yong, Peng; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun; Liao, Wenyuan; Qu, Luping; Li, Qingyang; Liu, Peijun
2017-02-01
In finite-difference (FD) method, numerical dispersion is the dominant factor influencing the accuracy of seismic modelling. Various optimized FD schemes for scalar wave modelling have been proposed to reduce grid dispersion, while the optimized time-space domain FD schemes for elastic wave modelling have not been fully investigated yet. In this paper, an optimized FD scheme with Equivalent Staggered Grid (ESG) for elastic modelling has been developed. We start from the constant P- and S-wave speed elastic wave equations and then deduce analytical plane wave solutions in the wavenumber domain with eigenvalue decomposition method. Based on the elastic plane wave solutions, three new time-space domain dispersion relations of ESG elastic modelling are obtained, which are represented by three equations corresponding to P-, S- and converted-wave terms in the elastic equations, respectively. By using these new relations, we can study the dispersion errors of different spatial FD terms independently. The dispersion analysis showed that different spatial FD terms have different errors. It is therefore suggested that different FD coefficients to be used to approximate the three spatial derivative terms. In addition, the relative dispersion error in L2-norm is minimized through optimizing FD coefficients using Newton's method. Synthetic examples have demonstrated that this new optimal FD schemes have superior accuracy for elastic wave modelling compared to Taylor-series expansion and optimized space domain FD schemes.
Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering
Liebl, Michael
2010-01-01
The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…
Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering
Liebl, Michael
2010-01-01
The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…
陈立; 薛梅; Le Khanh Phon; 杨挺
2012-01-01
complex geological structures. In this study, we give a 3D shear wave velocity structure of South China Sea deduced from surface wave tomography and analyze its geodynamic implications. Due to the newly deployed seismic stations in western and southern South China Sea, we have a better ray path coverage when using the single station method. This is especially true for the coastal region of southern China, where earthquakes occur less frequently and the newly added stations can increase the ray density in this region. We used earthquakes distributed on the periphery of South China Sea and collected earthquake data from 48 stations. We first calculated the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode for Rayleigh waves with periods from 14 s to 130 s using multiple filter technique. Then we conducted subspace inversion to get group velocity distributions for different periods in the region. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between shear wave velocity and group velocity under certain layer structure of the Earth, we obtained the 3D shear wave structures in the form of depth slices and vertical profiles by using a damped least square algorithm. The results show: ①High velocities exist in sea basins where velocity image delineates the shape of sea basins: the high velocities in shallow parts may indicate oceanic characteristics of the sea basin crust, while high velocities in deeper parts may come from high velocity materials which remained after the formation of oceanic crust at expanding ocean ridge. The velocity differences among sea basins are consistent with their heat flow values as well as their ages. The high velocities disappear at depths greater than 60 km, and are replaced by a low-velocity zone in a certain depth range. Beneath the low-velocity zone, a NE-SW high-velocity belt is observed at a depth of 200 km, and may be related to the ancient subduction in this region. ②Surrounding the South China Sea, there are obvious high velocities
Rayleigh--Taylor spike evaporation
Schappert, G. T.; Batha, S. H.; Klare, K. A.; Hollowell, D. E.; Mason, R. J.
2001-09-01
Laser-based experiments have shown that Rayleigh--Taylor (RT) growth in thin, perturbed copper foils leads to a phase dominated by narrow spikes between thin bubbles. These experiments were well modeled and diagnosed until this '' spike'' phase, but not into this spike phase. Experiments were designed, modeled, and performed on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton , Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] to study the late-time spike phase. To simulate the conditions and evolution of late time RT, a copper target was fabricated consisting of a series of thin ridges (spikes in cross section) 150 {mu}m apart on a thin flat copper backing. The target was placed on the side of a scale-1.2 hohlraum with the ridges pointing into the hohlraum, which was heated to 190 eV. Side-on radiography imaged the evolution of the ridges and flat copper backing into the typical RT bubble and spike structure including the '' mushroom-like feet'' on the tips of the spikes. RAGE computer models [R. M. Baltrusaitis, M. L. Gittings, R. P. Weaver, R. F. Benjamin, and J. M. Budzinski, Phys. Fluids 8, 2471 (1996)] show the formation of the '' mushrooms,'' as well as how the backing material converges to lengthen the spike. The computer predictions of evolving spike and bubble lengths match measurements fairly well for the thicker backing targets but not for the thinner backings.
Gravity wave reflection: Case study based on rocket data
Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael
2008-03-01
Since gravity waves significantly influence the atmosphere by transporting energy and momentum, it is important to study their wave spectrum and their energy dissipation rates. Besides that, knowledge about gravity wave sources and the propagation of the generated waves is essential. Originating in the lower atmosphere, gravity waves can move upwards; when the background wind field is equal to their phase speed a so-called critical layer is reached. Their breakdown and deposition of energy and momentum is possible. Another mechanism which can take place at critical layers is gravity wave reflection. In this paper, gravity waves which were observed by foil chaff measurements during the DYANA (DYnamics Adapted Network for the Atmosphere) campaign in 1990 in Biscarrosse (44°N, 1°W)--as reported by Wüst and Bittner [2006. Non-linear wave-wave interaction: case studies based on rocket data and first application to satellite data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68, 959-976]--are investigated to look for gravity wave reflection processes. Following nonlinear theory, energy dissipation rates according to Weinstock [1980. Energy dissipation rates of turbulence in the stable free atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 38, 880-883] are calculated from foil chaff cloud and falling sphere data and compared with the critical layer heights. Enhanced energy dissipation rates are found at those altitudes where the waves' phase speed matches the zonal background wind speeds. Indication of gravity wave trapping is found between two altitudes of around 95 and 86 km.
Silicon-based millimetre-wave technology
Deen, Jamal
2012-01-01
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.Key features: * Contributions from leading authorities * Informs and update
Wang, Menghua
2016-05-30
To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude
Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery
Jeong, C.
2015-05-01
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.
Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves
Zhang, Zhendong
2015-08-19
We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.
Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval
von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2016-01-01
in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some...... of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing...... chain is therefore a wave optics based retrieval chain and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on 5 different frequencies are used. The 5 frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave...
Hollender, F.; Cornou, C; Dechamp, A; Renalier, F.; Thomassin, S; Bard, P.-Y.
2017-01-01
International audience; Data provided by accelerometric networks are important for seismic hazard assessment. They are key to derive Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The correct use of accelerometric signal is also linked to the station site metadata that include reliable information about site class (VS30), velocity profiles, and other relevant information that can help to quantify the site effect associated to stations. In France, the permanent accelerometric network consists of ...
Rayleigh-type Surface Quasimodes in General Linear Elasticity
Hansen, Sönke
2010-01-01
Rayleigh-type surface waves correspond to the characteristic variety, in the elliptic boundary region, of the displacement-to-traction map. In this paper, surface quasimodes are constructed for the reduced elastic wave equation, anisotropic in general, with traction-free boundary. Assuming a global variant of a condition of Barnett and Lothe, the construction is reduced to an eigenvalue problem for a selfadjoint scalar first order pseudo-differential operator on the boundary. The principal and the subprincipal symbol of this operator are computed. The formula for the subprincipal symbol seems to be new even in the isotropic case.
周良明; 郭佩芳; 王强; 杜伊
2004-01-01
Based on the maximum entropy principle, a probability density function (PDF) is derived for the distribution of wave heights in a random wave field, without any more hypothesis. The present PDF, being a non-Rayleigh form, involves two parameters: the average wave height H and the state parameter γ. The role of γ in the distribution of wave heights is examined. It is found that γ may be a certain measure of sea state. A least square method for determining γ from measured data is proposed. In virtue of the method, the values of γ are determined for three sea states from the data measured in the East China Sea. The present PDF is compared with the well known Rayleigh PDF of wave height and it is shown that it much better fits the data than the Rayleigh PDF. It is expected that the present PDF would fit some other wave variables, since its derivation is not restricted only to the wave height.
Sea wave energy based in nanotechnology
Duque, Carlos
2010-09-15
Application on which it turns east document is the recovery of the energy of the sea waves turning it into electricity by means of the combination of nano-piezoelectric and condensing, the system would be seen like a compound floating fabric of million piezoelectric crystals that turn the oscillating movement of the sea into micro-electrical signals that they are added and they left by means cables to the surface where electronics devices classified to the load of condensers, from the electricity is confined and later is invested and synchronize itself with the great national mains.
Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence
Boffetta, G.; Mazzino, A.; Musacchio, S.
2016-09-01
The turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor system in a rotating reference frame is investigated by direct numerical simulations within the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation. On the basis of theoretical arguments, supported by our simulations, we show that the Rossby number decreases in time, and therefore the Coriolis force becomes more important as the system evolves and produces many effects on Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence. We find that rotation reduces the intensity of turbulent velocity fluctuations and therefore the growth rate of the temperature mixing layer. Moreover, in the presence of rotation the conversion of potential energy into turbulent kinetic energy is found to be less effective, and the efficiency of the heat transfer is reduced. Finally, during the evolution of the mixing layer we observe the development of a cyclone-anticyclone asymmetry.
邹应全; 赵睿; 杨绿溪
2011-01-01
针对存在来自相邻蜂窝小区的同信道、不同功率信道干扰的单用户下行链路场景,分析了基站和用户均为单天线时的系统性能.系统模型为两个基站、两个用户,基站与用户均为单天线.在期望信号和干扰信号均为Rayleigh分布时,运用基于概率密度函数性能分析法推导了系统中断概率;基于瞬时信干噪比(SINR)的推导,并对瞬时误符号率(SER)取平均的方法推导了平均误符号率(ASER)的闭合表达式和用户的接收SINR的n阶矩;根据用户接收平均SINR的n阶矩表达式,推导并分析了用户接收平均SINR的衰落量(AF)性能.计算机仿真了在不同干扰功率下多小区系统的中断概率、ASER的性能以及AF性能.仿真结果表明:单小区和多小区系统的中断概率、ASER和AF的解析曲线均与数值仿真结果一致.系统性能随着干扰基站功率的降低而提升,系统性能随发送功率的增加增益明显.%In this paper, we analyzed the performance of the multi-cell downlink system in the presence of unequal power cochannel interference from the other cells. We adopt the system model composed with two cells and two users, which all equipped with one antenna, While the desired and interfering signals all in the presence of Rayleigh fading channel. First, the closed form expression of system outage prohability is derived by using performance analysis method based on probability density function ( PDF) . Second, by deriving the instantaneous signal to noise plus interference ratio( SINR) and averaging the instantaneous symbol error ratio ( SER) , average symbol error ratio ( ASER) and n order moments of user's receiving SINR are evaluated. Last, an exact closed-form expression of the Averaging fading (AF) of averaging SINR is derived by using the expression of SINR. Computer simulated the outage probability,ASER and AF performance of the system with the different power of interference cell, while the system
AN EFFICIENT SIMULATION OF MULTIPLE CORRELATED RAYLEIGH FADING ENVELOPES
Zhou Ke; Cao Shike; Song Rongfang
2008-01-01
In order to better assess the performance of wireless communication systems,it is desirable to produce multiple Rayleigh fading envelopes with specified correlations. In this paper,we analyze theoretically a procedure which generates correlated Gaussian random variables from independent Gaussian random variables and give a physical explanation for the limitation of this procedure. Then,based on some uncorrelated Rayleigh fading envelopes,a simple but efficient procedure for generating an arbitrary number of cross-correlated Rayleigh fading envelopes is proposed. Simulation results and computational complexity analysis are presented,which show that the proposed method has some advantages,such as high accuracy,low computational complexity and easy implementation,over the conventional simulation method.
Kofoed, Jens Peter
2007-01-01
This paper presents an expression describing the vertical distribution of overtopping, the experimental work leading to this, as well as the use of the expression for numerical optimization of the geometrical layout of the multi level overtopping based wave energy converter Seawave Slot-cone Gene......This paper presents an expression describing the vertical distribution of overtopping, the experimental work leading to this, as well as the use of the expression for numerical optimization of the geometrical layout of the multi level overtopping based wave energy converter Seawave Slot...
Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.
lower values, Gumbel distribution appears to estimate the extreme wave height reasonably well and gives a realistic value for the study region. The extreme wave estimated based only on the monsoon wave data deviated significantly from the estimate based...
Circular sensing networks for guided waves based structural health monitoring
Wandowski, T.; Malinowski, P. H.; Ostachowicz, W. M.
2016-01-01
In this paper, results of damage localization performed for four sensing network configurations are compared. Process of damage localization is based on guided waves propagation phenomenon. Guided waves are excited using piezoelectric transducer and received by scanning laser vibrometer. Different excitation frequencies are also investigated. In experimental investigations two types of piezoelectric transducers are used as guided waves exciters. Frequency-magnitude characteristics of symmetric and antisymmetric modes are created for both types of transducers. These characteristics allow a choice of an excitation frequency for efficient generation of selected wave mode. The amplitude of second mode in this case has negligibly small value. Finally, sensing networks in the form of circle with three different diameters are realized based on piezoelectric transducers. Damage localization algorithm is prepared in MATLAB® environment as well as in C++.
Kinetic Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities
Sagert, Irina; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance
2014-01-01
We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is i...
Diffractive optics based four-wave, six-wave, ..., nu-wave nonlinear spectroscopy.
Miller, R J Dwayne; Paarmann, Alexander; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I
2009-09-15
A detailed understanding of chemical processes requires information about both structure and dynamics. By definition, a reaction involves nonstationary states and is a dynamic process. Structure describes the atomic positions at global minima in the nuclear potential energy surface. Dynamics are related to the anharmonicities in this potential that couple different minima and lead to changes in atomic positions (reactions) and correlations. Studies of molecular dynamics can be configured to directly access information on the anharmonic interactions that lead to chemical reactions and are as central to chemistry as structural information. In this regard, nonlinear spectroscopies have distinct advantages over more conventional linear spectroscopies. Because of this potential, nonlinear spectroscopies could eventually attain a comparable level of importance for studying dynamics on the relevant time scales to barrier crossings and reactive processes as NMR has for determining structure. Despite this potential, nonlinear spectroscopy has not attained the same degree of utility as linear spectroscopy largely because nonlinear studies are more technically challenging. For example, unlike the linear spectrometers that exist in almost all chemistry departments, there are no "black box" four-wave mixing spectrometers. This Account describes recent advances in the application of diffractive optics (DOs) to nonlinear spectroscopy, which reduces the complexity level of this technology to be closer to that of linear spectroscopy. The combination of recent advances in femtosecond laser technology and this single optic approach could bring this form of spectroscopy out of the exclusive realm of specialists and into the general user community. However, the real driving force for this research is the pursuit of higher sensitivity limits, which would enable new forms of nonlinear spectroscopy. This Account chronicles the research that has now extended nonlinear spectroscopy to six-wave
Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system
Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kisner, Roger A. (Knoxville, TN)
2012-07-10
A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.
Direct Numerical Simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability with the Spectral Element Method
ZHANG Xu; TAN Duo-Wang
2009-01-01
A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady threedimensional high-order spectral element method code.The numerical model used consists of Navier-Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation.The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory.Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabjJjties are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code,inducling instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers.These results indicate that turbulent structures ofRayleigh-Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions.The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of sir.ulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows.
Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials
Chunmin CHEN
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.
Selection of Design Power of Wave Energy Converters Based on Wave Basin Experiments
Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2011-01-01
of the measured efficiency; description of the energy production by means of a function of the design capacity; application of a simple formula for cost benefit analysis. The analyses here proposed are based on the experimental results of 3D tests on two floating wave energy devices, named LEANCON and DEXA...
Toward analytic theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability: lessons from a toy model
Mailybaev, Alexei A
2016-01-01
In this work we suggest that a turbulent phase of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability can be explained as a universal stochastic wave traveling with constant speed in a properly renormalized system. This wave, originating from ordinary deterministic chaos in a renormalized time, has two constant limiting states at both sides. These states are related to the initial discontinuity at large scales and to stationary turbulence at small scales. The theoretical analysis is confirmed with extensive numerical simulations made for a new shell model, which features all basic properties of the phenomenological theory for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY UNDER PROGRESSIVELY FIRST FAILURE CENSORED RAYLEIGH DATA
Gyan Prakash
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A comparative study presented in this article for two different asymmetric loss functions is based on simulation. Two-parameter Rayleigh model is considered here as the underline model for evaluating the properties of Bayes estimators under progressive first failure censored data. Known and unknown both cases of location parameter are considered here for Bayes estimation of scale parameter.
Resonant mode for gravitational wave detectors based on atom interferometry
Graham, Peter W.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; Rajendran, Surjeet
2016-11-01
We describe an atom interferometric gravitational wave detector design that can operate in a resonant mode for increased sensitivity. By oscillating the positions of the atomic wave packets, this resonant detection mode allows for coherently enhanced, narrow-band sensitivity at target frequencies. The proposed detector is flexible and can be rapidly switched between broadband and narrow-band detection modes. For instance, a binary discovered in broadband mode can subsequently be studied further as the inspiral evolves by using a tailored narrow-band detector response. In addition to functioning like a lock-in amplifier for astrophysical events, the enhanced sensitivity of the resonant approach also opens up the possibility of searching for important cosmological signals, including the stochastic gravitational wave background produced by inflation. We give an example of detector parameters which would allow detection of inflationary gravitational waves down to ΩGW˜10-14 for a two-satellite space-based detector.
Total-variation-based methods for gravitational wave denoising
Torres, Alejandro; Font, José A; Ibáñez, José M
2014-01-01
We describe new methods for denoising and detection of gravitational waves embedded in additive Gaussian noise. The methods are based on Total Variation denoising algorithms. These algorithms, which do not need any a priori information about the signals, have been originally developed and fully tested in the context of image processing. To illustrate the capabilities of our methods we apply them to two different types of numerically-simulated gravitational wave signals, namely bursts produced from the core collapse of rotating stars and waveforms from binary black hole mergers. We explore the parameter space of the methods to find the set of values best suited for denoising gravitational wave signals under different conditions such as waveform type and signal-to-noise ratio. Our results show that noise from gravitational wave signals can be successfully removed with our techniques, irrespective of the signal morphology or astrophysical origin. We also combine our methods with spectrograms and show how those c...
Digital building blocks for controlling random waves based on supersymmetry
Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo
2016-01-01
Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices including waveguides, couplers, and multiplexers have been demonstrated for broadband responses in momentum or frequency domains, collective switching of multimodes remains a challenge, due to the difficulty in imposing consistent dynamics on all eigenmodes. Here we overcome this limitation by realizing digital switching of spatially random waves, based on supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves at the 'off' state. Building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wavefronts and a P\\"oschl-Teller pair for multi-level switching which implements the fuzzy membership function. Our results establishing global phase matching c...
Deimel Christian
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The most common method for simulating cavitating flows is using the governing flow equations in a form with a variable density and treats both phases as incompressible in combination with a transport equation for the vapour volume fraction. This approach is commonly referred to as volume of fluid method (VoF. To determine the transition of the liquid phase to vapour and vice versa, a relation for the mass transfer is needed. Several models exist, based on slightly differing physical assumptions, for example derivation from the dynamics of single bubbles or large bubble clusters. In our simulation, we use the model of Sauer and Schnerr which is based on the Rayleigh equation. One common problem of all mass transfer models is the use of model constants which often need to be tuned with regard to the examined problem. Furthermore, these models often overpredict the turbulent dynamic viscosity in the two-phase region which counteracts the development of transient shedding behaviour and is compensated by the modification proposed by Reboud. In the presented study, we vary the parameters of the Sauer-Schnerr model with Reboud modification that we implemented into an OpenFOAM solver to match numerical to experimental data.
Deimel, Christian; Günther, Markus; Skoda, Romuald
2014-03-01
The most common method for simulating cavitating flows is using the governing flow equations in a form with a variable density and treats both phases as incompressible in combination with a transport equation for the vapour volume fraction. This approach is commonly referred to as volume of fluid method (VoF). To determine the transition of the liquid phase to vapour and vice versa, a relation for the mass transfer is needed. Several models exist, based on slightly differing physical assumptions, for example derivation from the dynamics of single bubbles or large bubble clusters. In our simulation, we use the model of Sauer and Schnerr which is based on the Rayleigh equation. One common problem of all mass transfer models is the use of model constants which often need to be tuned with regard to the examined problem. Furthermore, these models often overpredict the turbulent dynamic viscosity in the two-phase region which counteracts the development of transient shedding behaviour and is compensated by the modification proposed by Reboud. In the presented study, we vary the parameters of the Sauer-Schnerr model with Reboud modification that we implemented into an OpenFOAM solver to match numerical to experimental data.
Jiahua Li(李家华); Wenxing Yang(杨文星); Jucun Peng(彭菊村)
2004-01-01
Using Schrodinger-Maxwell formalism, we propose and analyze a continuous-wave four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme for the generation of coherent light in a six-level atomic system based on electromagnetically dual induced transparency. We derive the corresponding explicit analytical expressions for the generated mixing field. We find that the scheme greatly enhances FWM production efficiency and is also capable of inhibiting and delaying the onset of the detrimental three-photon destructive interference by choosing the proper decay rate in the second electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process.In addition, such an optical process also provides possibilities for producing short-wave-length coherent radiation at low pump intensities.
The propagation dynamics of ultraviolet light filament with Rayleigh scattering in air
Zhang Hua
2005-01-01
In this paper we present for the first time the effects of Rayleigh scattering on the long distance propagation of ultraviolet (UV) light filament in air based on the stationary analysis. The simulation results show that the effects of Rayleigh scattering on the propagation of UV laser filaments may not be ignored. These influences are slightly dependent on the laser wavelength. We also compare the UV filament propagations at different input powers in the presence and the absence of the Rayleigh scattering and discuss the mechanisms of power loss and beam defocusing.In the absence of Rayleigh scattering, the filament propagation is determined by the oscillating behaviour of the beam size. In the presence of the scattering, the propagation lengths of filament are close to each other at different initial powers and determined by the Rayleigh scattering.
Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval
von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2016-01-01
This paper describes the theory for performing retrieval of radio occultations that use probing frequencies in the XK and KM band. Normally radio occultations use frequencies in the L band and GPS satellites are used as the transmitting source and the occultation signals are received by a GPS...... in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some...... chain is therefore a wave optics based retrieval chain and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on 5 different frequencies are used. The 5 frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave...
Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters
Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...
Space-Based Gravitational-wave Mission Concept Studies
Livas, Jeffrey C.
2012-01-01
The LISA Mission Concept has been under study for over two decades as a spacebased gravitational-wave detector capable of observing astrophysical sources in the 0.0001 to 1 Hz band. The concept has consistently received strong recommendations from various review panels based on the expected science, most recently from the US Astr02010 Decadal Review. Budget constraints have led both the US and European Space agencies to search for lower cost options. We report results from the US effort to explore the tradeoffs between mission cost and science return, and in particular a family of mission concepts referred to as SGO (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory).
Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael
1999-03-01
The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.
Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J
2014-08-01
Controversy exists about whether one-dimensional wave theory can explain the "self-canceling" waves that accompany the diastolic pressure decay and discharge of the arterial reservoir. Although it has been proposed that reservoir and wave effects be treated as separate phenomena, thus avoiding the issue of self-canceling waves, we have argued that reservoir effects are a phenomenological and mathematical subset of wave effects. However, a complete wave-based explanation of self-canceling diastolic expansion (pressure-decreasing) waves has not yet been advanced. These waves are present in the forward and backward components of arterial pressure and flow (P ± and Q ±, respectively), which are calculated by integrating incremental pressure and flow changes (dP ± and dQ ±, respectively). While the integration constants for this calculation have previously been considered arbitrary, we showed that physiologically meaningful constants can be obtained by identifying "undisturbed pressure" as mean circulatory pressure. Using a series of numeric experiments, absolute P ± and Q ± values were shown to represent "wave potential," gradients of which produce propagating wavefronts. With the aid of a "one-dimensional windkessel," we showed how wave theory predicts discharge of the arterial reservoir. Simulated data, along with hemodynamic recordings in seven sheep, suggested that self-canceling diastolic waves arise from repeated and diffuse reflection of the late systolic forward expansion wave throughout the arterial system and at the closed aortic valve, along with progressive leakage of wave potential from the conduit arteries. The combination of wave and wave potential concepts leads to a comprehensive one-dimensional (i.e., wave-based) explanation of arterial hemodynamics, including the diastolic pressure decay.
Amplifier based broadband pixel for sub-millimeter wave imaging
Sarkozy, Stephen; Drewes, Jonathan; Leong, Kevin M. K. H.; Lai, Richard; Mei, X. B. (Gerry); Yoshida, Wayne; Lange, Michael D.; Lee, Jane; Deal, William R.
2012-09-01
Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter wave systems, sub-millimeter wave systems have been hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report a broadband pixel operating from 300 to 340 GHz, biased off a single 2 V power supply. Over this frequency range, the amplifiers provide > 40 dB gain and mobility transistor technology, based on a sub-50 nm gate and indium arsenide composite channel with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax>1.0 THz. The first sub-millimeter wave-based images using active amplification are demonstrated as part of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Longe Range Personnel Imager Program. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brownout problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.
V Ganesh; M Subbiah
2013-05-01
We generalize Tollmien’s solutions of the Rayleigh problem of hydrodynamic stability to the case of arbitrary channel cross sections, known as the extended Rayleigh problem. We prove the existence of a neutrally stable eigensolution with wave number $k_s>0$; it is also shown that instability is possible only for $0 < k < k_s$ and not for $k>k_s$. Then we generalize the Tollmien–Lin perturbation formula for the behavior of $c_i$, the imaginary part of the phase velocity as the wave number $k→ k_s$ − to the extended Rayleigh problem and subsequently, we use this formula to demonstrate the instability of a particular shear flow.
Sensors Based on Spectroscopy of Guided Waves
Homola, Jiří
The last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in the develpment of affinity biosensors and their applications in areas such as environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security. An affinity biosensor consists of a transducer and a biological recognition element which is able to interact with a selected analyte. Various optical methods have been exploited in biosensors including fluorescence spectroscopy, interferometry (reflectometric white light interferometry, modal interferometry in optical waveguide structures), and spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides. Optical biosensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides - grating coupler, resonant mirror, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) - rely on the measurement of binding-induced refractive index changes and thus are label-free technologies. This paper reviews fundamentals of optical sensors based on spectroscopy of guided modes of optical waveguides and their applications.
Multiphase Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Oresta, P.; Fornarelli, F.; Prosperetti, Andrea
2014-01-01
Numerical simulations of two-phase Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a cylindrical cell with particles or vapor bubbles suspended in the fluid are described. The particles or bubbles are modeled as points, the Rayleigh number is 2×106 and the fluids considered are air, for the particle case, and
Toward a Space based Gravitational Wave Observatory
Stebbins, Robin T.
2015-01-01
A space-based GW observatory will produce spectacular science. The LISA mission concept: (a) Long history, (b) Very well-studied, including de-scopes, (c) NASAs Astrophysics Strategic Plan calls for a minority role in ESAs L3 mission opportunity. To that end, NASA is Participating in LPF and ST7 Developing appropriate technology for a LISA-like mission Preparing to seek an endorsement for L3 participation from the 2020 decadal review.
Shear wave speeds at the base of the mantle
Castle, John C.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Creager, K.C.; Winchester, John P.
2006-01-01
We inverted 4864 ScS-S and 1671 S(diff)-SKS residual travel times for shear wave speed anomalies at the base of the Earth's mantle. We applied ellipticity corrections, accounted for mantle structure outside of the basal layer using mantle tomography models, and employed finite size sensitivity kerne
Shear wave speeds at the base of the mantle
Castle, John C.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Creager, K.C.; Winchester, John P.
2000-01-01
We inverted 4864 ScS-S and 1671 S(diff)-SKS residual travel times for shear wave speed anomalies at the base of the Earth's mantle. We applied ellipticity corrections, accounted for mantle structure outside of the basal layer using mantle tomography models, and employed finite size sensitivity
Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology
Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur
2011-01-01
At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...... performance and production of the device at the target locations, as well as on the applicability of the methodology, are provided....
Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves
Giovanni Dietler
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Photonic crystal biosensor based on optical surface waves.
Konopsky, Valery N; Karakouz, Tanya; Alieva, Elena V; Vicario, Chiara; Sekatskii, Sergey K; Dietler, Giovanni
2013-02-19
A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.
Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
2011-01-01
Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature. Thi....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation.......Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature...
Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors
Fangqian Xu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor.
Lamb waves dispersion curves for diamond based piezoelectric layered structure
Sorokin, B. P.; Kvashnin, G. M.; Telichko, A. V.; Novoselov, A. S.; Burkov, S. I.
2016-03-01
The presence of spurious peaks in the amplitude-frequency response of diamond based piezoelectric layered structure was shown. Excitation of such peaks results in deterioration of an useful acoustical signal. It was shown that such spurious peaks should be associated with Lamb waves in a layered structure. By means of FEM analysis, the propagation of acoustic waves of different types in the piezoelectric layered structure "Al/AlN/Mo/(100) diamond" has been investigated in detail. By analyzing the elastic displacement patterns at frequencies from 0 up to 250 MHz, a set of all the possible acoustic waves, especially Lamb modes, have been studied, and dispersive curves of phase velocity have been plotted. A revised classification of Lamb modes has been introduced.
Complex-wave retrieval based on blind signal separation
Xiaodong Chai; Chengpeng Zhou; Zhaoyan Feng; Yinhua Wang; Yansheng Zuo
2006-01-01
In the process of the reconstruction of digital holography, the traditional methods of diffraction and filtration are commonly adopted to recover the original complex-wave signal. Influenced by twin-image and zero-order terms, the above-mentioned methods, however, either limit the field of vision or result in the loss of the amplitude and phase. A new method for complex-wave retrieval is presented, which is based on blind signal separation. Three frames of holograms are captured by a charge coupled device (CCD)camera to form an observation signal. The term containing only amplitude and phase of complex-wave is separated, by means of independent component analysis, from the observation signal, which effectively eliminates the zero-order term. Finally, the complex-wave retrieval of pure phase wavefront is achieved.Experimental results show that this method can better recover the amplitude and phase of the original complex-wave even when there is a frequency spectrum mixture in the hologram.
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
无
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass.We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass.The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation.It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected,which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux.Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory.For larger thermal perturbation,however,the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model,i.e.the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition,is eliminated by the general heat conduction law,which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
HU RuiFeng; CAO BingYang
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass. We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass. The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation. It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected, which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux. Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory. For larger thermal perturbation, however, the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model, i.e. the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition, is eliminated by the general heat conduction law, which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ablation fronts
Piriz A.R.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an ablation front is studied by considering the simplest possible modulations in the acceleration. Explicit analytical expressions for the instability growth rate and for the boundaries of the stability region are obtained by considering a sequence of Dirac deltas. Besides, general square waves allow for studying the effect of the driving asymmetries on the stability region as well as the optimization process. The essential role of compressibility is phenomenologically addressed in order to find the constraints it imposes on the stability region.
Angular plasmon response of gold nanoparticles arrays: approaching the Rayleigh limit
Marae-Djouda, Joseph; Caputo, Roberto; Mahi, Nabil; Lévêque, Gaëtan; Akjouj, Abdellatif; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas
2017-01-01
The regular arrangement of metal nanoparticles influences their plasmonic behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that the coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes can give rise to extremely narrow plasmon resonances. This is the case when the single-particle localized surface plasmon resonance (λLSP) is very close in value to the Rayleigh anomaly wavelength (λRA) of the nanoparticles array. In this paper, we performed angle-resolved extinction measurements on a 2D array of gold nano-cylinders designed to fulfil the condition λRA<λLSP. Varying the angle of excitation offers a unique possibility to finely modify the value of λRA, thus gradually approaching the condition of coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes. The experimental observation of a collective dipolar resonance has been interpreted by exploiting a simplified model based on the coupling of evanescent diffracted waves with plasmon modes. Among other plasmon modes, the measurement technique has also evidenced and allowed the study of a vertical plasmon mode, only visible in TM polarization at off-normal excitation incidence. The results of numerical simulations, based on the periodic Green's tensor formalism, match well with the experimental transmission spectra and show fine details that could go unnoticed by considering only experimental data.
Angular plasmon response of gold nanoparticles arrays: approaching the Rayleigh limit
Marae-Djouda Joseph
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The regular arrangement of metal nanoparticles influences their plasmonic behavior. It has been previously demonstrated that the coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes can give rise to extremely narrow plasmon resonances. This is the case when the single-particle localized surface plasmon resonance (λLSP is very close in value to the Rayleigh anomaly wavelength (λRA of the nanoparticles array. In this paper, we performed angle-resolved extinction measurements on a 2D array of gold nano-cylinders designed to fulfil the condition λRA<λLSP. Varying the angle of excitation offers a unique possibility to finely modify the value of λRA, thus gradually approaching the condition of coupling between diffracted waves and plasmon modes. The experimental observation of a collective dipolar resonance has been interpreted by exploiting a simplified model based on the coupling of evanescent diffracted waves with plasmon modes. Among other plasmon modes, the measurement technique has also evidenced and allowed the study of a vertical plasmon mode, only visible in TM polarization at off-normal excitation incidence. The results of numerical simulations, based on the periodic Green’s tensor formalism, match well with the experimental transmission spectra and show fine details that could go unnoticed by considering only experimental data.
Elastic reverse-time migration based on amplitude-preserving P- and S-wave separation
Yang, Jia-Jia; Luan, Xi-Wu; Fang, Gang; Liu, Xin-Xin; Pan, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Jie
2016-09-01
Imaging the PP- and PS-wave for the elastic vector wave reverse-time migration requires separating the P- and S-waves during the wave field extrapolation. The amplitude and phase of the P- and S-waves are distorted when divergence and curl operators are used to separate the P- and S-waves. We present a P- and S-wave amplitude-preserving separation algorithm for the elastic wavefield extrapolation. First, we add the P-wave pressure and P-wave vibration velocity equation to the conventional elastic wave equation to decompose the P- and S-wave vectors. Then, we synthesize the scalar P- and S-wave from the vector Pand S-wave to obtain the scalar P- and S-wave. The amplitude-preserved separated P- and S-waves are imaged based on the vector wave reverse-time migration (RTM). This method ensures that the amplitude and phase of the separated P- and S-wave remain unchanged compared with the divergence and curl operators. In addition, after decomposition, the P-wave pressure and vibration velocity can be used to suppress the interlayer reflection noise and to correct the S-wave polarity. This improves the image quality of P- and S-wave in multicomponent seismic data and the true-amplitude elastic reverse time migration used in prestack inversion.
Surface waves in ﬁbre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media
P R Sengupta; Sisir Nath
2001-08-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate surface waves in anisotropic ﬁbre-reinforced solid elastic media. First, the theory of general surface waves has been derived and applied to study the particular cases of surface waves – Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley types. The wave velocity equations are found to be in agreement with the corresponding classical result when the anisotropic elastic parameters tends to zero. It is important to note that the Rayleigh type of wave velocity in the ﬁbre-reinforced elastic medium increases to a considerable amount in comparison with the Rayleigh wave velocity in isotropic materials.
Laser Generation of Surface Waves on Cylinder with a Slow Coating
ZHANG Shi-Gong; HU Wen-Xiang
2008-01-01
@@ An analytical model of acoustic field excited by a pulsed-laser line source on a coated cylinder is presented.Surface wave dispersive behaviours for a cylinder with a slow coating are analysed and compared with that of a bare cylinder.Based on this analysis, the laser-generated transient response of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and the higher modes of steel cylinder with a zinc coating are calculated from the model using residue theory and FFT technique.The theoretical result from the superposed waveform of the perturbed Rayleigh wave and higher modes agree well with the waveform obtained in experiment.The results show that the model and numerical method provide a useful technique for quantitatively characterizing coating parameters of coated cylinder by the laser generated surface waves.
Chiu, Chi-Shun; Gwo, Shangjr
2008-05-01
The immobilization scheme of monodispersed gold nanoparticles (10-nm diameter) on piezoelectric substrate surfaces using organosilane molecules as cross-linkers has been developed for lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and silicon oxide (SiO2)/gold-covered lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) of Rayleigh and guided shear horizontal- (guided SH) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this study, comparative measurements of gold nanoparticle adsorption kinetics using high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy and SAW sensors allow the frequency responses of SAW sensors to be quantitatively correlated with surface densities of adsorbed nanoparticles. Using this approach, gold nanoparticles are used as the "nanosized mass standards" to scale the mass loading in a wide dynamical range. Rayleigh-SAW and guided SH-SAW sensors are employed here to monitor the surface mass changes on the device surfaces in gas and liquid phases, respectively. The mass sensitivity ( approximately 20 Hz.cm2/ng) of Rayleigh-SAW device (fundamental oscillation frequency of 113.3 MHz in air) is more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional 9-MHz quartz crystal microbalance sensors. Furthermore, in situ (aqueous solutions), real-time measurements of adsorption kinetics for both citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles and DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates are also demonstrated by guided SH-SAW (fundamental oscillation frequency of 121.3 MHz). By comparing frequency shifts between the adsorption cases of gold nanoparticles and DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates, the average number of bound oligonucleotides per gold nanoparticle can also be determined. The high mass sensitivity ( approximately 6 Hz.cm2/ng) of guided SH-SAW sensors and successful detection of DNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates paves the way for real-time biosensing in liquids using nanoparticle-enhanced SAW devices.
Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor
Yuanyuan Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.
Fault location method for transmission line based on traveling waves
ZHENG Na; ZHAO Yulin
2007-01-01
The single phase grounding fault location is the focus which researchers pay attention to and study in power system. The accurate fault location can lighten the patrolling burden, and enhance the reliability of the power network. It adopts A/D which has high speed, and uses TMS320VC5402 DSP chip as the system core. This paper presented theory of operation based on traveling waves and achieved software and hardware in detail.
Spectra and probability distributions of thermal flux in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection
Pharasi, Hirdesh K; Kumar, Krishna; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K
2016-01-01
The spectra of turbulent heat flux $\\mathrm{H}(k)$ in Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection with and without uniform rotation are presented. The spectrum $\\mathrm{H}(k)$ scales with wave number $k$ as $\\sim k^{-2}$. The scaling exponent is almost independent of the Taylor number $\\mathrm{Ta}$ and Prandtl number $\\mathrm{Pr}$ for higher values of the reduced Rayleigh number $r$ ($ > 10^3$). The exponent, however, depends on $\\mathrm{Ta}$ and $\\mathrm{Pr}$ for smaller values of $r$ ($<10^3$). The probability distribution functions of the local heat fluxes are non-Gaussian and have exponential tails.
Fast Waves at the Base of the Cochlea.
Alberto Recio-Spinoso
Full Text Available Georg von Békésy observed that the onset times of responses to brief-duration stimuli vary as a function of distance from the stapes, with basal regions starting to move earlier than apical ones. He noticed that the speed of signal propagation along the cochlea is slow when compared with the speed of sound in water. Fast traveling waves have been recorded in the cochlea, but their existence is interpreted as the result of an experiment artifact. Accounts of the timing of vibration onsets at the base of the cochlea generally agree with Békésy's results. Some authors, however, have argued that the measured delays are too short for consistency with Békésy's theory. To investigate the speed of the traveling wave at the base of the cochlea, we analyzed basilar membrane (BM responses to clicks recorded at several locations in the base of the chinchilla cochlea. The initial component of the BM response matches remarkably well the initial component of the stapes response, after a 4-μs delay of the latter. A similar conclusion is reached by analyzing onset times of time-domain gain functions, which correspond to BM click responses normalized by middle-ear input. Our results suggest that BM responses to clicks arise from a combination of fast and slow traveling waves.
New Developments in Structural Health Monitoring Based on Diagnostic Lamb Wave
Shenfang YUAN; Yingdi XU; Ge PENG
2004-01-01
Structure health monitoring based on diagnostic Lamb waves has been found to be one of the most promising techniques recently. This paper has a brief review of the new developments on this method including the basic novel of the method, fundamentals and mathematics of Lamb wave propagation, narrowband and wideband Lamb wave excitation methods, optimization of excitation factors and diagnostic Lamb wave interpretation methods.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of viscous fluids with phase change
Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyung Doo
2016-04-01
Film boiling on a horizontal surface is a typical example of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. During the film boiling, phase changes take place at the interface, and thus heat and mass transfer must be taken into consideration in the stability analysis. Moreover, since the vapor layer is not quite thick, a viscous flow must be analyzed. Existing studies assumed equal kinematic viscosities of two fluids, and/or considered thin viscous fluids. The purpose of this study is to derive the analytical dispersion relation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for more general conditions. The two fluids have different properties. The thickness of the vapor layer is finite, but the liquid layer is thick enough to be nearly semi-infinite in view of perturbation. Initially, the vapor is in equilibrium with the liquid at the interface, and the direction of heat transfer is from the vapor side to the liquid side. In this case, the phase change has a stabilizing effect on the growth rate of the interface. When the vapor layer is thin, there is a coupled effect of the vapor viscosity, phase change, and vapor thickness on the critical wave number. For the other limit of a thick vapor, both the liquid and vapor viscosities influence the critical wave number. Finally, the most unstable wavelength is investigated. When the vapor layer is thin, the most unstable wavelength is not affected by phase change. When the vapor layer is thick, however, it increases with the increasing rate of phase change.
A disorder-based strategy for tunable, broadband wave attenuation
Zhang, Weiting; Celli, Paolo; Cardella, Davide; Gonella, Stefano
2017-04-01
One of the most daunting limitations of phononic crystals and acoustic/elastic metamaterials is their passivity: a given configuration is bound to display its phononic properties only around its design point, i.e., working at some pre-determined operating conditions. In the past decade, this shortcoming has inspired the design of phononic media with tunable wave characteristics; noteworthy results have been obtained through a family of methodologies involving shunted piezoelectric elements. Shunting a piezoelectric element means connecting it to a passive electric circuit; tunability stems from the ability to modify the effective mechanical properties of the piezoelectric medium by modifying the circuit characteristics. One of the most popular shunting circuits is the resistor-inductor, which allows the patch-and-shunt system to behave as an electromechanical resonator. A common motif among the works employing shunted piezos for phononic control is periodicity: the patches are typically periodically placed in the domain and the circuits are identically tuned. The objective of this work is to demonstrate that the wave attenuation performance of structures with shunted piezoelectric patches can be improved by leveraging notions of organized disorder. Based on the idea of rainbow trapping broadband wave attenuation obtained by tuning an array of resonators at distinct neighboring frequencies we design and test an electromechanical waveguide structure capable of attenuating waves over broad frequency ranges. In order to emphasize the fact that periodicity is not a binding requirement when working with RL shunts (which induce locally resonant bandgaps), we report on the performance of random arrangements of patches. In an attempt to demonstrate the tunability attribute of our strategy, we take advantage of the reconfigurability of the circuits to show how a single waveguide can attenuate both waves and vibrations over different frequency ranges.
High Prandtl number effect on Rayleigh-Bénard convection heat transfer at high Rayleigh number
Ma, Li; Li, Jing; Ji, Shui; Chang, Huajian
2017-02-01
This paper represents results of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection heat transfer in silicon oil confined by two horizontal plates, heated from below, and cooled from above. The Prandtl numbers considered as 100-10,000 corresponding to three types of silicon oil. The experiments covered a range of Rayleigh numbers from 2.14·109 to 2.27·1013. The data points that the Nusselt number dependents on the Rayleigh number, which is asymptotic to a 0.248 power. Furthermore, the experiment results can fit the data in low Rayleigh number well.
Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Sharp, D.H.
1983-01-01
The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.
Focused Wave Properties Based on A High Order Spectral Method with A Non-Periodic Boundary
李金宣; 柳淑学
2015-01-01
In this paper, a numerical model is developed based on the High Order Spectral (HOS) method with a non-periodic boundary. A wave maker boundary condition is introduced to simulate wave generation at the incident boundary in the HOS method. Based on the numerical model, the effects of wave parameters, such as the assumed focused amplitude, the central frequency, the frequency bandwidth, the wave amplitude distribution and the directional spreading on the surface elevation of the focused wave, the maximum generated wave crest, and the shifting of the focusing point, are numerically investigated. Especially, the effects of the wave directionality on the focused wave properties are emphasized. The numerical results show that the shifting of the focusing point and the maximum crest of the wave group are dependent on the amplitude of the focused wave, the central frequency, and the wave amplitude distribution type. The wave directionality has a definite effect on multidirectional focused waves. Generally, it can even out the difference between the simulated wave amplitude and the amplitude expected from theory and reduce the shifting of the focusing points, implying that the higher order interaction has an influence on wave focusing, especially for 2D wave. In 3D wave groups, a broader directional spreading weakens the higher nonlinear interactions.
Comparing Ray-Based and Wave-Based Models of Cross-Beam Energy Transfer
Follett, R. K.; Edgell, D. H.; Shaw, J. G.; Froula, D. H.; Myatt, J. F.
2016-10-01
Ray-based models of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) are used in radiation-hydrodynamics codes to calculate laser-energy deposition. The accuracy of ray-based CBET models is limited by assumptions about the polarization and phase of the interacting laser beams and by the use of a paraxial Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. A 3-D wave-based solver (LPSE-CBET) is used to study the nonlinear interaction between overlapping laser beams in underdense plasma. A ray-based CBET model is compared to the wave-based model and shows good agreement in simple geometries where the assumptions of the ray-based model are satisfied. Near caustic surfaces, the assumptions of the ray-based model break down and the calculated energy transfer deviates from wave-based calculations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Guided Wave Tomography Based on Full-Waveform Inversion.
Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng
2016-02-29
In this paper, a guided wave tomography method based on Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) is developed for accurate and high resolu- tion reconstruction of the remaining wall thickness in isotropic plates. The forward model is computed in the frequency domain by solving a full-wave equation in a two-dimensional acoustic model, accounting for higher order eects such as diractions and multiple scattering. Both numerical simulations and experiments were carried out to obtain the signals of a dispersive guided mode propagating through defects. The inversion was based on local optimization of a waveform mist func- tion between modeled and measured data, and was applied iteratively to discrete frequency components from low to high frequencies. The resulting wave velocity maps were then converted to thickness maps by the dispersion characteristics of selected guided modes. The results suggest that the FWI method is capable to reconstruct the thickness map of a irregularly shaped defect accurately on a 10 mm thick plate with the thickness error within 0.5 mm.
Content-based image hashing using wave atoms
Liu Fang; Leung Hon-Yin; Cheng Lee-Ming; Ji Xiao-Yong
2012-01-01
It is well known that robustness,fragility,and security are three important criteria of image hashing; however how to build a system that can strongly meet these three criteria is still a challenge.In this paper,a content-based image hashing scheme using wave atoms is proposed,which satisfies the above criteria.Compared with traditional transforms like wavelet transform and discrete cosine transform (DCT),wave atom transform is adopted for the sparser expansion and better characteristics of texture feature extraction which shows better performance in both robustness and fragility.In addition,multi-frequency detection is presented to provide an application-defined trade-off.To ensure the security of the proposed approach and its resistance to a chosen-plaintext attack,a randomized pixel modulation based on the Rényi chaotic map is employed,combining with the nonliner wave atom transform.The experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme is robust against content-preserving manipulations and has a good discriminative capability to malicious tampering.
Synthesis of Vibration Waves Based on Wavelet Technology
L.H. Zou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method to generate time series of vibration waves is proposed in the paper. Considering the frequency band energy as the criterion, synthesis formulas for fluctuating wind pressure and earthquake ground motion are developed in terms of Daubechies wavelet and Harr wavelet respectively. The wavelet reconstruction method is applicable to both stationary and non-stationary process simulation. Theoretically, for non-stationary (such as seismic process synthesis, it has a better non-stationarity in time-frequency domain than the traditional trigonometric series. Influence of wavelet delamination number and wavelet function type is also analyzed. Numerical results show that the synthesis of vibration waves based on wavelet reconstruction method contains main components of vibration, and can reflect the main properties of practical vibrations.
Material measurement method based on femtosecond laser plasma shock wave
Zhong, Dong; Li, Zhongming
2017-03-01
The acoustic emission signal of laser plasma shock wave, which comes into being when femtosecond laser ablates pure Cu, Fe, and Al target material, has been detected by using the fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) acoustic emission sensing probe. The spectrum characters of the acoustic emission signals for three kinds of materials have been analyzed and studied by using Fourier transform. The results show that the frequencies of the acoustic emission signals detected from the three kinds of materials are different. Meanwhile, the frequencies are almost identical for the same materials under different ablation energies and detection ranges. Certainly, the amplitudes of the spectral character of the three materials show a fixed pattern. The experimental results and methods suggest a potential application of the plasma shock wave on-line measurement based on the femtosecond laser ablating target by using the fiber F-P acoustic emission sensor probe.
The scientific potential of space-based gravitational wave detectors
Gair, Jonathan R
2014-01-01
The millihertz gravitational wave band can only be accessed with a space-based interferometer, but it is one of the richest in potential sources. Observations in this band have amazing scientific potential. The mergers between massive black holes with mass in the range 10 thousand to 10 million solar masses, which are expected to occur following the mergers of their host galaxies, produce strong millihertz gravitational radiation. Observations of these systems will trace the hierarchical assembly of structure in the Universe in a mass range that is very difficult to probe electromagnetically. Stellar mass compact objects falling into such black holes in the centres of galaxies generate detectable gravitational radiation for several years prior to the final plunge and merger with the central black hole. Measurements of these systems offer an unprecedented opportunity to probe the predictions of general relativity in the strong-field and dynamical regime. Millihertz gravitational waves are also generated by mil...
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Takahiro
2011-01-01
Proposed space-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors such as DECIGO and BBO will detect ~10^6 neutron-star (NS) binaries and determine the luminosity distances to the binaries with high precision. Combining the luminosity distances with cosmologically-induced phase corrections on the GWs, cosmological expansion out to high redshift can be measured without the redshift determinations of host galaxies by electromagnetic observation and be a unique probe for dark energy. On the other hand, such a NS-binary foreground should be subtracted to detect primordial GWs produced during inflation. Thus, the constraining power on dark energy and the detectability of the primordial gravitational waves strongly depend on the detector sensitivity and are in close relation with one another. In this paper, we investigate the constraints on the equation of state of dark energy with future space-based GW detectors with/without identifying the redshifts of host galaxies. We also study the sensitivity to the primordial GWs, prop...
Performance of Numerical Boundary Condition based on Active Wave Absorption System
Trouch, P.; Rouck, J. de; Frigaard, Peter
2001-01-01
that was first developed in the context of physical wave flume experiments, using a wave paddle. The method applies to regular and irregular waves. Velocities are measured at one location inside the computational domain. The reflected wave train is separated from the incident wave field in front of a structure......The implementation and performance of a new active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition for a numerical model based on the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for tracking free surfaces is presented. This numerical boundary condition AWAVOF is based on an active wave absorption system...... by means of digital filtering and subsequent superposition of the measured velocity signals. The incident wave signal is corrected, so that the reflected wave is effectively absorbed at the boundary. The effectiveness of the active wave generating‐absorbing boundary condition is proved using numerical...
Sparsity based defect imaging in pipes using guided waves
Golato, Andrew; Santhanam, Sridhar; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.
2016-05-01
Pipes are used for the transport of fluids and gases in urban and industrial settings, such as buried pipelines to transport water, oil, and other resources. To ensure reliable operation, it is essential that an inspection system be in place to identify and localize damage/defects in the pipes. Unfortunately, many of the typical nondestructive evaluation techniques are inadequate due to limited pipe access; often, only the beginning and end sections of the pipe are physically accessible. As such, this problem is well suited to the use of ultrasonic guided-wave based structural health monitoring. With a limited number of transducers, ultrasonic guided waves can be used to interrogate long lengths of pipes. In this paper, we propose a damage detection and localization scheme that relies upon the inherent sparsity of defects in the pipes. A sparse array of transducers, deployed in accessible areas of the pipes, is utilized in pitch-catch mode to record signals scattered by defects in the pipe. Both the direct path scattering off the defect, and the helical modes, which are paths that spiral around the circumference of the pipe before or after interaction with the defect, are recorded. A Lamb wave based signal model is formulated that accounts for this multipath approach. The signal model is then inverted via group sparse reconstruction, in order to produce an image of the scene. The model accounts for the specificities of Lamb wave propagation through the pipe. Performance validation of the proposed approach is provided using simulated data for an aluminum pipe.
Design of Absorbing Wave Maker based on Digital Filters
Christensen, Morten; Frigaard, Peter
An absorbing wave maker operated by means of on-line signals from digital FIR filters is presented. Surface elevations are measured in two positions in front of the wave maker. The reflected wave train is seperated by the sum of the incident and reflected wave trains by means of digital filtering...... and subsequent superposition of the measured surface elevations. The motion of the wave paddle required to absorb reflected waves is determined and added to the original wave paddle control signal. Irregular wave tests involving test structures with different degrees of reflection show that excellent absorption...
Output Enhancement of a THz Wave Based on a Surface-Emitted THz-Wave Parametric Oscillator
LI Zhong-Yang; YAO Jian-Quan; XU De-Gang; BING Pi-Bin; ZHONG Kai
2011-01-01
High-power nanosecond pulsed THz-wave radiation is achieved via a surface-emitted THz-wave parametric oscillator.One MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with large volume is used as the gain medium.THz-wave radiation from 1.084 THz to 2.654 THz is obtained.The maximum THz-wave average power is 5.8 μ W at 1.93 THz when the pump energy is 84 m J,corresponding to a energy conversion efficiency of 6.9 × 10-6.The polarization characteristics of THz wave are analyzed.During the experiments the radiations of the first-order and the second-order Stokes wave are observed.The THz wave has great scientific research value and wide applications in imaging,material detection,environmental monitoring,communication,astronomy,life sciences,national defense security and so on.[1-4] THz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs)based on stimulated polariton scattering have many advantages,such as high efficient,coherent,tuning,narrow linewidth,compactness and room-temperature operation.[5-7] In recent years,TPOs have been developed rapidly.Stothard et al.[8] reported on a line-narrowed and widely tunable intracavity TPO,in which the linewidth of the THz wave is about 1 GHz,the tunning range is from 1 to 3 THz,and the peak power of the THz wave is about 3W.Wu et al.[9]reported on a TPO with recycled pump beam,and their experiment results show that the THz-wave out-put power increases almost four times in magnitude.%High-power nanosecond pulsed THz-wave radiation is achieved via a surface-emitted THz-wave parametric oscillator. One MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with large volume is used as the gain medium. THz-wave radiation from 1.084THz to 2.654THz is obtained. The maximum THz-wave average power is 5.8μW at 1.93THz when the pump energy is 84mJ, corresponding to a energy conversion efficiency of 6.9×10-6. The polarization characteristics of THz wave are analyzed. During the experiments the radiations of the first-order and the second-order Stokes wave are observed.
Generalized Rayleigh quotient and finite element two-grid discretization schemes
2009-01-01
This study discusses generalized Rayleigh quotient and high efficiency finite element discretization schemes. Some results are as follows: 1) Rayleigh quotient accelerate technique is extended to nonselfadjoint problems. Generalized Rayleigh quotients of operator form and weak form are defined and the basic relationship between approximate eigenfunction and its generalized Rayleigh quotient is established. 2) New error estimates are obtained by replacing the ascent of exact eigenvalue with the ascent of finite element approximate eigenvalue. 3) Based on the work of Xu Jinchao and Zhou Aihui, finite element two-grid discretization schemes are established to solve nonselfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems and these schemes are used in both conforming finite element and non-conforming finite element. Besides, the efficiency of the schemes is proved by both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments. 4) Iterated Galerkin method, interpolated correction method and gradient recovery for selfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems are extended to nonselfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems.
Generalized Rayleigh quotient and finite element two-grid discretization schemes
YANG YiDu; FAN XinYue
2009-01-01
This study discusses generalized Rayleigh quotient and high efficiency finite element dis-cretization schemes. Some results are as follows: 1) Rayleigh quotient accelerate technique is extended to nonselfadjoint problems. Generalized Rayleigh quotients of operator form and weak form are defined and the basic relationship between approximate eigenfunction and its generalized Rayleigh quotient is established. 2) New error estimates are obtained by replacing the ascent of exact eigenvalue with the ascent of finite element approximate eigenvalue. 3) Based on the work of Xu Jinchao and Zhou Aihui, finite element two-grid discretization schemes are established to solve nonselfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems and these schemes are used in both conforming finite element and non-conforming finite element. Besides, the efficiency of the schemes is proved by both theoretical analysis and numerical experiments. 4) Iterated Galerkin method, interpolated correction method and gradient recovery for selfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems are extended to nonselfadjoint elliptic differential operator eigenvalue problems.
PZT Network and Phased Array Lamb Wave Based SHM Systems
Silva, C [Academia da Forca Aerea, Granja do Marques, 2715-021 Pero Pinheiro (Portugal); Rocha, B; Suleman, A, E-mail: cbsilva@emfa.pt [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 3055, Stn.CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)
2011-07-19
With the application of newer materials, such as composite materials, and growing complexity and capacity of current aircraft structures, reliably and completely assess the condition of the total structures in real time is then of growing and utmost importance. PZT Network and Phased Array, Lamb wave based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems were developed to be applied to thin panels. The selection of transducers, their size and selected locations for their installation are described. The development and selection of the signal generation and data acquisition systems is also presented in detail. The requirements conducing to the development and selection of these systems are laid and particularly the selection of the actuation signal applied is justified. The development of a damage detection algorithm based in the comparison of the current structural state to a reference state is described, to detect damage reflected Lamb waves. Such method was implemented in software and integrated in the SHM system developed. Subsequently the detection algorithm, based in discrete signals correlation, was further improved by incorporating statistical methods. For phased arrays, a novel damage location algorithm is presented based on the individual sensors response. A visualization method based concurrently in the statistical methods developed and superposition of the different results obtained from a test set was implemented. These tests conducted to the successful and repeatable detection of 1mm damages in a multiple damaged plate with great confidence. Finally, a brief comparison and a hybrid system implementation is presented.
Polarized Rayleigh back-scattering from individual semiconductor nanowires
Zhang Duming; Wu Jian; Lu Qiujie; Gutierrez, Humberto R; Eklund, Peter C, E-mail: hur3@psu.edu [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2010-08-06
A complete understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is required in order to further develop a new generation of opto-electronic and photonic devices based on these nanosystems. The reduced dimensionality and high aspect ratio of nanofilaments can induce strong polarization dependence of the light absorption, emission and scattering, leading in some cases to the observation of optical antenna effects. In this work we present the first systematic study of polarized Rayleigh back-scattering from individual crystalline semiconductor NWs with known crystalline structure, orientation and diameters. To explain our experimental Rayleigh polar patterns, we propose a simple theory that relies on a secondary calculation of the volume-averaged internal electromagnetic fields inside the NW. These results revealed that the internal and emitted field can be enhanced depending on the polarization with respect to the NW axis; we also show that this effect strongly depends on the NW diameter.
Asymptotic Solution to the Rayleigh Problem of Dynamic Soaring
Bousquet, Gabriel D; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E
2015-01-01
It is believed that albatrosses power their flight through dynamic soaring, a technique where energy is extracted from horizontally blowing shear winds. The Rayleigh model of dynamic soaring, also called the two layer model, makes a 2-dimensional approximation of the wind field and glider trajectory. This note considers the "Rayleigh problem" of finding the minimum wind necessary for the existence of energy neutral gliding cycles. We utilize a 3-degree of freedom glider model with quadratic drag. Asymptotic solutions in the limit of large glide ratios are obtained. The optimal motion is a traveling trajectory constituted of a succession of small partial turns. It is over 50% more efficient at preserving airspeed than full half-turn based trajectories.
Numerical Simulation of Breaking Wave Based on Higher-Order Mild Slope Equation
陶建华; 韩光
2001-01-01
The "surface roller" to simulate wave energy dissipation of wave breaking is introduced into the random wave model based on approximate parabolic mild slope equation in this paper to simulate the random wave transportation including diffraction, refraction and breaking in nearshore areas. The roller breaking random wave higher-order approximate parabolic equation model has been verified by the existing experimental data for a plane slope beach and a circularshoal, and the numerical results of random wave breaking model agree with the experimental data very well. This modelcan be applied to calculate random wave propagation from deep to shallow water in large areas near the shore over natural topography.
A study of body-to-surface wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes
Shen, Z.; Ni, S.
2015-12-01
Understanding converted surface waves is helpful because they could improve the accuracy of earthquake location if the exacted scattered point is known as well as serve to image shallow structures with dispersion features. Previous studies have reported a few observations of body-to-surface-wave conversion associated with deep earthquakes. For example, Wagner and Langston used coda intensity analysis and f-k analysis to confirm a P-to-Rg wave and performed forward modeling with T-matrix method demonstrating that a 1km relief was responsible for the observed body-to-surface wave scattering. Moreover, Furumura et al. observed unusual Rayleigh waves converted from S wave observed at Australia with deep earthquakes occurred along Kermadec-Tonga trench and a 2D Pseudospetral method is adopted to illustrate that the Rayleigh waves could be explained by ridge structures. Both T-matrix and pseudospetral algorithms are based on numerical methods. However, we lack a theory to study the mechanism of those surface waves quantitatively. For instance, the relationship between the topography with the dominate frequency of converted surface waves could be resolved thoroughly with a theoretical approach. From this perspective, we carried out a theoretical method to calculate the converted Rayleigh wave with surface topography. During the calculation, a homogeneous half space medium is assumed and the path of the converted phase is divided into two segments. Firstly, we will introduce our theoretical method in detail and a comparison of our results and SEM results will be presented to verify our methods. Secondly, the topography effect and the transfer efficiency of P and S wave will be examined quantitatively with different source mechanisms. Then, we will report an observation of unusual large amplitude surface waves transferred from body waves at local stations. Our preliminary result shows that those anomalous waves are identified as Rayleigh wave and are probably generated by
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...
Seismic wave detection system based on fully distributed acoustic sensing
Jiang, Yue; Xu, Tuanwei; Feng, Shengwen; Huang, Jianfen; Yang, Yang; Guo, Gaoran; Li, Fang
2016-11-01
This paper presents a seismic wave detection system based on fully distributed acoustic sensing. Combined with Φ- OTDR and PGC demodulation technology, the system can detect and acquire seismic wave in real time. The system has a frequency response of 3.05 dB from 5 Hz to 1 kHz, whose sampling interval of each channel of 1 meter on total sensing distance up to 10 km. By comparing with the geophone in laboratory, the data show that in the time domain and frequency domain, two waveforms coincide consistently, and the correlation coefficient could be larger than 0.98. Through the analysis of the data of the array experiment and the oil well experiment, DAS system shows a consistent time domain and frequency domain response and a clearer trail of seismic wave signal as well as a higher signal-noise rate which indicate that the system we proposed is expected to become the next generation of seismic exploration equipment.
A general formalism for Fourier based Wave Front Sensing
Fauvarque, Olivier; Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Girault, Orion
2016-01-01
We introduce in this article a general formalism for Fourier based wave front sensing. To do so, we consider the filtering mask as a free parameter. Such an approach allows to unify sensors like the Pyramid Wave Front Sensor (PWFS) and the Zernike Wave Front Sensor (ZWFS). In particular, we take the opportunity to generalize this two sensors in terms of sensors' class where optical quantities as, for instance, the apex angle for the PWFS or the depth of the Zernike mask for the ZWFS become free parameters. In order to compare all the generated sensors of this two classes thanks to common performance criteria, we firstly define a general phase-linear quantity that we call meta-intensity. Analytical developments allow then to split the perfectly phase-linear behavior of a WFS from the non-linear contributions making robust and analytic definitions of the sensitivity and the linearity range possible. Moreover, we define a new quantity called the SD factor which characterizes the trade-off between these two antag...
Standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microfluidic cytometer.
Chen, Yuchao; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Zhao, Yanhui; Huang, Po-Hsun; McCoy, J Phillip; Levine, Stewart J; Wang, Lin; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-03-07
The development of microfluidic chip-based cytometers has become an important area due to their advantages of compact size and low cost. Herein, we demonstrate a sheathless microfluidic cytometer which integrates a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW)-based microdevice capable of 3D particle/cell focusing with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. Using SSAW, our microfluidic cytometer was able to continuously focus microparticles/cells at the pressure node inside a microchannel. Flow cytometry was successfully demonstrated using this system with a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 10% at a throughput of ~1000 events s(-1) when calibration beads were used. We also demonstrated that fluorescently labeled human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) could be effectively focused and detected with our SSAW-based system. This SSAW-based microfluidic cytometer did not require any sheath flows or complex structures, and it allowed for simple operation over a wide range of sample flow rates. Moreover, with the gentle, bio-compatible nature of low-power surface acoustic waves, this technique is expected to be able to preserve the integrity of cells and other bioparticles.
Fauvarque, Olivier; Fusco, Thierry; Sauvage, Jean-François; Giraut, Orion
2016-01-01
In this article, we compare a set of Wave Front Sensors (WFS) based on Fourier filtering technique. In particular, this study explores the "class of pyramidal WFS" defined as the 4 faces pyramid WFS, all its recent variations (6, 8 faces, the flattened PWFS, etc.) and also some new WFSs as the flattened cone WFS or the 3 faces pyramid WFS. In the first part, we describe such a sensors class thanks to the optical parameters of the Fourier filtering mask and the modulation parameters. In the second part, we use the unified formalism to create a set of performance criteria: size of the signal on the detector, efficiency of incoming flux, sensitivity, linear range and chromaticity. In the third part, we show the influence of the previous optical and modulation parameters on these performance criteria. This exhaustive study allows to know how to optimize the sensor regarding to performance specifications. We show in particular that the number of faces has influence on the number of pixels required to do the wave f...
Development of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Microgyroscope Utilizing Progressive Wave
Oh, Haekwan; Yang, Sangsik; Lee, Keekeun
2010-06-01
An 80 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based gyroscope utilizing a progressive wave was developed on a 128° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate. The sensor developed consists of two SAW oscillators in which one is used as the sensing element and has metallic dots in the cavity between input and output interdigital transducers (IDTs). The other is used as the reference element. Coupling of modes (COM) modeling was conducted to determine the optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. On the basis of the simulation results, the device was fabricated and then measured on a rate table. When the device was subjected to an angular rotation, oscillation frequency differences between the two oscillators were observed because of the Coriolis force acting on the metallic dots. Depending on the angular velocity, the difference in oscillation frequency was modulated. The obtained sensitivity was approximately 52.35 Hz deg-1 s-1 at an angular rate range of 0-1000 deg/s. Device performances at different mass weights, mass positions, and temperatures were characterized. Good thermal stability was also observed during the evaluation process.
High Rayleigh number convection numerical experiments
Verzicco, Roberto
2002-03-01
Numerical experiments on the flow developing in a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio Γ = 1/2 heated from below and cooled from above, are conducted for Rayleigh numbers (Ra) ranging from 2 x 10^6 up to 2 x 10^11. The aim of the present study is to numerically replicate the experiments by Roche et al. (2001) and Niemela et al. (2000) performed using gaseous helium close to the critical point as working fluid (Pr = 0.7). The numerical simulation permitted us to generate a large data base which was validated by the experimental results and, on the other hand, provided physical insights which are missed by the experimental approaches usually limited to pointwise temperature and global heat exchange measurements. Attention is focussed on the presence of large-scale structures whose characterization is important owing to the introduction of constant `winds' sweeping the plates and generating viscous and thermal boundary layers. The analysis of instantaneous snapshots clearly indicates that the topology of the recirculating large scale structures is quite different with respect to what is commonly observed in Γ = 1 cells where a unique large scale recirculation structure completely fills the fluid volume (e.g. Verzicco & Camussi, 1999). It is shown that a transition occurs at about Ra = 10^9; at lower Ra the flow is characterized by the presence of two counter-rotating toroidal rings attached to the horizontal plates. At larger Ra, in contrast, the most intense structure consists of two counter-rotating rolls of unitary aspect ratio. The two types of flow, which co-exists in the range 10^9 < Ra < 10^10, determine different properties of both the thermal and the viscous boundary layers. Indeed, even if the limited range of Ra analyzed in the present simulation does not allow the presence of a transition to be clearly observed in the Nu vs Ra diagram, the proposed scenario is confirmed by the direct analysis of the boundary layer thicknesses and of the kinetic energy and
Broadband unidirectional behavior of electromagnetic waves based on transformation optics
Zang, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yiming; Ji, Xuebin; Chen, Lin; Hu, Qing; Zhuang, Songlin
2017-01-01
High directive antennas are fundamental elements for microwave communication and information processing. Here, inspired by the method of transformation optics, we propose and demonstrate a transformation medium to control the transmission path of a point source, resulting in the unidirectional behavior of electromagnetic waves (directional emitter) without any reflectors. The network of inductor-capacitor transmission lines is designed to experimentally realize the transformation medium. Furthermore, the designed device can work in a broadband frequency range. The unidirectional-manner-based device demonstrated in this work will be an important step forward in developing a new type of directive antennas.
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURIAN, STEVEN J. [NON LANL
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-10-01
The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters
Simon Ambühl
2014-12-01
Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.
Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar.
Zhang, Jun
2012-09-01
A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Traveling wave ultrasonic motor using polymer-based vibrator
Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro
2016-01-01
With the characteristics of low density, low elastic modulus, and low mechanical loss, poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) is a promising material for fabricating lightweight ultrasonic motors (USMs). For the first time, we used PPS to fabricate an annular elastomer with teeth and glued a piece of piezoelectric-ceramic annular disk to the bottom of the elastomer to form a vibrator. To explore for a material suitable for the rotor surface coming in contact with the PPS-based vibrator, several disk-shaped rotors made of different materials were fabricated to form traveling wave USMs. The polymer-based USM rotates successfully as the conventional metal-based USMs. The experimental results show that the USM with the aluminum rotor has the largest torque, which indicates that aluminum is the most suitable for the rotor surface among the tested materials.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability simulations with CRASH
Chou, C.-C.; Fryxell, B.; Drake, R. P.
2012-03-01
CRASH is a code package developed for the predictive study of radiative shocks. It is based on the BATSRUS MHD code used extensively for space-weather research. We desire to extend the applications of this code to the study of hydrodynamically unstable systems. We report here the results of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) simulations with CRASH, as a necessary step toward the study of such systems. Our goal, motivated by the previous comparison of simulations and experiment, is to be able to simulate the magnetic RTI with self-generated magnetic fields produced by the Biermann Battery effect. Here we show results for hydrodynamic RTI, comparing the effects of different solvers and numerical parameters. We find that the early-time behavior converges to the analytical result of the linear theory. We observe that the late-time morphology is sensitive to the numerical scheme and limiter beta. At low-resolution limit, the growth of RTI is highly dependent on the setup and resolution, which we attribute to the large numerical viscosity at low resolution.
Optical switching by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering
Peterson, Lauren M.
1986-06-01
Preliminary experiments were conducted whose ultimate goal is to develop all-optical control functions useful in an all-optical or optical-electronic hybrid digital computer or for optical interconnects. Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering (STRS) based upon generator experiments was pursued for scattering angles of 90 deg and 180 deg (backscattering). A pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser served as the radiation source and the interaction medium was a liquid to which an absorbing dye was added. STRS amplifier experiments were successful and gain was observed and studied parametrically using eosine dye in ethanol. The gain was found to increase (although the gain coefficient decreased) with increasing pump power and the gain was found to be a maximum at an absorption coefficient of about 2.6 per cm. The generator experiments did not lead to stimulated scattering due to the limited output power of the laser and its multi-longitudinal spectral mode content. These studies will be continued along with analytical modeling in order to characterize the interaction and to enable the optimization of the scattering process.
Wave climatology of Lake Erie based on an unstructured-grid wave model
Niu, Qianru; Xia, Meng
2016-10-01
Hindcast of wave dynamics in Lake Erie during 2002 to 2012 was conducted using a state-of-art finite-volume coastal ocean surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE). After model calibration, the surface gravity wave dynamics were examined from the aspects of wave climate and seasonality, inter-basin wave interactions, as well as its potential susceptibility to regional climate change. Compared to the Central and Eastern Basins, the Western Basin has relatively gentle wave climate. The Western Basin and the nearshore areas are most susceptible to the wave-induced bottom orbital oscillations on the seasonal mean scale, and the offshore Central Basin is sensitive to them as well during episodic events. Profound seasonality was found in both mean and extreme wave dynamics during ice-free cycles. Mean significant wave height (SWH) is highest during fall with more occurrences of extreme events (SWH > 3.1 m) and is lowest during summer, which is controlled by wind speed and direction collectively. Besides, swells generated in the Central and Eastern Basins could interact with each other under various wind directions, whereas wave generated in the Central Basin could hardly propagate into the Western Basin. In addition, the regression analysis of surrounding meteorological stations indicates increasing SWH in the Western Basin and decreasing SWH in the Eastern Basin.
Wave optics-based LEO-LEO radio occultation retrieval
Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per
2016-06-01
This paper describes the theory for performing retrieval of radio occultations that use probing frequencies in the XK and KM band. Normally, radio occultations use frequencies in the L band, and GPS satellites are used as the transmitting source, and the occultation signals are received by a GPS receiver on board a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite. The technique is based on the Doppler shift imposed, by the atmosphere, on the signal emitted from the GPS satellite. Two LEO satellites are assumed in the occultations discussed in this paper, and the retrieval is also dependent on the decrease in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites, while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS-based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high-frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing the retrieval of the water vapor content. Selecting the correct probing frequencies would make it possible to retrieve other information such as the content of ozone. The retrieval is performed through a number of processing steps which are based on the Full Spectrum Inversion (FSI) technique. The retrieval chain is therefore a wave optics-based retrieval chain, and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on five different frequencies are used. The five frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave optics-based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples, and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global European Centre for Medium
Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis
Cássia Pianca
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte
Reckinger, Scott J.; Livescu, Daniel; Vasilyev, Oleg V.
2016-05-01
An investigation of compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) requires efficient numerical methods, advanced boundary conditions, and consistent initialization in order to capture the wide range of scales and vortex dynamics present in the system, while reducing the computational impact associated with acoustic wave generation and the subsequent interaction with the flow. An advanced computational framework is presented that handles the challenges introduced by considering the compressive nature of RTI systems, which include sharp interfacial density gradients on strongly stratified background states, acoustic wave generation and removal at computational boundaries, and stratification dependent vorticity production. The foundation of the numerical methodology described here is the wavelet-based grid adaptivity of the Parallel Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method (PAWCM) that maintains symmetry in single-mode RTI systems to extreme late-times. PAWCM is combined with a consistent initialization, which reduces the generation of acoustic disturbances, and effective boundary treatments, which prevent acoustic reflections. A dynamic time integration scheme that can handle highly nonlinear and potentially stiff systems, such as compressible RTI, completes the computational framework. The numerical methodology is used to simulate two-dimensional single-mode RTI to extreme late-times for a wide range of flow compressibility and variable density effects. The results show that flow compressibility acts to reduce the growth of RTI for low Atwood numbers, as predicted from linear stability analysis.
Chromo-Rayleigh Interactions of Dark Matter
Bai, Yang
2015-01-01
For a wide range of models, dark matter can interact with QCD gluons via chromo-Rayleigh interactions. We point out that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as a gluon machine, provides a superb probe of such interactions. In this paper, we introduce simplified models to UV-complete two effective dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions and identify the corresponding collider signatures, including four jets or a pair of di-jet resonances plus missing transverse energy. After performing collider studies for both the 8 TeV and 14 TeV LHC, we find that the LHC can be more sensitive to dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions than direct detection experiments and thus provides the best opportunity for future discovery of this class of models.
Classification of charge density waves based on their nature.
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong
2015-02-24
The concept of a charge density wave (CDW) permeates much of condensed matter physics and chemistry. CDWs have their origin rooted in the instability of a one-dimensional system described by Peierls. The extension of this concept to reduced dimensional systems has led to the concept of Fermi surface nesting (FSN), which dictates the wave vector [Formula: see text] of the CDW and the corresponding lattice distortion. The idea is that segments of the Fermi contours are connected by [Formula: see text], resulting in the effective screening of phonons inducing Kohn anomalies in their dispersion at [Formula: see text], driving a lattice restructuring at low temperatures. There is growing theoretical and experimental evidence that this picture fails in many real systems and in fact it is the momentum dependence of the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) matrix element that determines the characteristic of the CDW phase. Based on the published results for the prototypical CDW system 2H-NbSe2, we show how well the [Formula: see text]-dependent EPC matrix element, but not the FSN, can describe the origin of the CDW. We further demonstrate a procedure of combing electronic band and phonon measurements to extract the EPC matrix element, allowing the electronic states involved in the EPC to be identified. Thus, we show that a large EPC does not necessarily induce the CDW phase, with Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ as the example, and the charge-ordered phenomena observed in various cuprates are not driven by FSN or EPC. To experimentally resolve the microscopic picture of EPC will lead to a fundamental change in the way we think about, write about, and classify charge density waves.
Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia
Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan
2016-06-01
A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.
Han, W.; Yang, J.
2016-11-01
This paper discusses the group of wave height possibility distribution characteristics of significant wave height in China Sea based on multi-satellite grid data, the grid SWH data merges six satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1/2, ENVISAT, Cryosat-2, HY-2A) corrected satellite altimeter data into the global SWH grid data in 2000∼2015 using Inverse Distance Weighting Method. Comparing the difference of wave height possibility distribution of two schemes that scheme two includes all of 6 satellite data and scheme one includes all of other 5 satellite data except HY-2A in two wave height interval, the first interval is [0,25) m, the second interval is [4,25) m, finding that two schemes have close wave height probability distribution and the probability change trend, there are difference only in interval [0.4, 1.8) m and the possibility in this interval occupies over 70%; then mainly discussing scheme two, finding that the interval of greatest wave height possibility is [0.6, 3) m, and the wave height possibility that the SWH is greater than 4m is less than 0.18%.
Optical results with Rayleigh quotient discrimination filters
Juday, Richard D.; Rollins, John M.; Monroe, Stanley E., Jr.; Morelli, Michael V.
1999-03-01
We report experimental laboratory results using filters that optimize the Rayleigh quotient [Richard D. Juday, 'Generalized Rayleigh quotient approach to filter optimization,' JOSA-A 15(4), 777-790 (April 1998)] for discriminating between two similar objects. That quotient is the ratio of the correlation responses to two differing objects. In distinction from previous optical processing methods it includes the phase of both objects -- not the phase of only the 'accept' object -- in the computation of the filter. In distinction from digital methods it is explicitly constrained to optically realizable filter values throughout the optimization process.
From the Somigliana waves to the evanescent waves
Pietro Caloi
2010-02-01
Full Text Available The Rayleigh equation has real coefficients; therefore, also the case of complex conjugated roots may be explained physically. The Author proves that the Somigliana waves may be formed for Poisson ratio values until 0.30543; for gradually less rigid media, they are missing altogether and degenerate into evanescent waves.
Model based feasibility study on bidirectional check valves in wave energy converters
Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole
2014-01-01
Discrete fluid power force systems have been proposed as the primary stage for Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) when converting ocean waves into electricity, this to improve the overall efficiency of wave energy devices. This paper presents a model based feasibility study of using bidirectional check...
Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong
2011-07-04
This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.
Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument
Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M., E-mail: pedromaria.monje@ehu.es [Electronic Design Group, Faculty of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain); Cokonaj, Valerijan [AERnnova Engineering Solutions Ibérica S.A., Madrid (Spain); Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano [Instrumentation and Applied Acoustic Research Group of the Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)
2013-12-15
Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.
Wave dispersion and propagation in state-based peridynamics
Butt, Sahir N.; Timothy, Jithender J.; Meschke, Günther
2017-07-01
Peridynamics is a nonlocal continuum model which offers benefits over classical continuum models in cases, where discontinuities, such as cracks, are present in the deformation field. However, the nonlocal characteristics of peridynamics leads to a dispersive dynamic response of the medium. In this study we focus on the dispersion properties of a state-based linear peridynamic solid model and specifically investigate the role of the peridynamic horizon. We derive the dispersion relation for one, two and three dimensional cases and investigate the effect of horizon size, mesh size (lattice spacing) and the influence function on the dispersion properties. We show how the influence function can be used to minimize wave dispersion at a fixed lattice spacing and demonstrate it qualitatively by wave propagation analysis in one- and two-dimensional models of elastic solids. As a main contribution of this paper, we propose to associate peridynamic non-locality expressed by the horizon with a characteristic length scale related to the material microstructure. To this end, the dispersion curves obtained from peridynamics are compared with experimental data for two kinds of sandstone.
Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.
Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano
2013-12-01
Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.
Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication.
Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Zhenyu; Bai, Lin; Choi, Jinho; Xia, Pengfei; Xia, Xiang-Gen
2016-07-21
In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD) systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave) communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx) beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI). Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE), zero-forcing (ZF), and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average) and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors.
Beamforming Based Full-Duplex for Millimeter-Wave Communication
Xiao Liu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study beamforming based full-duplex (FD systems in millimeter-wave (mmWave communications. A joint transmission and reception (Tx/Rx beamforming problem is formulated to maximize the achievable rate by mitigating self-interference (SI. Since the optimal solution is difficult to find due to the non-convexity of the objective function, suboptimal schemes are proposed in this paper. A low-complexity algorithm, which iteratively maximizes signal power while suppressing SI, is proposed and its convergence is proven. Moreover, two closed-form solutions, which do not require iterations, are also derived under minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE, zero-forcing (ZF, and maximum-ratio transmission (MRT criteria. Performance evaluations show that the proposed iterative scheme converges fast (within only two iterations on average and approaches an upper-bound performance, while the two closed-form solutions also achieve appealing performances, although there are noticeable differences from the upper bound depending on channel conditions. Interestingly, these three schemes show different robustness against the geometry of Tx/Rx antenna arrays and channel estimation errors.
Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves.
Konopsky, Valery N; Alieva, Elena V
2009-01-01
Optical biosensors have played a key role in the selective recognition of target biomolecules and in biomolecular interaction analysis, providing kinetic data about biological binding events in real time without labeling. The advantages of the label-free concept are the elimination of detrimental effects from labels that may interfere with fundamental interaction and the absence of a time-consuming pretreatment. The disadvantages of all label-free techniques--including the most mature one, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique, are a deficient sensitivity to a specific signal and undesirable susceptibilities to non-specific signals, e.g., to the volume effect of refraction index variations. These variations arise from temperature fluctuations and drifts and they are the limiting factor for many state-of-the-art optical biosensors. Here we describe a new optical biosensor technique based on the registration of dual optical s-polarized waves on a photonic crystal surface. The simultaneous registration of two different optical modes from the same surface spot permits the segregation of the volume and the surface signals, while the absence of metal damping permits an increase in the propagation length of the optical surface waves and the sensitivity of the biosensor. The technique was tested with the binding of biotin molecules to a streptavidin monolayer that has been detected with a signal/noise ratio of about 15 at 1 s signal accumulation time. The detection limit is about 20 fg of the analyte on the probed spot of the surface.
A virtual optical probe based on evanescent wave interference
孙利群; 王佳; 洪涛; 田芊
2002-01-01
A virtual probe is a novel immaterial tip based on the near-field evanescent wave interference and small aperture diffraction, which can be used in near-field high-density optical data storage, nano-lithography, near-field optical imaging and spectral detection, near-field optical manipulation of nano-scale specimen, etc. In this paper, the formation mechanism of the virtual probe is analysed, the evanescent wave interference discussed theoretically, andthe sidelobe suppression by small aperture is simulated by the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method The simulation results of the optical distribution of the near-field virtual probe reveal that the transmission efficiencyof the virtual probe is 102-104 times higher than that of the nano-aperture metal-coated fibre probe widely used in near-field optical systems. The full width at half maximum of the peak, in other words, the size of virtual probe, is constant whatever the distance in a certain range so that the critical nano-separation control in the near-field system can be relaxed. We give an example of the application of the virtual probe in ultrahigh-density optical data storage.
Wave equation based microseismic source location and velocity inversion
Zheng, Yikang; Wang, Yibo; Chang, Xu
2016-12-01
The microseismic event locations and velocity information can be used to infer the stress field and guide hydraulic fracturing process, as well as to image the subsurface structures. How to get accurate microseismic event locations and velocity model is the principal problem in reservoir monitoring. For most location methods, the velocity model has significant relation with the accuracy of the location results. The velocity obtained from log data is usually too rough to be used for location directly. It is necessary to discuss how to combine the location and velocity inversion. Among the main techniques for locating microseismic events, time reversal imaging (TRI) based on wave equation avoids traveltime picking and offers high-resolution locations. Frequency dependent wave equation traveltime inversion (FWT) is an inversion method that can invert velocity model with source uncertainty at certain frequency band. Thus we combine TRI with FWT to produce improved event locations and velocity model. In the proposed approach, the location and model information are interactively used and updated. Through the proposed workflow, the inverted model is better resolved and the event locations are more accurate. We test this method on synthetic borehole data and filed data of a hydraulic fracturing experiment. The results verify the effectiveness of the method and prove it has potential for real-time microseismic monitoring.
Telescopes for a Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatory
Sankar, Shannon; Livas, Jeffrey
2017-01-01
Telescopes are an important part of the science measurement for a space-based gravitational wave observatory. The telescopes should not introduce excess phase noise which might lower the signal-to-noise of the gravitational wave signal. This requirement constrains both the telescope stability and the phase noise due to scattered light. The photoreceiver senses a combination of a local beam, the received beam and scattered light. If the scattered light has significant spatial overlap, and if there is displacement noise in the scatter path, the signal-to-noise of the main measurement can be impacted. We will discuss our approach to addressing this concern. We model the scattered power from the telescope under expected conditions and use these models for evaluating potential telescope designs. We also determine allowable mirror surface roughness and contamination levels from the scattered light models. We implement the best designs by fabricating a series of prototype telescopes of increasing flight readiness, using eLISA as a reference mission for design specifications. Finally, we perform laboratory tests of the fabricated prototype telescope to validate the models and inform our understanding of the eventual flight telescopes.
WaveJava: Wavelet-based network computing
Ma, Kun; Jiao, Licheng; Shi, Zhuoer
1997-04-01
Wavelet is a powerful theory, but its successful application still needs suitable programming tools. Java is a simple, object-oriented, distributed, interpreted, robust, secure, architecture-neutral, portable, high-performance, multi- threaded, dynamic language. This paper addresses the design and development of a cross-platform software environment for experimenting and applying wavelet theory. WaveJava, a wavelet class library designed by the object-orient programming, is developed to take advantage of the wavelets features, such as multi-resolution analysis and parallel processing in the networking computing. A new application architecture is designed for the net-wide distributed client-server environment. The data are transmitted with multi-resolution packets. At the distributed sites around the net, these data packets are done the matching or recognition processing in parallel. The results are fed back to determine the next operation. So, the more robust results can be arrived quickly. The WaveJava is easy to use and expand for special application. This paper gives a solution for the distributed fingerprint information processing system. It also fits for some other net-base multimedia information processing, such as network library, remote teaching and filmless picture archiving and communications.
Graphene-based waveguide resonators for submillimeter-wave applications
Ilić, Andjelija Ž.; Bukvić, Branko; Ilić, Milan M.; Budimir, Djuradj
2016-08-01
Utilization of graphene covered waveguide inserts to form tunable waveguide resonators is theoretically explained and rigorously investigated by means of full-wave numerical electromagnetic simulations. Instead of using graphene-based switching elements, the concept we propose incorporates graphene sheets as parts of a resonator. Electrostatic tuning of the graphene surface conductivity leads to changes in the electromagnetic field boundary conditions at the resonator edges and surfaces, thus producing an effect similar to varying the electrical length of a resonator. The presented outline of the theoretical background serves to give phenomenological insight into the resonator behavior, but it can also be used to develop customized software tools for design and optimization of graphene-based resonators and filters. Due to the linear dependence of the imaginary part of the graphene surface impedance on frequency, the proposed concept was expected to become effective for frequencies above 100 GHz, which is confirmed by the numerical simulations. A frequency range from 100 GHz up to 1100 GHz, where the rectangular waveguides are used, is considered. Simple, all-graphene-based resonators are analyzed first, to assess the achievable tunability and to check the performance throughout the considered frequency range. Graphene-metal combined waveguide resonators are proposed in order to preserve the excellent quality factors typical for the type of waveguide discontinuities used. Dependence of resonator properties on key design parameters is studied in detail. Dependence of resonator properties throughout the frequency range of interest is studied using eight different waveguide sections appropriate for different frequency intervals. Proposed resonators are aimed at applications in the submillimeter-wave spectral region, serving as the compact tunable components for the design of bandpass filters and other devices.
Nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis of Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Brenowitz, N. D.; Giannakis, D.; Majda, A. J.
2016-06-01
modes with fat tailed probability distributions and low frequency temporal power spectra. On the other hand, the regular oscillation of the heat transfer is associated with a pair of modes with nearly uniform probability distributions. Physical mechanisms for the regular oscillation and the extreme heat transfer events are hypothesized based on an analysis of the spatio-temporal structure of these modes. Finally, proposals are made for this approach to be applied to the study of other problems in turbulent convection, including three-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection and moist atmospheric convection.
Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves
Sergey V. Kuznetsov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.
Observation-Based Dissipation and Input Terms for Spectral Wave Models, with End-User Testing
2014-09-30
Zieger, S. “Wave climate in the marginal ice zones of Arctic Seas, observations and modelling”. ONR Sea State DRU project. Studies wave climate in the...Rinke, and H. Matthes, 2014: Projected changes of wind-wave activity in the Arctic Ocean. Proceedings of the 22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice ...objectives are to use new observation-based source terms for the wind input, wave-breaking (whitecapping) dissipation and swell decay in the third
Application of CFD based wave loads in aeroelastic calculations
Schløer, Signe; Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik
2014-01-01
realizations compare well with corresponding surface elevations from laboratory experiments. In aeroelastic calculations of an offshore wind turbine on a monopile foundation the hydrodynamic loads due to the potential flow solver and Morison’s equation and the hydrodynamic loads calculated by the coupled......Two fully nonlinear irregular wave realizations with different significant wave heights are considered. The wave realizations are both calculated in the potential flow solver Ocean-Wave3D and in a coupled domain decomposed potential-flow CFD solver. The surface elevations of the calculated wave...
Sea spray aerosol flux estimation based on long-term variation of wave statistics
Dag Myrhaug
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This note provides estimates of the mean sea spray aerosol flux based on long-term wave statistics using the whitecap method based on the limiting steepness and threshold vertical acceleration criteria. The aim is to present a procedure demonstrating how global wave statistics can be used to give estimates of the long-term aerosol flux. These estimates are obtained by using bivariate distributions of significant wave height and characteristic wave period, representing open ocean deep water waves in the Northern North Sea and the North Atlantic.
Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tai, Dar-In; Shu, Yu-Chen
2015-08-01
Ultrasound Nakagami imaging has recently attracted interest as an imaging technique for analyzing envelope statistics. Because the presence of structures has a strong effect on estimation of the Nakagami parameter, previous studies have indicated that Nakagami imaging should be used specifically for characterization of soft tissues with fewer structures, such as liver tissues. Typically, changes in the properties of the liver parenchyma cause the backscattered statistics to transform from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution, and this transformation can be visualized using a Nakagami imaging technique. However, different estimators result in different estimated values; thus, the performance of a Nakagami image may depend on the type of estimator used. This study explored the effects of various estimators on ultrasound Nakagami imaging to describe the backscattered statistics as they change from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution. Simulations and clinical measurements involving patients with liver fibrosis (n = 85) yielded image data that were used to construct B-mode and conventional Nakagami images based on the moment estimator (denoted as mINV images) and maximum-likelihood estimator (denoted as mML images). In addition, novel window-modulated compounding Nakagami images based on the moment estimator (denoted as mWMC images) were also obtained. The means and standard deviations of the Nakagami parameters were examined as a function of the backscattered statistics. The experimental results indicate that the mINV, mML and mWMC images enabled quantitative visualization of the change in backscattered statistics from a Rayleigh distribution to a pre-Rayleigh distribution. Importantly, the mWMC image is superior to both mINV and mML images because it simultaneously realizes sensitive detection of the backscattered statistics and a reduction of estimation variance for image smoothness improvement. We therefore recommend using m
Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves
Yurchenko, Stanislav O., E-mail: st.yurchenko@mail.ru; Komarov, Kirill A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaya str. 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Pustovoit, Vladislav I. [Scientific and Technological Center of Unique Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a multilayer graphene (MLG)-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes) in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann’s equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein’s and Rayleigh’s SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C{sub 6v}, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.
Design and simulation of a standing wave oscillator based PLL
Wei ZHANG; You-de HU; Li-rong ZHENG
2016-01-01
A standing wave oscillator (SWO) is a perfect clock source which can be used to produce a high frequency clock signal with a low skew and high reliability. However, it is difficult to tune the SWO in a wide range of frequencies. We introduce a frequency tunable SWO which uses an inversion mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (IMOS) field-effect transistor as a varactor, and give the simulation results of the frequency tuning range and power dissipation. Based on the frequency tunable SWO, a new phase locked loop (PLL) architecture is presented. This PLL can be used not only as a clock source, but also as a clock distribution network to provide high quality clock signals. The PLL achieves an approximately 50% frequency tuning range when designed in Global Foundry 65 nm 1P9M complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, and can be used directly in a high performance multi-core microprocessor.
Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves
Stanislav O. Yurchenko
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs by a multilayer graphene (MLG-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann’s equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein’s and Rayleigh’s SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C6v, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.
Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors
Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel; Katsavounidis, Erik
2017-01-01
Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. These effects can inform electromagnetic follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.
Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism
Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.
1979-01-01
By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.
Upper-Mantle Shear Velocities beneath Southern California Determined from Long-Period Surface Waves
Polet, J.; Kanamori, H.
1997-01-01
We used long-period surface waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the TERRAscope network to determine phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh waves up to periods of about 170 sec and of Love waves up to about 150 sec. This enabled us to investigate the upper-mantle velocity structure beneath southern California to a depth of about 250 km. Ten and five earthquakes were used for Rayleigh and Love waves, respectively. The observed surface-wave dispersion shows a clear Love/Rayleigh-wave d...
Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering
1994-07-20
A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.
Considerations for Ship Design and Forensics Based Upon Modern Advances in Nonlinear Waves
Osborne, Alfred
2013-04-01
My recent activities for Nonlinear Waves Research Corporation have lead to a number of new advances in ocean surface waves that have been applied to the reanalysis and forensics of sunken ships. The methods are based upon progress in the physical understanding of ocean waves and have required a number of breakthroughs requiring applications of algebraic geometry, topology and differential geometry. This work has provided a number of new tools for the forecasting/hindcasting of wind waves (including the prediction of rogue waves), for the deterministic simulation of ocean waves (including both the Type I and Type II instabilities) and for the statistical behavior of ocean waves. These approaches have lead to procedures for the determination of the design wave for ships and for the forensics of sunken ships in past storms. I give examples of how these approaches have been applied.
Mode Conversion Behavior of Guided Wave in a Pipe Inspection System Based on a Long Waveguide.
Sun, Feiran; Sun, Zhenguo; Chen, Qiang; Murayama, Riichi; Nishino, Hideo
2016-10-19
To make clear the mode conversion behavior of S0-mode lamb wave and SH0-plate wave converting to the longitudinal mode guided wave and torsional mode guided wave in a pipe, respectively, the experiments were performed based on a previous built pipe inspection system. The pipe was wound with an L-shaped plate or a T-shaped plate as the waveguide, and the S0-wave and SH0-wave were excited separately in the waveguide. To carry out the objective, a meander-line coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for S0-wave and a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) EMAT for SH0-wave were developed and optimized. Then, several comparison experiments were conducted to compare the efficiency of mode conversion. Experimental results showed that the T(0,1) mode, L(0,1) mode, and L(0,2) mode guided waves can be successfully detected when converted from the S0-wave or SH0-wave with different shaped waveguides. It can also be inferred that the S0-wave has a better ability to convert to the T(0,1) mode, while the SH0-wave is easier to convert to the L(0,1) mode and L(0,2) mode, and the L-shaped waveguide has a better efficiency than T-shaped waveguide.
Mode Conversion Behavior of Guided Wave in a Pipe Inspection System Based on a Long Waveguide
Feiran Sun
2016-10-01
Full Text Available To make clear the mode conversion behavior of S0-mode lamb wave and SH0-plate wave converting to the longitudinal mode guided wave and torsional mode guided wave in a pipe, respectively, the experiments were performed based on a previous built pipe inspection system. The pipe was wound with an L-shaped plate or a T-shaped plate as the waveguide, and the S0-wave and SH0-wave were excited separately in the waveguide. To carry out the objective, a meander-line coil electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT for S0-wave and a periodic permanent magnet (PPM EMAT for SH0-wave were developed and optimized. Then, several comparison experiments were conducted to compare the efficiency of mode conversion. Experimental results showed that the T(0,1 mode, L(0,1 mode, and L(0,2 mode guided waves can be successfully detected when converted from the S0-wave or SH0-wave with different shaped waveguides. It can also be inferred that the S0-wave has a better ability to convert to the T(0,1 mode, while the SH0-wave is easier to convert to the L(0,1 mode and L(0,2 mode, and the L-shaped waveguide has a better efficiency than T-shaped waveguide.
Li, Yajuan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Yong; Xia, Yuan; Xiong, Jun; Song, Shalei; Liu, Linmei; Chen, Zhenwei; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan
2017-02-01
Temperature profiles at altitudes of 5-80 km are obtained with a self-calibrated Rayleigh-rotational Raman lidar over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). By using the synchronous Rayleigh lidar temperature, rotational Raman temperature in the lower atmosphere could be calibrated and retrieved, which is free of other instruments (like local radiosondes). The results are comparable to the radiosonde calibration method. Based on the self-calibration approach, one-night (August 4-5, 2014) lidar temperature profiles are presented with radiosondes, NRLMSISE-00 model and TIMED/SABER data. Some interesting temperature characteristics have been present for studies of waves propagating from near ground level into the mesosphere. Temperature perturbations are found to increase exponentially with a scale height of 10 km. The wavy structure shows minimal perturbations ('nodes') at some altitudes of 39, 52, 64 and 73 km. Dominant wavelengths and temperature variations are also analyzed at different time and altitudes. By comparison of the temperature and associate perturbations from the tropopause up to the stratopause, different amplitudes, phase fronts and vertical wavelengths are discovered as well. These discoveries indicate that some waves may originate in the lower atmosphere and propagate upward with decreasing static stability.
An irregular wave generating approach based on naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver
Shen, Zhi-rong; Wan, De-cheng
2016-04-01
In this paper, a wave generating approach for long-crest irregular waves in a numerical tank by our in-house solver naoe-FOAM-SJTU is presented. The naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver is developed using an open source tool kit, OpenFOAM. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are chosen as governing equations and the volume of fluid (VOF) is employed to capture the two phases interface. Incoming wave group is generated by imposing the boundary conditions of the tank inlet. A spectrum based correction procedure is developed to make the measured spectrum approaching to the target spectrum. This procedure can automatically adjust the wave generation signal based on the measured wave elevation by wave height probe in numerical wave tank. After 3 to 4 iterations, the measured spectrum agrees well with the target one. In order to validate this method, several wave spectra are chosen and validated in the numerical wave tank, with comparison between the final measured and target spectra. In order to investigate a practical situation, a modified Wigley hull is placed in the wave tank with incoming irregular waves. The wave-induced heave and pitch motions are treated by Fourier analysis to obtain motion responses, showing good agreements with the measurements.
Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing.
Perrard, S; Fort, E; Couder, Y
2016-08-26
The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.
Wave-Based Turing Machine: Time Reversal and Information Erasing
Perrard, S.; Fort, E.; Couder, Y.
2016-08-01
The investigation of dynamical systems has revealed a deep-rooted difference between waves and objects regarding temporal reversibility and particlelike objects. In nondissipative chaos, the dynamic of waves always remains time reversible, unlike that of particles. Here, we explore the dynamics of a wave-particle entity. It consists in a drop bouncing on a vibrated liquid bath, self-propelled and piloted by the surface waves it generates. This walker, in which there is an information exchange between the particle and the wave, can be analyzed in terms of a Turing machine with waves as the information repository. The experiments reveal that in this system, the drop can read information backwards while erasing it. The drop can thus backtrack on its previous trajectory. A transient temporal reversibility, restricted to the drop motion, is obtained in spite of the system being both dissipative and chaotic.
Making Waves: Seismic Waves Activities and Demonstrations
Braile, S. J.; Braile, L. W.
2011-12-01
The nature and propagation of seismic waves are fundamental concepts necessary for understanding the exploration of Earth's interior structure and properties, plate tectonics, earthquakes, and seismic hazards. Investigating seismic waves is also an engaging approach to learning basic principles of the physics of waves and wave propagation. Several effective educational activities and demonstrations are available for teaching about seismic waves, including the stretching of a spring to demonstrate elasticity; slinky wave propagation activities for compressional, shear, Rayleigh and Love waves; the human wave activity to demonstrate P- and S- waves in solids and liquids; waves in water in a simple wave tank; seismic wave computer animations; simple shake table demonstrations of model building responses to seismic waves to illustrate earthquake damage to structures; processing and analysis of seismograms using free and easy to use software; and seismic wave simulation software for viewing wave propagation in a spherical Earth. The use of multiple methods for teaching about seismic waves is useful because it provides reinforcement of the fundamental concepts, is adaptable to variable classroom situations and diverse learning styles, and allows one or more methods to be used for authentic assessment. The methods described here have been used effectively with a broad range of audiences, including K-12 students and teachers, undergraduate students in introductory geosciences courses, and geosciences majors.
Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.
Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred
2010-04-14
We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.
Research of Bipolar HVDC Transmission Lines Based on Traveling Wave Differential Protection
Baina He
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The principle of the traveling wave based differential protection for bipolar HVDC transmission lines is proposed in the paper. Unlike the traditional current differential protection, the quantity of current is replaced by the quantity of the traveling wave for comparison. The traveling wave at the remote end is transferred to the local end for comparison to the local traveling wave. For the bipolar DC transmission lines, the polar-mode (aerial mode traveling waves are employed to establish the discriminative criterion. The ground-mode traveling waves are utilized for faulty line detector for bipolar operation modes. The entire protection scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC associated with the standard ±500kV HVDC transmission system. The simulation results show that the new protection has the advantages of higher sensitivity, reliability and security. The fault resistance can be coverd by the traveling wave based differential protection reaches to 500 Ohm.
Zanetti, Massimo; Bovolo, Francesca; Bruzzone, Lorenzo
2015-12-01
The problem of estimating the parameters of a Rayleigh-Rice mixture density is often encountered in image analysis (e.g., remote sensing and medical image processing). In this paper, we address this general problem in the framework of change detection (CD) in multitemporal and multispectral images. One widely used approach to CD in multispectral images is based on the change vector analysis. Here, the distribution of the magnitude of the difference image can be theoretically modeled by a Rayleigh-Rice mixture density. However, given the complexity of this model, in applications, a Gaussian-mixture approximation is often considered, which may affect the CD results. In this paper, we present a novel technique for parameter estimation of the Rayleigh-Rice density that is based on a specific definition of the expectation-maximization algorithm. The proposed technique, which is characterized by good theoretical properties, iteratively updates the parameters and does not depend on specific optimization routines. Several numerical experiments on synthetic data demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, which is general and can be applied to any image processing problem involving the Rayleigh-Rice mixture density. In the CD context, the Rayleigh-Rice model (which is theoretically derived) outperforms other empirical models. Experiments on real multitemporal and multispectral remote sensing images confirm the validity of the model by returning significantly higher CD accuracies than those obtained by using the state-of-the-art approaches.
Phenomenological Theory for Spatiotemporal Chaos in Rayleigh-Benard Convection
Li, Xiao-jun; Xi, Hao-wen; Gunton, J. D.
1997-01-01
We present a phenomenological theory for spatiotemporal chaos (STC) in Rayleigh-Benard convection, based on the generalized Swift-Hohenberg model. We apply a random phase approximation to STC and conjecture a scaling form for the structure factor $S(k)$ with respect to the correlation length $\\xi_2$. We hence obtain analytical results for the time-averaged convective current $J$ and the time-averaged vorticity current $\\Omega$. We also define power-law behaviors such as $J \\sim \\epsilon^\\mu$,...
Camacho, Jorge F.; Rodríguez, Rosalío F.
2017-02-01
The fluctuating hydrodynamic treatment developed in the previous article for a nematic liquid crystal under the influence of a thermal gradient α and a uniform gravity field g, is used to calculate its Rayleigh light scattering spectrum. We find that the dissipative thermal gradient force enhances the Rayleigh-line intensity which varies as k -4 with the fluctuations of the wave number k. The Rayleigh line consists of three central Lorentzians, two of which are determined by the visco-heat modes coupling the entropy and director fluctuations, which is a pure non-equilibrium effect. The third Lorentzian is due only to director fluctuations. We find that the former peaks contain the Rayleigh wings owing to the orientational fluctuations of the aniosotropic molecules. It is also shown that the obtained spectrum reduces to the known equilibrium spectrum of a nematic and to that of a simple fluid. For the particular case in which the decay rates are diffusive, we calculate and plot the amplitudes of non-equilibrium fluctuations of the dynamic structure factor as a function of | α|2/ k 4, and also, the intermediate function in the equilibrium and non-equilibrium states.
Surface Wave Dispersion Measurements and Tomography From Ambient Seismic Noise in China
2007-12-20
and the US Geological Survey in 1986, most of the new stations started operating in early 2000. The bandwiths of the instruments are from 20 Hz to over...predictions from a global 3D model based on earthquake data (Shapiro and Ritzwoller, 2002). However, the HTA -BRVK path, which samples the Tarim Basin...Ritzwoller and Levshin, 1998) to retrieve dispersion curves (blue lines) for Rayleigh waves of station pair AXX-QIZ (upper panels) and HTA -BRVK
Rayleigh-Bénard convection in binary mixtures with separation ratios near zero
Dominguez-Lerma, Marco A.; Ahlers, Guenter; Cannell, David S.
1995-12-01
We present an experimental study of convection in binary mixtures with separation ratios Ψ close to zero. Measurements of the Hopf frequency for Ψmass concentration x with high precision. These results are consistent with but more precise than earlier measurements by conventional techniques. For Ψ>0, we found that the pattern close to onset consisted of squares. Our data give the threshold of convection rc≡Rc/Rc0 (Rc is the critical Rayleigh number of the mixture and Rc0 that of the pure fluid) from measurements of the refractive-index power of the pattern as revealed by a very sensitive quantitative shadowgraph method. Over the range Ψ~0.2, these results are in good agreement with linear stability analysis. The measured refractive-index power varies by six orders of magnitude as a function of r and for r>~0.55 is in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the ten-mode Lorenz-like Galerkin truncation of Müller and Lücke [H. W. Müller and M. Lücke, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2965 (1988)]. For smaller r, the model predicts a cancellation between contributions to the refractive index from concentration and temperature variations, which does not seem to occur in the physical system. Determinations of the wave numbers of the patterns near onset are consistent with the theoretically predicted small critical wave numbers at positive Ψ. As r approaches one, we find that q approaches the critical wave number qc0~=3 of the pure fluid. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
Malykin, G. B.
2016-04-01
At present, single-mode optical fibers composed of metamaterials—so-called "left-handed" optical media—for the far- and mid-IR ranges have already been created. In the near future, left-handed singlemode optical fibers for the visible and near-IR ranges will be created, light-carrying cores of which will be composed by an ordered structure of dielectric elements, the dimensions of which will be much smaller than the light wavelength, while the effective refractive index of the structure will be negative; i.e., the structure will possess the so-called "Veselago effect." We show that, because the dimensions of these dielectric elements many times exceed the dimensions of molecules of optical media, the elements should strongly scatter light, with this scattering considerably exceeding the Rayleigh (molecular) light scattering that occurs in conventional quartz single-mode optical fibers. We propose to term this phenomenon the quasi-Rayleigh light scattering. Numerical estimates of the quasi-Rayleigh light scattering for left-handed single-mode optical fibers at a light wavelength of λ = 1.55 μm have been made.
Future Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometry
Geiger, Remi
2016-01-01
We present the perspective of using atom interferometry for gravitational wave (GW) detection in the mHz to about 10 Hz frequency band. We focus on light-pulse atom interferometers which have been subject to intense developments in the last 25 years. We calculate the effect of the GW on the atom interferometer and present in details the atomic gradiometer configuration which has retained more attention recently. The principle of such a detector is to use free falling atoms to measure the phase of a laser, which is modified by the GW. We highlight the potential benefits of using atom interferometry compared to optical interferometry as well as the challenges which remain for the realization of an atom interferometry based GW detector. We present some of the important noise sources which are expected in such detectors and strategies to cirucumvent them. Experimental techniques related to cold atom interferometers are briefly explained. We finally present the current progress and projects in this rapidly evolvin...
A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave
Wenchao Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.
Vibration analysis based on surface acoustic wave sensors
Gnadinger Alfred P.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available It is important to know, whether a civil engineering structure is safe or unsafe. One way to determine this is to measure vibrations at critical locations and feeding this data into an appropriate algorithm. Albido Corporation has developed wireless strain sensors based on surface acoustic wave (SAW principles that are mainly employed on rotating structures and in harsh environments. Albido's sensors could also be used to measure vibrations in civil engineering structures. They are small (~1 × 3 mm, passive and inexpensive (< 1$ in volume. They are powered by the electromagnetic field emanating from the antenna of a Reader System, similar to an RFID. The Reader System is essentially a computer with special software and has signal processing capability. One Reader System can service a multitude of sensors. The Reader antenna has to be within the reading range of the sensor. If large distances are required, a small electronic component acting as a Reader System can be placed within the reading range of the sensor that receives the sensor signal, generates a radio signal and encodes the sensor information on the radio signal. Then, the final data processing center can be placed anywhere.
REN Lin; MAO Zhihua; HUANG Haiqing; GONG Fang
2010-01-01
Some missions have been carried out to measure wave directional spectrum by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and airborne real aperture radar (RAR) at a low incidence. Both them have their own advantages and limitations. Scientists hope that SAR and satellite-based RAR can complement each other for the research on wave properties in the future. For this study, the authors aim to simulate the satellite-based RAR system to validate performance for measuring the directional wave spectrum. The principal measurements are introduced and the simulation methods based on the one developed by Hauser are adopted and slightly modified. To enhance the authenticity of input spectrum and the wave spectrum measuring consistency for SAR and satellite-based RAR, the wave height spectrum inversed from Envisat ASAR data by cross spectrum technology is used as the input spectrum of the simulation system. In the process of simulation, the sea surface, backscattering signal, modulation spectrum and the estimated wave height spectrum are simulated in each look direction. Directional wave spectrum are measured based on the simulated observations from 0° to 360~. From the estimated wave spectrum, it has an 180° ambiguity like SAR, but it has no special high wave number cut off in all the direction. Finally, the estimated spectrum is compared with the input one in terms of the dominant wave wavelength, direction and SWH and the results are promising. The simulation shows that satellite-based RAR should be capable of measuring the directional wave properties. Moreover, it indicates satellite-based RAR basically can measure waves that SAR can measure.
Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method
Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)
2014-02-12
This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.
Seismic Response to Sonic Boom-Coupled Rayleigh Waves
1990-06-28
microtremor measurements carried out by Instituto de Ingenieria , UNAM and scientists from Japan (for a total of 181 sites). Using this data and the natural... Ingenieria , LINAM. Using this new data and results from the analysis of previous accelerograms we present spectral ratios at 40 sites in the valley of...Esteves. J. M., 1978, Control of vibration caused by blasting: Laboratorio National De Engenharia Civil , Lisboa, Portugal, Memoria 498. Ewing, W. M
Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots
Rad, M. Torabi; Kotas, Petr; Beckermann, C.
2013-01-01
A Rayleigh number-based criterion is developed for predicting the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available experimental data for ingots involving 27 different steel compositions. The critical Rayleigh number above which A-segregates can...... be expected to form is found to be 17 ± 8. The primary source of uncertainty in this critical value is the dendrite arm spacing. The Rayleigh number criterion of the current study is implemented in a casting simulation code and used to predict A-segregates in three case studies involving steel sand castings......, the primary reason for this over-prediction is persumed to be the presence of a central zone of equiaxed grains in the casting sections. A-segregates do not form when the grain structure is equiaxed. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013...
Mie-Rayleigh Doppler Wind Lidar with Two Double-edge Interferometers
孙东松
2002-01-01
The Mie-Rayleigh direct detection Doppler lidar (DDDL) with two double-edge etalons is presented. Fabry-Perot (F-P) etalon is used as the spectral analyzer for Doppler measurement formthe aerosol and molecule backscattered signals. The aerosol and molecular backscattering signals are separated by a polarization isolator with less signal decrement, so this system has about same accuracy as individual Rayleigh Doppler lidar or Mie Doppler lidar system. The simulation on a proposed ground-based DDDL at 532 nm shows that the velocity error is less than 2 m/s below 8 km for a 100 m vertical resolution by Mie channel and 2m/s up to 20 km by Rayleigh channel, respectively.
A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein’s general...
Characteristics and method of synthesis seismic wave based on wavelet reconstruction
ZOU Li-hua; LIU Ai-ping; YANG Hong; CHAI Xin-jian; SHANG Xin; DAI Su-liang; DONG Bo
2007-01-01
A novel method of synthesizing seismic wave using wavelet reconstruction is proposed and compared with the traditional method of using theory of Fourier transform. By adjusting the frequency band energy and taking it as criterion, the formula of synthesizing seismic wave is deduced. Using the design parameters specified in Chinese Seismic Design Code for buildings, seismic waves are synthesized. Moreover, the method of selecting wavelet bases in synthesizing seismic wave and the influence of the damping ratio on synthesizing results are analyzed.The results show that the synthesis seismic waves using wavelet bases can represent the characteristics of the seismic wave as well as the ground characteristic period, and have good time-frequency non-stationary.
Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors
John G. Baker
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10^{-5} – 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.
Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Gair, Jonathan R; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G
2012-01-01
We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ~0.01mHz - 1Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.
Testing General Relativity with Low-Frequency, Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Gair, Jonathan R; Vallisneri, Michele; Larson, Shane L; Baker, John G
2013-01-01
We review the tests of general relativity that will become possible with space-based gravitational-wave detectors operating in the ∼ 10(-5) - 1 Hz low-frequency band. The fundamental aspects of gravitation that can be tested include the presence of additional gravitational fields other than the metric; the number and tensorial nature of gravitational-wave polarization states; the velocity of propagation of gravitational waves; the binding energy and gravitational-wave radiation of binaries, and therefore the time evolution of binary inspirals; the strength and shape of the waves emitted from binary mergers and ringdowns; the true nature of astrophysical black holes; and much more. The strength of this science alone calls for the swift implementation of a space-based detector; the remarkable richness of astrophysics, astronomy, and cosmology in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band make the case even stronger.
Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.
Optimizing Spectral Wave Estimates with Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps
2014-02-18
forecasts of nearshore wave conditions are important to a diverse constituency, including vacation destinations such as Miami Beach or San Diego, coastal...a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 18 FEB 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...Sensitivity maps for wave spectra For any type of adjoint, sensitivity maps may be constructed from adjoint output to track the response of system properties
Integrated photonic threshold comparator based on square-wave synthesis.
Ehrlichman, Yossef; Amrani, Ofer; Ruschin, Shlomo
2013-06-17
A photonic threshold comparator is presented. A step-like electrical-to-optical (E/O) response is obtained by employing Fourier series synthesis in which a set of sine-wave responses of different amplitudes and phases are superimposed according to the Fourier series representation of a square-wave. The proposed comparator does not rely on optical material non-linearity; rather it consists of multimode interference (MMI) couplers and phase shifters.
Linking Rayleigh-Rice theory with near linear shift invariance in light scattering phenomena
Stover, John C.; Schroeder, Sven; Staats, Chris; Lopushenko, Vladimir; Church, Eugene
2016-09-01
Understanding topographic scatter has been the subject of many publications. For optically smooth surfaces that scatter only from roughness (and not from contamination, films or bulk defects) the Rayleigh-Rice relationship resulting from a rigorous electromagnetic treatment has been successfully used for over three decades and experimentally proven at wavelengths ranging from the X-Ray to the far infrared (even to radar waves). The "holy grail" of roughness-induced scatter would be a relationship that is not limited to just optically smooth surfaces, but could be used for any surface where the material optical constants and the surface power spectral density function (PSD) are known. Just input these quantities and calculate the BRDF associated with any source incident angle, wavelength and polarization. This is an extremely challenging problem, but that has not stopped a number of attempts. An intuitive requirement on such general relationships is that they must reduce to the simple Rayleigh-Rice formula for sufficiently smooth surfaces. Unfortunately that does not always happen. Because most optically smooth surfaces also scatter from non-topographic features, doubt creeps in about the accuracy of Rayleigh-Rice. This paper investigates these issues and explains some of the confusion generated in recent years. The authors believe there are measurement issues, scatter source issues and rough surface derivation issues, but that Rayleigh- Rice is accurate as formulated and should not be "corrected." Moreover, it will be shown that the empirically observed near shift invariance of surface scatter phenomena is a direct consequence of the Rayleigh-Rice theory.
Jian Guangde; Huang Lin; Qiu Xiaoming
2005-01-01
The assembling stabilizing effect of the finite Larmor radius (FLR) and the sheared axial flow (SAF) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions is studied by means of the incompressible finite Larmor radius magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The finite Larmor radius effects are introduced in the momentum equation with the sheared axial flow through an anisotropic ion stress tensor. In this paper a linear mode equation is derived that is valid for arbitrary kL, where k is the wave number and L is the plasma shell thickness. Numerical solutions are presented. The results indicate that the short-wavelength modes of the RayleighTaylor instability are easily stabilized by the individual effect of the finite Larmor radius or the sheared axial flow. The assembling effects of the finite Larmor radius and sheared axial flow can heavily mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and the unstable region can be compressed considerably.
Elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced noise in fibre Michelson interferometers
Marrone, M. J.; Kersey, A. D.; Villarruel, C. A.; Kirkendall, C. K.; Dandridge, A.
1992-09-01
Attention is given to a technique for the elimination of coherent Rayleigh backscatter induced phase noise in remotely addressed Michelson interferometer systems. The technique, which allows high sensitivity measurements over long input/output fiber leads, is based on the use of commercial polarization insensitive isolators and is completely passive in its operation. Faraday-rotator and mirror devices for the reflectors in the Michelson interferometer are used to demonstrate a practical fiber sensor configuration for remote applications that is both free of polarization-induced signal fading and insensitive to Rayleigh backscattering effects.
Three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis of implosion system with scientific animation
Sakagami, Hitoshi [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)
1999-05-01
A fully three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the pusher-fuel contact surface in spherically stagnating systems has been investigated. Scientific color animations were rendered and constructed from the simulation results. At first, the rendering algorithm for an isovalue surface is discussed, and then the construction methods for scientific color animation are summarized by comparing analog based animation systems and digital ones. It is showed that the nonlinear dynamics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are characterized by vortex rings that are induced in bubble-spike structures with the use of scientific animation analysis. (author)
Rayleigh x-ray scattering from many-electron atoms and ions
Surzhykov, A.; Yerokhin, V. A.; Stöhlker, Th; Fritzsche, S.
2015-07-01
A theoretical analysis is presented for the elastic Rayleigh scattering of x-rays by many-electron atoms and ions. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and linear polarization of the scattered photons for the case when the incident light is completely (linearly) polarized. Based on second-order perturbation theory and the independent particle approximation, we found that the Rayleigh angular distribution is strongly affected by the charge state and shell structure of the target ions or atoms. This effect can be observed experimentally at modern synchrotron facilities and might provide further insight into the structure of heavy atomic systems.
Ramos, I C
2015-01-01
We present the adaptation to non--free boundary conditions of a pseudospectral method based on the (complex) Fourier transform. The method is applied to the numerical integration of the Oberbeck--Boussinesq equations in a Rayleigh--B\\'enard cell with no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and Dirichlet boundary conditions for temperature. We show the first results of a 2D numerical simulation of dry air convection at high Rayleigh number ($R\\sim10^9$). These results are the basis for the later study, by the same method, of wet convection in a solar still.
Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based...
Hobiger, Manuel; Cornou, Cécile; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Le Bihan, Nicolas; Imperatori, Walter
2016-10-01
We introduce the MUSIQUE algorithm and apply it to seismic wavefield recordings in California. The algorithm is designed to analyse seismic signals recorded by arrays of three-component seismic sensors. It is based on the MUSIC and the quaternion-MUSIC algorithms. In a first step, the MUSIC algorithm is applied in order to estimate the backazimuth and velocity of incident seismic waves and to discriminate between Love and possible Rayleigh waves. In a second step, the polarization parameters of possible Rayleigh waves are analysed using quaternion-MUSIC, distinguishing retrograde and prograde Rayleigh waves and determining their ellipticity. In this study, we apply the MUSIQUE algorithm to seismic wavefield recordings of the San Jose Dense Seismic Array. This array has been installed in 1999 in the Evergreen Basin, a sedimentary basin in the Eastern Santa Clara Valley. The analysis includes 22 regional earthquakes with epicentres between 40 and 600 km distant from the array and covering different backazimuths with respect to the array. The azimuthal distribution and the energy partition of the different surface wave types are analysed. Love waves dominate the wavefield for the vast majority of the events. For close events in the north, the wavefield is dominated by the first harmonic mode of Love waves, for farther events, the fundamental mode dominates. The energy distribution is different for earthquakes occurring northwest and southeast of the array. In both cases, the waves crossing the array are mostly arriving from the respective hemicycle. However, scattered Love waves arriving from the south can be seen for all earthquakes. Combining the information of all events, it is possible to retrieve the Love wave dispersion curves of the fundamental and the first harmonic mode. The particle motion of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves is retrograde and for the first harmonic mode, it is prograde. For both modes, we can also retrieve dispersion and ellipticity
Temperature-compensated Love wave based gas sensor on waveguide structure of SiO2/36° YX LiTaO3
Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; Chen, Gui; Liu, Jiuling; He, Shitang
2015-06-01
A temperature-compensated Love wave device was proposed for gas sensing utilizing a waveguide structure of SiO2/36° YX LiTaO3. Significant improvement in the temperature stability of the hybrid Love wave device was implemented by varying the guiding layer thickness. The optimal values yielding low cross-sensitivity to temperature and high mass sensitivity in gas sorption were determined theoretically by solving the coupled electromechanical field equation in layered media. The theoretical analysis was confirmed experimentally in dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) detection by using a fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane (SXFA) coated Love wave sensor. The experimental results indicate that better sensitivity and excellent temperature stability were obtained from the developed Love wave gas sensor over the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (R-SAW) sensors.
无
2000-01-01
A new approach of all optical wavelength converter based on four wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the conjugate wave reflected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and then amplified by the SOA is reported. By adjusting the pump power, the conversion efficiency could be improved 7～10dB with signal-to-background-noise-ratio (SBR) deteriorated 1～2dB, compared with traditional single pump four wave mixing.
Mode Selective Actuator-Sensor System for Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring
Schmidt, Daniel; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael
2014-01-01
International audience; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Lamb waves, a type of ultrasonic guided waves, is a promising method for in-service inspection of composite structures. In this study mode selective actuators and sensors are investigated to excite a particular Lamb wave mode in composite plates. The actuator and sensor exhibit an interdigital transducer design. In order to describe the complex displacement fields of
Rayleigh length dependent SHG conversion at 488nm using a monolithic DBR tapered diode laser
Blume, G.; Uebernickel, M.; Fiebig, C.; Paschke, K.; Ginolas, A.; Eppich, B.; Güther, R.; Erbert, G.
2008-02-01
We present a study of the single pass SHG conversion as a function of the Rayleigh length (RL) and beam diameter (BD) using a monolithic distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tapered laser. The DBR tapered laser has a 6th order surface grating and a ridge waveguide. Single longitudinal mode emission at 978nm with a side-mode suppression ratio of more than 40dB and at an output power of 2.7W at 15°C have been obtained in continuous wave operation. The beam was collimated using an aspheric and a cylindrical lens and focused using a variety of lenses with various focal lengths. The resulting caustics were acquired using a camera and used for SHG in a 5cm periodically poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN) crystal. This allowed an investigation of the dependency of the SHG conversion efficiency on the RLs and BDs. We obtained 330mW of output power at 488nm using the optimal focus length. The experiments showed that an optimum conversion requires longer focal length's then forecasted by Boyd-Kleinman's theory, which is explained due to the partial coherence. We developed an extension of that theory to account for that partial coherence, which bases in principle on a mismatch related general Agrawal's nonlinear integration kernel. We use this theory to explain the dependence of the SHG efficiency from the beam propagation factor M2.
Yeck, William L.
2017-02-15
We present azimuthally anisotropic Rayleigh group velocity models from 8 - 35 s both offshore and onshore of the South Island of New Zealand. We use MOANA (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa) broadband ocean seismic data in combination with on land data from the New Zealand National Seismography Network (NZNSN) to investigate the seismic structure of the flanks of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary. At 8 s, we observe low offshore group velocities best explained by the influence of the water layer and thick water-laden sediments. At long periods (20-30 s), group velocities are lower on the South Island relative to its offshore flanks, due to thickened crust beneath the island, with the lowest velocities primarily beneath the Southern Alps. Group velocity azimuthal anisotropy fast directions near the Alpine Fault align with the direction of relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates. In the southern portion of the island, fast directions rotate anticlockwise, likely in response to a decrease in dextral shearing away from the plate boundary. Azimuthal anisotropy fast directions align with absolute plate motion offshore on the Pacific plate. Based on the depth sensitivity of our observations, we suggest diffuse deformation occurs throughout the crust. Our observations match trends in previous Pn anisotropy and SKS shear wave splitting observations, and therefore suggest a consistent pattern of distributed deformation throughout the lithosphere.
Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors
Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev
2017-02-01
Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.