WorldWideScience

Sample records for rayleigh wave energy

  1. Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order functions.

  2. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  3. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  4. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  5. Subsonic leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

    2002-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces close to the border of the existence domain of these modes. The real and complex roots of the secular equation are computed for interface waves at the boundary between water and a binary isotropic alloy of gold and silver with continuously variable composition. The change of composition of the alloy allows one to cross a critical velocity for the existence of leaky waves. It is shown that, contrary to popular opinion, the critical velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity of bulk waves in liquid. The true threshold velocity is found to be smaller, the correction being of about 1.45%. Attention is also drawn to the fact that using the real part of the complex phase velocity as a velocity of leaky waves gives only approximate value. The most interesting feature of the waves under consideration is the presence of energy leakage in the subsonic range of the phase velocities where, at first glance, any radiation by harmonic waves is not permitted. A simple physical explanation of this radiation with due regard for inhomogeneity of radiated and radiating waves is given. The controversial question of the existence of leaky Rayleigh waves at a water/ice interface is reexamined. It is shown that the solution considered previously as a leaky wave is in fact the solution of the bulk-wave-reflection problem for inhomogeneous waves.

  6. Rayleigh wave effects in an elastic half-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of Rayleigh wave effects in a homogeneous isotropic linearly elastic half-space subject to an impulsive uniform disk pressure loading. An approximate formula is obtained for the Rayleigh wave effects. It is shown that the Rayleigh waves near the center of loading arise from the portion of the dilatational and shear waves moving toward the axis, after they originate at the edge of the load disk. A study is made of the vertical displacement due to Rayleigh waves at points on the axis near the surface of the elastic half-space.

  7. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  8. Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.

  9. Role of Shape and Numbers of Ridges and Valleys in the Insulating Effects of Topography on the Rayleigh Wave Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, J. P.; Kumar, Neeraj; Chauhan, Ranu

    2018-03-01

    This research work is inspired by the recently accepted concept that high frequency Rayleigh waves are generated in the epicentral zone of shallow earthquakes. Such high frequency Rayleigh waves with large amplitude may develop much of spatial variability in ground motion which in turn may cause unexpected damage to long-span structures like bridges, underground pipelines, dams, etc., in the hilly regions. Further, it has been reported that topography acts as an insulator for the Rayleigh waves (Ma et al. BSSA 97:2066-2079, 2007). The above mentioned scientific developments stimulated to quantify the role of shape and number of ridges and valleys falling in the path of Rayleigh wave in the insulating effect of topography on the Rayleigh waves. The simulated results reveals very large amplification of the horizontal component of Rayleigh wave near the top of a triangular ridge which may cause intensive landslides under favorable condition. The computed snapshots of the wave-field of Rayleigh wave reveals that the interaction of Rayleigh wave with the topography causes reflection, splitting, and diffraction of Rayleigh wave in the form of body waves which in turn provides the insulating capacity to the topography. Insulating effects of single valley is more than that of single ridge. Further this effect was more in case of elliptical ridge/valley than triangular ridge/valley. The insulating effect of topography was proportional to the frequency of Rayleigh wave and the number of ridges and valleys in the string. The obtained level of insulation effects of topography on the Rayleigh wave (energy of Rayleigh wave reduced to less than 4% after crossing a topography of span 4.5 km) calls for the consideration of role of hills and valleys in seismic hazard prediction, particularly in case of shallow earthquakes.

  10. On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.

    1976-12-01

    A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)

  11. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  12. Effects of shock waves on Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongtao; Shu Chiwang; Zhou Ye

    2006-01-01

    A numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference shock capturing scheme is carried out in this paper, to study the effect of shock waves on the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Shocks with different Mach numbers are introduced ahead or behind the Rayleigh-Taylor interface, and their effect on the transition to instability is demonstrated and compared. It is observed that shock waves can speed up the transition to instability for the Rayleigh-Taylor interface significantly. Stronger shocks are more effective in this speed-up process

  13. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-01-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime

  14. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  15. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  16. Rayleigh waves in elastic medium with double porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh KUMAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the propagation of Rayleigh waves in isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space with double porosity whose surface is subjected to stress-free boundary conditions. The compact secular equations for elastic solid half-space with voids are deduced as special cases from the present analysis. In order to illustrate the analytical developments, the secular equations have been solved numerically. The computer simulated results for copper materials in respect of Rayleigh wave velocity and attenuation coe¢ cient have been presented graphically.

  17. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  18. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  19. Resonance scattering of Rayleigh waves by a mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, M.; Grecu, D.

    1978-06-01

    The resonance scattering of an incident Rayleigh wave by a mass defect extending over a small cylindrical region situated in the surface of a semi-infinite isotropic, elastic medium is investigated by means of the Green's function method. The form of the differential cross-section for the scattering into different channels exhibits a strong resonance phenomenon at two frequencies. The expression of the resonance frequencies as well as of the corresponding widths depends on the relative change in mass density. The main assumption that the wavelengths of incoming and scattered wave are large compared to the defect dimension implies a large relative mass-density change. (author)

  20. Direction dependent Love and Rayleigh wave noise characteristics using multiple arrays across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, Carina; Perleth, Magdalena; Hadziioannou, Celine

    2016-04-01

    Seismic noise has become an important signal source for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism band is still limited. This applies in particular for constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the different polarized wave types in the primary and secondary microseism noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured and a dependence on direction is found, especially in the primary microseism band. Estimates of the kinetic energy density ratios propose a dominance of coherent Love waves in the primary, but not in the secondary microseism band. The seasonality of the noise field characteristics is examined by using a full year of data in 2013 and is found to be stable.

  1. Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments

  2. Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sanny

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.

  3. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-01-21

    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  4. Generation of Rayleigh waves into mortar and concrete samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwakowski, B; Fnine, Abdelilah; Goueygou, M; Buyle-Bodin, F

    2004-04-01

    The paper deals with a non-destructive method for characterizing the degraded cover of concrete structures using high-frequency ultrasound. In a preliminary study, the authors emphasized on the interest of using higher frequency Rayleigh waves (within the 0.2-1 MHz frequency band) for on-site inspection of concrete structures with subsurface damage. The present study represents a continuation of the previous work and aims at optimizing the generation and reception of Rayleigh waves into mortar and concrete be means of wedge transducers. This is performed experimentally by checking the influence of the wedge material and coupling agent on the surface wave parameters. The selection of the best combination wedge/coupling is performed by searching separately for the best wedge material and the best coupling material. Three wedge materials and five coupling agents were tested. For each setup the five parameters obtained from the surface wave measurement i.e. the frequency band, the maximal available central frequency, the group velocity error and its standard deviation and finally the error in velocity dispersion characteristic were investigated and classed as a function of the wedge material and the coupling agent. The selection criteria were chosen so as to minimize the absorption of both materials, the randomness of measurements and the systematic error of the group velocity and of dispersion characteristic. Among the three tested wedge materials, Teflon was found to be the best. The investigation on the coupling agent shows that the gel type materials are the best solutions. The "thick" materials displaying higher viscosity were found as the worst. The results show also that the use of a thin plastic film combined with the coupling agent even increases the bandwidth and decreases the uncertainty of measurements.

  5. On Rayleigh waves in a thinly layered laminated thermoelastic medium with stress couples under initial stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pijush Pal Roy

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the propagation of Rayleigh waves in a thinly layered laminated thermoelastic medium under deviatoric, hydrostatic, and couple stresses. The frequency equation of the Rayleigh waves is obtained. The phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves depends on the initial stress, deviatoric stress, and the couple stress. The laminated medium is first replaced by an equivalent anisotropic thermoelastic continuum. The corresponding thermoelastic coefficients (after deformation are derived in terms of initially isotropic thermoelastic coefficients (before deformation of individual layers. Several particular cases are discussed for the determination of the displacement fields with or without the effect of the couple stress.

  6. A Numerical Model for Prediction of Residual Stress Using Rayleigh Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Mao Dan; Kang, To; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a numerical model is proposed for the relation between the magnitudes and the depth residual stress with the velocity of Rayleigh wave. Three cases, stress-free, uniform stress and layered stress, are investigated for the change tendency of the Rayleigh wave speed. Using the simulated signal with variation of residual stress magnitude and depth, investigation of the parameters for fitting residual stress and velocity change are performed. The speed change of Rayleigh wave shows a linear relation with the magnitude and an exponential relation with the depth of residual stress. The combination of these two effects could be used for the depth profile evaluation of the residual stress

  7. Rayleigh Waves in a Rotating Orthotropic Micropolar Elastic Solid Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem on Rayleigh wave in a rotating half-space of an orthotropic micropolar material is considered. The governing equations are solved for surface wave solutions in the half space of the material. These solutions satisfy the boundary conditions at free surface of the half-space to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. For numerical purpose, the frequency equation is approximated. The nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed and shown graphically versus nondimensional frequency and rotation-frequency ratio for both orthotropic micropolar elastic and isotropic micropolar elastic cases. The numerical results show the effects of rotation, orthotropy, and nondimensional frequency on the nondimensional speed of the Rayleigh wave.

  8. Quantitative use of Rayleigh waves to locate and size subsurface holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic inspection method is used to obtain the circumference of a subsurface hole and the depth of the hole below the surface. A pitch-catch Rayleigh wave transducer set-up was used to launch a Rayleigh surface wave at the flaw and to capture and record the scattered waves. The frequency spectrum of the scattered waves can be used to obtain the depth of the hole. The ligament of material between the hole and the surface is sent into resonance, and this feature can be extracted from the scattered waves' frequency spectrum. The frequency is a function of the ligament length; thus the hole depth can be obtained. The circumference of the hole is found from a time of flight measurement. A Rayleigh wave is formed that travels around the hole's surface. The length of time required for the wave to travel around the hole is a measure of the circumference

  9. Wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))

    1988-10-01

    An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).

  10. Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness

  11. Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2007-01-01

    Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness

  12. Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave Ambient Seismic Noise Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh waves on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love waves on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh wave EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh waves alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love waves are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh waves; thus exploitation of Love wave EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love waves to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love wave EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh waves. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh wave EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.

  13. Measurement of Rayleigh Wave Beams Using Angle Beam Wedge Transducers as the Transmitter and Receiver with Consideration of Beam Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Jeong, Hyunjo

    2017-06-20

    A theoretical model, along with experimental verification, is developed to describe the generation, propagation and reception of a Rayleigh wave using angle beam wedge transducers. The Rayleigh wave generation process using an angle beam wedge transducer is analyzed, and the actual Rayleigh wave sound source distributions are evaluated numerically. Based on the reciprocity theorem and considering the actual sound source, the Rayleigh wave beams are modeled using an area integral method. The leaky Rayleigh wave theory is introduced to investigate the reception of the Rayleigh wave using the angle beam wedge transducers, and the effects of the wave spreading in the wedge and transducer size are considered in the reception process. The effects of attenuations of the Rayleigh wave and leaky Rayleigh wave are discussed, and the received wave results with different sizes of receivers are compared. The experiments are conducted using two angle beam wedge transducers to measure the Rayleigh wave, and the measurement results are compared with the predictions using different theoretical models. It is shown that the proposed model which considers the wave spreading in both the sample and wedges can be used to interpret the measurements reasonably.

  14. Sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and implications for surface wave inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, Michele

    2018-04-01

    The use of Rayleigh wave ellipticity has gained increasing popularity in recent years for investigating earth structures, especially for near-surface soil characterization. In spite of its widespread application, the sensitivity of the ellipticity function to the soil structure has been rarely explored in a comprehensive and systematic manner. To this end, a new analytical method is presented for computing the sensitivity of Rayleigh wave ellipticity with respect to the structural parameters of a layered elastic half-space. This method takes advantage of the minor decomposition of the surface wave eigenproblem and is numerically stable at high frequency. This numerical procedure allowed to retrieve the sensitivity for typical near surface and crustal geological scenarios, pointing out the key parameters for ellipticity interpretation under different circumstances. On this basis, a thorough analysis is performed to assess how ellipticity data can efficiently complement surface wave dispersion information in a joint inversion algorithm. The results of synthetic and real-world examples are illustrated to analyse quantitatively the diagnostic potential of the ellipticity data with respect to the soil structure, focusing on the possible sources of misinterpretation in data inversion.

  15. Feasibility of waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for shallow shear-wave velocity using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Tsoflias, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional surface wave inversion for shallow shear (S)-wave velocity relies on the generation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. This constrains the method to only laterally homogeneous (or very smooth laterally heterogeneous) earth models. Waveform inversion directly fits waveforms on seismograms, hence, does not have such a limitation. Waveforms of Rayleigh waves are highly related to S-wave velocities. By inverting the waveforms of Rayleigh waves on a near-surface seismogram, shallow S-wave velocities can be estimated for earth models with strong lateral heterogeneity. We employ genetic algorithm (GA) to perform waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for S-wave velocities. The forward problem is solved by finite-difference modeling in the time domain. The model space is updated by generating offspring models using GA. Final solutions can be found through an iterative waveform-fitting scheme. Inversions based on synthetic records show that the S-wave velocities can be recovered successfully with errors no more than 10% for several typical near-surface earth models. For layered earth models, the proposed method can generate one-dimensional S-wave velocity profiles without the knowledge of initial models. For earth models containing lateral heterogeneity in which case conventional dispersion-curve-based inversion methods are challenging, it is feasible to produce high-resolution S-wave velocity sections by GA waveform inversion with appropriate priori information. The synthetic tests indicate that the GA waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves has the great potential for shallow S-wave velocity imaging with the existence of strong lateral heterogeneity. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Multimode rayleigh wave inversion for heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy of the Australian upper mantle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.-P.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Montagner, F.J.,; Zielhuis, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present an azimuthally anisotropic 3-D shear-wave speed model of the Australian upper mantle obtained from the dispersion of fundamental and higher modes of Rayleigh waves.We compare two tomographic techniques to map path-average earth models into a 3-D model for heterogeneity and azimuthal

  17. Characteristics of Love and Rayleigh waves in ambient noise: wavetype ratio, source location and seasonal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, C.; Perleth, M.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has become an important source of signal for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about the common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism bands is still limited. This applies in particular to constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the differently polarized wave types present in the noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. The focus lies on frequencies around the primary and secondary microseismic bands. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured at each array, and a dependence on direction is observed. We constrain the corresponding source regions of both wave types by backprojection. By using a full year of data in 2013, we are able to track the seasonal changes in our observations of Love-to-Rayleigh ratio and source locations.

  18. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  19. The Influence of Material Properties on the Behaviour of Rayleigh Edge Waves in Thin Orthotropic Media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červ, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 5 (2008), s. 762-772 ISSN 1970-8734 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : rayleigh edge waves * elastic orthotropic material * plane state of stress Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  20. Ultrasonic wave propagation through aberrating layers: experimental verification of the conjugate gradient Rayleigh method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, L.A.F.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.

    The Conjugate Gradient Rayleigh method for the calculation of acoustic reflection and transmission at a rough interface between two media was experimentally verified. The method is based on a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique and plane-wave expansions. We measured the beam

  1. Imaging of underground karst water channels using an improved multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuhui; Liu, Lei; Sun, Jinzhong; Li, Gao; Zhou, Fubiao; Xu, Jiemin

    2018-01-01

    Geological and hydrogeological conditions in karst areas are complicated from the viewpoint of engineering. The construction of underground structures in these areas is often disturbed by the gushing of karst water, which may delay the construction schedule, result in economic losses, and even cause heavy casualties. In this paper, an innovative method of multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting is proposed by introducing the concept of arrival time difference phase between channels (TDP). Overcoming the restriction of the space-sampling law, the proposed method can extract the phase velocities of different frequency components from only two channels of transient Rayleigh wave recorded on two adjacent detecting points. This feature greatly improves the work efficiency and lateral resolution of transient Rayleigh wave detecting. The improved multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting method is applied to the detection of karst caves and fractures in rock mass of the foundation pit of Yan'an Road Station of Guiyang Metro. The imaging of the detecting results clearly reveals the distribution of karst water inflow channels, which provided significant guidance for water plugging and enabled good control over karst water gushing in the foundation pit.

  2. Determination of Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes for Earthquakes and Explosions and Other Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-30

    09-C-0012 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, Dale Anderson, Jonathan...AND RAYLEIGH-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR EARTHQUAKES AND EXPLOSIONS Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, and Dale Anderson INTRODUCTION Since...MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION: APPLICATION TO MIDDLE EAST EARTHQUAKE DATA Anastasia Stroujkova and Jessie Bonner Weston Geophysical Corporation

  3. 3-component beamforming analysis of ambient seismic noise field for Love and Rayleigh wave source directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juretzek, Carina; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2014-05-01

    Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves observed in the microseism band of the ambient seismic noise field is still limited, including the understanding of source locations and source mechanisms. Multi-component array methods are suitable to address this issue. In this work we use a 3-component beamforming algorithm to obtain source directions and polarization states of the ambient seismic noise field within the primary and secondary microseism bands recorded at the Gräfenberg array in southern Germany. The method allows to distinguish between different polarized waves present in the seismic noise field and estimates Love and Rayleigh wave source directions and their seasonal variations using one year of array data. We find mainly coinciding directions for the strongest acting sources of both wave types at the primary microseism and different source directions at the secondary microseism.

  4. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  5. Phase dispersion of Raman and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixings in femtosecond polarization beats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhao; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Chen-Li, Gan; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay. Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material. Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have also been investigated, separately

  6. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara; Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Zulhan, Zulfakriza; Saygin, Erdinc

    2015-01-01

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps

  7. The preliminary results: Seismic ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography around Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trichandi, Rahmantara, E-mail: rachmantara.tri@gmail.com [Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 40132, Bandung (Indonesia); Yudistira, Tedi; Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Zulhan, Zulfakriza [Earth Science Graduate Program, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Saygin, Erdinc [Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-24

    Ambient noise tomography is relatively a new method for imaging the shallow structure of the Earth subsurface. We presents the application of this method to produce a Rayleigh wave group velocity maps around the Merapi Volcano, Central Java. Rayleigh waves group velocity maps were reconstructed from the cross-correlation of ambient noise recorded by the DOMERAPI array which consists 43 broadband seismometers. In the processing stage, we first filtered the observation data to separatethe noise from the signal that dominated by the strong volcanic activities. Next, we cross-correlate the filtered data and stack to obtain the Green’s function for all possible station pairs. Then we carefully picked the peak of each Green’s function to estimate the dispersion trend and appliedMultiple Filter Technique to obtain the dispersion curve. Inter-station group velocity curvesare inverted to produceRayleigh wave group velocity maps for periods 1 to 10 s. The resulted Rayleigh group velocity maps show the interesting features around the Merapi Volcano which generally agree with the previous studies. Merapi-Lawu Anomaly (MLA) is emerged as a relatively low anomaly in our group velocity maps.

  8. Simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and airglow measurements of middle atmospheric waves over low latitudes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, A.; Kamalakar, V.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We utilize simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and mesospheric OH and O2 airglow measurements to identify the dominant and propagating waves within 40-95 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Gadanki (13.8° N, 79.2 °E). It is found that waves with 0.4-0.6 h periodicity are common throughout the altitude range of 40-95 km with significant amplitudes. The ground based temperature measurements with lidar and airglow monitoring are found to compare well with SABER data. With simultaneous Rayleigh lidar (temperature) and mesospheric airglow (emission intensity and temperature) measurements, we estimate the amplitude growth and Krassovsky parameters to characterize the propagation and dissipation of these upward propagating waves.

  9. Welding induced residual stress evaluation using laser-generated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chong; Zhou, Yuanlai; Reddy, Vishnu V. B.; Mebane, Aaron; Ume, I. Charles

    2018-04-01

    Welding induced residual stress could affect the dimensional stability, fatigue life, and chemical resistance of the weld joints. Ultrasonic method serves as an important non-destructive tool for the residual stress evaluation due to its easy implementation, low cost and wide application to different materials. Residual stress would result in the ultrasonic wave velocity variation, which is the so called acoustoelastic effect. In this paper, Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was proposed to experimentally study the relative velocity variation ΔV/V of Rayleigh wave, which has the potential to evaluate surface/subsurface longitudinal residual stress developed during the Gas Metal Arc Welding process. Broad band ultrasonic waves were excited by pulsed Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) attached to the welded plates was used to capture the Rayleigh wave signals propagating along the weld seam direction. Different time of flight measurements were conducted by varying the distance between the weld seam and Rayleigh wave propagating path in the range of 0 to 45 mm. The maximum relative velocity difference was found on the weld seam. With the increasing distance away from the weld seam, the relative velocity difference sharply decreased to negative value. With further increase in distance, the relative velocity difference slowly increased and approached zero. The distribution of relative velocity variations indicates that tensile stress appears in the melted zone as it becomes compressive near the heat-affected zone.

  10. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel construction using Rayleigh-waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jetschny, Stefan; De Nil, Denise; Bohlen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. We developed a new forward looking seismic imaging technique e.g. to determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of tunnel surface-waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the fr...

  11. Nonlinear Rayleigh wave inversion based on the shuffled frog-leaping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Dun-Shi; Qin, Xiao-Jun

    2017-12-01

    At present, near-surface shear wave velocities are mainly calculated through Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversions in engineering surface investigations, but the required calculations pose a highly nonlinear global optimization problem. In order to alleviate the risk of falling into a local optimal solution, this paper introduces a new global optimization method, the shuffle frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA), into the Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversion process. SFLA is a swarm-intelligence-based algorithm that simulates a group of frogs searching for food. It uses a few parameters, achieves rapid convergence, and is capability of effective global searching. In order to test the reliability and calculation performance of SFLA, noise-free and noisy synthetic datasets were inverted. We conducted a comparative analysis with other established algorithms using the noise-free dataset, and then tested the ability of SFLA to cope with data noise. Finally, we inverted a real-world example to examine the applicability of SFLA. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrated the effectiveness of SFLA in the interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. We found that SFLA is superior to the established methods in terms of both reliability and computational efficiency, so it offers great potential to improve our ability to solve geophysical inversion problems.

  12. Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.

  13. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torello, David [GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States); Qu, Jianmin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); Jacobs, Laurence J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech and GW Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  14. Distribution of base rock depth estimated from Rayleigh wave measurement by forced vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Hibino; Toshiro Maeda; Chiaki Yoshimura; Yasuo Uchiyama

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows an application of Rayleigh wave methods to a real site, which was performed to determine spatial distribution of base rock depth from the ground surface. At a certain site in Sagami Plain in Japan, the base rock depth from surface is assumed to be distributed up to 10 m according to boring investigation. Possible accuracy of the base rock depth distribution has been needed for the pile design and construction. In order to measure Rayleigh wave phase velocity, forced vibration tests were conducted with a 500 N vertical shaker and linear arrays of three vertical sensors situated at several points in two zones around the edges of the site. Then, inversion analysis was carried out for soil profile by genetic algorithm, simulating measured Rayleigh wave phase velocity with the computed counterpart. Distribution of the base rock depth inverted from the analysis was consistent with the roughly estimated inclination of the base rock obtained from the boring tests, that is, the base rock is shallow around edge of the site and gradually inclines towards the center of the site. By the inversion analysis, the depth of base rock was determined as from 5 m to 6 m in the edge of the site, 10 m in the center of the site. The determined distribution of the base rock depth by this method showed good agreement on most of the points where boring investigation were performed. As a result, it was confirmed that the forced vibration tests on the ground by Rayleigh wave methods can be useful as the practical technique for estimating surface soil profiles to a depth of up to 10 m. (authors)

  15. Rayleigh wave tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    2008/2009 The theory and methodology of ambient noise tomography has been studied and applied to North-China successfully. Continuous vertical-component seismograms, spanning the period from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 recorded by 190 broadband stations and 10 very broadband stations, have been used. The cross correlation technique has been applied to ambient noise data recorded by North-China Seismic Array for each station pairs of the array. Rayleigh wave group ve...

  16. High resolution Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Lihua; Wu Jianping; Ding Zhifeng; Panza, G.F.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography in North-China performed using ambient seismic noise observed at 190 broadband and 10 very broadband stations of the North-China Seismic Array. All available vertical component time-series for the 14 months span between January, 2007 and February, 2008 are cross-correlated to obtain empirical Rayleigh wave Green functions that are subsequently processed, with the multiple filter method, to isolate the group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh wave. Tomographic maps, with a grid spacing of 0.25 deg. x 0.25 deg., are computed at the periods of 4.5s, 12s, 20s, 28s. The maps at short periods reveal an evident lateral heterogeneity in the crust of North-China, quite well in agreement with known geological and tectonic features. The North China Basin is imaged as a broad low velocity area, while the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts and Ordos block are imaged as high velocity zones, and the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. The group velocity contours at 4.5s, 12s and 20s are consistent with the Bouguer gravity anomalies measured in the area of the Taihangshan fault, that cuts through the lower crust at least. Most of the historical strong earthquakes (M≥6.0) are located where the tomographic maps show zones with moderate velocity gradient. (author)

  17. Modeling and simulations of radiative blast wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimony, Assaf; Huntington, Channing M.; Trantham, Matthew; Malamud, Guy; Elbaz, Yonatan; Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Shvarts, Dov

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility measured the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor RT instabilities driven by radiative blast waves, relevant to astrophysics and other HEDP systems. We constructed a new Buoyancy-Drag (BD) model, which accounts for the ablation effect on both bubble and spike. This ablation effect is accounted for by using the potential flow model ]Oron et al PoP 1998], adding another term to the classical BD formalism: βDuA / u , where β the Takabe constant, D the drag term, uA the ablation velocity and uthe instability growth velocity. The model results are compared with the results of experiments and 2D simulations using the CRASH code, with nominal radiation or reduced foam opacity (by a factor of 1000). The ablation constant of the model, βb / s, for the bubble and for the spike fronts, are calibrated using the results of the radiative shock experiments. This work is funded by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Improved Holistic Analysis of Rayleigh Waves for Single- and Multi-Offset Data: Joint Inversion of Rayleigh-Wave Particle Motion and Vertical- and Radial-Component Velocity Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moustafa, S.S.R.; Al-Arifi, N.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 1 (2018), s. 67-88 ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface wave dispersion * joint inversion of seismic data * Rayleigh waves * holistic analysis of surface waves Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  19. Elastic properties of amorphous thin films studied by Rayleigh waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, R.B.; Rubin, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition in ultra-high vacuum was used to co-deposit nickel and zirconium onto quartz single crystals and grow amorphous Ni 1-x Zr x (0.1 < x < 0.87) thin film. A high-resolution surface acoustic wave technique was developed for in situ measurement of film shear moduli. The modulus has narrow maxima at x = 0. 17, 0.22, 0.43, 0.5, 0.63, and 0.72, reflecting short-range ordering and formation of aggregates in amorphous phase. It is proposed that the aggregates correspond to polytetrahedral atom arrangements limited in size by geometrical frustration

  20. Rayleigh-wave scattering by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila-Carrera, R; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A; Ortiz-Alemán, C; Sánchez-Sesma, F J

    2009-01-01

    The scattering and diffraction of Rayleigh waves by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are investigated. The detection of cracks is of interest because their presence may compromise structural elements, put technological devices at risk or represent economical potential in reservoir engineering. Shallow cracks may give rise to scattered body and surface waves. These waves are sensitive to the crack's geometry, size and orientation. Under certain conditions, amplitude spectra clearly show conspicuous resonances that are associated with trapped waves. Several applications based on the scattering of surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Stoneley waves), such as non-destructive testing or oil well exploration, have shown that the scattered fields may provide useful information to detect cracks and other heterogeneities. The subject is not new and several analytical and numerical techniques have been applied for the last 50 years to understand the basis of multiple scattering phenomena. In this work, we use the IBEM to calculate the scattered fields produced by single or multiple cracks near a free surface. This method is based upon an integral representation of the scattered displacement fields, which is derived from Somigliana's identity. Results are given in both frequency and time domains. The analyses of the displacement field using synthetic seismograms and snapshots reveal some important effects from various configurations of cracks. The study of these simple cases may provide an archetype to geoscientists and engineers to understand the fundamental aspects of multiple scattering and diffraction by cracks

  1. The propagation of nonlinear rayleigh waves in layered elastic half-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetolan, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the propagation of small but finite amplitude generalized Rayleigh waves in an elastic half-space covered by a different elastic layer of uniform and finite thickness is considered. The constituent materials are assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, compressible hyperelastic. Excluding the harmonic resonance phenomena, it is shown that the nonlinear self modulation of generalized Rayleigh waves is governed asymptotically by a nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. The stability of the solutions and the existence of solitary wave-type solutions a NLS are strongly depend on the sign of the product of the coefficients of the nonlinear and dipersion terms of the equation.Therefore the analysis continues with the examination of dependence of these coefficients on the nonlinear material parameters. Three different models have been considered which are nonlinear layer-nonlinear half space, linear layer-nonlinear half space and nonlinear layer-linear half space. The behavior of the coefficients of the NLS equation was also analyzed the limit as h(thickness of the layer) goes to zero and k(the wave number) is constant. Then conclusions are drawn about the effect of nonlinear material parameters on the wave modulation. In the numerical investigations both hypothetical and real material models are used

  2. Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Yao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.

  3. Propagation and attenuation of sound waves as well as spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopainsky, J.

    1975-01-01

    In weakly ionized plasmas the scattering of electromagnetic waves on free electrons (Thompson scattering) can be neglected as compared with the scattering on bound electrons (Rayleigh scattering). If the scattering process can be described by a fluid dynamical model it is caused by sound waves which are generated or annihilated by the incident electromagnetic wave. The propagation of sound waves results in a shift of the scattered line whereas their absorption within the plasma produces the broadening of the scattered line. The theory of propagation of sound in weakly ionized plasmas is developed and extended to Rayleigh scattering. The results are applied to laser scattering in a weakly ionized hydrogen plasma. (Auth.)

  4. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Eli Joseph

    We present a single-station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 sec the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 sec, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher ( 2%) and significantly higher (>20%), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e., Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves.

  5. Time-domain full-waveform inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves in presence of free-surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yudi; Gao, Lingli; Bohlen, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Correct estimation of near-surface seismic-wave velocity when encountering lateral heterogeneity and free surface topography is one of the challenges to current shallow seismic. We propose to use time-domain full-waveform inversion (FWI) of surface waves, including both Rayleigh and Love waves, to solve this problem. We adopt a 2D time-domain finite-difference method with an improved vacuum formulation (IVF) to simulate shallow-seismic Rayleigh wave in presence of free-surface topography. We modify the IVF for SH-wave equation for the simulation of Love wave in presence of topographic free surface and prove its accuracy by benchmark tests. Checkboard model tests are performed in both cases when free-surface topography is included or neglected in FWI. Synthetic model containing a dipping planar free surface and lateral heterogeneity was then tested, in both cases of considering and neglecting free-surface topography. Both checkerboard and synthetic models show that Rayleigh- and Love-wave FWI have similar ability of reconstructing near-surface structures when free-surface topography is considered, while Love-wave FWI could reconstruct near-surface structures better than Rayleigh-wave when free-surface topography is neglected.

  6. Rayleigh waves ellipticity and mode mis-identification in multi-channel analysis of surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Strobbia, Claudio

    dispersion curve which is then inverted. Typically, single component vertical and multi channel receivers are used. In most cases the inversion of the dispersion properties is carried out assuming that the experimental dispersion curve corresponds to a single mode, mostly the fundamental Rayleigh mode...... to each other reaching similar Rayleigh velocity. It is known ‘osculation’ happens generally in presence of strong velocity contrasts, typically with a fast bedrock underlying loose sediments. The practical limitations of the acquired data affect the spectral and modal resolution, making it often...

  7. Resonant excitation of coupled Rayleigh waves in a short and narrow fluid channel clad between two identical metal plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. García-Chocano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of ultrasonic waves through a slit between two water immersed brass plates is studied for sub-wavelength plate thicknesses and slit apertures. Extraordinary high absorption is observed at discrete frequencies corresponding to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves on the both sides of the channel. The coupling of the Rayleigh waves occurs through the fluid and the corresponding contribution to the dispersion has been theoretically derived and also experimentally confirmed. Symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are predicted but only the symmetric mode resonances have been observed. It follows from the dispersion equation that the coupled Rayleigh waves cannot be excited in a channel with apertures less than the critical one. The calculated critical aperture is in a good agreement with the measured acoustic spectra. These findings could be applied to design a broadband absorptive metamaterial.

  8. Thermal Aging Evaluation of Mod. 9Cr-1Mo Steel using Nonlinear Rayleigh Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young-Sang; Kim, Hoe-Woong; Kim, Jong-Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Marino, Daniel; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, L.J [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States); Ruiz, Alberto [UMSNH, Morelia (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Thermal aging can pose a high risk to decreases in the mechanical properties such as strength or creep resistance. This can lead to an unexpected failure during long term operation. Nonlinear NDE techniques are preferred over conventional NDE techniques (linear ultrasonic measurements) because nonlinear ultrasonic techniques have shown their capability to detect a microstructural damage in the structures undergoing fatigue and creep. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques make use of the fact that the dislocation density increases, which will create a nonlinear distortion of an ultrasonic wave; this damage causes the generation of measurable higher harmonic components in an initially mono-chromatic ultrasonic signal. This study investigates the recently developed non-contact nonlinear ultrasonic technique to detect the microstructural damage of mod. 9Cr-1Mo steel based on nonlinear Rayleigh wave with varying propagation distances. Nonlinear Rayleigh surface wave measurements using a non-contact, air-coupled ultrasonic transducer have been applied for the thermal aging evaluation of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic-martensitic steel. Thermal aging for various heat treatment times of mod.. 9Cr-1Mo steel specimens is performed to obtain the nucleation and growth of precipitated particles in specimens. The amplitudes of the first and second harmonics are measured along the propagation distance and the relative nonlinearity parameter is obtained from these amplitudes. The relative nonlinearity parameter shows a similar trend with the Rockwell C hardness.

  9. Rayleigh wave behavior in functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzin, Hamdi; Mkaoir, Mohamed; Amor, Morched Ben

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric-piezomagnetic functionally graded materials, with a gradual change of the mechanical and electromagnetic properties have greatly applying promises. Based on the ordinary differential equation and stiffness matrix methods, a dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of the wave on a semi-infinite piezomagnetic substrate covered with a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer. The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The phase and group velocity of the Rayleigh wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on the phase velocity, group velocity, coupled magneto-electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the magnetic potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the hetero-structure PZT-5A/CoFe2O4; the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Rayleigh wave propagation behavior.

  10. Crustal structure of northern Italy from the ellipticity of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; G. Ferreira, Ana M.

    2017-04-01

    Northern Italy is a diverse geological region, including the wide and thick Po Plain sedimentary basin, which is bounded by the Alps and the Apennines. The seismically slow shallow structure of the Po Plain is difficult to retrieve with classical seismic measurements such as surface wave dispersion, yet the detailed structure of the region greatly affects seismic wave propagation and hence seismic ground shaking. Here we invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements in the period range 10-60 s for 95 stations in northern Italy using a fully non linear approach to constrain vertical vS,vP and density profiles of the crust beneath each station. The ellipticity of Rayleigh wave ground motion is primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity beneath the recording station, which reduces along-path contamination effects. We use the 3D layering structure in MAMBo, a previous model based on a compilation of geological and geophysical information for the Po Plain and surrounding regions of northern Italy, and employ ellipticity data to constrain vS,vP and density within its layers. We show that ellipticity data from ballistic teleseismic wave trains alone constrain the crustal structure well. This leads to MAMBo-E, an updated seismic model of the region's crust that inherits information available from previous seismic prospection and geological studies, while fitting new seismic data well. MAMBo-E brings new insights into lateral heterogeneity in the region's subsurface. Compared to MAMBo, it shows overall faster seismic anomalies in the region's Quaternary, Pliocene and Oligo-Miocene layers and better delineates the seismic structures of the Po Plain at depth. Two low velocity regions are mapped in the Mesozoic layer in the western and eastern parts of the Plain, which seem to correspond to the Monferrato sedimentary basin and to the Ferrara-Romagna thrust system, respectively.

  11. Single- and multi- component inversion of Rayleigh waves acquired by a single 3-component geophone: an illustrative case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Puzzilli, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2017), s. 431-444 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface wave analysis * Rayleigh wave dispersion * joint inversion * Vs30 Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  12. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  13. Method and analysis for determining yielding of titanium alloy with nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhang, Lei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Chen, Yi Fan; Wong, Zheng Zheng; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huajun; Yao, Kui, E-mail: k-yao@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-07-04

    Methods for determining yielding of titanium (Ti) alloy material with second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave are investigated. Both piezoelectric angle beam transducers and high frequency laser scanning vibrometer (LSV) are used to detect ultrasonic signals in the Ti alloy specimens with different plastic strain levels. Technical features and outcomes with use of piezoelectric transducers and LSV are compared. The method using piezoelectric transducers, with much higher signal-to-noise ratio than LSV, has been further improved by deploying two transducers with central frequencies corresponding to the fundamental and second order harmonic signals respectively to improve the testing reliability and accuracy. Both the techniques using piezoelectric transducer and LSV demonstrate consistently that the acoustic nonlinearity increases with plastic strain, and the second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave can be utilized for effective determination of yielding in Ti alloy. Our experiments further show that the acoustic nonlinearity increases gradually with plastic strain at small plastic strain level, and there is a more significant increase of acoustic nonlinearity when the plastic strain reaches a higher level. Microscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are conducted for clarifying the relationship between the observed acoustic nonlinearity and micro-structural changes.

  14. Resonant magneto-acoustic switching: influence of Rayleigh wave frequency and wavevector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewski, P.; Camara, I. S.; Biarrotte, N.; Becerra, L.; von Bardeleben, J.; Savero Torres, W.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Thevenard, L.

    2018-06-01

    We show on in-plane magnetized thin films that magnetization can be switched efficiently by 180 degrees using large amplitude Rayleigh waves travelling along the hard or easy magnetic axis. Large characteristic filament-like domains are formed in the latter case. Micromagnetic simulations clearly confirm that this multi-domain configuration is compatible with a resonant precessional mechanism. The reversed domains are in both geometries several hundreds of , much larger than has been shown using spin transfer torque- or field-driven precessional switching. We show that surface acoustic waves can travel at least 1 mm before addressing a given area, and can interfere to create magnetic stripes that can be positioned with a sub-micronic precision.

  15. Nonlinear traveling waves in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection: Stability boundaries and phase diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of a sidewall traveling wave in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection. The fluid, water with Prandtl number about 6.3, was confined in a 1-cm-high cylindrical cell with radius-to-height ratio Γ=5. We used simultaneous optical-shadowgraph, heat-transport, and local temperature measurements to determine the stability and characteristics of the traveling-wave state for dimensionless rotation rates 60<Ω<420. The state is well described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation for which the linear and nonlinear coefficients were determined for Ω=274. The Eckhaus-Benjamin-Feir-stability boundary was established and the phase-diffusion coefficient and nonlinear group velocity were determined in the stable regime. Higher-order corrections to the CGL equation were also investigated. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Rayleigh wave tomography of the British Isles from ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Heather; Curtis, Andrew; Baptie, Brian

    2014-08-01

    We present the first Rayleigh wave group speed maps of the British Isles constructed from ambient seismic noise. The maps also constitute the first surface wave tomography study of the crust under the British Isles at a relatively high resolution. We computed interferometric, interstation Rayleigh waves from vertical component records of ambient seismic noise recorded on 63 broad-band and short-period stations across the UK and Ireland. Group velocity measurements were made from the resulting surface wave dispersion curves between 5 and 25 s using a multiple phase-matched filter method. Uncertainties in the group velocities were computed by calculating the standard deviation of four dispersion curves constructed by stacking a random selection of daily cross-correlations. Where an uncertainty could not be obtained for a ray path using this method, we estimated it as a function of the interreceiver distance. Group velocity maps were computed for 5-25-s period using the Fast Marching forward solution of the eikonal equation and iterative, linearized inversion. At short and intermediate periods, the maps show remarkable agreement with the major geological features of the British Isles including: terrane boundaries in Scotland; regions of late Palaeozoic basement uplift; areas of exposed late Proterozoic/early Palaeozoic rocks in southwest Scotland, northern England and northwest Wales and, sedimentary basins formed during the Mesozoic such as the Irish Sea Basin, the Chester Basin, the Worcester Graben and the Wessex Basin. The maps also show a consistent low-velocity anomaly in the region of the Midlands Platform, a Proterozoic crustal block in the English Midlands. At longer periods, which are sensitive velocities in the lower crustal/upper mantle, the maps suggest that the depth of Moho beneath the British Isles decreases towards the north and west. Areas of fast velocity in the lower crust also coincide with areas thought to be associated with underplating of the

  17. Rayleigh wave group velocity and shear wave velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay region from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Thurber, Clifford

    2018-06-01

    We derive new Rayleigh wave group velocity models and a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust in the San Francisco Bay region using an adaptive grid ambient noise tomography algorithm and 6 months of continuous seismic data from 174 seismic stations from multiple networks. The resolution of the group velocity models is 0.1°-0.2° for short periods (˜3 s) and 0.3°-0.4° for long periods (˜10 s). The new shear wave velocity model of the upper crust reveals a number of important structures. We find distinct velocity contrasts at the Golden Gate segment of the San Andreas Fault, the West Napa Fault, central part of the Hayward Fault and southern part of the Calaveras Fault. Low shear wave velocities are mainly located in Tertiary and Quaternary basins, for instance, La Honda Basin, Livermore Valley and the western and eastern edges of Santa Clara Valley. Low shear wave velocities are also observed at the Sonoma volcanic field. Areas of high shear wave velocity include the Santa Lucia Range, the Gabilan Range and Ben Lomond Plutons, and the Diablo Range, where Franciscan Complex or Silinian rocks are exposed.

  18. Improved Holistic Analysis of Rayleigh Waves for Single- and Multi-Offset Data: Joint Inversion of Rayleigh-Wave Particle Motion and Vertical- and Radial-Component Velocity Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S.

    2018-01-01

    Rayleigh waves often propagate according to complex mode excitation so that the proper identification and separation of specific modes can be quite difficult or, in some cases, just impossible. Furthermore, the analysis of a single component (i.e., an inversion procedure based on just one objective function) necessarily prevents solving the problems related to the non-uniqueness of the solution. To overcome these issues and define a holistic analysis of Rayleigh waves, we implemented a procedure to acquire data that are useful to define and efficiently invert the three objective functions defined from the three following "objects": the velocity spectra of the vertical- and radial-components and the Rayleigh-wave particle motion (RPM) frequency-offset data. Two possible implementations are presented. In the first case we consider classical multi-offset (and multi-component) data, while in a second possible approach we exploit the data recorded by a single three-component geophone at a fixed offset from the source. Given the simple field procedures, the method could be particularly useful for the unambiguous geotechnical exploration of large areas, where more complex acquisition procedures, based on the joint acquisition of Rayleigh and Love waves, would not be economically viable. After illustrating the different kinds of data acquisition and the data processing, the results of the proposed methodology are illustrated in a case study. Finally, a series of theoretical and practical aspects are discussed to clarify some issues involved in the overall procedure (data acquisition and processing).

  19. Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's Interface Waves in Elastic Models Using a Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Flores-Mendez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.

  20. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  1. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low...... head hydroturbines are converting the potential energy of the stored water into power. A key to success for the SSG will be the low cost of the structure and its robustness. The construction of the pilot plant is scheduled and this paper aims to describe the concept of the SSG wave energy converter...

  2. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong; Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon; Kwon, Sung Duck

    2017-01-01

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk

  3. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.

  4. Rayleigh scattering of a cylindrical sound wave by an infinite cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Alexander B; Godin, Oleg A

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh scattering, in which the wavelength is large compared to the scattering object, is usually studied assuming plane incident waves. However, full Green's functions are required in a number of problems, e.g., when a scatterer is located close to the ocean surface or the seafloor. This paper considers the Green's function of the two-dimensional problem that corresponds to scattering of a cylindrical wave by an infinite cylinder embedded in a homogeneous fluid. Soft, hard, and impedance cylinders are considered. Exact solutions of the problem involve infinite series of products of Bessel functions. Here, simple, closed-form asymptotic solutions are derived, which are valid for arbitrary source and receiver locations outside the cylinder as long as its diameter is small relative to the wavelength. The scattered wave is given by the sum of fields of three linear image sources. The viability of the image source method was anticipated from known solutions of classical electrostatic problems involving a conducting cylinder. The asymptotic acoustic Green's functions are employed to investigate reception of low-frequency sound by sensors mounted on cylindrical bodies.

  5. Deflecting Rayleigh surface acoustic waves by a meta-ridge with a gradient phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanlong; Yang, Zhichun; Cao, Liyun

    2018-05-01

    We propose a non-resonant meta-ridge to deflect Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (RSAWs) according to the generalized Snell’s law with a gradient phase shift. The gradient phase shift is predicted by an analytical formula, which is related to the path length of the traveling wave. The non-resonant meta-ridge is designed based on the characteristics of the RSAW: it only propagates along the interface with a penetration depth, and it is dispersion-free with a constant phase velocity. To guarantee that the characteristics are still valid when RSAWs propagate in a three-dimensional (3D) structure, grooves are employed to construct the supercell of the meta-ridge. The horizontal length, inclined angle, and thickness of the ridge, along with the filling ratio of the groove, are parametrically examined step by step to investigate their influences on the propagation of RSAWs. The final 3D meta-ridges are designed theoretically and their capability of deflecting the incident RSAWs are validated numerically. The study presents a new method to control the trajectory of RSAWs, which will be conducive to developing innovative devices for surface acoustic waves.

  6. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  7. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  8. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  9. Ambient Noise Tomography at Regional and Local Scales in Southern California using Rayleigh Wave Phase Dispersion and Ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E.; Lin, F. C.; Qiu, H.; Wang, Y.; Allam, A. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh waves extracted from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise have proven useful in imaging the shallow subsurface velocity structure. In contrast to phase velocities, which are sensitive to slightly deeper structure, Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratios) constrains the uppermost crust. We conduct Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase dispersion measurements in Southern California between 6 and 18 second periods, computed from multi-component ambient noise cross-correlations using 315 stations across the region in 2015. Because of the complimentary sensitivity of phase velocity and H/V, this method enables simple and accurate resolution of near-surface geological features from the surface to 20km depth. We compare the observed H/V ratios and phase velocities to predictions generated from the current regional models (SCEC UCVM), finding strong correspondence where the near-surface structure is well-resolved by the models. This includes high H/V ratios in the LA Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Salton Trough; and low ratios in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto and southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Disagreements in regions such as the Western Transverse Ranges, Salton Trough, San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones motivate further work to improve the community models. A new updated 3D isotropic model of the area is derived via a joint inversion of Rayleigh phase dispersions and H/V ratios. Additionally, we examine azimuthal dependence of the H/V ratio to ascertain anisotropy patterns for each station. Clear 180º periodicity is observed for many stations suggesting strong shallow anisotropy across the region including up to 20% along the San Andreas fault, 15% along the San Jacinto Fault and 25% in the LA Basin. To better resolve basin structures, we apply similar techniques to three dense linear geophone arrays in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino basins. The three arrays are composed by 50-125 three-component 5Hz geophones deployed for one month each with 15-25km

  10. Lithospheric shear velocity structure of South Island, New Zealand, from amphibious Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Justin S.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Yeck, William L.; Collins, John A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a crust and mantle 3-D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath the South Island as well as the Campbell and Challenger Plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18-70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8-25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 4 land-based and 29 ocean bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa experiment with 28 land-based seismometers from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs 50 km) beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with upper mantle earthquake hypocenters beneath the Alpine Fault. The ~400 km long low-velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island and the inner Bounty Trough underlies Cenozoic volcanics and the locations of mantle-derived helium measurements, consistent with asthenospheric upwelling in the region.

  11. The internal waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in compressible quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H. L.; Qiu, X. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum effect on internal waves and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in compressible quantum plasmas. First of all, let us consider the case of the limit of short wavelength perturbations. In the case, the dispersion relation including quantum and compressibility effects and the RT instability growth rate can be derived using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method. The results show that the internal waves can propagate along the transverse direction due to the quantum effect, which was first pointed out by Bychkov et al.[Phys. Lett. A 372, 3042 (2008)], and the coupling between it and compressibility effect, which is found out in this paper. Then, without making the approximation assumption of short wavelength limit, we examine the linearized perturbation equation following Qiu et al.'s solving process [Phys. Plasmas 10, 2956 (2003)]. It is found that the quantum effect always stabilizes the RT instability in either incompressible or compressible quantum plasmas. Moreover, in the latter case, the coupling between it and compressibility effect makes this stabilization further enhance.

  12. Mixing of two co-directional Rayleigh surface waves in a nonlinear elastic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Merlin B; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    The mixing of two co-directional, initially monochromatic Rayleigh surface waves in an isotropic, homogeneous, and nonlinear elastic solid is investigated using analytical, finite element method, and experimental approaches. The analytical investigations show that while the horizontal velocity component can form a shock wave, the vertical velocity component can form a pulse independent of the specific ratios of the fundamental frequencies and amplitudes that are mixed. This analytical model is then used to simulate the development of the fundamentals, second harmonics, and the sum and difference frequency components over the propagation distance. The analytical model is further extended to include diffraction effects in the parabolic approximation. Finally, the frequency and amplitude ratios of the fundamentals are identified which provide maximum amplitudes of the second harmonics as well as of the sum and difference frequency components, to help guide effective material characterization; this approach should make it possible to measure the acoustic nonlinearity of a solid not only with the second harmonics, but also with the sum and difference frequency components. Results of the analytical investigations are then confirmed using the finite element method and the experimental feasibility of the proposed technique is validated for an aluminum specimen.

  13. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  14. Estimation of Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio from microtremors using a three-component single-station seismograph; Itten sanseibun bido kansoku ni motozuita Rayleigh ha shinpukuhi no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Mizutani, K; Saito, t [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on the possibility of estimating Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio utilizing phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements by using a three-component single-station seismograph. The test has selected as an observation point a location in the city of Kushiro where a pulp and paper mill generating microtremors is the focal point, and the underground structure at that point has been estimated by using the vertical array observation method. The observation system has used three components of a velocity type seismograph having a natural period of one second, an amplifier and an analog data recorder. As a result of the discussions, the following matters were made clear: the spectral ratio with a phase difference of 90 degrees agrees with the frequency at a peak trough of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio; the values of the spectral ratio at the phase difference of 90 degrees and the values of the theoretical Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio correspond well excepting in frequency bands of the peak trough; and these results suggest that the Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio may be estimated by utilizing the phase difference between horizontal movements and vertical movements. Estimation of the underground structure by using the inverse analysis of this Rayleigh-wave spectral ratio is expected in the future. 6 refs., 5 figs., tab.

  15. Finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean: Mapping its lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Liu, K.; Villasenor, A.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 3-D shear wave velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean from Rayleigh wave tomography. We analyzed the fundamental mode in the 20-167 s period band (6.0-50.0 mHz) from earthquakes recorded by a number of temporary and permanent seismograph arrays. Using the two-plane wave method, we obtained phase velocity dispersion curves that were inverted for an isotropic Vs model that extends from the southern Iberian Massif, across the Gibraltar Arc and the Atlas mountains to the Saharan Craton. The area of the western Mediterranean that we have studied has been the site of complex subduction, slab rollback, and simultaneous compression and extension during African-European convergence since the Oligocene. The shear velocity model shows high velocities beneath the Rif from 65 km depth and beneath the Granada Basin from ˜70 km depth that extend beneath the Alboran Domain to more than 250 km depth, which we interpret as a near-vertical slab dangling from beneath the western Alboran Sea. The slab appears to be attached to the crust beneath the Rif and possibly beneath the Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada where low shear velocities (3.8 km/s) are mapped to >55 km depth. The attached slab is pulling down the Gibraltar Arc crust, thickening it, and removing the continental margin lithospheric mantle beneath both Iberia and Morocco as it descends into the deeper mantle. Thin lithosphere is indicated by very low upper mantle velocities beneath the Alboran Sea, above and east of the dangling slab and beneath the Cenozoic volcanics.

  16. Determining Ocean-Bottom Seismometer Orientations from the RHUM-RUM experiment from P-wave and Rayleigh wave polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, John-Robert; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Sigloch, Karin

    2016-04-01

    To image the upper mantle structure beneath La Réunion hotspot, a large-scale seismic network has been deployed on land and at sea in the frame of the RHUM-RUM project (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel). This French-German passive seismic experiment was designed to investigate and image the deep structure beneath La Réunion, from crust to core, to precise the shape and depth origin of a mantle plume, if any, and to precise the horizontal and vertical mantle flow associated to a possible plume upwelling, to its interaction with the overlying plate and with the neighboring Indian ridges. For this purpose, 57 Ocean-Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were installed around La Réunion and along the Central and Southwest Indian ridges. Broad-band instruments were deployed with the French R/V Marion Dufresne in late 2012 (cruise MD192), and recovered 13 months later by the German R/V Meteor (cruise M101). The pool of OBS was complemented by ~60 terrestrial stations, installed on different islands in the western Indian Ocean, such as La Réunion, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles, Mayotte and the Îles Éparses in the Mozambique channel. The OBS installation is a free-fall down to the seafloor, where they landed in an unknown orientation. Since seismologic investigations of crustal and upper mantle structure (e.g., receiver functions) and azimuthal anisotropy (e.g., SKS-splitting and Rayleigh waves) rely on the knowledge of the correct OBS orientation with respect to the geographic reference frame, it is of importance to determine the orientations of the OBS while recording on the seafloor. In an isotropic, horizontally homogeneous and non-dipping layered globe, the misorientation of each station refers to the offset between theoretical and recorded back-azimuth angle of a passive seismic event. Using large earthquakes (MW > 5.0), it is possible to establish multiple successful measurements per station and thus to determine with good confidence the

  17. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    's first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype...

  18. Pitch catch ultrasonic study on unidirectional CFRP composite laminates using rayleigh wave transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Je Woong; Yang, In Young; Im, Kwang Hee; Hsu, David K.; Jung, Jong An

    2012-01-01

    The importance of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) has been generally recognized, and CFRP composite laminates have become widely used. Thus, a nondestructive technique would be very useful for evaluating CF/epoxy composite laminates. A pitch catch UT signal is more sensitive than is a normal incidence backwall echo of a longitudinal wave in composites. The depth of the sampling volume where the pitch catch UT signal came from is relatively shallow, but the depth can be increased by increasing the separation distance of the transmitting and receiving probes. Moreover, a method is utilized to determine the porosity content of a composite lay up by processing micrograph images of the laminate. The porosity content of a composite structure is critical to the overall strength and performance of the structure. The image processing method developed utilizes software to process micrograph images of the test sample. The results from the image processing method are compared with existing data. Beam profile is characterized in unidirectional CFRP using pitch catch Rayleigh probes. The one sided and two sided pitch catch techniques are utilized to produce C scan images with the aid of an automatic scanner. The pitch catch ultrasonic signal corresponds with the simulated results of unidirectional CFRP composites

  19. Forward and inverse problems for surface acoustic waves in anisotropic media: A Ritz-Rayleigh method based approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoklasová, Pavla; Sedlák, Petr; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, February 2015 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P428 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface acoustic waves * anisotropic materials * Ritz-Rayleigh method * inverse problem Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.954, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041624X14002686

  20. Energy from the waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, D

    2012-01-01

    Revised and substantially expanded to include the latest developments in the field, the second edition of this popular book provides a concise, non-technical account of the historical background and current research and development in the field of wave energy and its planned utilisation. It explains in simple terms the technology involved and describes the new inventions, devices and discoveries which led wave energy to be regarded as a significant future source of alternative power. The author recounts the major events leading up to today's development; the roles played by the principal characters involved, inventors, engineers and politicians and the inevitable struggle which all pioneers must face. The book concludes by discussing the environmental implications, the political conflicts and the problems which lie ahead. Also included, is a useful glossary of terms and a selected bibliography of important technical reports and further sources of information.

  1. Rayleigh-Taylor Gravity Waves and Quasiperiodic Oscillation Phenomenon in X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Accretion onto compact objects in X-ray binaries (black hole, neutron star (NS), white dwarf) is characterized by non-uniform flow density profiles. Such an effect of heterogeneity in presence of gravitational forces and pressure gradients exhibits Rayleigh-Taylor gravity waves (RTGW). They should be seen as quasiperiodic wave oscillations (QPO) of the accretion flow in the transition (boundary) layer between the Keplerian disk and the central object. In this paper the author shows that the main QPO frequency, which is very close to the Keplerian frequency, is split into separate frequencies (hybrid and low branch) under the influence of the gravitational forces in the rotational frame of reference. The RTGWs must be present and the related QPOs should be detected in any system where the gravity, buoyancy and Coriolis force effects cannot be excluded (even in the Earth and solar environments). The observed low and high QPO frequencies are an intrinsic signature of the RTGW. The author elaborates the conditions for the density profile when the RTGW oscillations are stable. A comparison of the inferred QPO frequencies with QPO observations is presented. The author finds that hectohertz frequencies detected from NS binaries can be identified as the RTGW low branch frequencies. The author also predicts that an observer can see the double NS spin frequency during the NS long (super) burst events when the pressure gradients and buoyant forces are suppressed. The Coriolis force is the only force which acts in the rotational frame of reference and its presence causes perfect coherent pulsations with a frequency twice of the NS spin. The QPO observations of neutron binaries have established that the high QPO frequencies do not go beyond of the certain upper limit. The author explains this observational effect as a result of the density profile inversions. Also the author demonstrates that a particular problem of the gravity waves in the rotational frame of reference in the

  2. Measurement of Rayleigh wave Z/H ratio and joint inversion for a high-resolution S wave velocity model beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, W.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge on the 3D sediment structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin is not only important to explore the oil and gas resources in the area, but also essential to decipher the deep crust and mantle structure beneath the margin with teleseismic data. In this study, we conduct a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocity at 6-40 s to construct a 3-D S wave velocity model in a rectangular area of 100°-87° west and 28°-37° north. We use ambient noise data from a total of 215 stations of the Transportable Array deployed under the Earthscope project. Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave Z/H (vertical to horizontal) amplitude ratio is mostly sensitive to shallow sediment structure, while the dispersion data are expected to have reasonably good resolution to uppermost mantle depths. The Z/H ratios measured from stations inside the Gulf Coastal Plain are distinctly lower in comparison with those measured from the inland stations. We also measured the phase velocity dispersion from the same ambient noise dataset. Our preliminary 3-D model is featured by strong low-velocity anomalies at shallow depth, which are spatially well correlated with Gulf Cost, East Texas, and the Lower Mississippi basins. We will discuss other features of the 3-D models once the model is finalized.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Rayleigh Wave Propagation in Course of Rapid Impulse Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Aneta; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    As the soil improvement technologies are the area of a rapid development, they require designing and implementing novel methods of control and calibration in order to ensure the safety of geotechnical works. At Wroclaw University of Science and Technology (Poland), these new methods are continually developed with the aim to provide the appropriate tools for the preliminary design of work process, as well as for the further ongoing on-site control of geotechnical works (steel sheet piling, pile driving or soil improvement technologies). The studies include preliminary numerical simulations and field tests concerning measurements and continuous histogram recording of shocks and vibrations and its ground-born dynamic impact on engineering structures. The impact of vibrations on reinforced concrete and masonry structures in the close proximity of the construction site may be destroying in both architectural and structural meaning. Those limits are juxtaposed in codes of practice, but always need an individual judgment. The results and observations make it possible to delineate specific modifications to the parameters of technology applied (e.g. hammer drop height). On the basis of numerous case studies of practical applications, already summarized and published, we were able to formulate the guidelines for work on the aforementioned sites. This work presents specific aspects of the active design (calibration of building site numerical model) by means of technology calibration, using the investigation of the impact of vibrations that occur during the Impulse Compaction on adjacent structures. A case study entails the impact of construction works on Rayleigh wave propagation in the zone of 100 m (radius) around the Compactor.

  4. Rayleigh wave group-velocity across the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern North America-Caribbean (NA-CAR) plate boundary near the islands of Hispaniola (which is comprised of the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico is a complex transition zone in which strain is accommodated by two transform fault systems and oblique subduction. In 2013, scientists from Baylor University, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network deployed 16 broadband stations on the Dominican Republic to expand the local permanent network. The goal of the Greater Antilles Seismic Program (GrASP) is to combine its data with that from permanent networks in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica to develop a better understanding of the crust and upper mantle structure in the Northeastern Caribbean (Greater Antilles). One important goal of GrASP is to develop robust velocity models that can be used to improve earthquake location and seismic hazard efforts. In this study, we focus on obtaining Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from ambient noise tomography. By cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at 53 stations between 2010 to present, we obtain Green's functions between 1165 pairs of stations. From these, we obtain dispersion curves by the application of FTAN methods with phase-matched filtering. Selection criteria depend on the signal-to-noise ratio and seasonal variability, with further filtering done by rejecting velocities incompatible with maps produced from overdamped tomographic inversions. Preliminary dispersion maps show strong correlations with large-scale geological and tectonic features for periods between 5 - 20 s, such as the Cordillera Central in both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Mona Passage, and the NA-CAR subduction zone. Ongoing efforts focus on including shorter periods in Puerto Rico as its denser station distribution could allow us to retrieve higher resolution group velocity maps.

  5. Capability of simultaneous Rayleigh LiDAR and O2 airglow measurements in exploring the short period wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, Alok; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    We use combination of simultaneous measurements made with Rayleigh lidar and O2 airglow monitoring to improve lidar investigation capability to cover a higher altitude range. We feed instantaneous O2 airglow temperatures instead the model values at the top altitude for subsequent integration method of temperature retrieval using Rayleigh lidar back scattered signals. Using this method, errors in the lidar temperature estimates converges at higher altitudes indicating better altitude coverage compared to regular methods where model temperatures are used instead of real-time measurements. This improvement enables the measurements of short period waves at upper mesospheric altitudes (~90 km). With two case studies, we show that above 60 km the few short period wave amplitude drastically increases while, some of the short period wave show either damping or saturation. We claim that by using such combined measurements, a significant and cost effective progress can be made in the understanding of short period wave processes which are important for the coupling across the different atmospheric regions.

  6. Approximations to the Non-Isothermal Distributed Activation Energy Model for Biomass Pyrolysis Using the Rayleigh Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of some parameters relevant to biomass pyrolysis on the numerical solutions of the nonisothermal nth order distributed activation energy model using the Rayleigh distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, the heating rate, the reaction order and the scale parameters of the Rayleigh distribution. The influence of these parameters has been considered for the determination of the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth order Rayleigh distribution from the experimentally derived thermoanalytical data of biomass pyrolysis.

  7. Impulse excitation scanning acoustic microscopy for local quantification of Rayleigh surface wave velocity using B-scan analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M.; Dierken, J.; Boehnlein, T.; Pilchak, A.; Sathish, S.; Grandhi, R.

    2018-01-01

    A new technique for performing quantitative scanning acoustic microscopy imaging of Rayleigh surface wave (RSW) velocity was developed based on b-scan processing. In this technique, the focused acoustic beam is moved through many defocus distances over the sample and excited with an impulse excitation, and advanced algorithms based on frequency filtering and the Hilbert transform are used to post-process the b-scans to estimate the Rayleigh surface wave velocity. The new method was used to estimate the RSW velocity on an optically flat E6 glass sample, and the velocity was measured at ±2 m/s and the scanning time per point was on the order of 1.0 s, which are both improvement from the previous two-point defocus method. The new method was also applied to the analysis of two titanium samples, and the velocity was estimated with very low standard deviation in certain large grains on the sample. A new behavior was observed with the b-scan analysis technique where the amplitude of the surface wave decayed dramatically on certain crystallographic orientations. The new technique was also compared with previous results, and the new technique has been found to be much more reliable and to have higher contrast than previously possible with impulse excitation.

  8. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  9. Rayleigh and S wave tomography constraints on subduction termination and lithospheric foundering in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengxin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steven M.; Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2018-01-01

    The crust and upper mantle structure of central California have been modified by subduction termination, growth of the San Andreas plate boundary fault system, and small-scale upper mantle convection since the early Miocene. Here we investigate the contributions of these processes to the creation of the Isabella Anomaly, which is a high seismic velocity volume in the upper mantle. There are two types of hypotheses for its origin. One is that it is the foundered mafic lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. The alternative suggests that it is a fossil slab connected to the Monterey microplate. A dense broadband seismic transect was deployed from the coast to the western Sierra Nevada to fill in the least sampled areas above the Isabella Anomaly, and regional-scale Rayleigh and S wave tomography are used to evaluate the two hypotheses. New shear velocity (Vs) tomography images a high-velocity anomaly beneath coastal California that is sub-horizontal at depths of ∼40–80 km. East of the San Andreas Fault a continuous extension of the high-velocity anomaly dips east and is located beneath the Sierra Nevada at ∼150–200 km depth. The western position of the Isabella Anomaly in the uppermost mantle is inconsistent with earlier interpretations that the Isabella Anomaly is connected to actively foundering foothills lower crust. Based on the new Vs images, we interpret that the Isabella Anomaly is not the dense destabilized root of the Sierra Nevada, but rather a remnant of Miocene subduction termination that is translating north beneath the central San Andreas Fault. Our results support the occurrence of localized lithospheric foundering beneath the high elevation eastern Sierra Nevada, where we find a lower crustal low Vs layer consistent with a small amount of partial melt. The high elevations relative to crust thickness and lower crustal low Vs zone are consistent with geological inferences that lithospheric foundering drove

  10. Rayleigh and S wave tomography constraints on subduction termination and lithospheric foundering in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengxin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steven M.; Dougherty, Sara L.; Clayton, Robert W.; Farrell, Jamie; Lin, Fan-Chi

    2018-04-01

    The crust and upper mantle structure of central California have been modified by subduction termination, growth of the San Andreas plate boundary fault system, and small-scale upper mantle convection since the early Miocene. Here we investigate the contributions of these processes to the creation of the Isabella Anomaly, which is a high seismic velocity volume in the upper mantle. There are two types of hypotheses for its origin. One is that it is the foundered mafic lower crust and mantle lithosphere of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. The alternative suggests that it is a fossil slab connected to the Monterey microplate. A dense broadband seismic transect was deployed from the coast to the western Sierra Nevada to fill in the least sampled areas above the Isabella Anomaly, and regional-scale Rayleigh and S wave tomography are used to evaluate the two hypotheses. New shear velocity (Vs) tomography images a high-velocity anomaly beneath coastal California that is sub-horizontal at depths of ∼40-80 km. East of the San Andreas Fault a continuous extension of the high-velocity anomaly dips east and is located beneath the Sierra Nevada at ∼150-200 km depth. The western position of the Isabella Anomaly in the uppermost mantle is inconsistent with earlier interpretations that the Isabella Anomaly is connected to actively foundering foothills lower crust. Based on the new Vs images, we interpret that the Isabella Anomaly is not the dense destabilized root of the Sierra Nevada, but rather a remnant of Miocene subduction termination that is translating north beneath the central San Andreas Fault. Our results support the occurrence of localized lithospheric foundering beneath the high elevation eastern Sierra Nevada, where we find a lower crustal low Vs layer consistent with a small amount of partial melt. The high elevations relative to crust thickness and lower crustal low Vs zone are consistent with geological inferences that lithospheric foundering drove uplift

  11. Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping

  12. Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Due to Spatial (FEM) Discretization of a thin Elastic Solid Having Non-Curved Boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brepta, R.; Valeš, F.; Červ, Jan; Tikal, B.

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (1996), s. 1233-1244 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/93/1195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : thin elastic body * Rayleigh waves * grid dispersion Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 1996 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=U2EJknka3H@mKemE37@&page=1&doc=1&colname=WOS

  13. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  14. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  15. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  16. Coupling of Rayleigh-like waves with zero-sound modes in normal 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Landau kinetic equation is solved in the collisionless regime for a sample of normal 3 He excited by a surface perturbation of arbitrary ω and k. The boundary condition for the nonequilibrium particle distribution is determined for the case of specular reflection of the elementary excitations at the interface. Using the above solution, the energy flux through the boundary is obtained as a function of the surface wave velocity ω/k. The absorption spectrum and its frequency derivative are calculated numerically for typical values of temperature and pressure. The spectrum displays a sharp, resonant-like maximum concentrated at the longitudinal sound velocity and a sharp maximum of the derivative concentrated at the transverse sound velocity. The energy transfer is cut off discontinuously below the Fermi velocity. An experimental measurement of the energy transfer spectrum would permit a determination of both zero-sound velocities and the Fermi velocity with spectroscopic precision

  17. Study of Rayleigh-Love coupling from Spatial Gradient Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. J.; Hosseini, K.; Donner, S.; Vernon, F.; Wassermann, J. M.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method to study Rayleigh-Love coupling. Instead of using seismograms solely, where ground motion is recorded as function of time, we incorporate with rotation and strain, also called spatial gradient where ground is represented as function of distance. Seismic rotation and strain are intrinsic different observable wavefield so are helpful to indentify wave type and wave propagation. A Mw 7.5 earthquake on 29 March 2015 occurred in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea recorded by a dense seismic array at PFO, California are used to obtaint seismic spatial gradient. We firstly estimate time series of azimuthal direction and phase velocity of SH wave and Rayleigh wave by analyzing collocated seismograms and rotations. This result also compares with frequency wavenumber methods using a nearby ANZA seismic array. We find the direction of Rayleigh wave fits well with great-circle back azimuth during wave propagation, while the direction of Love wave deviates from that, especially when main energy of Rayleigh wave arrives. From the analysis of cross-correlation between areal strain and vertical rotation, it reveals that high coherence, either positive or negative, happens at the same time when Love wave deparate from great-circle path. We also find the observed azimuth of Love wave and polarized particle motion of Rayleigh wave fits well with the fast direction of Rayleigh wave, for the period of 50 secs. We conclude the cause of deviated azimuth of Love wave is due to Rayleigh-Love coupling, as surface wave propagates through the area with anisotropic structure.

  18. Rayleigh waves from correlation of seismic noise in Great Island of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: Constraints on upper crustal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Buffoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation technique is applied to estimate the upper structure of the crust beneath Great Island of Tierra del Fuego (TdF, Argentina, by the analysis of short-period Rayleigh wave group velocities. The island, situated in the southernmost South America, is a key area of investigation among the interaction between the South American and Scotia plates and is considered as a very seismically active one. Through cross-correlating the vertical components of ambient seismic noise registered at four broadband stations in TdF, we were able to extract Rayleigh waves which were used to estimate group velocities in the period band of 2.5–16 s using a time-frequency analysis. Although ambient noise sources are distributed inhomogeneously, robust empirical Green's functions could be recovered from the cross-correlation of 12 months of ambient noise. The observed group velocities were inverted considering a non-linear iterative damped least-squares inversion procedure and several 1-D shear wave velocity models of the upper crust were obtained. According to the inversion results, the S-wave velocity ranges between 1.75 and 3.7 km/s in the first 10 km of crust, depending on the pair of stations considered. These results are in agreement to the major known surface and sub-surface geological and tectonic features known in the area. This study represents the first ambient seismic noise analysis in TdF in order to constraint the upper crust beneath this region. It can also be considered as a successful feasibility study for future analyses with a denser station deployment for a more detailed imaging of structure.

  19. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  20. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  1. Tomographic Rayleigh wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California, centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of freshwater for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental mode, Rayleigh wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations was stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 s. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which are dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4°. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large crosscutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5 s, the model's western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries of the low

  2. Tomographic Rayleigh-wave group velocities in the Central Valley, California centered on the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Erdem, Jemile; Seats, Kevin; Lawrence, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    If shaking from a local or regional earthquake in the San Francisco Bay region were to rupture levees in the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta then brackish water from San Francisco Bay would contaminate the water in the Delta: the source of fresh water for about half of California. As a prelude to a full shear-wave velocity model that can be used in computer simulations and further seismic hazard analysis, we report on the use of ambient noise tomography to build a fundamental-mode, Rayleigh-wave group velocity model for the region around the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta in the western Central Valley, California. Recordings from the vertical component of about 31 stations were processed to compute the spatial distribution of Rayleigh wave group velocities. Complex coherency between pairs of stations were stacked over 8 months to more than a year. Dispersion curves were determined from 4 to about 18 seconds. We calculated average group velocities for each period and inverted for deviations from the average for a matrix of cells that covered the study area. Smoothing using the first difference is applied. Cells of the model were about 5.6 km in either dimension. Checkerboard tests of resolution, which is dependent on station density, suggest that the resolving ability of the array is reasonably good within the middle of the array with resolution between 0.2 and 0.4 degrees. Overall, low velocities in the middle of each image reflect the deeper sedimentary syncline in the Central Valley. In detail, the model shows several centers of low velocity that may be associated with gross geologic features such as faulting along the western margin of the Central Valley, oil and gas reservoirs, and large cross cutting features like the Stockton arch. At shorter periods around 5.5s, the model’s western boundary between low and high velocities closely follows regional fault geometry and the edge of a residual isostatic gravity low. In the eastern part of the valley, the boundaries

  3. Kinetic energy and scalar spectra in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2016-06-01

    Kinetic energy and scalar spectra from the measurements in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulent flow are presented. Kinetic energy and concentration (scalar) spectra are obtained from the experiments wherein density difference is created using brine and fresh water and temperature spectra are obtained from the experiments in which heat is used. Scaling of the frequency spectra of lateral and longitudinal velocity near the tube axis is closer to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling, while the scalar spectra show some evidence of dual scaling, Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling followed by Obukhov-Corrsin scaling. These scalings are also observed in the corresponding second order spatial structure functions of velocity and concentration fluctuations.

  4. Phononic Crystal Made of Multilayered Ridges on a Substrate for Rayleigh Waves Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Oudich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a phononic crystal to achieve efficient manipulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW. The structure is made of finite phononic micro-ridges arranged periodically in a substrate surface. Each ridge is constructed by staking silicon and tungsten layers so that it behaves as one-dimensional phononic crystal which exhibits band gaps for elastic waves. The band gap allows the existence of resonance modes where the elastic energy is either confined within units in the free end of the ridge or the ones in contact with the substrate. We show that SAW interaction with localized modes in the free surface of the ridge gives rise to sharp attenuation in the SAW transmission, while the modes confined within the ridge/substrate interface cause broad band attenuations of SAW. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the coupling between the two kinds of modes within the band gap gives high SAW transmission amplitude in the form of Fano-like peaks with high quality factor. The structure could provide an interesting solution for accurate SAW control for sensing applications, for instance.

  5. Shallow microearthquakes near Chongqing, China triggered by the Rayleigh waves of the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Libo; Peng, Zhigang; Johnson, Christopher W.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Wu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hongmei

    2017-12-01

    We present a case of remotely triggered seismicity in Southwest China by the 2015/04/25 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. A local magnitude ML3.8 event occurred near the Qijiang district south of Chongqing city approximately 12 min after the Gorkha mainshock. Within 30 km of this ML3.8 event there are 62 earthquakes since 2009 and only 7 ML > 3 events, which corresponds to a likelihood of 0.3% for a ML > 3 on any given day by a random chance. This observation motivates us to investigate the relationship between the ML3.8 event and the Gorkha mainshock. The ML3.8 event was listed in the China Earthquake National Center (CENC) catalog and occurred at shallow depth (∼3 km). By examining high-frequency waveforms, we identify a smaller local event (∼ML 2.5) ∼ 15 s before the ML3.8 event. Both events occurred during the first two cycles of the Rayleigh waves from the Gorkha mainshock. We perform seismic event detection based on envelope function and waveform matching by using the two events as templates. Both analyses found a statistically significant rate change during the mainshock, suggesting that they were indeed dynamically triggered by the Rayleigh waves. Both events occurred during the peak normal and dilatational stress changes (∼10-30 kPa), consistent with observations of dynamic triggering in other geothermal/volcanic regions. Although other recent events (i.e., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) produced similar peak ground velocities, the 2015 Gorkha mainshock was the only event that produced clear dynamic triggering in this region. The triggering site is close to hydraulic fracturing wells that began production in 2013-2014. Hence we suspect that fluid injections may increase the region's susceptibility to remote dynamic triggering.

  6. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  7. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  8. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  9. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  10. Measurement of longitudinal and rayleigh wave velocities by advanced one-sided technique in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovics, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    A new procedure for the advanced one-sided measurement of longitudinal wave and surface wave velocities in concrete is presented in this paper. Stress waves are generated in a consistent fashion with a DC solenoid. Two piezoelectric accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a specimen as receivers. Stress waves propagate along the surface of the specimen and are detected by the receivers. In order to reduce the large incoherent noise levels of the signals, signals are collected and manipulated by a computer program for each velocity measurement. For a known distance between the two receivers and using the measured flight times, the velocities of the longitudinal wave and the surface wave are measured. The velocities of the longitudinal wave determined by this method are compared with those measured by conventional methods on concrete, PMMA and steel.

  11. Tunnel effect wave energy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  12. Waves energy comes to surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The wave- or thalasso-energy, potentially as promising as wind energy, have started to develop in Europe. Great Britain has already a good experience in this domain but France shows also ambitions in this beginning industry with several projects in progress. This article makes an overview of the existing tide-, current- and wave-powered generators: tide mills, underwater hydro-turbines, immersed linear generators, air-compression systems, buoy systems, etc. (J.S.)

  13. Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Biermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.

  14. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order

  16. Proposed electromagnetic wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Device converts wave energy into electric power through array of insulated absorber elements responsive to field of impinging electromagnetic radiation. Device could also serve as solar energy converter that is potentially less expensive and fragile than solar cells, yet substantially more efficient.

  17. Imaging San Jacinto Fault damage zone structure using dense linear arrays: application of ambient noise tomography, Rayleigh wave ellipticity, and site amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Allam, A. A.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The San Jacinto fault is presently the most seismically active component of the San Andreas Transform system in Southern California. To study the damage zone structure, two dense linear geophone arrays (BS and RR) were deployed across the Clark segment of the San Jacinto Fault between Anza and Hemet during winter 2015 and Fall 2016, respectively. Both arrays were 2 km long with 20 m station spacing. Month-long three-component ambient seismic noise data were recorded and used to calculate multi-channel cross-correlation functions. All three-component noise records of each array were normalized simultaneously to retain relative amplitude information between different stations and different components. We observed clear Rayleigh waves and Love waves on the cross-correlations of both arrays at 0.3 - 1 s period. The phase travel times of the Rayleigh waves on both arrays were measured by frequency-time analysis (FTAN), and inverted for Rayleigh wave phase velocity profiles of the upper 500 m depth. For both arrays, we observe prominent asymmetric low velocity zones which narrow with depth. At the BS array near the Hemet Stepover, an approximately 250m wide slow zone is observed to be offset by 75m to the northeast of the surface fault trace. At the RR array near the Anza segment of the fault, a similar low velocity zone width and offset are observed, along with a 10% across-fault velocity contrast. Analyses of Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratio), Love wave phase travel times, and site amplification are in progress. By using multiple measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations, we can obtain strong constraints on the local damage zone structure of the San Jacinto Fault. The results contribute to improved understanding of rupture directivity, maximum earthquake magnitude and more generally seismic hazard associated with the San Jacinto fault zone.

  18. Yield estimation for nuclear explosions of semipalatinsk using rayleigh waves recorded at SRO, Mashhad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghizadeh, M.; Javaherian, A.; Sadidkhooy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Surface wave amplitudes from explosion sources show less variation for a given event than body wave amplitudes, so it is natural to expect that yield estimation derived from surface waves will be more accurate than yield estimation derived from body waves. However yield estimation from surface waves is complicated by the presence of tectonic strain release, which acts like one or more earthquake sources superimposed on the explosion. Explosions on an island or near a mountain slope can exhibit anomalous surface waves similar to those caused by tectonic strain release. One of the methods in estimating the yield of nuclear explosions is to determine a relationship between the magnitude and the yield of an explosion. The kind of magnitude employed has an important role in this regard. In this paper, vertical component of long period seismograms at SRO, Mashhad from explosions occurred in semipalatinsk test site, semipalatinsk test site east of Kazakhstan) are considered. First, by using the relationships of IASPEI and Rezapour and Pearce (1998), we determined surface wave magnitude (MS) which is defined as the logarithm of the amplitude plus a distance correction. Then we derived a relation for M S versus yield for a data set which includes a 15 long period seismograms recorded at SRO Mashhad station from semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosions. Furthermore, by digitizing the vertical component of seismograms and transforming them to the frequency domain, the mean amplitude of records at frequency ranges of 0.04-0.06 Hz were calculated. Then, surface wave magnitudes in the frequency domain (M Sf ) and their corresponding yield-magnitude relationship were obtained. By comparing correlation coefficients of these two yield-magnitude relationships, following relationship M S = 1.079 log(Y) + 1.714, was chosen for estimating the yield of semipalatinsk test site nuclear explosion from seismograms of SRO

  19. A Numerical Method for Predicting Rayleigh Surface Wave Velocity in Anisotropic Crystals (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    velocity, preventing the use of gradient-based optimization routines. The typical approach to solving this problem is to perform the inverse many times...is dependent on the wave velocity. However, the wave velocity is unknown at this point, which means p and v must be determined simultaneously . One way...defined as: Z=−iBA−1 (11) where A is the matrix formed by combining the displacement vectors, a into a single matrix. The inverse is guaranteed to exist

  20. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  1. Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santala, Melissa; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2006-01-01

    Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.

  2. Handbook of ocean wave energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kofoed, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

  3. Structure of the crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Julià, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2010-11-01

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) consists of a linear chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline, volcanoes that do not exhibit an age progression. Here we study crustal structure beneath the CVL and adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broad-band seismic stations deployed between 2005 January and 2007 February. We find that (1) crustal thickness (35-39km) and velocity structure is similar beneath the CVL and the Pan African Oubanguides Belt to the south of the CVL, (2) crust is thicker (43-48km) under the northern margin of the Congo Craton and is characterized by shear wave velocities >=4.0kms-1 in its lower part and (3) crust is thinner (26-31km) under the Garoua rift and the coastal plain. In addition, a fast velocity layer (Vs of 3.6-3.8kms-1) in the upper crust is found beneath many of the seismic stations. Crustal structure beneath the CVL and the Oubanguides Belt is very similar to Pan African crustal structure in the Mozambique Belt, and therefore it appears not to have been modified significantly by the magmatic activity associated with the CVL. The crust beneath the coastal plain was probably thinned during the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean, while the crust beneath the Garoua rift was likely thinned during the formation of the Benue Trough in the early Cretaceous. We suggest that the thickened crust and the thick mafic lower crustal layer beneath the northern margin of the Congo Craton may be relict features from a continent-continent collision along this margin during the formation of Gondwana.

  4. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Jordi Julia; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  5. Response of a Circular Tunnel Through Rock to a Harmonic Rayleigh Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chien-Lun; Wang, Tai-Tien; Chen, Cheng-Hsun; Huang, Tsan-Hwei

    2018-02-01

    A factor that combines tunnel depth and incident wavelength has been numerically determined to dominate the seismic responses of a tunnel in rocks that are subjected to harmonic P- and S-waves. This study applies the dynamic finite element method to investigate the seismic response of shallow overburden tunnels. Seismically induced stress increments in the lining of a circular tunnel that is subjected to an incident harmonic R-wave are examined. The determination of R-wave considers the dominant frequency of acceleration history of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake measured near the site with damage to two case tunnels at specifically shallow depth. An analysis reveals that the normalized seismically induced axial, shear and flexural stress increments in the lining of a tunnel reach their respective peaks at the depth h/ λ = 0.15, where the ground motion that is generated by an incident of R-wave has its maximum. The tunnel radius has a stronger effect on seismically induced stress increments than does tunnel depth. A greater tunnel radius yields higher normalized seismically induced axial stress increments and lower normalized seismically induced shear and flexural stress increments. The inertia of the thin overburden layer above the tunnel impedes the propagation of the wave and affects the motion of the ground around the tunnel. With an extremely shallow overburden, such an effect can change the envelope of the normalized seismically induced stress increments from one with a symmetric four-petal pattern into one with a non-symmetric three-petal pattern. The simulated results may partially elucidate the spatial distributions of cracks that were observed in the lining of the case tunnels.

  6. Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs

  7. Graphene-mediated microfluidic transport and nebulization via high frequency Rayleigh wave substrate excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Hung, Yew M; Tan, Ming K

    2016-09-21

    The deposition of a thin graphene film atop a chip scale piezoelectric substrate on which surface acoustic waves are excited is observed to enhance its performance for fluid transport and manipulation considerably, which can be exploited to achieve further efficiency gains in these devices. Such gains can then enable complete integration and miniaturization for true portability for a variety of microfluidic applications across drug delivery, biosensing and point-of-care diagnostics, among others, where field-use, point-of-collection or point-of-care functionality is desired. In addition to a first demonstration of vibration-induced molecular transport in graphene films, we show that the coupling of the surface acoustic wave gives rise to antisymmetric Lamb waves in the film which enhance molecular diffusion and hence the flow through the interstitial layers that make up the film. Above a critical input power, the strong substrate vibration displacement can also force the molecules out of the graphene film to form a thin fluid layer, which subsequently destabilizes and breaks up to form a mist of micron dimension aerosol droplets. We provide physical insight into this coupling through a simple numerical model, verified through experiments, and show several-fold improvement in the rate of fluid transport through the film, and up to 55% enhancement in the rate of fluid atomization from the film using this simple method.

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor stability for a shock wave-density discontinuity interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Shells in inertial fusion targets are typically accelerated and decelerated by two or three shocks followed by continuous acceleration. The analytic solution for perturbation growth of a shock wave striking a density discontinuity in an inviscid fluid is investigated. The Laplace transform of the solution results in a functional equation, which has a simple solution for weak shock waves. The solution for strong shock waves may be given by a power series. It is assumed that the equation of state is given by a gamma law. The four independent parameters of the solution are the gamma values on each side of the material interface, the density ratio at the interface, and the shock strength. The asymptotic behavior (for large distances and times) of the perturbation velocity is given. For strong shocks the decay of the perturbation away from the interface is much weaker than the exponential decay of an incompressible fluid. The asymptotic value is given by a constant term and a number of slowly decaying discreet frequencies. The number of frequencies is roughly proportional to the logarithm of the density discontinuity divided by that of the shock strength. The asymptotic velocity at the interface is tabulated for representative values of the independent parameters. For weak shocks the solution is compared with results for an incompressible fluid. The range of density ratios with possible zero asymptotic velocities is given

  9. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  10. Lithospheric Shear Velocity Structure of South Island, New Zealand from Rayleigh Wave Tomography of Amphibious Array Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F. C.; Collins, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first 3D shear velocity model extending well offshore of New Zealand's South Island, imaging the lithosphere beneath Campbell and Challenger plateaus. Our model is constructed via linearized inversion of both teleseismic (18 -70 s period) and ambient noise-based (8 - 25 s period) Rayleigh wave dispersion measurements. We augment an array of 29 ocean-bottom instruments deployed off the South Island's east and west coasts in 2009-2010 with 28 New Zealand land-based seismometers. The ocean-bottom seismometers and 4 of the land seismometers were part of the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, and the remaining land seismometers are from New Zealand's permanent GeoNet array. Major features of our shear wave velocity (Vs) model include a low-velocity (Vs<4.3km/s) body extending to at least 75km depth beneath the Banks and Otago peninsulas, a high-velocity (Vs~4.7km/s) upper mantle anomaly underlying the Southern Alps to a depth of 100km, and discontinuous lithospheric velocity structure between eastern and western Challenger Plateau. Using the 4.5km/s contour as a proxy for the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, our model suggests that the lithospheric thickness of Challenger Plateau is substantially greater than that of Campbell Plateau. The high-velocity anomaly we resolve beneath the central South Island exhibits strong spatial correlation with subcrustal earthquake hypocenters along the Alpine Fault (Boese et al., 2013). The ~400km-long low velocity zone we image beneath eastern South Island underlies Cenozoic volcanics and mantle-derived helium observations (Hoke et al., 2000) on the surface. The NE-trending low-velocity zone dividing Challenger Plateau in our model underlies a prominent magnetic discontinuity (Sutherland et al., 1999). The latter feature has been interpreted to represent a pre-Cretaceous crustal boundary, which our results suggest may involve the entire mantle lithosphere.

  11. Crust and uppermost-mantle structure of Greenland and the Northwest Atlantic from Rayleigh wave group velocity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Joyal, Guillaume

    2018-03-01

    The Greenland landmass preserves ˜4 billion years of tectonic history, but much of the continent is inaccessible to geological study due to the extensive inland ice cap. We map out, for the first time, the 3-D crustal structure of Greenland and the NW Atlantic ocean, using Rayleigh wave anisotropic group velocity tomography, in the period range 10-80 s, from regional earthquakes and the ongoing GLATIS/GLISN seismograph networks. 1-D inversion gives a pseudo-3-D model of shear wave velocity structure to depths of ˜100 km with a horizontal resolution of ˜200 km. Crustal thickness across mainland Greenland ranges from ˜25 km to over 50 km, and the velocity structure shows considerable heterogeneity. The large sedimentary basins on the continental shelf are clearly visible as low velocities in the upper ˜5-15 km. Within the upper continental basement, velocities are systematically lower in northern Greenland than in the south, and exhibit a broadly NW-SE trend. The thinning of the crust at the continental margins is also clearly imaged. Upper-mantle velocities show a clear distinction between typical fast cratonic lithosphere (Vs ≥4.6 km s-1) beneath Greenland and its NE margin and anomalously slow oceanic mantle (Vs ˜4.3-4.4 km s-1) beneath the NW Atlantic. We do not observe any sign of pervasive lithospheric modification across Greenland in the regions associated with the presumed Iceland hotspot track, though the average crustal velocity in this region is higher than that of areas to the north and south. Crustal anisotropy beneath Greenland is strong and complex, likely reflecting numerous episodes of tectonic deformation. Beneath the North Atlantic and Baffin Bay, the dominant anisotropy directions are perpendicular to the active and extinct spreading centres. Anisotropy in the subcontinental lithosphere is weaker than that of the crust, but still significant, consistent with cratonic lithosphere worldwide.

  12. Key features of wave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, R C T

    2012-01-28

    For a weak point source or dipole, or a small body operating as either, we show that the power from a wave energy converter (WEC) is the product of the particle velocity in the waves, and the wave force (suitably defined). There is a thus a strong analogy with a wind or tidal turbine, where the power is the product of the fluid velocity through the turbine, and the force on it. As a first approximation, the cost of a structure is controlled by the force it has to carry, which governs its strength, and the distance it has to be carried, which governs its size. Thus, WECs are at a disadvantage compared with wind and tidal turbines because the fluid velocities are lower, and hence the forces are higher. On the other hand, the distances involved are lower. As with turbines, the implication is also that a WEC must make the most of its force-carrying ability-ideally, to carry its maximum force all the time, the '100% sweating WEC'. It must be able to limit the wave force on it in larger waves, ultimately becoming near-transparent to them in the survival condition-just like a turbine in extreme conditions, which can stop and feather its blades. A turbine of any force rating can achieve its maximum force in low wind speeds, if its diameter is sufficiently large. This is not possible with a simple monopole or dipole WEC, however, because of the 'nλ/2π' capture width limits. To achieve reasonable 'sweating' in typical wave climates, the force is limited to about 1 MN for a monopole device, or 2 MN for a dipole. The conclusion is that the future of wave energy is in devices that are not simple monopoles or dipoles, but multi-body devices or other shapes equivalent to arrays.

  13. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  14. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  15. Rayleigh Wave Group Velocity Tomography from Microseisms in the Acambay Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama Membrillo, S.; Aguirre, J.; Zuñiga-Davila, R.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Acambay graben is one of the most outstanding structures of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The Acambay graben has a length of 80km and 15 to 18 km wide and reaches a maximum height of 400 m in its central part. We obtained the group velocity seismic tomography for the Acamaby graben for three different frequencies (f = 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 Hz). The graben was divided into 6x6 km cells for the tomography and covered a total area of 1008 km2. Seismic noise data from 10 broadband seismic stations near the Acambay graben were used to extract the surface wave arrival-times between all station pairs. The Green's function was recovered in each stations pair by cross-correlation technique. This technique was applied to seismic recordings collected on the vertical component of 10 broadband stations for a continuous recording period of 5 months. Data processing consisted of removing instrumental response, mean, and trend. After that, we applied time domain normalization, a spectral whitening and applied band-pas filtering of 0.1 to 1 Hz. There are shallow studies of the Acambay graben. But little is known of the distribution of deep graben structures. This study estimated the surface wave velocity deep structure. The structures at the frequency 0.3 Hz indicate a lower depth than the remaining frequencies. The result for this frequency show consistencies with previous studies of gravimetry and resistivity, also defines the fault system of Temascalcingo.

  16. Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P.; Spies, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.

  17. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  18. Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James

    of the incident waves upon a wave device allows the possibility of accurately tuning the power-take off mechanism (the hydro-turbines for the Wave Dragon) to capture more energy. A digital filter method for performing this prediction in real-time with minimal computational effort is presented. Construction...... of digital filters is well known within signal processing, but their use for this application in Wave Energy is new. The filter must be designed carefully as the frequency components of waves travel at different speeds. Research presented in this thesis has advanced the development of the Wave Dragon device...

  19. Lithospheric structure of the westernmost Mediterranean inferred from finite frequency Rayleigh wave tomography S-velocity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, Imma; Villasenor, Antonio; Thurner, Sally; Levander, Alan; Gallart, Josep; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin, constitute the westernmost Mediterranean. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, the result of interaction between the Iberian and Eurasian plates; the Iberian Massif, a region that has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes) and the Atlas Mountains, resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back and Eurasian-Nubian plate convergence. In this study we analyze data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations on the Iberian Peninsula and in Morocco (Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the US PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km, comparable to USArray. We have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. The model shows differences in the crust for the different areas, where the highest shear velocities are mapped in the Iberian Massif crust. The crustal thickness is highly variable ranging from ~25 km beneath the eastern Betics to ~55km beneath the Gibraltar Strait, Internal Betics and Internal Rif. Beneath this region a unique arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas

  20. Shear velocity model for the westernmost Mediterranean from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean comprises the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, separated by the Alboran Sea and the Algerian Basin. From north to south this region consists of the Pyrenees, resulting from Iberia-Eurasia collision; the Iberian Massif, which has been undeformed since the end of the Paleozoic; the Central System and Iberian Chain, regions with intracontinental Oligocene-Miocene deformation; the Gibraltar Arc (Betics, Rif and Alboran terranes), resulting from post-Oligocene subduction roll-back; and the Atlas Mountains. We analyzed data from recent broad-band array deployments and permanent stations in the area (IberArray and Siberia arrays, the PICASSO array, the University of Munster array, and the Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan National Networks) to characterize its lithospheric structure. The combined array of 350 stations has an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. We calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise (periods 4 to 40 s) and teleseismic events (periods 20 to 167 s). We inverted the phase velocities to obtain a shear velocity model for the lithosphere to ~200 km depth. Our results correlate well with the surface expression of the main structural units with higher crustal velocity for the Iberian Massif than for the Alpine Iberia and Atlas Mountains. The Gibraltar Arc has lower crustal shear velocities than the regional average at all crustal depths. It also shows an arc shaped anomaly with high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) at shallow depths (volcanic fields in Iberia and Morocco, indicative of high temperatures at relatively shallow depths, and suggesting that the lithosphere has been removed beneath these areas.

  1. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  2. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  3. Key Aspects of Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck

    2012-01-01

    Diversification of renewable energy sources is fundamental to ensure sustainability. In this contest, wave energy can provide a substantial contribution as soon as the sector breaks into the market. In order to accelerate shift from a technology to a market focus and reduce technical and non...... versatility into account can improve their overall performance and the value of investments. The way installation of devices can be perceived also by local communities can also benefit from this prospective thus providing and additional tool to overcome the sector´s setbacks....

  4. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and hyper-Raman scattering of dye-adsorbed silver nanoparticles induced by a focused continuous-wave near-infrared laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Tamitake; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ihama, Takashi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We report that hyper-Rayleigh scattering, surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering, and two-photon excited luminescence occur intermittently by focusing a continuous-wave near-infrared (cw-NIR) laser into a colloidal silver solution including rhodamine 6G (R6G) and sodium chloride (NaCl). On the other hand, continuous hyper-Rayleigh scattering is observed from colloidal silver free from R6G and NaCl, demonstrating that hyper-Raman scattering and two-photon excited luminescence are attributed to R6G and their intermittent features are dependent on the colloidal dispersion. These results suggest that the cw-NIR laser has three roles; the source of the nonlinear response, optical trapping of nanoparticles, and making nanoparticle aggregates possessing the high activity for the nonlinear response

  5. Modeling of the attenuation of stress waves in concrete based on the Rayleigh damping model using time-reversal and PZT transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Huo, Linsheng; Gao, Weihang; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-01

    Wave-based concrete structural health monitoring has attracted much attention. A stress wave experiences significant attenuation in concrete, however there is a lack of a unified method for predicting the attenuation coefficient of the stress wave. In this paper, a simple and effective absorption attenuation model of stress waves in concrete is developed based on the Rayleigh damping model, which indicates that the absorption attenuation coefficient of stress waves in concrete is directly proportional to the square of the stress wave frequency when the damping ratio is small. In order to verify the theoretical model, related experiments were carried out. During the experiments, a concrete beam was designed in which the d33-model piezoelectric smart aggregates were embedded to detect the propagation of stress waves. It is difficult to distinguish direct stress waves due to the complex propagation paths and the reflection and scattering of stress waves in concrete. Hence, as another innovation of this paper, a new method for computing the absorption attenuation coefficient based on the time-reversal method is developed. Due to the self-adaptive focusing properties of the time-reversal method, the time-reversed stress wave focuses and generates a peak value. The time-reversal method eliminates the adverse effects of multipaths, reflection, and scattering. The absorption attenuation coefficient is computed by analyzing the peak value changes of the time-reversal focused signal. Finally, the experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  6. Development of the Wave Energy Converter -Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    2Over the years wave energy has gradually been brought into focus, as it has become clear that the fossil energy resources are limited, and cause large environmental problems, e.g. CO2 pollution. On this background a number of different wave energy converters have been proposed. In Denmark the go...

  7. VS of the uppermost crust structure of the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy) from ambient noise Rayleigh wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.; Strollo, R.

    2017-11-01

    Shear wave velocities (VS) are defined in the uppermost 1-2 km of the Campi Flegrei caldera through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers. Noise recordings, three months long, at 12 seismic stations are cross-correlated between all couples of stations. The experiment provided successful results along 54 paths (inter-stations distance), of which 27 sampled a depth > 1 km. VS contour lines are drawn from 0.06 km b.s.l. to 1 km depth b.s.l. and show difference between the offshore (gulf of Pozzuoli and coastline) and the onshore areas. At 0.06 km b.s.l., the gulf of Pozzuoli and the coastline are characterized by VS of 0.3-0.5 km/s and of 0.5-0.7 km/s, respectively. Such velocities are typical of Neapolitan pyroclastic soils and fractured or altered tuffs. The inland shows VS in the range 0.7-0.9 km/s, typical of Neapolitan compact tuffs. Velocities increase with depth and, at 1 km depth b.s.l., velocities lower than 1.5 km/s are still present in the gulf and along the coastline while velocities higher than 1.9 km/s characterize the eastern sector (grossly coincident with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff caldera rim), the S. Vito plain and the area between Solfatara and SW of Astroni. Such features are much more evident along two cross-sections drawn in the offshore and onshore sectors by integrating our VS models with literature data. Our models join previous noise cross-correlation studies at greater scale at depths of 0.7-0.8 km, hence the picture of the Campi Flegrei caldera is shown up to a depth of 15 km. VS of about 1.7 km/s, corresponding to compression velocities (VP) of about 3 km/s (computed by using the VP/VS ratio resulted in the inversion), are found at depths of 1.1 km, in the centre of the gulf of Pozzuoli, and at a depth of about 0.7 km b.s.l. onshore. An increment of VS velocity ( 1.9-2.0 km/s) is locally observed onshore

  8. Wave energy : from demonstration to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Wave Energy Centre is a non-profit organization dedicated to the development and marketing of ocean wave energy devices through technical and strategic support to companies and research and development institutions. WEC provides access to researchers to associated test infrastructures for testing and demonstration of wave energy structures. This presentation described the current status of wave energy. Public policies that support wave energy were also highlighted. Wave energy technology is currently in the demonstration phase, with several pilot plants and prototypes in service around the world. The first 2 offshore shoreline ocean wave current pilot plants were constructed in 2000. This presentation identified the 12 near or offshore pilot plants that were in operation by 2007. The pilot plants represent 5 basic different concepts with many different designs. The world's first commercial park was launched in 2007 in Portugal. The Pelamis wave farm uses three Pelamis P-750 machines with a capacity of 2.25 megawatts. figs.

  9. Experimental Study on the WavePiston Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Angelelli, E.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power performance of the WavePiston wave energy converter. It focuses mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device and the effect of the following issues: Scaling ratios PTO loading Wave height and wave period...... dependency Oblique incoming waves Distance between plates During the study, the model supplied by the client, WavePiston, has been rigorously tested as all the anticipated tests have been done thoroughly and during all tests, good quality data has been obtained from all the sensors....

  10. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  11. Problems of application of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.; Morozkina, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    Technical solutions of using the energy both sea waves and lake ones are analyzed. Mathematical description of wave processes and phenomena as well as techniques of selection and conversion of the wave energy are given. Wave energy electromechanical converters are considered. Great attention is paid to linear generators of electromechanical converters eddy currents in massive sections of these generators and features of their calculation. Techniques for optimization of the linear generator parameters are shown. 60 refs

  12. Wave Induced Loads on the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Beserra, Eliab Ricarte

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the wave induced loads on the device, based...... in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  13. Experiments on the WavePiston, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelelli, E.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of a new Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the Oscillating Water Column type (OWC), named WavePiston. This near-shore floating device is composed of plates (i.e. energy collectors) sliding around a cylinder, that is placed perpendicular to the shore. Tests...... in the wave basin at Aalborg University allowed to investigate power production in the North Sea typical wave climate, with varying design parameters such as plate dimensions and their mutual distance. The power produced per meter by each collector is about the 5% of the available wave power. Experimental...... results and survivability considerations suggest that the WavePiston would be particularly suited for installations in milder seas. An example application is therefore presented in the Mediterranean Sea, off-shore the island of Sicily. In this case, each collector harvests the 10% of the available wave...

  14. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...

  15. Dissipation of Wave Energy by Cohesive Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaihatu, James M; Sheremet, Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    Wave energy dissipation by bottom muds is studied. A dissipation mechanism which contains explicit expressions of wavenumber modification due to a viscous bottom fluid is incorporated into a nonlinear wave shoaling model...

  16. Sensitivity of wave energy to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gareth; Wallace, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Wave energy will have a key role in meeting renewable energy targets en route to a low carbon economy. However, in common with other renewables, it may be sensitive to changes in climate resulting from rising carbon emissions. Changes in wind patterns are widely anticipated and this will ultimately alter wave regimes. Indeed, evidence indicates that wave heights have been changing over the last 40 years, although there is no proven link to global warming. Changes in the wave climate will impa...

  17. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  18. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    to generate power. Model tests have been performed using scale models (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept....... of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate mechanical power available to the power take off....

  19. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  20. Introducing wave energy into the renewable energy marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroncini, S.; Yemm, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The energy sector in Europe is going through a dynamic evolution that sees the introduction and development of renewable energy and the re-emergence of a wave energy industry. Although wave energy is currently not economically competitive with mature technologies such as wind energy, the wave energy world-wide resource of 2 TW has a potential contribution in the electricity market of 2000TWh/year. Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, Norway and the UK have been analysed in terms of wave energy resources, renewable energy market structure and political and economic support for the introduction of wave energy into the marketplace. The results have been used together with Ocean Power Delivery Ltd to develop an initial market survey for the wave energy converter Pelamis. (au)

  1. Controller for a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  2. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  3. Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity Modeling and Inversion for Shallow Structure at the Proposed InSight Landing Site in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Golombek, Matthew P.; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) instrument onboard the InSight mission will be the first seismometer directly deployed on the surface of Mars. From studies on the Earth and the Moon, it is well known that site amplification in low-velocity sediments on top of more competent rocks has a strong influence on seismic signals, but can also be used to constrain the subsurface structure. Here we simulate ambient vibration wavefields in a model of the shallow sub-surface at the InSight landing site in Elysium Planitia and demonstrate how the high-frequency Rayleigh wave ellipticity can be extracted from these data and inverted for shallow structure. We find that, depending on model parameters, higher mode ellipticity information can be extracted from single-station data, which significantly reduces uncertainties in inversion. Though the data are most sensitive to properties of the upper-most layer and show a strong trade-off between layer depth and velocity, it is possible to estimate the velocity and thickness of the sub-regolith layer by using reasonable constraints on regolith properties. Model parameters are best constrained if either higher mode data can be used or additional constraints on regolith properties from seismic analysis of the hammer strokes of InSight's heat flow probe HP3 are available. In addition, the Rayleigh wave ellipticity can distinguish between models with a constant regolith velocity and models with a velocity increase in the regolith, information which is difficult to obtain otherwise.

  4. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [COMSATS, Chakshahzad (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  5. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  6. Wave energy input into the Ekman layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the wave energy input into the Ekman layer, based on 3 observational facts that surface waves could significantly affect the profile of the Ekman layer. Under the assumption of constant vertical diffusivity, the analytical form of wave energy input into the Ekman layer is derived. Analysis of the energy balance shows that the energy input to the Ekman layer through the wind stress and the interaction of the Stokes-drift with planetary vorticity can be divided into two kinds. One is the wind energy input, and the other is the wave energy input which is dependent on wind speed, wave characteristics and the wind direction relative to the wave direction. Estimates of wave energy input show that wave energy input can be up to 10% in high-latitude and high-wind speed areas and higher than 20% in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, compared with the wind energy input into the classical Ekman layer. Results of this paper are of significance to the study of wave-induced large scale effects.

  7. Upper mantle structure under western Saudi Arabia from Rayleigh wave tomography and the origin of Cenozoic uplift and volcanism on the Arabian Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-11-09

    The shear velocity structure of the shallow upper mantle beneath the Arabian Shield has been modeled by inverting new Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements between 45 and 140 s together with previously published Rayleigh wave group velocity measurement between 10 and 45 s. For measuring phase velocities, we applied a modified array method that minimizes the distortion of raypaths by lateral heterogeneity. The new shear velocity model shows a broad low velocity region in the lithospheric mantle across the Shield and a low velocity region at depths {ge} 150 km localized along the Red Sea coast and Makkah-Madinah-Nafud (MMN) volcanic line. The velocity reduction in the upper mantle corresponds to a temperature anomaly of {approx}250-330 K. These finding, in particular the region of continuous low velocities along the Red Sea and MMN volcanic line, do not support interpretations for the origin of the Cenozoic plateau uplift and volcanism on the Shield invoking two separate plumes. When combined with images of the 410 and 660 km discontinuities beneath the southern part of the Arabian Shield, body wave tomographic models, a S-wave polarization analysis, and SKS splitting results, our new model supports an interpretation invoking a thermal upwelling of warm mantle rock originating in the lower mantle under Africa that crosses through the transition zone beneath Ethiopia and moves to the north and northwest under the eastern margin of the Red Sea and the Arabian Shield. In this interpretation, the difference in mean elevation between the Platform and Shield can be attributed to isostatic uplift caused by heating of the lithospheric mantle under the Shield, with significantly higher region along the Red Sea possibly resulting from a combination of lithosphere thinning and dynamic uplift.

  8. Energy in a String Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  9. Predictability of Wave Energy and Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The articlw addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... power outputs of three wave energy technologies in the Danish North Sea are examined. The simultaneous and co-located forecast and buoy-measured wave parameters at Hanstholm, Denmark, during a non-consecutive autumn and winter 3-month period form the basis of the investigation. The objective...

  10. The Indian wave energy programme- an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, M.; Jayashankar, V.; Jalihal, P.; Pathak, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian wave energy plant at Vizhinjam, Kerala has demonstrated that energy from a random source such as waves can be harnessed as electrical energy and exported via the local grid. This plant is based on the oscillating water column (OWC) principle. The research on wave energy in India has achieved a commendable status within a decade. A caisson was constructed in December 1990 at Vizhinjam and two generations of power modules have been tested as of today. The physical processes in the energy conversion are understood to a much greater extent, leading to a threefold increase in absolute power from the plant. Efforts are on to make the technology cost-effective

  11. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  12. Energy in one-dimensional linear waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetto, C E; Roatta, A; Welti, R J

    2011-01-01

    This work is based on propagation phenomena that conform to the classical wave equation. General expressions of power, the energy conservation equation in continuous media and densities of the kinetic and potential energies are presented. As an example, we study the waves in a string and focused attention on the case of standing waves. The treatment is applicable to introductory science textbooks. (letters and comment)

  13. Basin-edge generated Rayleigh waves in the Almaty basin and corresponding consequences for ground motion amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Petrovic, Bojana; Silacheva, Natalya; Abakanov, Tanatkan; Orunbaev, Sagynbek; Moldobekov, Bolot

    2018-04-01

    During the past two centuries, several large earthquakes have caused extensive damages in the city of Almaty in Kazakhstan. Increasing the preparedness for future events, the definition of the optimal engineering designs for civil structures and the corresponding mitigation of earthquake risks involves the accomplishment of site response studies. To this regard, a temporary seismological network of 15 stations was installed in the city aiming at the accurate identification of local variations of site response at different locations. As the city is settled on a deep sediment-filled plain with laterally strongly varying thicknesses, bound to the south by the Tien-Shan mountain range, the city might face important site effects: large amplification and significant increase of shaking duration. In addition, surface waves in the low-frequency range around and slightly higher than the fundamental resonance frequency, which could be generated at the boundaries of the basin, can carry a large amount of energy. In turn, this will influence both the spatial distribution of the level of amplification and the temporal lengthening of ground motion significantly. For quantifying these effects, we apply complex trace analysis, which uses the instantaneous polarization characteristics of the seismic signal for separating waves arriving at a single site from different directions. In this way, secondary surface waves originating at various sites along the edge of the Almaty basin can be identified as well as their generation regions. After having assessed 1-D amplification effects with well-established techniques like the standard spectral ratio and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio techniques, the results further indicate that thick layers of soft clay deposits and the 3-D structure of the basin give rise to lengthening of ground motion and high amplification values at low frequencies around 0.2 Hz. The steep structure of the sediment-bedrock interface at the southern edge

  14. Unusual energy properties of leaky backward Lamb waves in a submerged plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedospasov, I A; Mozhaev, V G; Kuznetsova, I E

    2017-05-01

    It is found that leaky backward Lamb waves, i.e. waves with negative energy-flux velocity, propagating in a plate submerged in a liquid possess extraordinary energy properties distinguishing them from any other type of waves in isotropic media. Namely, the total time-averaged energy flux along the waveguide axis is equal to zero for these waves due to opposite directions of the longitudinal energy fluxes in the adjacent media. This property gives rise to the fundamental question of how to define and calculate correctly the energy velocity in such an unusual case. The procedure of calculation based on incomplete integration of the energy flux density over the plate thickness alone is applied. The derivative of the angular frequency with respect to the wave vector, usually referred to as the group velocity, happens to be close to the energy velocity defined by this mean in that part of the frequency range where the backward mode exists in the free plate. The existence region of the backward mode is formally increased for the submerged plate in comparison to the free plate as a result of the liquid-induced hybridization of propagating and nonpropagating (evanescent) Lamb modes. It is shown that the Rayleigh's principle (i.e. equipartition of total time-averaged kinetic and potential energies for time-harmonic acoustic fields) is violated due to the leakage of Lamb waves, in spite of considering nondissipative media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Oceanic and Continental Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, and the LAB Through Shear Velocity Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Data from the ALBACORE Amphibious Array in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, K.; Rathnayaka, S.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Continental and oceanic lithosphere, which form in different tectonic environments, are studied in a single amphibious seismic array across the Southern California continental margin. This provides a unique opportunity to directly compare oceanic and continental lithosphere, asthenosphere, and the LAB (Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary) in a single data set. The complex history of the region, including spreading center subduction, block rotation, and Borderland extension, allows us to study limits in the rigidity and strength of the lithosphere. We study Rayleigh wave phase velocities obtained from the ALBACORE (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) offshore seismic array project and invert for shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. We divide the study area into several regions: continent, inner Borderland, outer Borderland, and oceanic seafloor categorized by age. A unique starting Vs model is used for each case including layer thicknesses, densities, and P and S velocities which predicts Rayleigh phase velocities and are compared to observed phase velocities in each region. We solve for shear wave velocities with the best fit between observed and predicted phase velocity data in a least square sense. Preliminary results indicate that lithospheric velocities in the oceanic mantle are higher than the continental region by at least 2%. The LAB is observed at 50 ± 20 km beneath 15-35 Ma oceanic seafloor. Asthenospheric low velocities reach a minimum of 4.2 km/s in all regions, but have a steeper positive velocity gradient at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere compared to the continent. Seismic tomography images in two and three dimensions will be presented from each study region.

  16. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks.

  17. Levelized Cost of Energy of the Weptos wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the cost of energy calculations of a wave energy array of 90 MW, consisting of 25 x 3.6 MW Weptos wave energy converters. The calculation has been made in analogy with a publically available document presented by the UK government, covering the case of a similar size wind...

  18. Teaching on ocean-wave-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falnes, J. [Norges teknisk-naturvitskaplege univ., Inst. for fysikk, Trondheim (Norway)

    2001-07-01

    Ocean-wave energy utilisation has for 27 years been a university research subject, in which the author has been active from the first year. In this paper he presents some information related to his teaching on the subject during many of these years. This includes teaching on the pre-university level and, in particular, development of the wave-energy module for an educational CD-ROM on sustainable technology and renewable energy. Education of the general public is very important. On the other hand teaching of doctor students and other wave-energy researchers is also a subject of the paper. (au)

  19. Near surface structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone near 30°E from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography using ambient seismic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Hillers, G.

    2017-12-01

    By utilising short period surface waves present in the noise field, we can construct images of shallow structure in the Earth's upper crust: a depth-range that is usually poorly resolved in earthquake tomography. Here, we use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the source region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends 1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We obtain maps of group velocity variation using surface wave tomography applied to short period (1- 6 s) Rayleigh and Love waves to construct high-resolution images of SV and SH-wave velocity in the upper 5 km of a 70 km x 35 km region centred on the eastern end of the fault segment that ruptured in the 1999 Izmit earthquake. The average Rayleigh wave group velocities in the region vary between 1.8 km/s at 1.5 s period, to 2.2 km/s at 6 s period. The NAFZ bifurcates into northern and southern strands in this region; both are active but only the northern strand ruptured in the 1999 event. The signatures of both the northern and southern branches of the NAFZ are clearly associated with strong gradients in seismic velocity that also denote the boundaries of major tectonic units. This observation implies that the fault zone exploits the pre-existing structure of the Intra-Pontide suture zone. To the north of the NAFZ, we observe low S-wave velocities ( 2.0 km/s) associated with the unconsolidated sediments of the Adapazari basin, and blocks of weathered terrigenous clastic sediments. To the south of the northern branch of the NAFZ in the Armutlu block, we detect higher velocities ( 2.9 km/s) associated with a shallow crystalline basement, in particular a block of metamorphosed schists and marbles that bound the northern branch of the NAFZ.

  20. Hydraulic Response of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  1. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  2. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  3. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Lopez, M.; Carballo, R.; Castro, A. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Hydraulic Engineering, E.P.S., Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Fraguela, J.A. [University of A Coruna, E.P.S., Campus de Esteiro s/n, Ferrol (Spain); Frigaard, P. [University of Aalborg, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK 9000 (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO{sub 2}-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996-2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location of ports, navigation routes, and fishing and aquaculture zones, an area is selected for wave energy exploitation. The transformation of the offshore wave field as it propagates into this area is computed by means of a nearshore wave model (SWAN) in order to select the optimum locations for a wave farm. Two zones emerge as those with the highest potential for wave energy exploitation. The large modifications in the available wave power resulting from relatively small changes of position are made apparent in the process. (author)

  4. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    Ocean waves provide a sustainable, power-dense, predictable and widely available source of energy that could provide about 10 % of worlds energy needs. While research into waveenergy has been undertaken for decades, a significant increase in related activities has been seen in the recent years......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes....... Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...

  5. Probabilistic Design of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferreira, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    Wave energy has a large potential for contributing significantly to production of renewable energy. However, the wave energy sector is still not able to deliver cost competitive and reliable solutions. But the sector has already demonstrated several proofs of concepts. The design of wave energy...... devices is a new and expanding technical area where there is no tradition for probabilistic design—in fact very little full scale devices has been build to date, so it can be said that no design tradition really exists in this area. For this reason it is considered to be of great importance to develop...... and advocate for a probabilistic design approach, as it is assumed (in other areas this has been demonstrated) that this leads to more economical designs compared to designs based on deterministic methods. In the present paper a general framework for probabilistic design and reliability analysis of wave energy...

  6. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development......, with more than 150 concepts currently being developed worldwide. Wave energy conversion concepts can be of many kinds, as the energy in the waves can be absorbed in many different ways. However, each concept is expected to require a thorough development process, involving different phases and prototypes...

  7. Energy Capture Optimization for an Adaptive Wave Energy Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barradas Berglind, Jose de Jesus; Meijer, Harmen; van Rooij, Marijn; Clemente Pinol, Silvia; Galvan Garcia, Bruno; Prins, Wouter; Vakis, Antonis I.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy has great potential as a renewable energy source, and can therefore contribute significantly to the proportion of renewable energy in the global energy mix. This is especially important since energy mixes with high renewable penetration have become a worldwide priority. One solution to

  8. Development of the Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    The development of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD) is presented. The WD is based on the overtopping principle. Initially a description of the WD is given. Then the development over time in terms of the various research and development projects working with the concept is described. Thi...

  9. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  10. Image processing to optimize wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kyle Marc-Anthony

    The world is turning to renewable energies as a means of ensuring the planet's future and well-being. There have been a few attempts in the past to utilize wave power as a means of generating electricity through the use of Wave Energy Converters (WEC), but only recently are they becoming a focal point in the renewable energy field. Over the past few years there has been a global drive to advance the efficiency of WEC. Placing a mechanical device either onshore or offshore that captures the energy within ocean surface waves to drive a mechanical device is how wave power is produced. This paper seeks to provide a novel and innovative way to estimate ocean wave frequency through the use of image processing. This will be achieved by applying a complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filter bank to satellite images of ocean waves. The complex modulated lapped orthogonal transform filterbank provides an equal subband decomposition of the Nyquist bounded discrete time Fourier Transform spectrum. The maximum energy of the 2D complex modulated lapped transform subband is used to determine the horizontal and vertical frequency, which subsequently can be used to determine the wave frequency in the direction of the WEC by a simple trigonometric scaling. The robustness of the proposed method is provided by the applications to simulated and real satellite images where the frequency is known.

  11. A statistical investigation of wind characteristics and wind energy potential based on the Weibull and Rayleigh models in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Bonfils; Gasore, Jimmy [Department of Physics, National University of Rwanda, P.O. Box 117, Huye, South Province (Rwanda)

    2010-12-15

    A wind energy system converts the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical uses and transform the economy of rural areas where access to water and electricity is very restricted and industry is almost nonexistent in most of the developing countries like Rwanda. Assessing wind power potential for a location is an imperative requirement before making a decision for the installation of windmills or a wind electric generator and evaluating plans for relating projects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of wind resource in Rwanda and to constitute a database for the users of the wind power. A time series of hourly daily measured wind speed and wind direction for the period between 1974 and 1993 on five main Rwandan meteorological stations was provided by the National Meteorology Department. Statistical methods applying Weibull and Rayleigh distribution were presented to evaluate the wind speed characteristics and the wind power potential at a height of 10 m above ground level using hourly monthly average data. Those characteristics were extrapolated for higher levels in altitude. The results give a global picture of the distribution of the wind potential in different locations of Rwanda. (author)

  12. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  13. State estimation for wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelli, Giorgio; Coe, Ryan Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    This report gives a brief discussion and examples on the topic of state estimation for wave energy converters (WECs). These methods are intended for use to enable real-time closed loop control of WECs.

  14. Developing regionalized models of lithospheric thickness and velocity structure across Eurasia and the Middle East from jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E

    2009-07-06

    In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations

  15. Wave energy potential in Galicia (NW Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; López, Mario; Carballo, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Wave power presents significant advantages with regard to other CO2-free energy sources, among which the predictability, high load factor and low visual and environmental impact stand out. Galicia, facing the Atlantic on the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula, is subjected to a very...... harsh wave climate; in this work its potential for energy production is assessed based on three-hourly data from a third generation ocean wave model (WAM) covering the period 1996 - 2005. Taking into account the results of this assessment along with other relevant considerations such as the location...

  16. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Chen, Yi-Leng

    2011-01-01

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  17. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  18. Joint analysis of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and HVSR of lunar seismic data from the Apollo 14 and 16 sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 254, JUL 1 (2015), s. 338-349 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moon * Regoliths * geophysics * surface- wave Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2015

  19. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong; Peng, Pai

    2015-01-01

    . The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a

  20. Optimal control of a wave energy converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, R.W.M.; Leth, J.; Andersen, P; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimal control strategy for a wave energy converter (WEC) with constraints on the control torque is investigated. The goal is to optimize the total energy delivered to the electricity grid. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, the solution is found to be singular-bang. Using higher order

  1. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like

  2. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and ......The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC) is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack...

  3. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  4. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  5. Fundamental formulae for wave-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Kurniawan, Adi

    2015-03-01

    The time-average wave power that is absorbed from an incident wave by means of a wave-energy conversion (WEC) unit, or by an array of WEC units-i.e. oscillating immersed bodies and/or oscillating water columns (OWCs)-may be mathematically expressed in terms of the WEC units' complex oscillation amplitudes, or in terms of the generated outgoing (diffracted plus radiated) waves, or alternatively, in terms of the radiated waves alone. Following recent controversy, the corresponding three optional expressions are derived, compared and discussed in this paper. They all provide the correct time-average absorbed power. However, only the first-mentioned expression is applicable to quantify the instantaneous absorbed wave power and the associated reactive power. In this connection, new formulae are derived that relate the 'added-mass' matrix, as well as a couple of additional reactive radiation-parameter matrices, to the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy in the water surrounding the immersed oscillating WEC array. Further, a complex collective oscillation amplitude is introduced, which makes it possible to derive, by a very simple algebraic method, various simple expressions for the maximum time-average wave power that may be absorbed by the WEC array. The real-valued time-average absorbed power is illustrated as an axisymmetric paraboloid defined on the complex collective-amplitude plane. This is a simple illustration of the so-called 'fundamental theorem for wave power'. Finally, the paper also presents a new derivation that extends a recently published result on the direction-average maximum absorbed wave power to cases where the WEC array's radiation damping matrix may be singular and where the WEC array may contain OWCs in addition to oscillating bodies.

  6. Crustal structure across the NE Tibetan Plateau and Ordos Block from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Xingchen; Zhang, Ruiqing; Wu, Qingju; Ding, Zhifeng

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the crustal structure at 34 stations using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These seismic stations are distributed along a profile extending across the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, Qinling-Qilian terranes and southwestern Ordos Basin. Our results reveal the variation in crustal thickness across this profile. We found thick crust beneath the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane (47-59 km) that decreases to 45-47 km in the west Qinling and Qilian terranes, and reaches its local minimum beneath the southwestern Ordos Block (43-51 km) at an average crustal thickness of 46.7 ± 2.5 km. A low-velocity zone in the upper crust was found beneath most of the stations in NE Tibet, which may be indicative of partial melt or a weak detachment layer. Our observations of low to moderate Vp/Vs (1.67-1.79) represent a felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The shear velocity models estimated from joint inversions also reveal substantial lateral variations in velocity beneath the profile, which is mainly reflected in the lower crustal velocities. For the Ordos Block, the average shear wave velocities below 20 km are 3.8 km/s, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The thick NE Tibet crust is characterized by slow shear wave velocities (3.3-3.6 km/s) below 20 km and lacks high-velocity material (Vs ≥ 4.0 km/s) in the lower crust, which may be attributed to mafic lower crustal delamination or/and the thickening of the upper and middle crust.

  7. A lithospheric velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina from joint inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions

  8. Parametric pendulum based wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Daniil; Alevras, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    The paper investigates the dynamics of a novel wave energy converter based on the parametrically excited pendulum. The herein developed concept of the parametric pendulum allows reducing the influence of the gravity force thereby significantly improving the device performance at a regular sea state, which could not be achieved in the earlier proposed original point-absorber design. The suggested design of a wave energy converter achieves a dominant rotational motion without any additional mechanisms, like a gearbox, or any active control involvement. Presented numerical results of deterministic and stochastic modeling clearly reflect the advantage of the proposed design. A set of experimental results confirms the numerical findings and validates the new design of a parametric pendulum based wave energy converter. Power harvesting potential of the novel device is also presented.

  9. Seasonal and nightly variations of gravity-wave energy density in the middle atmosphere measured by the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.

  10. Velocity model of the Hronov-Poříčí Fault Zone from Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Málek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 617-635 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * surface waves * phase-velocity * dispersion curve Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  11. Probabilistic Forecasting of the Wave Energy Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Reikard, G.; Bidlot, J.-R.

    2012-01-01

    Wave energy will certainly have a significant role to play in the deployment of renewable energy generation capacities. As with wind and solar, probabilistic forecasts of wave power over horizons of a few hours to a few days are required for power system operation as well as trading in electricit......% and 70% in terms of Continuous Rank Probability Score (CRPS), depending upon the test case and the lead time. It is finally shown that the log-Normal assumption can be seen as acceptable, even though it may be refined in the future....

  12. Rational fraction representations of the energy: a generalised Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Feldmann, T.

    1981-01-01

    The energy function of a perturbed quantum system is derived directly as a quotient of the form N(lambda)/D(lambda). The Taylor series coefficients of N(lambda) and D(lambda) are found to satisfy certain relations, but there remain many unspecified degrees of freedom which may be freely exploited. Certain choices of coefficients lead to well known Pade and lesser known Levin approximants, but the general formalism includes many other rational function forms. In particular, the present procedure allows information other than the Taylor series coefficients to be included naturally, and is shown to lead to low-order approximants of high accuracy. (author)

  13. Development of a Flexible Broadband Rayleigh Waves Comb Transducer with Nonequidistant Comb Interval for Defect Detection of Thick-Walled Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huamin; He, Cunfu; Yan, Lyu; Zhang, Haijun

    2018-03-02

    It is necessary to develop a transducer that can quickly detect the inner and outer wall defects of thick-walled pipes, in order to ensure the safety of such pipes. In this paper, a flexible broadband Rayleigh-waves comb transducer based on PZT (lead zirconate titanate) for defect detection of thick-walled pipes is studied. The multiple resonant coupling theory is used to expand the transducer broadband and the FEA (Finite Element Analysis) method is used to optimize transducer array element parameters. Optimization results show that the best array element parameters of the transducer are when the transducer array element length is 30 mm, the thickness is 1.2 mm, the width of one end of is 1.5 mm, and the other end is 3 mm. Based on the optimization results, such a transducer was fabricated and its performance was tested. The test results were consistent with the finite-element simulation results, and the -3 dB bandwidth of the transducer reached 417 kHz. Transducer directivity test results show that the Θ -3dB beam width was equal to 10 °, to meet the defect detection requirements. Finally, defects of thick-walled pipes were detected using the transducer. The results showed that the transducer could detect the inner and outer wall defects of thick-walled pipes within the bandwidth.

  14. Improvement in accuracy of the measurements of residual stresses due to circumferential welds in thin-walled pipe using Rayleigh wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhshik, Siamak; Moharrami, Rasool

    2009-01-01

    To achieve an acceptable safety in many industrial applications such as nuclear power plants and power generation, it is extremely important to gain an understanding of the magnitudes and distributions of the residual stresses in a pipe formed by joining two sections with a girth butt weld. Most of the methods for high-accuracy measurement of residual stress are destructive. These destructive measurement methods cannot be applied to engineering systems and structures during actual operation. In this paper, we present a method based on the measurement of ultrasonic Rayleigh wave velocity variations versus the stress state for nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in dissimilar pipe welded joint. We show some residual stress profile obtained by this method. These are then compared with other profiles determined using a semi-destructive technique (hole-drilling) that makes it possible to check our results. According to the results, we also present a new method for adjusting the ultrasonic measurements to improve the agreement with the results obtained from other techniques.

  15. Effect of initial conditions on two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and transition to turbulence in planar blast-wave-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, A.R.; Edwards, M.J.; Greenough, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, the results from a computational study of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution for multiple amplitude and phase realizations of a variety of multimode spectral types is considered. Compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Certain aspects of the initial conditions, including the rms amplitude, are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime

  16. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  17. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    A recent addition to the anthropogenic sources of underwater noise is offshore wave energy converters. Underwater noise was recorded from the Wavestar wave energy converter located at Hastholm, Denmark (57°7.73´N, 8°37.23´E). The Wavestar is a full-scale test and demonstration converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  18. Innovative Breakwaters Design for Wave Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Stagonas, D.; Müller, G.

    2012-01-01

    the rubble mound breakwaters and seawalls related activity and the energy demand of small human communities. Wave loadings and overtopping on a seawall and rubble mound breakwater with front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests carried out at University of Southampton (UK...

  19. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    O'Boyle, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Whittaker, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An ...

  20. Dark Energy and Inflation from Gravitational Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Marochnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this seven-part paper, we show that gravitational waves (classical and quantum produce the accelerated de Sitter expansion at the start and at the end of the cosmological evolution of the Universe. In these periods, the Universe contains no matter fields but contains classical and quantum metric fluctuations, i.e., it is filled with classical and quantum gravitational waves. In such evolution of the Universe, dominated by gravitational waves, the de Sitter state is the exact solution to the self-consistent equations for classical and quantum gravitational waves and background geometry for the empty space-time with FLRW metric. In both classical and quantum cases, this solution is of the instanton origin since it is obtained in the Euclidean space of imaginary time with the subsequent analytic continuation to real time. The cosmological acceleration from gravitational waves provides a transparent physical explanation to the coincidence, threshold and “old cosmological constant” paradoxes of dark energy avoiding recourse to the anthropic principle. The cosmological acceleration from virtual gravitons at the start of the Universe evolution produces inflation, which is consistent with the observational data on CMB anisotropy. Section 1 is devoted to cosmological acceleration from classical gravitational waves. Section 2 is devoted to the theory of virtual gravitons in the Universe. Section 3 is devoted to cosmological acceleration from virtual gravitons. Section 4 discusses the consistency of the theory with observational data on dark energy and inflation. The discussion of mechanism of acceleration and cosmological scenario are contained in Sections 5 and 6. Appendix contains the theory of stochastic nonlinear gravitational waves of arbitrary wavelength and amplitude in an isotropic Universe.

  1. Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2014-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...

  2. A Centerless Circular Array Method: Extracting Maximal Information on Phase Velocities of Rayleigh Waves From Microtremor Records From a Simple Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, I.; Tada, T.; Shinozaki, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a Centerless Circular Array (CCA) method of microtremor exploration, an algorithm that enables to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves by analyzing vertical-component records of microtremors that are obtained with an array of three or five seismic sensors placed around a circumference. Our CCA method shows a remarkably high performance in long-wavelength ranges because, unlike the frequency-wavenumber spectral method, our method does not resolve individual plane-wave components in the process of identifying phase velocities. Theoretical considerations predict that the resolving power of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges depends upon the SN ratio, or the ratio of power of the propagating components to that of the non-propagating components (incoherent noise) contained in the records from the seismic array. The applicability of our CCA method to small-sized arrays on the order of several meters in radius has already been confirmed in our earlier work (Cho et al., 2004). We have deployed circular seismic arrays of different sizes at test sites in Japan where the underground structure is well documented through geophysical exploration, and have applied our CCA method to microtremor records to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The estimates were then checked against "model" phase velocities that are derived from theoretical calculations. For arrays of 5, 25, 300 and 600 meters in radii, the estimated and model phase velocities demonstrated fine agreement within a broad wavelength range extending from a little larger than 3r (r: the array radius) up to at least 40r, 14r, 42r and 9r, respectively. This demonstrates the applicability of our CCA method to arrays on the order of several to several hundreds of meters in radii, and also illustrates, in a typical way, the markedly high performance of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges. We have also invented a mathematical model that enables to evaluate the SN ratio in a given

  3. Wave energy and its possibilities in the Danish power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeholt Madsen, N.; Lorenzen, S.; Haunstrup Christensen, T.

    1997-06-01

    Mathematical theory of wave forces (wave height, spectrua, energy distribution and effect) is summarized. An attempt to estimate the Danish wave power potential on the basis of previous investigations og wave effect in various regions is presented. A brief review of wave energy applications and research constitutes basis for two scenarios of wave power adjustment into the 'Green society'. Power quality, environment, economics and supply reliability are estimated. (EG) 42 refs

  4. Frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of spin waves through coherent energy transfer from elastic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Bossini, Davide; Johansen, Tom H.; Saitoh, Eiji; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Using spin-wave tomography (SWaT), we have investigated the excitation and the propagation dynamics of optically-excited magnetoelastic waves, i.e. hybridized modes of spin waves and elastic waves, in a garnet film. By using time-resolved SWaT, we reveal the excitation dynamics of magnetoelastic waves through coherent-energy transfer between optically-excited pure-elastic waves and spin waves via magnetoelastic coupling. This process realizes frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of s...

  5. Symbolic derivation of high-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation energies using computer algebra: Application to vibrational-rotational analysis of diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, John M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is an effective and popular tool for describing low-lying vibrational and rotational states of molecules. This method, in conjunction with ab initio techniques for computation of electronic potential energy surfaces, can be used to calculate first-principles molecular vibrational-rotational energies to successive orders of approximation. Because of mathematical complexities, however, such perturbation calculations are rarely extended beyond the second order of approximation, although recent work by Herbert has provided a formula for the nth-order energy correction. This report extends that work and furnishes the remaining theoretical details (including a general formula for the Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion coefficients) necessary for calculation of energy corrections to arbitrary order. The commercial computer algebra software Mathematica is employed to perform the prohibitively tedious symbolic manipulations necessary for derivation of generalized energy formulae in terms of universal constants, molecular constants, and quantum numbers. As a pedagogical example, a Hamiltonian operator tailored specifically to diatomic molecules is derived, and the perturbation formulae obtained from this Hamiltonian are evaluated for a number of such molecules. This work provides a foundation for future analyses of polyatomic molecules, since it demonstrates that arbitrary-order perturbation theory can successfully be applied with the aid of commercially available computer algebra software.

  6. What is the contribution of scattering to the Love-to-Rayleigh ratio in ambient microseismic noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziane, D.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Several observations show the existence of both Rayleigh and Love waves in the secondary microseism. While the Rayleigh wave excitation is well described by Longuet-Higgins, the process responsible for Love wave generation still needs further investigation. Several different mechanisms could excite Love waves in this frequency band: broadly speaking, we can differentiate between source effects, like pressure variations on the oblique sea floor, or internal effects in the medium along the propagation path, such as scattering and conversions. Here we will focus on the internal effects. We perform single scattering tests in 2D and 3D to gain a better understanding of the scattering radiation pattern and the conversion between P, S, Rayleigh and Love waves. Furthermore, we use random media with continuous variations of the elastic parameters to create a scattering regime similar to the Earths interior, e.g. Gaussian or von Karmann correlation functions. The aim is to explore the contribution of scattering along the propagation path to the observed Love to Rayleigh wave energy ratios, assuming a purely vertical force source mechanism. We use finite different solvers to calculate the synthetic seismograms, and to separate the different wave types we measure the rotational and divergent components of the wave field.

  7. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  8. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....... a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave...

  9. Electrical Systems for Wave Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, Cecilia

    2011-07-01

    Wave energy is a renewable energy source with a large potential to contribute to the world's electricity production. There exist several technologies on how to convert the energy in the ocean waves into electric energy. The wave energy converter (WEC) presented in this thesis is based on a linear synchronous generator. The generator is placed on the seabed and driven by a point absorbing buoy on the ocean surface. Instead of having one large unit, several smaller units are interconnected to increase the total installed power. To convert and interconnect the power from the generators, marine substations are used. The marine substations are placed on the seabed and convert the fluctuating AC from the generators into an AC suitable for grid connection. The work presented in the thesis focuses on the first steps in the electric energy conversion, converting the voltage out from the generators into DC, which have an impact on the WEC's ability to absorb and produce power. The purpose has been to investigate how the generator will operate when it is subjected to different load cases and to obtain guidelines on how future systems could be improved. Offshore experiments and simulations have been done on full scale generators connected to four different loads, i.e. one linear resistive load and three different non-linear loads representing different cases for grid connected WECs. The results show that the power can be controlled and optimized by choosing a suitable system for the WEC. It is not obvious which kind of system is the most preferable, since there are many different parameters that have an impact on the system performance, such as the size of the buoy, how the generator is designed, the number of WECs, the highest allowed complexity of the system, costs and so on. Therefore, the design of the electrical system should preferably be carried out in parallel with the design of the WEC in order to achieve an efficient system

  10. The state of development of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckers, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    Wave energy converters are being developed and tested in as many as ten countries. The author believes that the shore mounted converters will be economically attractive in many locations around the world. These devices are simple and easily maintained. In order to harvest the greater offshore resource floating devices such as the Clam, Duck and Whale will be needed. Urgent research and development is needed to bring these to the prototype stage. Future deployment of large arrays of these floating systems could be quickly and easily achieved in many parts of the world and they would provide considerable quantities of environmentally benign, reasonably cheap energy. (author) 6 figs., 5 refs

  11. Aquabuoy Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The work reported here is part of the contract agreement between the Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd. and the Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory to instrument a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY (AB) wave energy converter and to analyse...... its performances in real sea testing in Nissum Bredning, Denmark. This report is part of Fineveras contribution to ForskEl project no 6435 “AquaBuOY skala 1:10 forsøg I Nissum Bredning”....

  12. Practical performances of MPC for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Tetu, Amelie; Hals, J.

    2016-01-01

    Maximising the efficiency of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is one of the important tasks toward the exploitation of the wave energy resource. Along with a proper design of the device, an important way to achieve better energy performances is to improve the wave-body interaction by applying an appro...

  13. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Bae; Horton, W.

    1990-05-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. 16 refs., 1 tab

  14. Fluctuation and thermal energy balance for drift-wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changbae Kim; Horton, W.

    1991-01-01

    Energy conservation for the drift-wave system is shown to be separated into the wave-energy power balance equation and an ambient thermal-energy transport equation containing the anomalous transport fluxes produced by the fluctuations. The wave energy equation relates the wave energy density and wave energy flux to the anomalous transport flux and the dissipation of the fluctuations. The thermal balance equation determines the evolution of the temperature profiles from the divergence of the anomalous heat flux, the collisional heating and cooling mechanisms and the toroidal pumping effect. (author)

  15. Wave Energy Research, Testing and Demonstration Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to build upon the research, development and testing experience of the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to establish a non-grid connected open-ocean testing facility for wave energy converters (WECs) off the coast of Newport, Oregon. The test facility would serve as the first facility of its kind in the continental US with a fully energetic wave resource where WEC technologies could be proven for west coast US markets. The test facility would provide the opportunity for self-contained WEC testing or WEC testing connected via an umbilical cable to a mobile ocean test berth (MOTB). The MOTB would act as a “grid surrogate” measuring energy produced by the WEC and the environmental conditions under which the energy was produced. In order to realize this vision, the ocean site would need to be identified through outreach to community stakeholders, and then regulatory and permitting processes would be undertaken. Part of those processes would require environmental baseline studies and site analysis, including benthic, acoustic and wave resource characterization. The MOTB and its myriad systems would need to be designed and constructed.The first WEC test at the facility with the MOTB was completed within this project with the WET-NZ device in summer 2012. In summer 2013, the MOTB was deployed with load cells on its mooring lines to characterize forces on mooring systems in a variety of sea states. Throughout both testing seasons, studies were done to analyze environmental effects during testing operations. Test protocols and best management practices for open ocean operations were developed. As a result of this project, the non-grid connected fully energetic WEC test facility is operational, and the MOTB system developed provides a portable concept for WEC testing. The permitting process used provides a model for other wave energy projects, especially those in the Pacific Northwest that have similar

  16. EB Frond wave energy converter - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The EB Frond project is a wave energy programme developed by The Engineering Business (EB) from an original idea at Lancaster University. The EB Frond is a wave generator with a collector vane on top of an arm that pivots near the seabed. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated the technical feasibility of the project and provided proof of concept. Phase 2 involved further assesment of the technical and commercial viability of the concept through the development of mathematical and physical modelling methods. The work involved small-scale (1/25th) testing in wave tanks at Newcastle and Lancaster Universities and the development, verification and validation of a time domain mathematical model. The decision by EB to put on hold its renewable generation programme meant that plans to test at an intermediate scale (1/16th), assess different survival strategies in extreme wave conditions, carry out site characterisation for full-scale systems and to produce a robust economic model were not fulfilled. However, the mathematical and physical modelling work was used to develop an economic model for the Frond system. This produced a predicted unit cost of electricity by a pre-commercial 5 MW demonstration farm of about 17 pence/kWh. The report discusses the small-scale testing, test results, mathematical modelling, analysis and interpretation, survivability, the economic model and the development route to full-scale production.

  17. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  18. Bivariate Rayleigh Distribution and its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Akhter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh (1880 observed that the sea waves follow no law because of the complexities of the sea, but it has been seen that the probability distributions of wave heights, wave length, wave induce pitch, wave and heave motions of the ships follow the Rayleigh distribution. At present, several different quantities are in use for describing the state of the sea; for example, the mean height of the waves, the root mean square height, the height of the “significant waves” (the mean height of the highest one-third of all the waves the maximum height over a given interval of the time, and so on. At present, the ship building industry knows less than any other construction industry about the service conditions under which it must operate. Only small efforts have been made to establish the stresses and motions and to incorporate the result of such studies in to design. This is due to the complexity of the problem caused by the extensive variability of the sea and the corresponding response of the ships. Although the problem appears feasible, yet it is possible to predict service conditions for ships in an orderly and relatively simple manner Rayleigh (1980 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many independent sources. This distribution is also connected with one or two dimensions and is sometimes referred to as “random walk” frequency distribution. The Rayleigh distribution can be derived from the bivariate normal distribution when the variate are independent and random with equal variances. We try to construct bivariate Rayleigh distribution with marginal Rayleigh distribution function and discuss its fundamental properties.

  19. CORRIGENDUM: Atoms riding Rayleigh waves Atoms riding Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, G.; Echenique, P. M.; Toennies, J. P.; Traeger, F.

    2010-09-01

    In the original paper the affiliation list is incorrect. The correct address list is as follows: G Benedek1, 5, P M Echenique1, 2, J P Toennies3 and F Traeger4 1 Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizábal 4, 20018 Donostia—San Sebastián, Spain 2 Departamento de Física de Materiales and CFM (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, E-20018 San Sebastián/Donostia, Spain 3 Max Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Bunsenstraße 10 D-37073 Göttingen, Germany 4 Fakultät für Chemie und Biochemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany 5 Permanent address: Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano, Italy

  20. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josyula, Eswar; Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream

  1. Experimental Research of a New Wave Energy Conversion Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Chen, Gewei

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing tension of contemporary social energy, the development and utilization of renewable energy has become an important development direction. As an important part of renewable energy, wave energy has the characteristics of green environmental protection and abundant reserves, attracting more investment and research. For small marine equipment energy supply problem, this paper puts forward a micro wave energy conversion device as the basic of heaving motion of waves in the ocean. This paper designed a new type of power output device can solve the micro wave energy conversion problem.

  2. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  3. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  4. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Yazid, Taher Abu; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-05

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester's overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  5. Ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Shima; Leadenham, Stephen; Guillot, François; Sabra, Karim; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates low-power electricity generation from ultrasound acoustic wave energy transfer combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for wireless applications ranging from medical implants to naval sensor systems. The focus is placed on an underwater system that consists of a pulsating source for spherical wave generation and a harvester connected to an external resistive load for quantifying the electrical power output. An analytical electro-acoustic model is developed to relate the source strength to the electrical power output of the harvester located at a specific distance from the source. The model couples the energy harvester dynamics (piezoelectric device and electrical load) with the source strength through the acoustic-structure interaction at the harvester-fluid interface. Case studies are given for a detailed understanding of the coupled system dynamics under various conditions. Specifically the relationship between the electrical power output and system parameters, such as the distance of the harvester from the source, dimensions of the harvester, level of source strength, and electrical load resistance are explored. Sensitivity of the electrical power output to the excitation frequency in the neighborhood of the harvester's underwater resonance frequency is also reported.

  6. Hydraulic Evaluation of the Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC). The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to generate power. Model tests have been performed using a scale...... model (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Frigaard et al., 2008......). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate total power take off....

  7. Sea wave energy based in nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, Carlos

    2010-09-15

    Application on which it turns east document is the recovery of the energy of the sea waves turning it into electricity by means of the combination of nano-piezoelectric and condensing, the system would be seen like a compound floating fabric of million piezoelectric crystals that turn the oscillating movement of the sea into micro-electrical signals that they are added and they left by means cables to the surface where electronics devices classified to the load of condensers, from the electricity is confined and later is invested and synchronize itself with the great national mains.

  8. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Nava, Vincenzo; Topper, Mathew B. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation......, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA), a genetic algorithm (GA) and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO) algorithm...

  9. Stroh formalism and Rayleigh waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Introduces a powerful and elegant mathematical method for the analysis of anisotropic elasticity equationsThe reader can grasp the essentials as quickly as possibleCan be used as a textbook, which presents compactly introduction and applications of the Stroh formalismAppeals to the people not only in mathematics but also in mechanics and engineering sciencePrerequisites are only basic linear algebra, calculus and fundamentals of differential equations

  10. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  11. Communicating Wave Energy: An Active Learning Experience for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Trongnghia; Hou, Gene; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an education project to communicate the wave energy concept to high school students. A virtual reality system that combines both hardware and software is developed in this project to simulate the buoy-wave interaction. This first-of-its-kind wave energy unit is portable and physics-based, allowing students to conduct a number of…

  12. The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, R. W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite

  13. Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...

  14. The Draukie's Tale: Origin Myth for Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Poem based on ethnographic research with people and places around the European Marine Energy Centre, the world's longest running test site for wave and tide energy, Orkney islands, Scotland.......Poem based on ethnographic research with people and places around the European Marine Energy Centre, the world's longest running test site for wave and tide energy, Orkney islands, Scotland....

  15. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O’Boyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy converters (WECs inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An experimental campaign to map, at high resolution, the wave field variation around arrays of 5 oscillating water column WECs and a methodology for extracting scattered and radiated waves is presented. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the full extent of the WEC behavior when assessing impacts on the wave field. The effect of radiated waves on the wave field is not immediately apparent when considering changes to the entire wave spectrum, nor when observing changes in wave climate due to scattered and radiated waves superimposed together. The results show that radiated waves may account for up to 50% of the effects on wave climate in the near field in particular operating conditions.

  16. Investigation of Wave Height Reduction behind the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters and Application in Santander, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This paper deals with a case study on the wave height reduction behind floating Wave Dragon wave energy converters in Santander Bay, Spain. The study is performed using the MIKE21 Boussinesq model from DHI. The Wave Dragon transmission characteristics in the numerical wave propagation model...... are based on previously performed physical model tests in scale 1:51. Typical winter storm conditions are considered in the case study together with different stiffness in the mooring system of the floating device. From the study it is found that if multiple Wave Dragons are positioned in a farm the wave...

  17. Dominant wave frequency and amplitude estimation for adaptive control of wave energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Hoai-Nam; Tona , Paolino; Sabiron , Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Adaptive control is of great interest for wave energy converters (WEC) due to the inherent time-varying nature of sea conditions. Robust and accurate estimation algorithms are required to improve the knowledge of the current sea state on a wave-to-wave basis in order to ensure power harvesting as close as possible to optimal behavior. In this paper, we present a simple but innovative approach for estimating the wave force dominant frequency and wave force dominant ampl...

  18. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010.......This report concerns the experimental study of the 1:20 scale model of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter (WEC) carried out at Aalborg University’s wave basin during the summer of 2010....

  19. A simple and selective resonance Rayleigh scattering-energy transfer spectral method for determination of trace neomycin sulfate using Cu2O particle as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Huixiang; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2018-02-01

    The stable Cu2O nanocubic (Cu2ONC) sol was prepared, based on graphene oxide (GO) catalysis of glucose-Fehling's reagent reaction, and its absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were examined. Using the as-prepared Cu2ONC as RRS probe, and coupling with the neomycin sulfate (NEO) complex reaction, a new, simple, sensitive and selective RRS-energy transfer (RRS-ET) method was established for detection of neomycin sulfate, with a linear range of 1.4-112 μM and a detection limit of 0.4 μM. The method has been applied to the detection of neomycin sulfate in samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Experimental Study of the Weptos Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the power performance results of the experimental study of the WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC). This novel device combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with an adjustable structure that can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce...... loads in extreme wave conditions. This A-shaped floating structure absorbs the energy in the waves through a multitude of rotors, the shape of which is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. These rotors pivot around a common axle, one for each leg of the structure, to which the rotors transfer...... the absorbed wave energy and which is connected to a common power take off system (one for each leg). The study investigates the performance of the device in a large range of wave states and estimates the performance in terms of mechanical power available to the power take off system of the WEPTOS WEC for two...

  1. Energy dissipation through wind-generated breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; CAO Ruixue; XIE Lingling

    2012-01-01

    Wave breaking is an important process that controls turbulence properties and fluxes of heat and mass in the upper oceanic layer.A model is described for energy dissipation per unit area at the ocean surface attributed to wind-generated breaking waves,in terms of ratio of energy dissipation to energy input,windgenerated wave spectrum,and wave growth rate.Also advanced is a vertical distribution model of turbulent kinetic energy,based on an exponential distribution method.The result shows that energy dissipation rate depends heavily on wind speed and sea state.Our results agree well with predictions of previous works.

  2. Study of the potential of wave energy in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan Ching; Chan, Keng Wai; Ooi, Heivin

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy is generally defined as energy harnessed from resources which are naturally replenished. It is an alternative to the current conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal, which are nonrenewable. Besides being nonrenewable, the harnessing of these resources generally produce by-products which could be potentially harmful to the environment. On the contrary, the generation from renewable energy does not pose environmental degradation. Some examples of renewable energy sources are sunlight, wind, tides, waves and geothermal heat. Wave energy is considered as one of the most promising marine renewable resources and is becoming commercially viable quicker than other renewable technologies at an astonishing growth rate. This paper illustrates the working principle of wave energy converter (WEC) and the availability of wave energy in Malaysia oceans. A good understanding of the behaviour of ocean waves is important for designing an efficient WEC as the characteristics of the waves in shallow and deep water are different. Consequently, wave energy converters are categorized into three categories on shore, near shore and offshore. Therefore, the objectives of this study is ought to be carried out by focusing on the formation of waves and wave characteristics in shallow as well as in deep water. The potential sites for implementation of wave energy harvesting technology in Malaysia and the wave energy available in the respective area were analysed. The potential of wave energy in Malaysia were tabulated and presented with theoretical data. The interaction between motion of waves and heave buoys for optimum phase condition by using the mass and diameter as the variables were investigated.

  3. Enhancing Wave Energy Competitiveness through Co-Located Wind and Wave Energy Farms. A Review on the Shadow Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sharay Astariz; Gregorio Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels due to the enormous available resource; however, its development may be slowed as it is often regarded as uneconomical. The largest cost reductions are expected to be obtained through economies of scale and technological progress. In this sense, the incorporation of wave energy systems into offshore wind energy farms is an opportunity to foster the development of wave energy. The synergies between both renewables can be rea...

  4. Influence of welded boundaries in anelastic media on energy flow, and characteristics of P, S-I, and S-II waves: Observational evidence for inhomogeneous body waves in low-loss solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Wennerberg, Leif

    1986-10-01

    A general computer code, developed to calculate anelastic reflection-refraction coefficients, energy flow, and the physical characteristics for general P, S-I, and S-II waves, quantitatively describes physical characteristics for wave fields in anelastic media that do not exist in elastic media. Consideration of wave fields incident on boundaries between anelastic media shows that scattered wave fields experience reductions in phase and energy speeds, increases in maximum attenuation and Q-1, and directions of maximum energy flow distinct from phase propagation. Each of these changes in physical characteristics are shown to vary with angle of incidence. Finite relaxation times for anelastic media result in energy flow due to interaction of superimposed radiation fields and contribute to energy flow across anelastic boundaries for all angles of incidence. Agreement of theoretical and numerical results with laboratory measurements argues for the validity of the theoretical and numerical formulations incorporating inhomogeneous wave fields. The agreement attests to the applicability of the model and helps confirm the existence of inhomogeneous body waves and their associated set of distinct physical characteristics in the earth. The existence of such body waves in layered, low-loss anelastic solids implies the need to reformulate some seismological models of the earth. The exact anelastic formulation for a liquid-solid interface with no low-loss approximations predicts the existence of a range of angles of incidence or an anelastic Rayleigh window, through which significant amounts of energy are transmitted across the boundary. The window accounts for the discrepancy apparent between measured reflection data presented in early textbooks and predictions based on classical elasticity theory. Characteristics of the anelastic Rayleigh window are expected to be evident in certain sets of wide-angle, ocean-bottom reflection data and to be useful in estimating Q-1 for some

  5. Wave energy for the 21st century: status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, Tom

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the current technical and commercial status of wave energy, and discusses the design of near shore devices such as the 2MW OSPREY, and offshore devices including the McCabe wave pump, the Ocean Power Technology Wave Energy Converter, the Archimedes Wave Swing, the Pelamis, and wave energy schemes under development by other commercial firms. The predicted generating costs, the potential market, environmental impacts, and institution factors such as planning and consent, grid connection,and safety in design and operation are considered. The operating principles of an oscillating water column, and some promising offshore devices are illustrated

  6. Energy of linear quasineutral electrostatic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.

    1993-01-01

    Certain kinds of nonlinear instabilities are related to the existence of negative-energy perturbations. In this paper, an exact energy expression for linear quasineutral electrostatic perturbations is derived within the framework of dissipationless multifluid theory that is valid for any geometry. Taking the mass formally as a tensor with, in general, different masses parallel and perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field allows one to treat in a convenient way different approximations such as the full dynamics and restriction to parallel dynamics or the completely adiabatic case. Application to slab configurations yields the result that the adiabatic approximation does not allow negative energy for perturbations which are perfectly localized at a mode resonant surface, whereas inclusion of the parallel dynamics does. This is in agreement with a recent numerical study of drift-wave turbulence within the framework of collisional two-fluid theory by B. Scott [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3289 (1990); Phys. Fluids B 4, 2468 (1992)]. A dissipationless theory can be formulated in terms of a Lagrangian, from which the energy is immediately obtained. We start with the nonlinear theory. The theory is formulated via a Lagrangian which is written in terms of displacement vectors ξ ν (x,t) such that all constraints are taken into account. The nonlinear energy is obtained from the Lagrangian by standard methods. The procedure used is the same as that developed in a forthcoming paper by Pfirsch and Sudan [Phys. Fluids B (to be published)] for ideal nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics theory. From the exact Lagrangian one obtains the Lagrangian of the linearized theory by simple expansion to second order in ξ ν . This Lagrangian then yields the energy of the linearized theory

  7. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozger, M.; Altunkaynak, A.; Sen, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S. (author)

  8. Statistical investigation of expected wave energy and its reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezger, Mehmet; Altunkaynak, Abduesselam; Sen, Zekai

    2004-01-01

    The statistical behavior of wave energy at a single site is derived by considering simultaneous variations in the period and wave height. In this paper, the general wave power formulation is derived by using the theory of perturbation. This method leads to a general formulation of the wave power expectation and other statistical parameter expressions, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The statistical parameters, namely the mean value and variance of wave energy, are found in terms of the simple statistical parameters of period, significant wave height and zero up-crossing period. The elegance of these parameters is that they are distribution free. These parameters provide a means for defining the wave energy distribution function by employing the Chebyschev's inequality. Subsequently, an approximate probability distribution function of the wave energy is also derived for assessment of risk and reliability associated with wave energy. Necessary simple charts are given for risk and reliability assessments. Two procedures are presented for such assessments in wave energy calculations and the applications of these procedures are provided for wave energy potential assessment in the regions of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of U.S

  9. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....

  10. Prospects and applicability of wave energy for South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavidas, George; Venugopal, Vengatesan

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy offers significant opportunities for electricity diversification. South Africa belongs to the group of developing nations and encompasses a lot of potential for renewable energy developments. Currently, the majority of its electricity production originates from fossil fuels; however, incorporation of clean coal technologies will aid in reaching the assigned targets. This study offers a long-term wave power quantification analysis with a numerical wave model. The investigation includes long-term resource assessment in the region, variability, seasonal and monthly wave energy content. Locations with high-energy content but low variability pose an opportunity that can contribute in the alleviation of energy poverty. Application of wave converters depends on the combination of complex terms. The study presents resource levels and the joint distributions, which indicate suitability for converter selection. Depending on the region of interest, these characteristics change. Thus, this resource assessment adds knowledge on wave power and optimal consideration for wave energy applicability.

  11. Survivability Mode and Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment of the surviva......This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment...... of the department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator....

  12. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  13. Wave energy devices with compressible volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Greaves, Deborah; Chaplin, John

    2014-12-08

    We present an analysis of wave energy devices with air-filled compressible submerged volumes, where variability of volume is achieved by means of a horizontal surface free to move up and down relative to the body. An analysis of bodies without power take-off (PTO) systems is first presented to demonstrate the positive effects a compressible volume could have on the body response. Subsequently, two compressible device variations are analysed. In the first variation, the compressible volume is connected to a fixed volume via an air turbine for PTO. In the second variation, a water column separates the compressible volume from another volume, which is fitted with an air turbine open to the atmosphere. Both floating and bottom-fixed, axisymmetric, configurations are considered, and linear analysis is employed throughout. Advantages and disadvantages of each device are examined in detail. Some configurations with displaced volumes less than 2000 m 3 and with constant turbine coefficients are shown to be capable of achieving 80% of the theoretical maximum absorbed power over a wave period range of about 4 s.

  14. Diffuse Waves and Energy Densities Near Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Perton, M.; Luzon, F.; Perez-Ruiz, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Green function can be retrieved from averaging cross correlations of motions within a diffuse field. In fact, it has been shown that for an elastic inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium under equipartitioned, isotropic illumination, the average cross correlations are proportional to the imaginary part of Green function. For instance coda waves are due to multiple scattering and their intensities follow diffusive regimes. Coda waves and the noise sample the medium and effectively carry information along their paths. In this work we explore the consequences of assuming both source and receiver at the same point. From the observable side, the autocorrelation is proportional to the energy density at a given point. On the other hand, the imaginary part of the Green function at the source itself is finite because the singularity of Green function is restricted to the real part. The energy density at a point is proportional with the trace of the imaginary part of Green function tensor at the source itself. The Green function availability may allow establishing the theoretical energy density of a seismic diffuse field generated by a background equipartitioned excitation. We study an elastic layer with free surface and overlaying a half space and compute the imaginary part of the Green function for various depths. We show that the resulting spectrum is indeed closely related to the layer dynamic response and the corresponding resonant frequencies are revealed. One implication of present findings lies in the fact that spatial variations may be useful in detecting the presence of a target by its signature in the distribution of diffuse energy. These results may be useful in assessing the seismic response of a given site if strong ground motions are scarce. It suffices having a reasonable illumination from micro earthquakes and noise. We consider that the imaginary part of Green function at the source is a spectral signature of the site. The relative importance of the peaks of

  15. Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Mercadé Ruiz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an optimisation strategy for the layout design of wave energy converter (WEC arrays. Optimal layouts are sought so as to maximise the absorbed power given a minimum q-factor, the minimum distance between WECs, and an area of deployment. To guarantee an efficient optimisation, a four-parameter layout description is proposed. Three different optimisation algorithms are further compared in terms of performance and computational cost. These are the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA, a genetic algorithm (GA and the glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO algorithm. The results show slightly higher performances for the latter two algorithms; however, the first turns out to be significantly less computationally demanding.

  16. Wave Dissipation on Low- to Super-Energy Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. L.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs are valuable, complex and bio-diverse ecosystems and are also known to be one of the most effective barriers to swell events in coastal environments. Previous research has found coral reefs to be remarkably efficient in removing most of the wave energy during the initial breaking and transformation on the reef flats. The rate of dissipation is so rapid that coral reefs have been referred to as rougher than any known coastal barrier. The dissipation of wave energy across reef flats is crucial in maintaining the relatively low-energy conditions in the back reef and lagoonal environments providing vital protection to adjacent beach or coastal regions from cyclone and storm events. A shift in the regulation of wave energy by reef flats could have catastrophic consequences ecologically, socially, and economically. This study examined the dissipation of wave energy during two swell events in Tahiti and Moorea, French Polyesia. Field sites were chosen in varying degrees of exposure and geomorphology from low-energy protected sites (Tiahura, Moorea) to super-energy sites (Teahupo'o, Tahiti). Waves were measured during two moderate to large swell events in cross reef transects using short-term high-resolution pressure transducers. Wave conditions were found to be similar in all back reef locations despite the very different wave exposure at each reef site. However, wave conditions on the reef flats were different and mirrored the variation in wave exposure with depth over the reef flat the primary regulator of reef flat wave height. These results indicate that coral reef flats evolve morphodynamically with the wave climate, which creates coral reef geomorphologies capable of dissipating wave energy that results in similar back reef wave conditions regardless of the offshore wave climate.

  17. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  18. Stakeholder requirements for commercially successful wave energy converter farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babarit, Aurélien; Bull, Diana; Dykes, Katherine; Malins, Robert; Nielsen, Kim; Costello, Ronan; Roberts, Jesse; Bittencourt Ferreira, Claudio; Kennedy, Ben; Weber, Jochem

    2017-12-01

    In this study, systems engineering techniques are applied to wave energy to identify and specify stakeholders' requirements for a commercially successful wave energy farm. The focus is on the continental scale utility market. Lifecycle stages and stakeholders are identified. Stakeholders' needs across the whole lifecycle of the wave energy farm are analyzed. A list of 33 stakeholder requirements are identified and specified. This list of requirements should serve as components of a technology performance level metric that could be used by investors and funding agencies to make informed decisions when allocating resources. It is hoped that the technology performance level metric will accelerate wave energy conversion technology convergence.

  19. Wave Energy Converter Annual Energy Production Uncertainty Using Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton E. Hiles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical to evaluating the economic viability of a wave energy project is: (1 a robust estimate of the electricity production throughout the project lifetime and (2 an understanding of the uncertainty associated with said estimate. Standardization efforts have established mean annual energy production (MAEP as the metric for quantification of wave energy converter (WEC electricity production and the performance matrix approach as the appropriate method for calculation. General acceptance of a method for calculating the MAEP uncertainty has not yet been achieved. Several authors have proposed methods based on the standard engineering approach to error propagation, however, a lack of available WEC deployment data has restricted testing of these methods. In this work the magnitude and sensitivity of MAEP uncertainty is investigated. The analysis is driven by data from simulated deployments of 2 WECs of different operating principle at 4 different locations. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is proposed for calculating the variability of MAEP estimates and is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculation. The uncertainty of MAEP ranged from 2%–20% of the mean value. Of the contributing uncertainties studied, the variability in the wave climate was found responsible for most of the uncertainty in MAEP. Uncertainty in MAEP differs considerably between WEC types and between deployment locations and is sensitive to the length of the input data-sets. This implies that if a certain maximum level of uncertainty in MAEP is targeted, the minimum required lengths of the input data-sets will be different for every WEC-location combination.

  20. Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.

  1. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  2. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  3. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-04-03

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  4. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2006-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state

  5. Experimental Validation of a Wave Energy Converter Array Hydrodynamics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses experimental data to validate a wave energy converter (WEC) array hydrodynamics tool developed within the context of linearized potential flow theory. To this end, wave forces and power absorption by an array of five-point absorber WECs in monochromatic and panchromatic waves were...

  6. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots

  7. Coordinated Control of Wave Energy Converters Subject to Motion Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generic coordinated control method for wave energy converters is proposed, and the constraints on motion amplitudes and the hydrodynamic interaction between converters are considered. The objective of the control problem is to maximize the energy converted from ocean waves, and this is achieved by coordinating the power take-off (PTO damping of each wave energy converter in the frequency domain in each sea state. In a case study, a wave energy farm consisting of four converters based on the concept developed by Uppsala University is studied. In the solution, motion constraints, including constraints on the amplitudes of displacement and velocity, are included. Twelve months of sea states, based on measured wave data at the Lysekil test site on the Swedish west coast, are used in the simulation to evaluate the performance of the wave energy farm using the new method. Results from the new coordinated control method and traditional control method are compared, indicating that the coordinated control of wave energy converters is an effective way to improve the energy production of wave energy farm in harmonic waves.

  8. Turbine Control Strategy using Wave Prediction to Optimise Power Take Off of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included. The concept of including an element of prediction, based on wave records a short distance in front of the Wave Dragon, is introduced. Initial simulations indicate a possibility to increase product...

  9. Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references

  10. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Habaibeh, A. [Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering Centre, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); Su, D. [School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); McCague, J. [Technical Director, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom); Knight, A. [Marketing and Communications Manager, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a {+-}0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves. (author)

  11. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Habaibeh, A.; Su, D.; McCague, J.; Knight, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a ±0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves.

  12. Preliminary Load Estimations for DEXA Wave Energy Device - Hanstholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, in regular and irregular wave states, as described in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The length scale of the model was 1:20 compared to a full scale device suitable fro the Danish part of the North Sea, according...... to DEXA Wave Energy ApS. The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by DEXA Wave Energy ApS, were measured and used for calculation of power available...... to the power take-off....

  13. IMPORTANCE OF MANGROVE TO REDUCE THE TSUNAMI WAVE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Neni Candra Purnamasari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove has a very important role to reduce the tsunami wave energy. It is shown that the coastal areas have no vegetation or in this case will have an impact Mangrove forests greater damage due to tsunami waves than the coastal areas of vegetation. The purpose of the Term Paper is proved the importance of Mangrove to reduce the tsunami wave energy by comparing the various methods that have been observed in some case studies on the impact of the tsunami that occurred in several Asian countries in 2004 and case studies on ocean waves on the Gulf coast of south Florida. Based on the research results that could dampen Mangrove Tsunami wave energy. Tsunami wave energy can be reduced by several factors, namely mangrove species, tree size, vast mangrove forest, nature tree structure, and the size limit Mangrove forest (as far as how much of the ocean to the surface.

  14. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  15. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  16. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...... producing electrical power. Through air chambers it is possible to control the level of the WD. It is important to control the level in order to maximize the power production in proportion to the wave height, here the amount of overtopping water and the amount of potential energy is conflicting...

  17. Hanstholm phase 2B. Offshore wave energy test 1994 - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The wave power converter consists of a float 2.5 meter in diameter, connected by a rope to a seabed-mounted piston pump, installed on 25 meter deep water 2,5 km offshore Hanstholm, Denmark. The converter is designed to absorb an average maximum power of 1 kW. Measured data in real sea conditions are compared to results based on computer simulations and previous tank testing. Losses caused by rope elasticity and hysteresis, friction in the pump and back flow through the valves are assessed. The economic perspectives of a large wave power plant are presented, based on a revised prototype incorporating the results and experience gained during the test period. The wave energy conversion test `Hanstholm phase 2B` has showed, that it it technically possible to exploit the offshore wave energy resource. This source of energy could become attractive for commercial enterprise. The wave power converter demonstrated a reliable performance over a period of nine months. It produced energy under all wave conditions and survived storm waves of 9,6 m. A 300 MW wave power plant in the Danish part of the North sea is estimated to produce electricity at a cost between 2,1 - 2,4 DKK/kWh. The electrical transmission to shore contribute to approximately 20% of the cost. New data predict a potential of 23 kW per meter wave front. The energy plan Energy 21 proposed by the Danish Department of Energy, includes a scenario incorporating wave energy in the energy system year 2030. A strategy for the development of wave energy, has been proposed as part of the project OWEC-1 supported by the European Joule R and D programme. A proposal for future Danish initiatives to develop second generation point absorber systems is outlined. (ARW) 29 refs.

  18. Optimized Latching Control of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Chaitanya; Shandilya, Shubham; Bansal, Hari Om

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing demand for energy in today’s world. Currently main energy resources are fossil fuels, which will eventually drain out, also the emissions produced from them contribute to global warming. For a sustainable future, these fossil fuels should be replaced with renewable and green energy sources. Sea waves are a gigantic and undiscovered vitality asset. The potential for extricating energy from waves is extensive. To trap this energy, wave energy converters (WEC) are needed. There is a need for increasing the energy output and decreasing the cost requirement of these existing WECs. This paper presents a method which uses prediction as a part of the control scheme to increase the energy efficiency of the floating-point absorber WECs. Kalman Filter is used for estimation, coupled with latching control in regular as well as irregular sea waves. Modelling and Simulation results for the same are also included.

  19. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation

  20. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  1. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S

    2015-05-15

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  2. An Appraisal of the DEXA Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report has been requested by VækstFonden and aims at giving an overview of the experimental tests and a general appraisal of the DEXA wave energy converter (WEC). The reported results and findings were obtained during previously performed experimental tests by the Wave Energy Research Group...

  3. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.; Muirhead, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  4. On Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Ferri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present paper describes the work carried out in the project ’Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters’, which is a Danish research project carried out in a period of three years from September 2014, with the aim of reducing cost of the moorings for four wave energy converters...

  5. Deployment Effects of Marine Renewable Energy Technologies: Wave Energy Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirko Previsic

    2010-06-17

    Given proper care in siting, design, deployment, operation and maintenance, wave energy conversion could become one of the more environmentally benign sources of electricity generation. In order to accelerate the adoption of these emerging hydrokinetic and marine energy technologies, navigational and environmental concerns must be identified and addressed. All developing hydrokinetic projects involve a wide variety of stakeholders. One of the key issues that site developers face as they engage with this range of stakeholders is that, due to a lack of technical certainty, many of the possible conflicts (e.g., shipping and fishing) and environmental issues are not well-understood,. In September 2008, re vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to apply a scenario-based assessment to the emerging hydrokinetic technology sector in order to evaluate the potential impact of these technologies on the marine environment and navigation constraints. The project’s scope of work includes the establishment of baseline scenarios for wave and tidal power conversion at potential future deployment sites. The scenarios capture variations in technical approaches and deployment scales to properly identify and characterize environmental effects and navigational effects. The goal of the project is to provide all stakeholders with an improved understanding of the potential range of technical attributes and potential effects of these emerging technologies and focus all stakeholders on the critical issues that need to be addressed. By identifying and addressing navigational and environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development, serious mistakes that could potentially derail industry-wide development can be avoided. This groundwork will also help in streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles for the industry’s development in the U.S. today. Re vision is coordinating its efforts with two

  6. Power from the seas - Wave energy has a big future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenler, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the energy of the oceans' waves can become an important source of energy. The generation of the energy contained in waves as an indirect form of solar energy is described. The energy potential offered is quoted as being high in the Atlantic near England and Scotland. The article goes on the discuss the technical potential of this form of renewable energy and provides a map showing this. Financial aspects and economic potentials are discussed. Effects on the environment are also discussed. The on-shore and off-shore technologies that can be used to capture wave energy are described and discussed, as is the combination of power production from wind and waves

  7. A wave model test bed study for wave energy resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Neary, Vincent S.; Wang, Taiping; Gunawan, Budi; Dallman, Annie R.; Wu, Wei-Cheng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a test bed study conducted to evaluate best practices in wave modeling to characterize energy resources. The model test bed off the central Oregon Coast was selected because of the high wave energy and available measured data at the site. Two third-generation spectral wave models, SWAN and WWIII, were evaluated. A four-level nested-grid approach—from global to test bed scale—was employed. Model skills were assessed using a set of model performance metrics based on comparing six simulated wave resource parameters to observations from a wave buoy inside the test bed. Both WWIII and SWAN performed well at the test bed site and exhibited similar modeling skills. The ST4 package with WWIII, which represents better physics for wave growth and dissipation, out-performed ST2 physics and improved wave power density and significant wave height predictions. However, ST4 physics tended to overpredict the wave energy period. The newly developed ST6 physics did not improve the overall model skill for predicting the six wave resource parameters. Sensitivity analysis using different wave frequencies and direction resolutions indicated the model results were not sensitive to spectral resolutions at the test bed site, likely due to the absence of complex bathymetric and geometric features.

  8. Reliability Study of Energy Harvesting from Sea Waves by Piezoelectric Patches Consideraing Random JONSWAP Wave Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ettefagh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods for powering low-power electronic devices employed in the sea, is using of mechanical energies of sea waves. In this method, piezoelectric material is employed to convert the mechanical energy of sea waves into electrical energy. The advantage of this method is based on not implementing the battery charging system. Although, many studies have been done about energy harvesting from sea waves, energy harvesting with considering random JONWSAP wave theory is not fully studied up to now. The random JONSWAP wave model is a more realistic approximation of sea waves in comparison of Airy wave model. Therefore, in this paper a vertical beam with the piezoelectric patches, which is fixed to the seabed, is considered as energy harvester system. The energy harvesting system is simulated by MATLAB software, and then the vibration response of the beam and consequently the generated power is obtained considering the JONWSAP wave theory. In addition, the reliability of the system and the effect of piezoelectric patches uncertainties on the generated power are studied by statistical method. Furthermore, the failure possibility of harvester based on violation criteria is investigated.  

  9. Preliminary Analysis of a Submerged Wave Energy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. R.; Wagner, J. J.; Hayatdavoodi, M.; Ertekin, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Preliminary analysis of a submerged wave energy harvesting device is presented. The device is composed of a thin, horizontally submerged plate that is restricted to heave oscillations under the influence of surface waves. The submerged plate is oscillating, and it can be attached to a fixed rotor, or a piston, to harvest the wave energy. A fully submerged wave energy converter is preferred over a surface energy convertor due to its durability and less visual and physical distractions it presents. In this study, the device is subject to nonlinear shallow-water waves. Wave loads on the submerged oscillating plate are obtained via the Level I Green-Naghdi equations. The unsteady motion of the plate is obtained by solving the nonlinear equations of motion. The results are obtained for a range of waves with varying heights and periods. The amplitude and period of plate oscillations are analyzed as functions of the wave parameters and plate width. Particular attention is given to the selection of the site of desired wave field. Initial estimation on the amount of energy extraction from the device, located near shore at a given site, is provided.

  10. Energy Relations for Plane Waves Reflected from Moving Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, P.; Gruenberg, Harry

    1967-01-01

    When a plane wave is obliquely incident from vacuum on a semi-infinite moving medium, the energy flow carried by the incident wave, is in general, not carried away by the reflected and transmitted waves. This is only the case when the medium velocity is parallel to its vacuum interface. Otherwise...... there is a net inflow or outflow of electromagnetic energy, which can be accounted for by the change of stored energy in the system, and the work done by the mechanical forces acting on the medium. A detailed energy balance is drawn up for two different media moving normal to their vacuum interfaces: (a...

  11. Enhancing Wave Energy Competitiveness through Co-Located Wind and Wave Energy Farms. A Review on the Shadow Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharay Astariz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels due to the enormous available resource; however, its development may be slowed as it is often regarded as uneconomical. The largest cost reductions are expected to be obtained through economies of scale and technological progress. In this sense, the incorporation of wave energy systems into offshore wind energy farms is an opportunity to foster the development of wave energy. The synergies between both renewables can be realised through these co-located energy farms and, thus, some challenges of offshore wind energy can be met. Among them, this paper focuses on the longer non-operational periods of offshore wind turbines—relative to their onshore counterparts—typically caused by delays in maintenance due to the harsh marine conditions. Co-located wave energy converters would act as a barrier extracting energy from the waves and resulting in a shielding effect over the wind farm. On this basis, the aim of this paper is to analyse wave energy economics in a holistic way, as well as the synergies between wave and offshore wind energy, focusing on the shadow effect and the associated increase in the accessibility to the wind turbines.

  12. Wave-packet revivals for quantum systems with nondegenerate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, R.; Tudose, B.

    1996-01-01

    The revival structure of wave packets is examined for quantum systems having energies that depend on two nondegenerate quantum numbers. For such systems, the evolution of the wave packet is controlled by two classical periods and three revival times. These wave packets exhibit quantum beats in the initial motion as well as new types of long-term revivals. The issue of whether fractional revivals can form is addressed. We present an analytical proof showing that at certain times equal to rational fractions of the revival times the wave packet can reform as a sum of subsidiary waves and that both conventional and new types of fractional revivals can occur. (orig.)

  13. Wave Loadings Acting on an Innovative Breakwater for Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Ciardulli, F.; Buccino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on 2D small scale experiments conducted to investigate wave loadings acting on a pilot project of device for the conversion of wave energy into electricity. The conversion concept is based on the overtopping principle and the structure is worldwide known with the acronym SSG....... The hydraulic model tests have been carried out at the LInC laboratory of the University of Naples Federico II using random waves. Results indicate wave overtopping is able to cause a sudden inversion of vertical force under wave crest, so that it is alternatively upward and downward directed over a short time...

  14. Electricity from wave and tide an introduction to marine energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    This is a concise yet technically authoritative overview of modern marine energy devices with the goal of sustainable electricity generation. With 165 full-colour illustrations and photographs of devices at an advanced stage, the book provides inspiring case studies of today's most promising marine energy devices and developments, including full-scale grid-connected prototypes tested in sea conditions. It also covers the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, Scotland, where many of the devices are assessed. Topics discussed: global resources - drawing energy from the World's waves and tides history of wave and tidal stream systems theoretical background to modern developments conversion of marine energy into grid electricity modern wave energy converters and tidal stream energy converters. This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector needing an introduction to marine energy. Its descriptive style and technical level will also appea...

  15. Second generation wave energy device - the clam concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.

    1981-01-01

    A device concept is presented which has arisen from a system approach adopted by a research group with considerable experience in the discipline of wave energy. The Clam, which can be classified as a spine-based pneumatic terminator, is deemed to be a second generation wave energy device in that it tries to utilize system components already identified as attractive, while at the same time avoiding known problem areas. A working model of this wave power device at an engineering scale is discussed for trials in real waves. 3 refs.

  16. Recent Developments of Wave Energy Utilization in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Kramer, Morten

    2006-01-01

    by a more thorough description of three ongoing projects. These are Wave Dragon, Wave Star and Seawave Slot-cone Generator. Common for these projects are that they are being, or will soon be, tested in real sea and have benefited from the Danish Wave Energy Program. The work by the department......This paper aims at giving an overview of the developments researchers at the Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark (DCE), have been involved in within the field of wave energy utilization in Denmark over the past decade. At first a general introduction is given followed...... on these projects involves substantial laboratory testing, numerical simulations and real sea prototype testing....

  17. Life cycle assessment of the wave energy converter: Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hans Chr., Sørensen; Stefan, Naef; Stefan, Anderberg

    Any power production technology should be able to demonstrate that it's able to comply with current and future environmental regulation and that it demonstrates a considerable surplus in the energy balance being a part of the entire power system. This means that the energy used throughout all the...

  18. Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...

  19. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-08-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  20. Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Frédéric; Renzi, Emiliano; Gallagher, Sarah; Sarkar, Dripta; Wei, Yanji; Abadie, Thomas; Cummins, Cathal; Rafiee, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    The development of new wave energy converters has shed light on a number of unanswered questions in fluid mechanics, but has also identified a number of new issues of importance for their future deployment. The main concerns relevant to the practical use of wave energy converters are sustainability, survivability, and maintainability. Of course, it is also necessary to maximize the capture per unit area of the structure as well as to minimize the cost. In this review, we consider some of the questions related to the topics of sustainability, survivability, and maintenance access, with respect to sea conditions, for generic wave energy converters with an emphasis on the oscillating wave surge converter. New analytical models that have been developed are a topic of particular discussion. It is also shown how existing numerical models have been pushed to their limits to provide answers to open questions relating to the operation and characteristics of wave energy converters.

  1. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....

  2. Wave Energy Resource along the Coast of Santa Catarina (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the largest electricity markets in South America, which needs to add 6000 MW of capacity every year in order to satisfy growing the demand from an increasing and more prosperous population. Apart from biomass, no other renewable energy sources, besides hydroelectricity, play a relevant role in the energy mix. The potential for wind and wave energy is very large. Brazil's Santa Catarina state government is starting a clean energy program in the state, which is expected to bring more than 1 GW of capacity. Assessment of wave energy resources is needed along the coastline. This work studied the potential wave energy along the north-central coasts of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil, by analysis of the hindcast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The annual offshore wave power was found to be equal to 15.25 kW/m, the bulk of which is provided by southeastern waves. The nearshore energetic patterns were studied by means of a numerical coastal propagation model (Mike21 SW. The mean wave power of 20 m isobaths is 11.43 kW/m. Supplementary considerations are drawn on realistic perspectives for wave energy converters installations.

  3. ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Mathematics Department, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Soler, R. [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Verth, G., E-mail: tom.vandoorsselaere@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.

  4. Wave-particle energy exchange directly observed in a kinetic Alfvén-branch wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J; F-Viñas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C; Boardsen, Scott A; Avanov, Levon A; Bellan, Paul M; Schwartz, Steven J; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N; Chandler, Michael O; Saito, Yoshifumi; Paterson, William R; Fuselier, Stephen A; Ergun, Robert E; Strangeway, Robert J; Russell, Christopher T; Giles, Barbara L; Pollock, Craig J; Torbert, Roy B; Burch, James L

    2017-03-31

    Alfvén waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales, they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres and astrophysical systems but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earth's magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfvén wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via nonlinear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  5. Wave-Particle Energy Exchange Directly Observed in a Kinetic Alfven-Branch Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; F-Vinas, Adolfo; Dorelli, John C.; Boardsen, Scott A. (Inventor); Avanov, Levon A.; Bellan, Paul M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Coffey, Victoria N.; Chandler, Michael O.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Alfven waves are fundamental plasma wave modes that permeate the universe. At small kinetic scales they provide a critical mechanism for the transfer of energy between electromagnetic fields and charged particles. These waves are important not only in planetary magnetospheres, heliospheres, and astrophysical systems, but also in laboratory plasma experiments and fusion reactors. Through measurement of charged particles and electromagnetic fields with NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we utilize Earths magnetosphere as a plasma physics laboratory. Here we confirm the conservative energy exchange between the electromagnetic field fluctuations and the charged particles that comprise an undamped kinetic Alfven wave. Electrons confined between adjacent wave peaks may have contributed to saturation of damping effects via non-linear particle trapping. The investigation of these detailed wave dynamics has been unexplored territory in experimental plasma physics and is only recently enabled by high-resolution MMS observations.

  6. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the exp......Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based...

  7. Wave energy potential: A forecasting system for the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carillo, Adriana; Sannino, Gianmaria; Lombardi, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    ENEA is performing ocean wave modeling activities with the aim of both characterizing the Italian sea energy resource and providing the information necessary for the experimental at sea and operational phases of energy converters. Therefore a forecast system of sea waves and of the associated energy available has been developed and has been operatively running since June 2013. The forecasts are performed over the entire Mediterranean basin and, at a higher resolution, over ten sub-basins around the Italian coasts. The forecast system is here described along with the validation of the wave heights, performed by comparing them with the measurements from satellite sensors. [it

  8. Nonlinear Passive Control of a Wave Energy Converter Subject to Constraints in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a passive control method of a point absorbing wave energy converter by considering the displacement and velocity constraints under irregular waves in the time domain. A linear generator is used as a power take-off unit, and the equivalent damping force is optimized to improve the power production of the wave energy converter. The results from nonlinear and linear passive control methods are compared, and indicate that the nonlinear passive control method leads to the excitation force in phase with the velocity of the converter that can significantly improve the energy production of the converter.

  9. Transmission of wave energy through an offshore wind turbine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Johnson, Martin; Sørensen, Ole Rene

    2013-01-01

    condition at infinity. From airborne and Satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) a model has been derived for the change of the water surface friction C) inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm. The effects have been implemented in a spectral wind wave model,MIKE21 SW, and a parametric study......The transmission of wave energy passing an offshore wind farm is studied. Three effects that can change the wave field are analysed, which is the A) energy dissipation due to drag resistance, B) wave reflection/diffraction from structures, and C) the effect of a modified wind field inside...... and on the lee side of the wind farm. The drag dissipation, A), is quantified by a quadratic resistance law. The effect of B) is parameterised based on 1st order potential theory. A method to find the amount of reflected and transmitted wave energy is developed based on the panel method WAMIT™ and a radiation...

  10. Experimental investigation of rubble mound breakwaters for wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luppa, C.; Contestabile, P.; Cavallaro, L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes recent laboratory investigation on the breakwater integrated device named “OBREC” (Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion). This technology recently appeared on the wave energy converter scene as an executive outcome of improving composite seawalls by including overtoppi......-by-wave measurement of couples of hydraulic head-flow rate acting on a virtual turbine inlet. Finally, the influence of draft length on overtopping discharge has been identified....... type wave energy converters [1]. Two complementary experimental campaigns were carried out, in 2012 and in 2014. Several geometries and wave conditions were examined. Preliminary comparison of hydraulic behaviour has been summarized, focusing on reflection analysis and overtopping flow rate....... Preliminary design formulae are presented to predict overtopping at the rear side of the structure and in to the front reservoir based on both datasets. Moreover, some important results have been presented on hydraulic behaviour of OBREC with saturated reservoir. Particularly attention is paid to wave...

  11. Interaction of two walkers: wave-mediated energy and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Christian; Moukhtar, Julien; Labousse, Matthieu; Eddi, Antonin; Fort, Emmanuel; Couder, Yves

    2014-12-01

    A bouncing droplet, self-propelled by its interaction with the waves it generates, forms a classical wave-particle association called a "walker." Previous works have demonstrated that the dynamics of a single walker is driven by its global surface wave field that retains information on its past trajectory. Here we investigate the energy stored in this wave field for two coupled walkers and how it conveys an interaction between them. For this purpose, we characterize experimentally the "promenade modes" where two walkers are bound and propagate together. Their possible binding distances take discrete values, and the velocity of the pair depends on their mutual binding. The mean parallel motion can be either rectilinear or oscillating. The experimental results are recovered analytically with a simple theoretical framework. A relation between the kinetic energy of the droplets and the total energy of the standing waves is established.

  12. Quantifying the Benefits of Combining Offshore Wind and Wave Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenburg, E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    For many locations the offshore wind resource and the wave energy resource are collocated, which suggests a natural synergy if both technologies are combined into one offshore marine renewable energy plant. Initial meteorological assessments of the western coast of the United States suggest only a weak correlation in power levels of wind and wave energy at any given hour associated with the large ocean basin wave dynamics and storm systems of the North Pacific. This finding indicates that combining the two power sources could reduce the variability in electric power output from a combined wind and wave offshore plant. A combined plant is modeled with offshore wind turbines and Pelamis wave energy converters with wind and wave data from meteorological buoys operated by the US National Buoy Data Center off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. This study will present results of quantifying the benefits of combining wind and wave energy for the electrical power system to facilitate increased renewable energy penetration to support reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and air and water pollution associated with conventional fossil fuel power plants.

  13. Quasi-static analysis of wave loadings on spine-based wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, F.P.; Peatfield, A.M.; West, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    A report is given on the Wave Energy Research Programme at Lanchester Polytechnic. Results are presented for both theoretical and experimental scale models for wave loadings on circular and rectangular spines of various lengths. The results are in good agreement over the operational wave range for the 1/50 scale model and for the more limited data on the 1/10 scale model.

  14. What can wave energy learn from offshore oil and gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, E R

    2012-01-28

    This title may appear rather presumptuous in the light of the progress made by the leading wave energy devices. However, there may still be some useful lessons to be learnt from current 'offshore' practice, and there are certainly some awful warnings from the past. Wave energy devices and the marine structures used in oil and gas exploration as well as production share a common environment and both are subject to wave, wind and current loads, which may be evaluated with well-validated, albeit imperfect, tools. Both types of structure can be designed, analysed and fabricated using similar tools and technologies. They fulfil very different missions and are subject to different economic and performance requirements; hence 'offshore' design tools must be used appropriately in wave energy project and system design, and 'offshore' cost data should be adapted for 'wave' applications. This article reviews the similarities and differences between the fields and highlights the differing economic environments; offshore structures are typically a small to moderate component of field development cost, while wave power devices will dominate overall system cost. The typical 'offshore' design process is summarized and issues such as reliability-based design and design of not normally manned structures are addressed. Lessons learned from poor design in the past are discussed to highlight areas where care is needed, and wave energy-specific design areas are reviewed. Opportunities for innovation and optimization in wave energy project and device design are discussed; wave energy projects must ultimately compete on a level playing field with other routes to low CO₂ energy and/or energy efficiency. This article is a personal viewpoint and not an expression of a ConocoPhillips position.

  15. Energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.; Batha, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A review is given of energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator. The properties of the electromagnetic cascade and the corresponding plasma-wave evolution are well understood within the framework of an approximate analytic model. Based on this model, idealized laser-plasma coupling efficiencies of the order of 10% do not seem unreasonable. 28 refs

  16. Wave energy absorption by a floating air bag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi; Chaplin, John; Greaves, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting...

  17. Simplified Design Procedures for Moorings of Wave-Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergdahl, Lars; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The goal of the report is that the reader shall be able to self-dependently make a first, preliminary analysis of wave-induced horizontal loads, motions and mooring forces for a moored floating wave energy device. Necessary prerequisites to attain that goal are the understanding of the physical p...

  18. Hydrodynamic Modelling and Layout Optimisation of Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé

    2017-01-01

    in various positions and orientations are finally investigated. This thesis intends in this way to offer a practical approach to the analysis of wave energy converters when they operate together as an array and the optimal design of array layouts. The topics covered by the text include propagation of waves...

  19. Determination of wave energy potential of black sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bingölbali, Bilal; Akpınar, Adem; van Vledder, G.P.; Lynett, P.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess wave energy potential and its long-term spatial and temporal characteristics in the Black Sea within the TUBITAK research project (Akpınar et al., 2015). With this purpose, a wave model (SWAN model version 41.01 driven by the CFSR winds) over the entire Black Sea was

  20. Turbine Control Strategy using Wave Prediction to Optimise Power Take Off of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included...

  1. Energy balance of plasma with wave taking the nonpotential nature of the waves into consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'berg, M.G.; Volosevich, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that in the ionospheric plasma the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves is shifted in phase with respect to fluctuations of current by approximately -π/2 and the rotational field is almost in phase with the current. Therefore, the energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs mainly with the participation of rotational field

  2. Plan for the Brent Spar. Wind and wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    1996-01-01

    In a competition on the future of the much discussed oil platform Brent Spar of Shell the idea to retrofit the platform into a combined wind/wave energy converter appears to be an attractive option for Shell

  3. Further development of the SEA-Clam wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.; Peatfield, A.M.

    1984-04-01

    The final design of the SEA-Clam as a unit for a large 2 GW scheme has been described. This is the leading wave energy device arising out of the UK National Wave Energy Program and is seen as having the greatest potential for further development particularly for smaller scale applications. The small scale market for wave energy is examined and the design and cost parameters evaluated for the 250 kW to 1000 kW range of SEA-Clam units. Building a demonstration prototype rated at 650 kW and producing an annual average output of 250 kW is identified as the next step towards the commercial exploitation of wave energy.

  4. Internal wave energy radiated from a turbulent mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, James R., E-mail: jmunroe@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada); Sutherland, Bruce R., E-mail: bsuther@ualberta.ca [Departments of Physics and Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    We examine mixed-layer deepening and the generation of internal waves in stratified fluid resulting from turbulence that develops in response to an applied surface stress. In laboratory experiments the stress is applied over the breadth of a finite-length tank by a moving roughened conveyor belt. The turbulence in the shear layer is characterized using particle image velocimetry to measure the kinetic energy density. The internal waves are measured using synthetic schlieren to determine their amplitudes, frequencies, and energy density. We also perform fully nonlinear numerical simulations restricted to two dimensions but in a horizontally periodic domain. These clearly demonstrate that internal waves are generated by transient eddies at the integral length scale of turbulence and which translate with the background shear along the base of the mixed layer. In both experiments and simulations we find that the energy density of the generated waves is 1%–3% of the turbulent kinetic energy density of the turbulent layer.

  5. Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...

  6. Wave Resource Characterization at US Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, A.; Neary, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Marine and Hydrokinetic energy (MHK) Program is supporting a diverse research and development portfolio intended to accelerate commercialization of the marine renewable industry by improving technology performance, reducing market barriers, and lowering the cost of energy. Wave resource characterization at potential and existing wave energy converter (WEC) test sites and deployment locations contributes to this DOE goal by providing a catalogue of wave energy resource characteristics, met-ocean data, and site infrastructure information, developed utilizing a consistent methodology. The purpose of the catalogue is to enable the comparison of resource characteristics among sites to facilitate the selection of test sites that are most suitable for a developer's device and that best meet their testing needs and objectives. It also provides inputs for the design of WEC test devices and planning WEC tests, including the planning of deployment and operations and maintenance. The first edition included three sites: the Pacific Marine Energy Center (PMEC) North Energy Test Site (NETS) offshore of Newport, Oregon, the Kaneohe Bay Naval Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) offshore of Oahu, HI, and a potential site offshore of Humboldt Bay, CA (Eureka, CA). The second edition was recently finished, which includes five additional sites: the Jennette's Pier Wave Energy Converter Test Site in North Carolina, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Field Research Facility (FRF), the PMEC Lake Washington site, the proposed PMEC South Energy Test Site (SETS), and the proposed CalWave Central Coast WEC Test Site. The operational sea states are included according to the IEC Technical Specification on wave energy resource assessment and characterization, with additional information on extreme sea states, weather windows, and representative spectra. The methodology and a summary of results will be discussed.

  7. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Frid, C.; Andonegi, E.; Depestele, J.; Judd, A.; Rihan, D.; Rogers, S.I.; Kenchington, E.

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other...

  8. Energy conversion of orbital motions in gravitational waves: Simulation and test of the Seaspoon wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fresco, L.; Traverso, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate an innovative wave energy converter. • We study a robust technology derived from wind power sector. • We increased the performance of a drag type rotor exploiting the motion of ocean waves and a simple flat plate component. • We proved the working principle with a numerical model first and with experimental test in wave flume later. • We aim to obtain a robust large energy harvester able to operate in mild energy sea and with an extended operating range. - Abstract: The conversion of ocean wave power into sustainable electrical power represents a major opportunity to Nations endowed with such a kind of resource. At the present time the most of the technological innovations aiming at converting such resources are at early stage of development, with only a handful of devices close to be at the commercial demonstration stage. The Seaspoon device, thought as a large energy harvester, catches the kinetic energy of ocean waves with promising conversion efficiency, and robust technology, according to specific “wave-motion climate”. University of Genoa aims to develop a prototype to be deployed in medium average energy content seas (i.e. Mediterranean or Eastern Asia seas). This paper presents the first simulation and experimental results carried out on a reduced scale proof-of-concept model tested in the laboratory wave flume

  9. Model Predictive Control of a Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper reactive control and Model Predictive Control (MPC) for a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) are compared. The analysis is based on a WEC from Wave Star A/S designed as a point absorber. The model predictive controller uses wave models based on the dominating sea states combined with a model...... connecting undisturbed wave sequences to sequences of torque. Losses in the conversion from mechanical to electrical power are taken into account in two ways. Conventional reactive controllers are tuned for each sea state with the assumption that the converter has the same efficiency back and forth. MPC...

  10. Toward Best Practices for Public Acceptability in Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovichu, M. A.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    At this initial stage of development, opinion toward wave energy is mainly positive. Interviews with developers, presentations about wave energy at local community meetings, and the literature show that there are four main types of issues developers need to address when discussing their projects ...... Ocean illustrate that despite similarities in the types of issues developers typically address at each site, the way of approaching the issues and the priorities given vary....

  11. Energy in one-dimensional linear waves in a string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burko, Lior M

    2010-01-01

    We consider the energy density and energy transfer in small amplitude, one-dimensional waves on a string and find that the common expressions used in textbooks for the introductory physics with calculus course give wrong results for some cases, including standing waves. We discuss the origin of the problem, and how it can be corrected in a way appropriate for the introductory calculus-based physics course. (letters and comments)

  12. Wave Energy and Actor-Network Theory: The Irish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the wave energy sector in Ireland using theories from the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). Theoretical divisions within the field of STS are examined, particularly the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge (SSK) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Any conflicts which these two theories present to each other are examined through the empirical findings of the Irish wave energy sector. In particular, ANT s rejection of macro and micro distinctions when analy...

  13. Highly sensitive and selective determination of fluorine ion by graphene oxide/nanogold resonance Rayleigh scattering-energy transfer analytical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Peng, Jing; Liu, Qingye; Wen, Guiqing; Lu, Zhujun; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2015-08-15

    In pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution, fluorine ions react with fluorine reagent (FR) and La(III) to generate blue ternary complex that exhibited strong absorption at about 370 nm. Upon addition of graphene oxide/nanogold (GO/NG) as resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) spectral probe with strong RRS peak at 370 nm, the color changed to gray, and the RRS intensity decreased with the increase of fluorine ion concentration due to the RRS energy transfer (RRSET) from GO/NG to the complex. Under the selected condition, the decreased RRS peak ΔI370 nm was linear to fluorine ion concentration in the range of 6.0 × 10(-8)-1.3 × 10(-5)mol/L, with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10(-8)mol/L F(-). This RRSET method was applied to the analysis of fluorine in toothpaste and water samples, with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple and sensitive resonance Rayleigh scattering-energy transfer method for amino acids coupling its Ruhemann's purple and graphene oxide probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanghe [School of Food and Bioengineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou 542899 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection of Ministry Education, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Chongnin; Qin, Aimian [Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection of Ministry Education, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Liang, Aihui, E-mail: ahliang2008@163.com [Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection of Ministry Education, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Jiang, Zhiliang, E-mail: zljiang@mailbox.gxnu.edu.cn [School of Food and Bioengineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou 542899 (China); Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection of Ministry Education, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-05-15

    In pH 7.2 KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-NaOH buffer solution, graphene oxide (GO) has strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) effect at 400 nm, and amino acid reacted with ninhydrin to form blue-violet complex Ruhemann's purple (RP) with a absorption peak at 400 nm. RPs can strongly adsorbed on the surface of GO, and the RRS donor of GO probes coupled with the receptor of RP that reduced the RRS intensity at 400 nm due to the RRS-energy transfer (RRS-ET) from the GO to RP. With the increase of amino acid concentration, the RRS intensity quenched linearly at 400 nm due to the RRS-ET enhancing. The quenched intensity responds linearly with glutamic acid concentration in the range of 0.2–200 μmol L{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 0.08 µmol L{sup −1}. This simple and sensitive RRS-ET method was used to detect the content of amino acid in oral liquid, with satisfactory results.

  15. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  16. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost ...... is resulting in a prediction of a yearly production of 23TWh; the latter is estimating a yearly production of 77TWh. This equals to 6% of the electricity demand around the North Sea, where the annual electricity consumption is about 1,300TWh.......The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost...... as in the Atlantic and the distance to shore relatively long compared to sites with good wave climate like Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the west coast of UK. The increasing activities within offshore wind in the North Sea and the attempt to build a super grid connecting the wind sites with the major consumers around...

  17. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  18. Stochastic control applied to the ISWEC Wave Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Giovanni; Casassa, Maria; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Passione, Biagio; Raffero, Mattia; Vissio, Giacomo; Martini, Michele

    2015-01-01

    ISWEC (Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter) is a floating marine device able to harvest sea waves energy by the interaction between the pitching motion of a floater and a spinning flywheel which can drive an electric PTO. In the ISWEC the hull dynamics is governed and controlled by the gyroscopic torque. The optimal control logic results in tuning the floater dynamics to the incoming waves in order to maximize the power transfer from the waves to the floater. In this paper the control problems of the ISWEC are stated and a control scheme based on the sub-optimal stochastic control logic is presented. The control scheme here presented has been tested using real wave records acquired at the deployment location in Pantelleria Island, which is one of the most energetic sites of the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.

  20. Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824

  1. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  2. Experimental Testing of the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aalborg University carried out wave tank testing a 1:20 scale model of Langlee, an oscillating wave-surge type of Wave Energy Converter (WEC). Langlee is designed to operate in deep water, with the hinged flaps attached to a, moored, semi-submerged reference frame. Langlee has a novel flap...... arrangement, with the flaps placed symmetrically opposing each other on a floating reference structure. This minimises the net force on the reference frame and increases the stability of the reference frame under optimal wave conditions. This paper presents the results and analysis from the wave tanks, which...... addressed the following: The Power Take Offs (PTOs) were simulated using a motor to resist the motion of the wings, according to the damping profile. Torque and velocity measurements were used to predict the wave- to mechanical-power conversion efficiency of the device. A number of wing types...

  3. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  4. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  5. Numerical study on design for wave energy generation of a floater for energy absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kui Ming; Parthasarathy, Nanjundan; Choi, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Yeon Won

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a wave energy generating system of a floater type, a 6 DOF motion technique was applied to the three Dimensional CFD analysis on a floating body and the behavior was interpreted according to the nature of the incoming waves. Waves in a tank model were generated using a single floater comparing with that of a Pelamis wave energy converter. In this paper, we focus on four variables, namely the wave height, angular velocity, diameter and length of the floater. The process was carried out in three stages and it was found that there are energy absorption differences in different parameters of wave height, length and the diameter of a floater during simulation, thus leading for the necessity of an optimal design for wave energy generation

  6. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  7. Shock waves in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M E; Kolikov, V A; Rutberg, Ph G; Leks, A G; Dolinovskaya, R V; Snetov, V N; Stogov, A Yu

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results of shock wave formation and propagation in water at low energy pulsed electric discharges are presented. To study the hydrodynamic structure of the shock waves, the direct shadow optical diagnostic device with time resolution of 5 ns and spatial resolution of 0.1 mm was designed and developed. Synchronization of the diagnostic and electrodischarge units by the fast optocouplers was carried out. The dependences of shock wave velocities after breakdown of interelectrode gap for various energy inputs (at range of ≤1 J) into discharge were obtained. Based on the experimental results the recommendations for the adjustment parameters of the power supply and load were suggested.

  8. On gravitational wave energy in Einstein gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folomeshkin, V.N.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    By the example of precise wave solutions for the Einstein equations it is shown that a standard commonly adopted formulation of energy-momentum problem with pseudotensors provides us either with a zero or sign-variable values for the energy of gravitational waves. It is shown that if in the Einstein gravitational theory a strict transition to the limits of weak fields is realised then the theory gives us an unambiguous zero result for weak gravitational waves. The well-known non-zero result arises due to incorrect transition to weak field approximation in the Einstein gravitation theory

  9. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  10. Forecasting ocean wave energy: A Comparison of the ECMWF wave model with time series methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reikard, Gordon; Pinson, Pierre; Bidlot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the technology has been developed to make wave farms commercially viable. Since electricity is perishable, utilities will be interested in forecasting ocean wave energy. The horizons involved in short-term management of power grids range from as little as a few hours to as long as several...... days. In selecting a method, the forecaster has a choice between physics-based models and statistical techniques. A further idea is to combine both types of models. This paper analyzes the forecasting properties of a well-known physics-based model, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts...... (ECMWF) Wave Model, and two statistical techniques, time-varying parameter regressions and neural networks. Thirteen data sets at locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico are tested. The quantities to be predicted are the significant wave height, the wave period, and the wave...

  11. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived...... experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient...... to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture....

  12. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J.; Frigaard, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture.

  13. An array effect of wave energy farm buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An ocean buoy energy farm is considered for Green energy generation and delivery to small towns along the Korean coast. The present studypresents that the floating buoy-type energy farm appears to be sufficiently feasible fortrapping more energy compared to afixed cylinder duck array. It is also seen from the numerical resultsthat the resonated waves between spaced buoys are further trapped by floating buoy motion. Our numerical study is analyzed by a plane-wave approximation, in which evanescent mode effects are included in a modified mild-slope equation based on the scattering characteristics for a single buoy.

  14. Wave Tank Testing and Model Validation of an Autonomous Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Bosma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A key component in bringing ocean wave energy converters from concept to commercialization is the building and testing of scaled prototypes to provide model validation. A one quarter scale prototype of an autonomous two body heaving point absorber was modeled, built, and tested for this work. Wave tank testing results are compared with two hydrodynamic and system models—implemented in both ANSYS AQWA and MATLAB/Simulink—and show model validation over certain regions of operation. This work will serve as a guide for future developers of wave energy converter devices, providing insight in taking their design from concept to prototype stage.

  15. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  16. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Depestele, Jochen; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: ► We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. ► Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. ► Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. ► Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  17. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  18. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  19. On the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    KAUST Repository

    Orazov, B.

    2010-11-01

    Buoy-type ocean wave energy converters are designed to exhibit resonant responses when subject to excitation by ocean waves. A novel excitation scheme is proposed which has the potential to improve the energy harvesting capabilities of these converters. The scheme uses the incident waves to modulate the mass of the device in a manner which amplifies its resonant response. To illustrate the novel excitation scheme, a simple one-degree of freedom model is developed for the wave energy converter. This model has the form of a switched linear system. After the stability regime of this system has been established, the model is then used to show that the excitation scheme improves the power harvesting capabilities by 2565 percent even when amplitude restrictions are present. It is also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the device\\'s power harvesting capabilities to changes in damping becomes much smaller when the novel excitation scheme is used. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Larsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and floating structure absorbs the energy of the waves through a multitude of rotors. The shape of the rotors is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. On each leg, the rotors pivot around a common axle, through which the rotors transfer the absorbed power to a common power take off system. The study investigates the required capacity of the power take off (PTO system and the structural forces on a WEPTOS WEC prototype, intended for installation at Hanstholm (Denmark, based on large scale experimental tests using a highly realistic laboratory model of the complete device. The results hereof includes the rotational speed and transmitted torque (and hereby power to the PTO system using different PTO control strategies, the impact of fluctuations of the available mechanical power and the effect of limiting the PTO capacity on the annual energy production. Acquisition of structural forces includes mooring forces and structural bending moments in both production and extreme wave conditions, illustrating that the regulation of the angle in the A shape ensures that extreme forces on the structure can be kept in the same order of magnitude as in production conditions.

  1. A device for using wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.

    1984-01-01

    An offshore floating platform is used to support an electrical generator and two pontoons fastened on the edges. A horizontal tube located in a housing for two turbine blades rotating in opposite directions is connected to the generator by a shaft housed in a casing. The conical transmission connects the horizontal shafts of the turbine blades to the vertical shaft. When the waves pass near this platform, the pontoons rise up, the platform leans over to one side, and the turbine blades describe an arc, and cause the transmission and generator shaft to turn via the internal shafts. When the wave passes under the support, the raised pontoon drops and the other rises, and the platform leans over in the opposite direction; the blades then rotate in the opposite direction.

  2. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  3. Chromo-Rayleigh interactions of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Osborne, James

    2015-01-01

    For a wide range of models, dark matter can interact with QCD gluons via chromo-Rayleigh interactions. We point out that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as a gluon machine, provides a superb probe of such interactions. In this paper, we introduce simplified models to UV-complete two effective dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions and identify the corresponding collider signatures, including four jets or a pair of di-jet resonances plus missing transverse energy. After performing collider studies for both the 8 TeV and 14 TeV LHC, we find that the LHC can be more sensitive to dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions than direct detection experiments and thus provides the best opportunity for future discovery of this class of models.

  4. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  5. The influence of waves on the tidal kinetic energy resource at a tidal stream energy site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, Nicolas; Chapalain, Georges; Neill, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model the influence of waves on tidal kinetic energy in the Fromveur Strait. • Numerical results are compared with field data of waves and currents. • The introduction of waves improve predictions of tidal stream power during storm. • Mean spring tidal stream potential is reduced by 12% during extreme wave conditions. • Potential is reduced by 7.8% with waves forces and 5.3% with enhanced friction. - Abstract: Successful deployment of tidal energy converters relies on access to accurate and high resolution numerical assessments of available tidal stream power. However, since suitable tidal stream sites are located in relatively shallow waters of the continental shelf where tidal currents are enhanced, tidal energy converters may experience effects of wind-generated surface-gravity waves. Waves may thus influence tidal currents, and associated kinetic energy, through two non-linear processes: the interaction of wave and current bottom boundary layers, and the generation of wave-induced currents. Here, we develop a three-dimensional tidal circulation model coupled with a phase-averaged wave model to quantify the impact of the waves on the tidal kinetic energy resource of the Fromveur Strait (western Brittany) - a region that has been identified with strong potential for tidal array development. Numerical results are compared with in situ observations of wave parameters (significant wave height, peak period and mean wave direction) and current amplitude and direction 10 m above the seabed (the assumed technology hub height for this region). The introduction of waves is found to improve predictions of tidal stream power at 10 m above the seabed at the measurement site in the Strait, reducing kinetic energy by up to 9% during storm conditions. Synoptic effects of wave radiation stresses and enhanced bottom friction are more specifically identified at the scale of the Strait. Waves contribute to a slight increase in the spatial gradient of

  6. Short-Term Wave Forecasting with AR models in Real-Time Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Time domain control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach conditions for optimal energy extraction. Autoregressive models revealed to be a promising approach to the prediction of future values of the wave elevation only from its past history. Results on real wave observations from different ocean locations show that AR models allow to achieve very good predictions for more than one wave period in the future if ...

  7. User guide – COE Calculation Tool for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Jensen, Niels Ejner Helstrup

    Aalborg University together with Energinet.dk and Julia F. Chozas Consulting Engineer, have released a freely available online spreadsheet to evaluate the Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) for wave energy projects. The open-access tool calculates the LCOE based on the power production of a Wave...... Energy Converter (WEC) at a particular location. Production data may derive from laboratory testing, numerical modelling or from sea trials. The tool has been developed as a transparent and simple model that evaluates WEC’s economic feasibility in a range of locations, while scaling WEC’s features...

  8. Research on a new wave energy absorption device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Zhu, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    To reduce impact of global warming and the energy crisis problems caused by pollution of energy combustion, the research on renewable and clean energies becomes more and more important. This paper designed a new wave absorption device, and also gave an introduction on its mechanical structure. The flow tube model is analyzed, and presented the formulation of the proposed method. To verify the principle of wave absorbing device, an experiment was carried out in a laboratory environment, and the results of the experiment can be applied for optimizing the structure design of output power.

  9. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  10. Wave energy converter effects on wave propagation: A sensitivity study in Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Magalen, J.; Ruehl, K.; Chartrand, C.

    2014-12-01

    The development of renewable offshore energy in the United States is growing rapidly and wave energy is one of the largest resources currently being evaluated. The deployment of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays required to harness this resource could feasibly number in the hundreds of individual devices. The WEC arrays have the potential to alter nearshore wave propagation and circulation patterns and ecosystem processes. As the industry progresses from pilot- to commercial-scale it is important to understand and quantify the effects of WECs on the natural nearshore processes that support a local, healthy ecosystem. To help accelerate the realization of commercial-scale wave power, predictive modeling tools have been developed and utilized to evaluate the likelihood of environmental impact. At present, direct measurements of the effects of different types of WEC arrays on nearshore wave propagation are not available; therefore wave model simulations provide the groundwork for investigations of the sensitivity of model results to prescribed WEC characteristics over a range of anticipated wave conditions. The present study incorporates a modified version of an industry standard wave modeling tool, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), to simulate wave propagation through a hypothetical WEC array deployment site on the California coast. The modified SWAN, referred to as SNL-SWAN, incorporates device-specific WEC power take-off characteristics to more accurately evaluate a WEC device's effects on wave propagation. The primary objectives were to investigate the effects of a range of WEC devices and device and array characteristics (e.g., device spacing, number of WECs in an array) on nearshore wave propagation using SNL-SWAN model simulations. Results showed that significant wave height was most sensitive to variations in WEC device type and size and the number of WEC devices in an array. Locations in the lee centerline of the arrays in each modeled scenario showed the

  11. Selection of Design Power of Wave Energy Converters Based on Wave Basin Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    of the measured efficiency; description of the energy production by means of a function of the design capacity; application of a simple formula for cost benefit analysis. The analyses here proposed are based on the experimental results of 3D tests on two floating wave energy devices, named LEANCON and DEXA......Aim of this paper is to develop a method for selecting the optimal power generation capacity for which a wave energy converter (WEC) should be rated. This method is suitable for the earliest stages of development, when several studies are missing, including design of the Power Take Off (PTO) system...

  12. Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...

  13. A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reduan Atan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against available measured data within Irish waters. 12-year model outputs from the high resolution model were analysed to determine mean and maximum conditions and operational, high and extreme event conditions for significant wave height, energy period and power. Annual and seasonal analyses are presented. The 12-year annual mean P were 68 kW/m at Berth A (BA and 57 kW/m at Berth B (BB. The resource shows strong seasonal and annual variations and the winter mean power levels were found to be strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

  14. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  15. Buoy and Generator Interaction with Ocean Waves: Studies of a Wave Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroth, Simon

    2011-07-01

    On March 13th, 2006, the Div. of Electricity at Uppsala Univ. deployed its first wave energy converter, L1, in the ocean southwest of Lysekil. L1 consisted of a buoy at the surface, connected through a line to a linear generator on the seabed. Since the deployment, continuous investigations of how L1 works in the waves have been conducted, and several additional wave energy converters have been deployed. This thesis is based on ten publications, which focus on different aspects of the interaction between wave, buoy, and generator. In order to evaluate different measurement systems, the motion of the buoy was measured optically and using accelerometers, and compared to measurements of the motion of the movable part of the generator - the translator. These measurements were found to correlate well. Simulations of buoy and translator motion were found to match the measured values. The variation of performance of L1 with changing water levels, wave heights, and spectral shapes was also investigated. Performance is here defined as the ratio of absorbed power to incoming power. It was found that the performance decreases for large wave heights. This is in accordance with the theoretical predictions, since the area for which the stator and the translator overlap decreases for large translator motions. Shifting water levels were predicted to have the same effect, but this could not be seen as clearly. The width of the wave energy spectrum has been proposed by some as a factor that also affects the performance of a wave energy converter, for a set wave height and period. Therefore the relation between performance and several different parameters for spectral width was investigated. It was found that some of the parameters were in fact correlated to performance, but that the correlation was not very strong. As a background on ocean measurements in wave energy, a thorough literature review was conducted. It turns out that the Lysekil project is one of quite few projects that

  16. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  17. Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.

  18. Optimization of bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter for a specific wave rose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Hamed; Panahi, Roozbeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we conducted a numerical analysis on the bottom-hinged flap-type Wave Energy Convertor (WEC). The basic model, implemented through the study using ANSYS-AQWA, has been validated by a three-dimensional physical model of a pitching vertical cylinder. Then, a systematic parametric assessment has been performed on stiffness, damping, and WEC direction against an incoming wave rose, resulting in an optimized flap-type WEC for a specific spot in the Persian Gulf. Here, stiffness is tuned to have a near-resonance condition considering the wave rose, while damping is modified to capture the highest energy for each device direction. Moreover, such sets of specifications have been checked at different directions to present the best combination of stiffness, damping, and device heading. It has been shown that for a real condition, including different wave heights, periods, and directions, it is very important to implement the methodology introduced here to guarantee device performance.

  19. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  20. Wave Energy, Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg...... University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed...... for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency...

  1. The SSG Wave Energy Converter: Performance, Status and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Buccino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator (SSG is a Wave Energy Converter based on the wave overtopping principle; it employs several reservoirs placed on top of each other, in which the energy of incoming waves is stored as potential energy. Then, the captured water runs through turbines for electricity production. The system works under a wide spectrum of different wave conditions, giving a high overall efficiency. It can be suitable for shoreline and breakwater applications and presents particular advantages, such as sharing structure costs, availability of grid connection and recirculation of water inside the harbor, as the outlet of the turbines is on the rear part of the system. Recently, plans for the SSG pilot installations are in progress at the Svaaheia site (Norway, the port of Hanstholm (Denmark and the port of Garibaldi (Oregon, USA. In the last-mentioned two projects, the Sea-wave Slot-cone Generator technology is integrated into the outer harbor breakwater and jetty reconstruction projects. In the last years extensive studies have been performed on the hydraulic and the structural response of this converter, with the aim of optimizing the design process. The investigations have been conducted by physical model tests and numerical simulations and many results have been published on both conference proceedings and journals. The main scope of this paper is reviewing the most significant findings, to provide the reader with an organic overview on the present status of knowledge.

  2. Control of runaway electron energy using externally injected whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-03-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here, we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by the parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways in a particular range of energies which is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  3. Designing and Testing Composite Energy Storage Systems for Regulating the Outputs of Linear Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxiang Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear wave energy converters generate intrinsically intermittent power with variable frequency and amplitude. A composite energy storage system consisting of batteries and super capacitors has been developed and controlled by buck-boost converters. The purpose of the composite energy storage system is to handle the fluctuations and intermittent characteristics of the renewable source, and hence provide a steady output power. Linear wave energy converters working in conjunction with a system composed of various energy storage devices, is considered as a microsystem, which can function in a stand-alone or a grid connected mode. Simulation results have shown that by applying a boost H-bridge and a composite energy storage system more power could be extracted from linear wave energy converters. Simulation results have shown that the super capacitors charge and discharge often to handle the frequent power fluctuations, and the batteries charge and discharge slowly for handling the intermittent power of wave energy converters. Hardware systems have been constructed to control the linear wave energy converter and the composite energy storage system. The performance of the composite energy storage system has been verified in experiments by using electronics-based wave energy emulators.

  4. R&D Towards Commercialization of Sea Wave Slot Cone Generator (SSG) Overtopping Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    between ventures and private investors, and to promote an accelerated shift from a technology to a market focus. This Thesis is presented as a collection of works published by the author on her research on the Sea wave Slot cone Generator wave energy converter. These include 1 accepted and 2 submitted......Global energy needs are likely to continue to grow steadily for the next two and a half decades (International Energy Agency, 2006). If governments continue with current policies the world’s energy needs would be more than 50% higher in 2030 than today. Over 60% of that increase would be covered...... in the form of oil and natural gas. Climate destabilizing carbon-dioxide emissions would continue to rise, calling into question the long-term sustainability of the global energy system. More vigorous government policies in consuming countries are steering the world onto an energy path oriented to reduce...

  5. Comparative analysis of winch-based wave energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nachev, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are probably the future of the mankind. The main points advocating wave energy in particular include its huge potential, low environmental impact and availability around the globe. In order to harvest that energy, however, engineers have to overcome, among others, the corrosive sea environment and the unpredictable storms as well as secure funding for research and development. A lot of effort has been put into building and testing WECs after the oil crisis in the 1970...

  6. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (˜1049erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.MNRAA40035-8711 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 1048-1049erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  7. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (∼10 49 erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10 48 -10 49 erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  8. On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S

    2015-06-15

    In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.

  9. Hydrodynamic Investigation of a Concentric Cylindrical OWC Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A fixed, concentric, cylindrical oscillating water column (OWC wave energy converter (WEC is proposed for shallow offshore sites. Compared with the existing shoreline OWC device, this wave energy device is not restricted by the wave directions and coastline geography conditions. Analytical solutions are derived based on the linear potential-flow theory and eigen-function expansion technique to investigate hydrodynamic properties of the device. Three typical free-surface oscillation modes in the chamber are discussed, of which the piston-type mode makes the main contribution to the energy conversion. The effects of the geometrical parameters on the hydrodynamic properties are further investigated. The resonance frequency of the chamber, the power extraction efficiency, and the effective frequency bandwidth of the device is discussed, amongst other topics. It is found that the proposed OWC-WEC device with a lower draft and wider chamber breadth has better power extraction ability.

  10. Energy flow characteristics of vector X-Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The vector form of X-Waves is obtained as a superposition of transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized field components. It is shown that the signs of all components of the Poynting vector can be locally changed using carefully chosen complex amplitudes of the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization components. Negative energy flux density in the longitudinal direction can be observed in a bounded region around the centroid; in this region the local behavior of the wave field is similar to that of wave field with negative energy flow. This peculiar energy flux phenomenon is of essential importance for electromagnetic and optical traps and tweezers, where the location and momenta of microand nanoparticles are manipulated by changing the Poynting vector, and in detection of invisibility cloaks. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  11. Evidence of localized wave transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Lab.] experiments to test the feasibility of launching an acoustic, directed-energy pulse train (ADEPT) in water have demonstrated localized transmission of wave energy far beyond the classical Rayleigh length that defines the boundary between near-field and far-field transmission for Gaussian (diffraction-limited) pulses. The results of the experiments are in excellent agreement with computer simulations

  12. Silicone-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Water Wave Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tian Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Jian Xiong; Liang, Xi; Xu, Liang; Shao, Jia Jia; Zhang, Chun Lei; Wang, Jie; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-01-31

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be efficient for harvesting water wave energy, which is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. In this work, a TENG with a silicone rubber/carbon black composite electrode was designed for converting the water wave energy into electricity. The silicone-based electrode with a soft texture provides a better contact with the dielectric film. Furthermore, a spring structure is introduced to transform low-frequency water wave motions into high-frequency vibrations. They together improve the output performance and efficiency of TENG. The output performances of TENGs are further enhanced by optimizing the triboelectric material pair and tribo-surface area. A spring-assisted TENG device with the segmented silicone rubber-based electrode structure was sealed into a waterproof box, which delivers a maximum power density of 2.40 W m -3 , as triggered by the water waves. The present work provides a new strategy for fabricating high-performance TENG devices by coupling flexible electrodes and spring structure for harvesting water wave energy.

  13. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  14. Advanced computational simulations of water waves interacting with wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ashish; Freniere, Cole; Raessi, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    Wave energy converter (WEC) devices harness the renewable ocean wave energy and convert it into useful forms of energy, e.g. mechanical or electrical. This paper presents an advanced 3D computational framework to study the interaction between water waves and WEC devices. The computational tool solves the full Navier-Stokes equations and considers all important effects impacting the device performance. To enable large-scale simulations in fast turnaround times, the computational solver was developed in an MPI parallel framework. A fast multigrid preconditioned solver is introduced to solve the computationally expensive pressure Poisson equation. The computational solver was applied to two surface-piercing WEC geometries: bottom-hinged cylinder and flap. Their numerically simulated response was validated against experimental data. Additional simulations were conducted to investigate the applicability of Froude scaling in predicting full-scale WEC response from the model experiments.

  15. Wave Runup on a Frozen Beach Under High Energy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, D.; Bernatchez, P.; Dumont, D.; Corriveau, M.

    2017-12-01

    High and mid-latitude beaches have typical morphological characteristics influenced by nearshore processes prevailing under ice conditions during cold season. Nearshore ice complexes (NIC) offer a natural coastal protection by covering beach sediments, while offshore ice-infested waters dissipate incoming waves. Climate change contributes to sea ice shrinking therefore reducing its protection against erosion and flooding. In the Estuary and Gulf of the St. Lawrence (ESL, GSL) (eastern Canada), sea ice cover undergoes an overall shrinking and simulated future projections tend toward a negligible effect on wave climate by 2100. Quantifying the effect of nearshore dynamics on frozen beaches is therefore imperative for coastal management as more wave energy at the coast is expected in the future. To measure the effect of a frozen beach on wave runup elevations, this study employs a continuous video recording of the swash motion at 4Hz. Video-derived wave runup statistics have been extracted during a tidal cycle on a frozen beach, using the Pointe-Lebel beach (ESL) as a test case. Timestack analysis was combined with offshore water levels and wave measurements. A comparison of runup under icy conditions (Dec. 30 2016) with a runup distribution during summer was made under similar high energy wave conditions. Results indicate high runup excursions potentially caused by lowered sediment permeability due to high pore-ice saturation in the swash zone, accentuating the overwash of the eroding coastline and thus the risk of flooding. With projected reduction in coastal sea ice cover and thus higher wave energy, this study suggests that episodes of degradation and weakening could influence the coastal flood risk in mid- and high-latitude cold environments.

  16. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to oscillating water...

  17. Hydraulic Evaluation of the LEANCON Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report is a product of the co-operation agreement between Aalborg University and LEANCON (by Kurt Due Rasmussen) on the evaluation and development of the LEANCON wave energy converter (WEC). The work reported here has focused on evaluation of the power production of the device, based...... on laboratory testing of a model of the WEC provided by LEANCON. LEANCON, represented by Kurt Due Rasmussen, has been heavily involved in the testing of the device, including the instrumentation, model setup and execution of the tests in the laboratory, all under the supervision of the personnel of the Wave...... Energy Research Group at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  18. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  19. A parametric costing model for wave energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the philosophy and technical approach to a parametric cost model for offshore wave energy systems. Consideration is given both to existing known devices and other devices yet to be conceptualised. The report is complementary to a spreadsheet based cost estimating model. The latter permits users to derive capital cost estimates using either inherent default data or user provided data, if a particular scheme provides sufficient design definition for more accurate estimation. The model relies on design default data obtained from wave energy device designs and a set of specifically collected cost data. (author)

  20. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, Chris, E-mail: c.l.j.frid@liv.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Andonegi, Eider, E-mail: eandonegi@azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Txatxarramendi ugartea, z/g E-48395 Sukarrieta (Bizkaia) (Spain); Depestele, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.depestele@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Ankerstraat 1, B-8400 Oostende (Belgium); Judd, Adrian, E-mail: Adrian.Judd@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Rihan, Dominic, E-mail: Dominic.RIHAN@ec.europa.eu [Irish Sea Fisheries Board, P.O. Box 12 Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Rogers, Stuart I., E-mail: stuart.rogers@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Kenchington, Ellen, E-mail: Ellen.Kenchington@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth Canada, NS B2Y 4A2 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  1. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nielsen, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunnik, Tim [MARIN (Netherlands); Touzon, Imanol [Tecnalia (Spain); Nam, Bo Woo [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Kim, Jeong Seok [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Janson, Carl Erik [Chalmers University (Sweden); Jakobsen, Ken-Robert [EDRMedeso (Norway); Crowley, Sarah [WavEC (Portugal); Vega, Luis [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Rajagopalan, Krishnakimar [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Mathai, Thomas [Glosten (United States); Greaves, Deborah [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Ransley, Edward [Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Lamont-Kane, Paul [Queen' s University Belfast (United Kingdom); Sheng, Wanan [University College Cork (Ireland); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture (United Kingdom); Thomas, Sarah [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Heras, Pilar [Floating Power Plant (Denmark); Bingham, Harry [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Kurniawan, Adi [Aalborg University (Denmark); Kramer, Morten Mejlhede [Aalborg University (Denmark); Ogden, David [INNOSEA (France); Girardin, Samuel [INNOSEA (France); Babarit, Aurelien [EC Nantes (France); Wuillaume, Pierre-Yves [EC Nantes (France); Steinke, Dean [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Roy, Andre [Dynamic Systems Analysis (Canada); Beatty, Scott [Cascadia Coast Research (Canada); Schofield, Paul [ANSYS (United States); Kim, Kyong-Hwan [KRISO (Korea, Rep. of); Jansson, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); BCAM (Spain); Hoffman, Johan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-10-16

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 was proposed by Bob Thresher (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) in 2015 and approved by the OES Executive Committee EXCO in 2016. The kickoff workshop took place in September 2016, wherein the initial baseline task was defined. Experience from similar offshore wind validation/verification projects (OC3-OC5 conducted within the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30) [1], [2] showed that a simple test case would help the initial cooperation to present results in a comparable way. A heaving sphere was chosen as the first test case. The team of project participants simulated different numerical experiments, such as heave decay tests and regular and irregular wave cases. The simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Development of a wave-induced forcing threshold for nearshore impact of Wave Energy Converter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.

    2016-02-01

    Wave-induced forcing is a function of spatial gradients in the wave radiation stresses and is the main driver of alongshore currents, rip currents, and nearshore sediment transport. The installation of nearshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) arrays may cause significant changes in the surf zone radiation stresses and could therefore impact nearshore littoral processes. In the first part of this study, a new threshold for nearshore hydrodynamic impact due to the presence of WEC devices is established based on changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients shoreward of WEC arrays. The threshold is defined based on the relationship between nearshore radiation stresses and alongshore currents as observed in field data. Next, we perform a parametric study of the nearshore impact of WEC arrays using the SWAN wave model. Trials are conducted on an idealized, alongshore-uniform beach with a range of WEC array configurations, locations, and incident wave conditions, and conditions that generate radiation stress gradients above the impact threshold are identified. Finally, the same methodology is applied to two wave energy test sites off the coast of Newport, OR with more complicated bathymetries. Although the trends at the field sites are similar to those seen in the parametric study, the location and extent of the changes in the alongshore radiation stress gradients appear to be heavily influenced by the local bathymetry.

  3. Comparison of heaving buoy and oscillating flap wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohd Aftar; Green, David A.; Metcalfe, Andrew V.; Najafian, G.

    2013-04-01

    Waves offer an attractive source of renewable energy, with relatively low environmental impact, for communities reasonably close to the sea. Two types of simple wave energy converters (WEC), the heaving buoy WEC and the oscillating flap WEC, are studied. Both WECs are considered as simple energy converters because they can be modelled, to a first approximation, as single degree of freedom linear dynamic systems. In this study, we estimate the response of both WECs to typical wave inputs; wave height for the buoy and corresponding wave surge for the flap, using spectral methods. A nonlinear model of the oscillating flap WEC that includes the drag force, modelled by the Morison equation is also considered. The response to a surge input is estimated by discrete time simulation (DTS), using central difference approximations to derivatives. This is compared with the response of the linear model obtained by DTS and also validated using the spectral method. Bendat's nonlinear system identification (BNLSI) technique was used to analyze the nonlinear dynamic system since the spectral analysis was only suitable for linear dynamic system. The effects of including the nonlinear term are quantified.

  4. Wave energy, lever operated pivoting float LOPF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margheritini, L.

    2012-11-01

    The fully instrumented Resen Waves Lever Operated Pivoting Float LOPF wave energy buoy model has gone through the first stage of testing in regular waves in scale 1:25 of the North Sea wave conditions, in the 3D deep wave basin at the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory of Aalborg University in Denmark. The model size was 60cm W x 90cm L x 21cm H. The 60 cm width pointed towards the wave front. The LOPF buoy is characterized by a simple mechanical design with few moving parts and direct electrical output and it is taut moored to the sea bed, so all forces are referenced to the seabed for maximum energy output in regular as well as irregular waves. During storms the buoy pivots and streamlines itself to minimize loads on the mooring line. A conservative estimate shows that a full scale system for North Sea conditions has a float size width of 15 m that will, with 60% generator efficiency, produce 610 MWh/y (609.497 kWh/y) with an average power output of 69.6 kW, which requires a generator capacity of 700 kW. It is expected the generator efficiency can be increased to 90% in the future. More specific calculations (from EnergiNet) show that with one generator of 695 kW the expected power production is 585 MWh/y; with a generator of 250 kW and 100 kW, the expected power production is 481 MWh/y and 182 MWh/y respectively. In addition there are several areas for future improvements for increased power production. (Author)

  5. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  6. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  7. Wave energy fluxes and multi-decadal shoreline changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabuth, Alina Kristin; Kroon, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns of multidecadal shoreline changes in two microtidal, low-energetic embayments of southern Zealand, Denmark, were investigated by using the directional distribution of wave energy fluxes. The sites include a barrier island system attached to moraine bluffs, and a recurved spit...... variability of directional distributions of wave energy fluxes furthermore outlined potential sediment sources and sinks for the evolution of the barrier island system and for the evolution of the recurved spit....... adjacent to a cliff coast. The barrier island system is characterized by cross-shore translation and by an alignment of the barrier alongshore alternating directions of barrier-spit progradation in a bidirectional wave field. The recurved spit adjacent to the cliff coast experienced shoreline rotation...

  8. Wave loadings acting on Overtopping Breakwater for Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Contestabile, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    distributions. Load measurements were compared with the most used prediction method for traditional breakwaters, available in the Coastal Engineering Manual (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 2002). These results suggest to use the experimental data as design loadings since the design criteria for the innovative......Any kind of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) requires information on reliability of technology and on time required for the return of the investment (reasonable payback). The structural response is one of the most important parameters to take in to account for a consistent assessment on innovative...... devices. This paper presents results on wave loading acting on an hybrid WEC named Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC). The new design is based on the concept of an integration between a traditional rubble mound breakwater and a front reservoir designed to store the wave overtopping from...

  9. Prediction of the Individual Wave Overtopping Volumes of a Wave Energy Converter using Experimental Testing and First Numerical Model Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of a Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Gastelum Zepeda, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energies had accomplish to become part of a new era in the energy development area, making people able to stop relying on fossil fuels. Nevertheless the environmental impacts of these new energy sources also require to be quantified in order to review how many benefits these new technologies have for the environment. In this project the use of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) will be implemented in order to quantify the environmental impact of wave energy, an LCA is a technique for ass...

  11. Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Array Effects on Wave Current and Sediment Circulation: Monterey Bay CA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jones, Craig; Magalen, Jason

    2014-09-01

    The goal s of this study were to develop tools to quantitatively characterize environments where wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices may be installed and to assess e ffects on hydrodynamics and lo cal sediment transport. A large hypothetical WEC array was investigated using wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models and site - specific average and storm conditions as input. The results indicated that there were significant changes in sediment s izes adjacent to and in the lee of the WEC array due to reduced wave energy. The circulation in the lee of the array was also altered; more intense onshore currents were generated in the lee of the WECs . In general, the storm case and the average case show ed the same qualitative patterns suggesting that these trends would be maintained throughout the year. The framework developed here can be used to design more efficient arrays while minimizing impacts on nearshore environmen ts.

  12. Conversion of the energy of a high-current REB into electromagnetic wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurilko, V.I.; Kharchenko, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation and quantitative analysis of the physical processes that govern the efficiency of a coaxial device aimed at converting the energy of a relativistic electron beam into the energy of a TEM wave (a wave in a circular cylindrical coaxial waveguide). The key diffractional problem is solved exactly using a simplified theoretical model, which makes it possible to understand the mechanisms for the formation of a TEM wave and determine how the beam parameters and the design parameters of the converter affect the relative fractions of the kinetic energy of a relativistic electron beam and the energy of its own magnetic and electric fields that are transferred into the energy of the TEM wave field. The results obtained are analyzed quantitatively, and prospects for further theoretical and experimental research in this area are outlined

  13. Experimental Study on a Rotor for WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the power conversion capabilities of one single rotor of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly on defining the optimal weight distribution in the rotor in order to improve the hydraulic performance through...

  14. Optimization of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters by Geometry Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the results of a study on the effects of geometry control on the performance of overtopping wave energy converters with a simple geometry built in coastal structures (simple OWECs) are presented. Empirical formulae, derived based on experimental tests on simple OWECs with varying...

  15. Different Reliability Assessment Approaches for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Reliability assessments are of importance for wave energy converters (WECs) due to the fact that accessibility might be limited in case of failure and maintenance. These failure rates can be adapted by reliability considerations. There are two different approaches to how reliability can...

  16. Experimental testing of moorings for large floating wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of a test campaign, which investigates the behaviour of a synthetic mooring system applied to the Floating Power Plant wave energy converter. The study investigates the motion and tension response under operational and extreme sea states expected at the deployment ...

  17. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  18. Aiding Design of Wave Energy Converters via Computational Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeli Aqdam, Hejar; Ahmadi, Babak; Raessi, Mehdi; Tootkaboni, Mazdak

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, wave energy converters will continue to gain attention as a viable alternative to current electricity production methods. It is therefore crucial to develop computational tools for the design and analysis of wave energy converters. A successful design requires balance between the design performance and cost. Here an analytical solution is used for the approximate analysis of interactions between a flap-type wave energy converter (WEC) and waves. The method is verified using other flow solvers and experimental test cases. Then the model is used in conjunction with a powerful heuristic optimization engine, Charged System Search (CSS) to explore the WEC design space. CSS is inspired by charged particles behavior. It searches the design space by considering candidate answers as charged particles and moving them based on the Coulomb's laws of electrostatics and Newton's laws of motion to find the global optimum. Finally the impacts of changes in different design parameters on the power takeout of the superior WEC designs are investigated. National Science Foundation, CBET-1236462.

  19. Initial Assessment of Mooring Solutions for Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Delaney, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates three different types of mooring systems in order to establish potential cost reductions and applicability to wave energy converters (WECs). Proposed mooring systems for three existing WECs create the basis for this study, and the study highlights areas of interest ...

  20. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  1. Dynamic Theory: some shock wave and energy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.E.

    1981-02-01

    The Dynamic Theory, a unifying five-dimensional theory of space, time, and matter, is examined. The theory predicts an observed discrepancy between shock wave viscosity measurements at low and high pressures in aluminum, a limiting mass-to-energy conversion rate consistent with the available data, and reduced pressures in electromagneticaly contained controlled-fusion plasmas

  2. Wave loadings acting on innovative rubble mound breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contestabile, Pasquale; Iuppa, Claudio; Lauro, Enrico Di

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •An innovative breakwater for overtopping wave energy conversion has been studied. •Physical model tests have been carried out and analysed. •Breakwater design information on loadings acting on various parts of the structure has been presented. •Design formulae and validation of some t...

  3. Preliminary Results from Second Phase Sea Testing of the Wave Dragon Prototype Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Hans Chr.; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006 the prototype Wave Dragon has been redeployed to a more energetic site in Nissum Bredning an inland sea in Western Denmark. This has followed a period of renovation of many aspects of the device which have resulted in 20% higher energy output. This paper describes the preliminary...

  4. Rayleigh Pareto Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareema ‎ Abed Al-Kadim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Rayleigh Pareto distribution have  introduced denote by( R_PD. We stated some  useful functions. Therefor  we  give some of its properties like the entropy function, mean, mode, median , variance , the r-th moment about the mean, the rth moment about the origin, reliability, hazard functions, coefficients of variation, of sekeness and of kurtosis. Finally, we estimate the parameters  so the aim of this search  is to introduce a new distribution

  5. Structural Optimization of Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Li Min; Chen, Xiangyu; Han, Chang Bao; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Ocean waves are one of the most abundant energy sources on earth, but harvesting such energy is rather challenging due to various limitations of current technologies. Recently, networks formed by triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) have been proposed as a promising technology for harvesting water wave energy. In this work, a basic unit for the TENG network was studied and optimized, which has a box structure composed of walls made of TENG composed of a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film and two FEP thin films, with a metal ball enclosed inside. By combination of the theoretical calculations and experimental studies, the output performances of the TENG unit were investigated for various structural parameters, such as the size, mass, or number of the metal balls. From the viewpoint of theory, the output characteristics of TENG during its collision with the ball were numerically calculated by the finite element method and interpolation method, and there exists an optimum ball size or mass to reach maximized output power and electric energy. Moreover, the theoretical results were well verified by the experimental tests. The present work could provide guidance for structural optimization of wavy-structured TENGs for effectively harvesting water wave energy toward the dream of large-scale blue energy.

  6. Technological and Economic Aspects of Wave Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographical regions contiguous to the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are prone to natural disasters and poor electric supply especially in rural and hard to reach coastal regions. Utilization of ocean resources for power generation such as tidal, thermal solar and wind for energy need to be incorporated in a broad framework for the region. Development of ocean-based energy systems can be integrated with early warning networks linked by satellite which can give a few hours to days warning to help mitigate the severity of natural disasters on human life. Ocean-based electricity extraction has; however, remained elusive for various reasons. Interest in these systems resumed after the oil crisis of the 1970’s, but was uncoordinated. Extraction of ocean energy from the kinetic energy of waves and ocean currents depends on various mechanical devices with variable efficiencies. Apart from the efficiency, one must match the output phase of the feeder waveforms with that of the electrical grid. Also, the wavelengths of the typical wave are of the order of a few meters, the interception of which requires large devices. The mechanical efficiency of the turbine extraction system is further limited by the flow momentum considerations. Some applications and their implementation are looked at, specifically with reference to the difficulties of implementation in the region, and other factors like economic efficiency (rate of returns in place of mechanical efficiency. Individual wave energy harvesters are thus bound to suffer from inefficiencies and it may be beneficial to use wave farm configurations from the point of view of the randomness of wave motion, the large wavelengths, and the added advantage of averaging fluctuations from large numbers of generators.

  7. Consequences of wave function orthogonality for medium energy nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, J.V.

    1978-01-01

    In the usual models of high-energy bound-state to continuum transitions no account is taken of the orthogonality of the bound and continuum wave functions. This orthogonality induces considerable cancellations in the overlap integrals expressing the transition amplitudes for reactions such as (e,e'p), (γ,p), and (π,N), which are simply not included in the distorted-wave Born-approximation calculations which to date remain the only computationally feasible heirarchy of approximations. The object of this paper is to present a new formulation of the bound-state to continuum transition problem, based upon flux conservation, in which the orthogonality of wave functions is taken into account ab initio. The new formulation, while exact if exact wave functions are used, offers the possibility of using approximate wave functions for the continuum states without doing violence to the cancellations induced by orthogonality. The method is applied to single-particle states obeying the Schroedinger and Dirac equations, as well as to a coupled-channel model in which absorptive processes can be described in a fully consistent manner. Several types of absorption vertex are considered, and in the (π,N) case the equivalence of pseudoscalar and pseudovector πNN coupling is seen to follow directly from wave function orthogonality

  8. DANWEC - Empirical Analysis of the Wave Climate at the Danish Wave Energy Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amelie; Nielsen, Kim; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    information on the DanWEC wave and current climate. In this paper an analysis of the wave climate of the DanWEC test site will be presented. This includes a description of the data quality control and filtration for analysis and the observations and data analysis. Relevant characteristics of the test site...... site for several Danish WECs. In 2013 DanWEC has received Greenlab funding from the EUDP programme to establish the site including more detailed information on its wave climate and bathymetry and seabed conditions. The project “Resource Assessment, Forecasts and WECs O&M strategies at DanWEC and beyond......, as for example scatter diagram (Hm0, Tz) will be analysed and wave power distribution given. Based on the data gathered so far a preliminary analysis of extreme events at the DanWEC test site will be presented. Deployment, control strategies and O&M strategies of wave energy converters are sensitive to the wave...

  9. Report on feasibility study of the Clam Wave Energy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The main emphasis of the feasibility study has been towards producing an acceptable spine design for the Clam wave energy converter. Concrete and steel designs based on a mathematical model of the waveloading have been produced. Progress is also reported in the design of a bellows for a low-pressure air power transmission system. A narrow wave tank and scale model have been constructed in order to carry out a test programme on various aspects of the device's construction and performance.

  10. Floating attenuator wave energy device. Wavegen HYDRA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Wavegen Project which set out to develop a floating externally tensioned articulated wave-energy generator based on work carried out at RMCS Shrivenham in the 1980s has been abandoned until further notice. The computer modelling carried out in the early days indicated much promise, but the promise turned to disappointment when difficulties cropped-up in attempting to put the design into practice. A particular problem arose in matching the external tension to an equivalent beam stiffness to tune the natural bending frequency of the raft to that of the driving waves. A further eleven practical problems encountered are discussed.

  11. Extended Rayleigh Damping Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Nakamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic analysis, frequency domain analysis can be used if the entire structure is linear. However, time history analysis is generally used if nonlinear elements are present. Rayleigh damping has been widely used in time history response analysis. Many articles have reported the problems associated with this damping and suggested remedies. A basic problem is that the frequency area across which the damping ratio is almost constant is too narrow. If the area could be expanded while incurring only a small increase in computational cost, this would provide an appropriate remedy for this problem. In this study, a novel damping model capable of expanding the constant frequency area by more than five times was proposed based on the study of a causal damping model. This model was constructed by adding two terms to the Rayleigh damping model and can be applied to the linear elements in the time history analysis of a nonlinear structure. The accuracy and efficiency of the model were confirmed using example analyses.

  12. A simple analytic approximation to the Rayleigh-Bénard stability threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard linear stability problem is solved by means of a Fourier series expansion. It is found that truncating the series to just the first term gives an excellent explicit approximation to the marginal stability relation between the Rayleigh number and the wave number of the

  13. Assessment of tidal and wave energy conversion technologies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented an attractive option to help meet Canada's future energy needs, notably the vast and energetic Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic coastal waters which make ocean renewable energy, particularly tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) and wave energy conversion (WEC). There is much uncertainty regarding the possible environmental impacts associated with their deployment and operation. In support of commercial development of the industry, a review of scientific knowledge was needed for the development of policy and regulations consistent with Canada's conservation and sustainability priorities. In April 2009, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) hosted a two-day national science advisory process meeting in order to determine the current state of knowledge on the environmental impacts of tidal and wave energy conversion technologies and their application in the Canadian context based on published reports. Potential mitigation measures were identified and the feasibility of developing a relevant Canadian statement of practice was determined. This report presented an assessment and analysis of wave power, including the impacts on physical processes; impacts on habitat characteristics; impacts on water quality; impacts of noise and vibrations; impacts of electromagnetic fields; impacts of physical encounters; cumulative impacts; and mitigation measures. It was concluded that there is a recognized need to develop and maintain national and regional georeferenced, interoperable, standards-based databases that enable access by governments, developers, academics, non-governmental organizations and the general public. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  14. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2∼1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm 2 . Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves

  15. Stochastic control of inertial sea wave energy converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffero, Mattia; Martini, Michele; Passione, Biagio; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Bracco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  16. Innovative rubble mound breakwaters for wave energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Pasquale; Vicinanza, Diego; Iuppa, Claudio; Cavallaro, Luca; Foti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new Wave Energy Converter named Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC) which consists of a rubble mound breakwater with a front reservoir designed with the aim of capturing the wave overtopping in order to produce electricity. The energy is extracted via low head turbines, using the difference in water levels between the reservoir and the mean sea water level. The new design should be capable of adding a revenue generation function to a breakwater while adding cost sharing benefits due to integration. The design can be applied to harbour expansions, existing breakwater maintenance or upgrades due to climate change for a relatively low cost, considering the breakwater would be built regardless of the inclusion of a WEC [it

  17. Operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Marquis, Laurent; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    costs including costs due to lost electricity production are minimized. The risk-based approach is compared with an approach where only boats are used and another approach where the target is to minimize the downtime of the device. This article presents a dynamic approach for total operation......Inspection and maintenance costs are a significant contributor to the cost of energy for wave energy converters. There are different operation and maintenance strategies for wave energy converters. Maintenance can be performed after failure (corrective) or before a breakdown (preventive) occurs....... Furthermore, a helicopter and boats can be used to transport equipment and personnel to the device, or the whole device can be towed to a harbour for operation and maintenance actions. This article describes, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance planning approach where the overall repair...

  18. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Giorcelli, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks. PMID:25874267

  19. Coupled Triboelectric Nanogenerator Networks for Efficient Water Wave Energy Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Lin, Pei; Shao, Jia Jia; He, Chuan; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Xiang Yu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-02-27

    Water wave energy is a promising clean energy source, which is abundant but hard to scavenge economically. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) networks provide an effective approach toward massive harvesting of water wave energy in oceans. In this work, a coupling design in TENG networks for such purposes is reported. The charge output of the rationally linked units is over 10 times of that without linkage. TENG networks of three different connecting methods are fabricated and show better performance for the ones with flexible connections. The network is based on an optimized ball-shell structured TENG unit with high responsivity to small agitations. The dynamic behavior of single and multiple TENG units is also investigated comprehensively to fully understand their performance in water. The study shows that a rational design on the linkage among the units could be an effective strategy for TENG clusters to operate collaboratively for reaching a higher performance.

  20. WEC3: Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combourieu, Adrien; Lawson, Michael; Babarit, Aurelien; Ruehl, Kelley; Roy, Andre; Costello, Ronan; Laporte Weywada, Pauline; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the recently launched Wave Energy Converter Code Comparison (WEC3) project and present preliminary results from this effort. The objectives of WEC3 are to verify and validate numerical modelling tools that have been developed specifically to simulate wave energy conversion devices and to inform the upcoming IEA OES Annex VI Ocean Energy Modelling Verification and Validation project. WEC3 is divided into two phases. Phase 1 consists of a code-to-code verification and Phase II entails code-to-experiment validation. WEC3 focuses on mid-fidelity codes that simulate WECs using time-domain multibody dynamics methods to model device motions and hydrodynamic coefficients to model hydrodynamic forces. Consequently, high-fidelity numerical modelling tools, such as Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulation, and simple frequency domain modelling tools were not included in the WEC3 project.

  1. Stochastic Control of Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Raffero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.

  2. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  3. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...

  4. Impact of Tidal Level Variations on Wave Energy Absorption at Wave Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Castellucci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy absorption of the wave energy converters (WEC characterized by a limited stroke length —like the point absorbers developed at Uppsala University—depends on the sea level variation at the deployment site. In coastal areas characterized by high tidal ranges, the daily energy production of the generators is not optimal. The study presented in this paper quantifies the effects of the changing sea level at the Wave Hub test site, located at the south-west coast of England. This area is strongly affected by tides: the tidal height calculated as the difference between the Mean High Water Spring and the Mean Low Water Spring in 2014 was about 6.6 m. The results are obtained from a hydro-mechanic model that analyzes the behaviour of the point absorber at the Wave Hub, taking into account the sea state occurrence scatter diagram and the tidal time series at the site. It turns out that the impact of the tide decreases the energy absorption by 53%. For this reason, the need for a tidal compensation system to be included in the design of the WEC becomes compelling. The economic advantages are evaluated for different scenarios: the economic analysis proposed within the paper allows an educated guess to be made on the profits. The alternative of extending the stroke length of the WEC is investigated, and the gain in energy absorption is estimated.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of a Wave Energy Converter INWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Kwan Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available INGINE Inc. developed its own wave energy converter (WEC named INWAVE and has currently installed three prototype modules in Jeju Island, Korea. This device is an on-shore-type WEC that consists of a buoy, pulleys fixed to the sea-floor and a power take off module (PTO. Three ropes are moored tightly on the bottom of the buoy and connected to the PTO via the pulleys, which are moving back and forth according to the motion of the buoy. Since the device can harness wave energy from all six degrees of movement of the buoy, it is possible to extract energy efficiently even under low energy density conditions provided in the coastal areas. In the PTO module, the ratchet gears convert the reciprocating movement of the rope drum into a uni-directional rotation and determine the transmission of power from the relation of the angular velocities between the rope drum and the generator. In this process, the discontinuity of the power transmission occurs and causes the modeling divergence. Therefore, we introduce the concept of the virtual torsion spring in order to prevent the impact error in the ratchet gear module, thereby completing the PTO modeling. In this paper, we deal with dynamic analysis in the time domain, based on Newtonian mechanics and linear wave theory. We derive the combined dynamics of the buoy and PTO modules via geometric relation between the buoy and mooring ropes, then suggest the ratchet gear mechanism with the virtual torsion spring element to reduce the dynamic errors during the phase transitions. Time domain simulation is carried out under irregular waves that reflect the actual wave states of the installation area, and we evaluate the theoretical performance using the capture width ratio.

  6. Further Development of SNL‐Swan, a Validated Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Aaron; Ruehl, Kelley; Chartrand, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Commercialization of wave energy will lead to the necessary deployment of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in arrays, or wave farms. In order for projects in the United States to be approved, regulatory agencies must perform an Environmental Assessment proving little to no environmental impact. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of such wave farms. As a result, the environmental impacts of wave farms are largely determined by numerical wave models capable of modeling large ...

  7. Analysis of Energy Overshoot of High Frequency Waves with Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Fan

    2000-01-01

    A study is made on the overshoot phenomena in wind-generated waves. The surface displace ments of time-growing waves are measured at four fetches in a wind wave channel. The evolution of high frequency waves is displayed with wavelet transform. The results are compared with Sutherland's. It is found that high frequency wave components experience much stronger energy overshoot in the evolution.The energy of high frequency waves decreases greatly after overshoot

  8. Rayleigh-Bénard convection instability in the presence of temperature variation at the lower wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the two-dimensional viscous fluid flow between two parallel plates, where the lower plate is heated and the upper one is cooled. The temperature difference between the plates is gradually increased during a certain time period, and afterwards it is temporarily constant. The temperature distribution on the lower plate is not constant in x-direction, and there is longitudinal sinusoidal temperature variation imposed on the mean temperature. We investigate the wave number and amplitude influence of this variation on the stability of Rayleigh-Benard convective cells, by direct numerical simulation of 2-D Navier-Stokes and energy equation.

  9. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field Φ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  10. Recent results in Rayleigh scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, S.; Shahal, O.; Moreh, R.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva

    1997-01-01

    New measurements of Rayleigh scattering, employing neutron capture γ rays are presented. Experimental conditions are achieved such that the Rayleigh contribution is dominant and much larger than other competing coherent process. A detailed comparison with the modified relativistic form factor approximation (MRFF) is made. It is found that MRFF overestimates the true cross sections by 3-4%. (author)

  11. Dynamics and control of the GyroPTO wave energy point absorber under sea waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2017-01-01

    The Gyroscopic Power Take-Off (GyroPTO) wave energy point absorber has the operational principle somewhat similar to the so-called gyroscopic hand wrist exerciser. Inside the float of GyroPTO, there is a mechanical system made up of a spinning flywheel with its spin axis in rolling contact...... to a ring. At certain conditions, the ring starts to rotate at a frequency equal to the excitation angular frequency. In this synchronized state, the generator is running at almost constant speed and the generated power becomes constant. In this paper, theoretical modeling of the GyroPTO device is carried...... out based on analytical rigid body dynamics, and a 3-DOF nonlinear model is established. Simulation results show that synchronization of the device is maintained under harmonic sea wave, but is lost easily under non-harmonic sea waves.To overcome this problem, a magnetic coupling mechanism is added...

  12. Study of a Novel Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Choiniere, Michael [University of Maine; Thiagarajan, Krish P. [University of Maine

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the performance of an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) that utilizes adjustable geometry as a means of controlling the hydrodynamic coefficients, a concept originally proposed by [1]. The body of the device consists of a bottom-hinged solid rectangular frame with five horizontal flaps spanning the interior of the frame. The flaps can rotate independently about their center of rotation within the frame like a large window shutter. Changing the orientation of the flaps alters the hydrodynamic coefficients and natural frequency of the device as well as the ability to shed or absorb structural loads accordingly. This ability may allow the device to operate in a wider range of sea states than other current wave energy converter designs. This paper presents and compares the results of numerical simulations and experimental testing of the OSWEC's response to regular waves with all five of the horizontal fin configurations sharing the same orientation of 0 degrees (fully closed interior) and 90 degrees (fully open). The numerical simulations were performed using WAMIT, which calculates hydrodynamic coefficients using a boundary element method code to solve the linear potential flow problem, and WEC-Sim, a MATLAB-based tool that simulates multibody devices in the time domain by solving the governing equations of motion. A 1:14 scale model of the device was built for experimental evaluation in an 8-m-long, 1-m wide wave tank, which supports a water depth of 0.7 m. The OSWEC motion in different wave conditions was measured with displacement sensors while nonlinear wave-structure interaction effects like slamming and overtopping were captured using a high-speed camera and used to understand differences between the simulation and experiments.

  13. Wecpos - Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System: A Numerical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentale, Fabio; Pugliese Carratelli, Eugenio; Rzzo, Gianfranco; Arsie, Ivan; Davide Russo, Salvatore

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the interest in developing new technologies to produce energy with low environmental impact by using renewable sources has grown exponentially all over the world. In this context, the experiences made to derive electricity from the sea (currents, waves, etc.) are of particular interest. At the moment, due to the many existing experiments completed or still in progress, it is quite impossible explain what has been obtained but it is worth mentioning the EMEC, which summarizes the major projects in the world. Another important environmental aspect, also related to the maritime field, is the coastal protection from the sea waves. Even in this field, since many years, the structural and non-structural solutions which can counteract this phenomenon are analyzed, in order to cause the least possible damage to the environment. The studies in development by the researchers of the University of Salerno are based on these two aspect previously presented. Considering the technologies currently available, a submerged system has been designed, WECPOS (Wave Energy Coastal Protection Oscillating System), to be located on relatively shallow depths, to can be used simultaneously for both electricity generation and for the coastal protection using the oscillating motion of the water particles. The single element constituting the system is realized by a fixed base and three movable panels that can fluctuate in a fixed angle. The waves interact with the panels generating an alternative motion which can be exploited to produce electricity. At the same time, the constraint movement imposed for the rotation of the panels is a barrier to the wave propagation phenomena, triggering the breaking in the downstream part of the device. So the wave energy will be dissipated obtaining a positive effect for the coastal protection. Currently, the efficiency and effectiveness of the system (WECPOS single module) has been studied by using numerical models. Using the FLOW-3D

  14. Hydroelectromechanical modelling of a piezoelectric wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, E.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the hydroelectromechanical-coupled dynamics of a piezoelectric wave energy converter. The converter is made of a flexible bimorph plate, clamped at its ends and forced to motion by incident ocean surface waves. The piezoceramic layers are connected in series and transform the elastic motion of the plate into useful electricity by means of the piezoelectric effect. By using a distributed-parameter analytical approach, we couple the linear piezoelectric constitutive equations for the plate with the potential-flow equations for the surface water waves. The resulting system of governing partial differential equations yields a new hydroelectromechanical dispersion relation, whose complex roots are determined with a numerical approach. The effect of the piezoelectric coupling in the hydroelastic domain generates a system of short- and long-crested weakly damped progressive waves travelling along the plate. We show that the short-crested flexural wave component gives a dominant contribution to the generated power. We determine the hydroelectromechanical resonant periods of the device, at which the power output is significant.

  15. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  16. Investigation and Optimisation of a Discrete Fluid Power PTO-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    Patents on ocean wave energy dates back to 1799, however no wave energy converter (WEC) concept have a commercialised device. The cost of energy produced with wave energy converters is very high compared to traditional energy sources. Even when compared to energy from wind turbines wave energy...... investigation show how the wave climate naturally influence the optimal system configuration yielding maximal energy output, and how one may choose the system configuration based on the installation site. The switching manifold is the control element of the secondary controlled force system. The force...... needs cost reductions. Hence, next to political will, the main obstacle for a commercial break through of wave energy technology is the high cost of energy. Initiatives to lower costs are made in areas of minimising structural costs and increasing the energy production per device. Wave Star A/S has...

  17. Effects of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Arrays on Wave, Current, and Sediment Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, K.; Roberts, J. D.; Jones, C.; Magalen, J.; James, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The characterization of the physical environment and commensurate alteration of that environment due to Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices, or arrays of devices, must be understood to make informed device-performance predictions, specifications of hydrodynamic loads, and environmental evaluations of eco-system responses (e.g., changes to circulation patterns, sediment dynamics, and water quality). Hydrodynamic and sediment issues associated with performance of wave-energy devices will primarily be nearshore where WEC infrastructure (e.g., anchors, piles) are exposed to large forces from the surface-wave action and currents. Wave-energy devices will be subject to additional corrosion, fouling, and wear of moving parts caused by suspended sediments in the water column. The alteration of the circulation and sediment transport patterns may also alter local ecosystems through changes in benthic habitat, circulation patterns, or other environmental parameters. Sandia National Laboratories is developing tools and performing studies to quantitatively characterize the environments where WEC devices may be installed and to assess potential affects to hydrodynamics and local sediment transport. The primary tools are wave, hydrodynamic, and sediment transport models. To ensure confidence in the resulting evaluation of system-wide effects, the models are appropriately constrained and validated with measured data where available. An extension of the US EPA's EFDC code, SNL-EFDC, provides a suitable platform for modeling the necessary hydrodynamics;it has been modified to directly incorporate output from a SWAN wave model of the region. Model development and results are presented. In this work, a model is exercised for Monterey Bay, near Santa Cruz where a WEC array could be deployed. Santa Cruz is located on the northern coast of Monterey Bay, in Central California, USA. This site was selected for preliminary research due to the readily available historical hydrodynamic data

  18. Negative-energy waves in a magnetized, homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Restrepo, D.; Pfirsch, D.

    1991-09-01

    The general expression for the second wave energy of a Vlasov-Maxwell system derived by Morrison and Pfirsch is evaluated here for the case of a magnetized, homogeneous plasma. It is again shown that negative-energy waves (which could become nonlinearly unstable and cause anomalous transport) exist for any deviation from monotonicity and/or any (however small) anisotropy in the equilibrium distribution function of any of the particle species. The partly unexpected and particularly interesting feature of the results is that, contrary to the proof of Morrison and Pfirsch, no restricting condition has to be imposed on the perpendicular wave number k perpendicular to of the perturbation (i.e. large k perpendicular to is not required). Finite-gyroradius effects are therefore not expected to improve the situation. Anisotropy alone would, however, impose a restriction on k z , the parallel wave number, relating it to the gyroradius. As far as distribution functions with v z δf v (0) /δv z > 0 in some region of v-space are concerned, however, this result agrees with a result found by Pfirsch and Morrison within the framework of drift-kinetic theory. (orig.)

  19. CFD Simulations of Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Arrays Subjected to Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Devolder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD toolbox OpenFOAM to perform numerical simulations of multiple floating point absorber wave energy converters (WECs arranged in a geometrical array configuration inside a numerical wave tank (NWT. The two-phase Navier-Stokes fluid solver is coupled with a motion solver to simulate the hydrodynamic flow field around the WECs and the wave-induced rigid body heave motion of each WEC within the array. In this study, the numerical simulations of a single WEC unit are extended to multiple WECs and the complexity of modelling individual floating objects close to each other in an array layout is tackled. The NWT is validated for fluid-structure interaction (FSI simulations by using experimental measurements for an array of two, five and up to nine heaving WECs subjected to regular waves. The validation is achieved by using mathematical models to include frictional forces observed during the experimental tests. For all the simulations presented, a good agreement is found between the numerical and the experimental results for the WECs’ heave motions, the surge forces on the WECs and the perturbed wave field around the WECs. As a result, our coupled CFD–motion solver proves to be a suitable and accurate toolbox for the study of fluid-structure interaction problems of WEC arrays.

  20. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    a special standing or facilitated access to operating licenses due to their experimental character, the move of wave energy projects towards commercial applications implies complex procedures for obtaining licenses both with respect to the construction and deployment and operation phases, as well......The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... as concerning ocean space use and environmental concerns. Despite recent efforts to streamline European EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in general, potential project developers are far from having a clear view of present and future requirements concerning these barriers on a trans-national level...