Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis
Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes
2017-02-01
The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the
Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis
Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes
2017-08-01
The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the
Comparison of VTEC from ground-based space geodetic techniques based on ray-traced mapping factors
Heinkelmann, Robert; Alizadeh, M. Mahdi; Schuh, Harald; Deng, Zhiguo; Zus, Florian; Etemadfard, M. Hossein
2016-07-01
For the derivation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) from slant total electron content (STEC), usually a standard approach is used based on mapping functions that assume a single-layer model of the ionosphere (e.g. IERS Conventions 2010). In our study we test the standard approach against a recently developed alternative which is based on station specific ray-traced mapping factors. For the evaluation of this new mapping concept, we compute VTEC at selected Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) stations using the dispersive delays and the corresponding formal errors obtained by observing extra-galactic radio sources at two radio frequencies in S- and X-bands by the permanent geodetic/astrometric program organized by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). Additionally, by applying synchronous sampling and a consistent analysis configuration, we determine VTEC at Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antennas using GPS (Global Positioning System) and/or GLONASS (Globalnaja nawigazionnaja sputnikowaja Sistema) observations provided by the IGS (International GNSS Service) that are operated in the vicinity of the VLBI antennas. We compare the VTEC time series obtained by the individual techniques over a period of about twenty years and describe their characteristics qualitatively and statistically. The length of the time series allows us to assess the long-term climatology of ionospheric VTEC during the last twenty years.
Combined mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks
Ismail, A. E.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Ghazali, M. Z. Mohd; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Ariffin, A. M. T.; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad
2017-08-01
The solutions of stress intensity factors (SIFs) for slanted cracks in plain strain plate are hard to find in open literature. There are some previous solutions of SIFs available, however the studies are not completed except for the case of plain stress. The slanted cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are ten slanted angles and seven relative crack depths are used and the plate contains cracks which is assumed to fulfil the plain strain condition. The plate is then stressed under tension and bending loading and the SIFs are determined according to the displacement extrapolation method. Based on the numerical analysis, both slanted angles and relative crack length, a/L played an important role in determining the modes I and II SIFs. As expected the SIFs increased when a/L is increased. Under tension force, the introduction of slanted angles increased the SIFs. Further increment of angles reduced the SIFs however they are still higher than the SIFs obtained using normal cracks. Under bending moment, the present of slanted angles are significantly reduced the SIFs compared with the normal cracks. Under similar loading, mode II SIFs increased as function of a/L and slanted angles where increasing such parameters increasing the mode II SIFs.
Mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks in plates
Ismail, Al Emran; Ghazali, Mohd Zubir Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd
2017-01-01
This paper presents the roles of slanted cracks on the stress intensity factors (SIF) under mode I tension and bending loading. Based on the literature survey, lack of solution of SIFs of slanted cracks in plain strain plates are available. In this work, the cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are two important parameters such as slanted angles and relative crack length. SIFs at the crack tips are calculated according to domain integral method. Before the model is further used, it is validated with the existing model. It is found that the present model is well agreed with the previous model. According to finite element analysis, there are not only mode I SIFs produced but also mode II. As expected the SIFs increased as the relative crack length increased. However, when slanted angles are introduced (slightly higher than normal crack), the SIFs increased. Once the angles are further increased, the SIFs decreased gradually however they are still higher than the SIFs of normal cracks. For mode II SIFs, higher the slanted angels higher the SIFs. This is due to the fact that when the cracks are slanted, the cracked plates are not only failed due to mode I but a combination between both modes I and II.
Gatland, Ian R.
2002-01-01
Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)
Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany
Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for
IONORT: IONOsphere Ray-Tracing
Bianchi, C.; Settimi, A; Azzarone, A.
2010-01-01
Il pacchetto applicativo “IONORT” per il calcolo del ray-tracing può essere utilizzato dagli utenti che impiegano il sistema operativo Windows. È un programma la cui interfaccia grafica con l’utente è realizzata in MATLAB. In realtà, il programma lancia un eseguibile che integra il sistema d’equazioni differenziali scritto in linguaggio Fortran e ne importa l’output nel programma MATLAB, il quale genera i grafici e altre informazioni sul raggio. A completamento di questa premessa va detto ...
RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
Aybars UĞUR
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which can be used on the internet is introduced. As a result, importance of network-centric ray tracing software is discussed.
Validation of Ray Tracing Code Refraction Effects
Heath, Stephanie L.; McAninch, Gerry L.; Smith, Charles D.; Conner, David A.
2008-01-01
NASA's current predictive capabilities using the ray tracing program (RTP) are validated using helicopter noise data taken at Eglin Air Force Base in 2007. By including refractive propagation effects due to wind and temperature, the ray tracing code is able to explain large variations in the data observed during the flight test.
Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.
Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung
2015-06-29
Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.
Ray tracing and ECRH absorption modeling in the HSX stellarator
Weir, G. M.; Likin, K. M.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Turkin, Y.
2015-09-01
To increase flexibility in ECRH experiments on the helically symmetric experiment (HSX), a second gyrotron and transmission line have been installed. The second antenna includes a steerable mirror for off-axis heating, and the launched power may be modulated for use in heat pulse propagation experiments. The extraordinary wave at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency or the ordinary wave at the fundamental resonance are used for plasma start-up and heating on HSX. The tracing visualized ray tracing code (Marushchenko et al 2007 Plasma Fusion Res. 2 S1129) is used to estimate single-pass absorption and to model multi-pass wave damping in the three-dimensional HSX geometry. The single-pass absorption of the ordinary wave at the fundamental resonance is calculated to be as high as 30%, while measurements of the total absorption indicate that 45% of the launched power is absorbed. A multi-pass ray tracing model correctly predicts the experimental absorption and indicates that the launched power is absorbed within the plasma core (r/a≤slant 0.2 ).
The Alba ray tracing code: ART
Nicolas, Josep; Barla, Alessandro; Juanhuix, Jordi
2013-09-01
The Alba ray tracing code (ART) is a suite of Matlab functions and tools for the ray tracing simulation of x-ray beamlines. The code is structured in different layers, which allow its usage as part of optimization routines as well as an easy control from a graphical user interface. Additional tools for slope error handling and for grating efficiency calculations are also included. Generic characteristics of ART include the accumulation of rays to improve statistics without memory limitations, and still providing normalized values of flux and resolution in physically meaningful units.
Backward ray tracing for ultrasonic imaging
Breeuwer, R.
1990-01-01
Focused ultrasonic beams frequently pass one or more media interfaces, strongly affecting the ultrasonic beamshape and focusing. A computer program, based on backward ray tracing was developed to compute the shape of a corrected focusing mirror. This shape is verified with another program; then the
Backward ray tracing for ultrasonic imaging
Breeuwer, R.
1990-01-01
Focused ultrasonic beams frequently pass one or more media interfaces, strongly affecting the ultrasonic beamshape and focusing. A computer program, based on backward ray tracing was developed to compute the shape of a corrected focusing mirror. This shape is verified with another program; then the
Adaptive image ray-tracing for astrophysical simulations
Parkin, E R
2010-01-01
A technique is presented for producing synthetic images from numerical simulations whereby the image resolution is adapted around prominent features. In so doing, adaptive image ray-tracing (AIR) improves the efficiency of a calculation by focusing computational effort where it is needed most. The results of test calculations show that a factor of >~ 4 speed-up, and a commensurate reduction in the number of pixels required in the final image, can be achieved compared to an equivalent calculation with a fixed resolution image.
Ray-tracing optical modeling of negative dysphotopsia
Hong, Xin; Liu, Yueai; Karakelle, Mutlu; Masket, Samuel; Fram, Nicole R.
2011-12-01
Negative dysphotopsia is a relatively common photic phenomenon that may occur after implantation of an intraocular lens. The etiology of negative dysphotopsia is not fully understood. In this investigation, optical modeling was developed using nonsequential-component Zemax ray-tracing technology to simulate photic phenomena experienced by the human eye. The simulation investigated the effects of pupil size, capsulorrhexis size, and bag diffusiveness. Results demonstrated the optical basis of negative dysphotopsia. We found that photic structures were mainly influenced by critical factors such as the capsulorrhexis size and the optical diffusiveness of the capsular bag. The simulations suggested the hypothesis that the anterior capsulorrhexis interacting with intraocular lens could induce negative dysphotopsia.
IL RAY-TRACING NELLA IONOSFERA
Azzarone, A.; Bianchi, C.; Settimi, A
2010-01-01
Il pacchetto applicativo “IONORT” per il calcolo del ray-tracing può essere utilizzato dagli utenti che impiegano il sistema operativo Windows. È un programma la cui interfaccia grafica con l’utente è realizzata in MATLAB. In realtà, il programma lancia un eseguibile che integra il sistema d’equazioni differenziali scritto in linguaggio Fortran e ne importa l’output nel programma MATLAB, il quale genera i grafici e altre informazioni sul raggio. A completamento di questa premessa va detto che...
Essentially slant Toeplitz operators
2009-01-01
The notion of an essentially slant Toeplitz operator on the space $L^2$ is introduced and some of the properties of the set ${\\rm ESTO}(L^2)$, the set of all essentially slant Toeplitz operators on $L^2$, are investigated. In particular the conditions under which the product of two operators in ${\\rm ESTO}(L^2)$ is in ${\\rm ESTO}(L^2)$ are discussed. The notion is generalized to $k$th-order essentially slant Toeplitz operators.
RayTrace: A Simplified Ray Tracing Software for use in AutoCad
Reimann, Gregers Peter; Tang, C.K.
2005-01-01
A design aid tool for testing and development of daylighting systems was developed. A simplified ray tracing software was programmed in Lisp for AutoCad. Only fully specularly reflective, fully transparent and fully absorbant surfaces can be defined in the software. The software is therefore best...
RayTrace: A Simplified Ray Tracing Software for use in AutoCad
Reimann, Gregers Peter; Tang, C.K.
2005-01-01
A design aid tool for testing and development of daylighting systems was developed. A simplified ray tracing software was programmed in Lisp for AutoCad. Only fully specularly reflective, fully transparent and fully absorbant surfaces can be defined in the software. The software is therefore best...
Interactive Ray Tracing for Virtual TV Studio Applications
Philipp Slusallek
2005-12-01
Full Text Available In the last years, the well known ray tracing algorithm gained new popularity with the introduction of interactive ray tracing methods. The high modularity and the ability to produce highly realistic images make ray tracing an attractive alternative to raster graphics hardware.Interactive ray tracing also proved its potential in the field of Mixed Reality rendering and provides novel methods for seamless integration of real and virtual content. Actor insertion methods, a subdomain of Mixed Reality and closely related to virtual television studio techniques, can use ray tracing for achieving high output quality in conjunction with appropriate visual cues like shadows and reflections at interactive frame rates.In this paper, we show how interactive ray tracing techniques can provide new ways of implementing future virtual studio applications.
RAY TRACING RENDER MENGGUNAKAN FRAGMENT ANTI ALIASING
Febriliyan Samopa
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Rendering is generating surface and three-dimensional effects on an object displayed on a monitor screen. Ray tracing as a rendering method that traces ray for each image pixel has a drawback, that is, aliasing (jaggies effect. There are some methods for executing anti aliasing. One of those methods is OGSS (Ordered Grid Super Sampling. OGSS is able to perform aliasing well. However, this method requires more computation time since sampling of all pixels in the image will be increased. Fragment Anti Aliasing (FAA is a new alternative method that can cope with the drawback. FAA will check the image when performing rendering to a scene. Jaggies effect is only happened at curve and gradient object. Therefore, only this part of object that will experience sampling magnification. After this sampling magnification and the pixel values are computed, then downsample is performed to retrieve the original pixel values. Experimental results show that the software can implement ray tracing well in order to form images, and it can implement FAA and OGSS technique to perform anti aliasing. In general, rendering using FAA is faster than using OGSS
Powerful scriptable ray tracing package xrt
Klementiev, Konstantin; Chernikov, Roman
2014-09-01
We present an open source python based ray tracing tool that offers several useful features in graphical presentation, material properties, advanced calculations of synchrotron sources, implementation of diffractive and refractive elements, complex (also closed) surfaces and multiprocessing. The package has many usage examples which are supplied together with the code and visualized on its web page. We exemplify the present version by modeling (i) a curved crystal analyzer, (ii) a quarter wave plate, (iii) Bragg-Fresnel optics and (iv) multiple reflective and non-sequential optics (polycapillary). The present version implements the use of OpenCL framework that executes calculations on both CPUs and GPUs. Currently, the calculations of an undulator source on a GPU show a gain of about two orders of magnitude in computing time. The development version is successful in modelling the wavefront propagation. Two examples of diffraction on a plane mirror and a plane blazed grating are given for a beam with a finite energy band.
IONORT: IONOsphere Ray-Tracing - Ray-tracing program in ionospheric magnetoplasma
Bianchi, Cesidio; Settimi, Alessandro; Azzarone, Adriano
2010-01-01
The application package "IONORT" for the calculation of ray-tracing can be used by customers using the Windows operating system. It is a program whose interface with the user is created in MATLAB. In fact, the program launches an executable that integrates the system of differential equations written in Fortran and importing the output in the MATLAB program, which generates graphics and other information on the ray. This work is inspired mainly by the program of Jones and Stephenson, widespre...
Development of ray tracing visualization program by Monte Carlo method
Higuchi, Kenji; Otani, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro
1997-09-01
Ray tracing algorithm is a powerful method to synthesize three dimensional computer graphics. In conventional ray tracing algorithms, a view point is used as a starting point of ray tracing, from which the rays are tracked up to the light sources through center points of pixels on the view screen to calculate the intensities of the pixels. This manner, however, makes it difficult to define the configuration of light source as well as to strictly simulate the reflections of the rays. To resolve these problems, we have developed a new ray tracing means which traces rays from a light source, not from a view point, with use of Monte Carlo method which is widely applied in nuclear fields. Moreover, we adopt the variance reduction techniques to the program with use of the specialized machine (Monte-4) for particle transport Monte Carlo so that the computational time could be successfully reduced. (author)
Development of ray tracing visualization program by Monte Carlo method
Higuchi, Kenji; Otani, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro
1997-09-01
Ray tracing algorithm is a powerful method to synthesize three dimensional computer graphics. In conventional ray tracing algorithms, a view point is used as a starting point of ray tracing, from which the rays are tracked up to the light sources through center points of pixels on the view screen to calculate the intensities of the pixels. This manner, however, makes it difficult to define the configuration of light source as well as to strictly simulate the reflections of the rays. To resolve these problems, we have developed a new ray tracing means which traces rays from a light source, not from a view point, with use of Monte Carlo method which is widely applied in nuclear fields. Moreover, we adopt the variance reduction techniques to the program with use of the specialized machine (Monte-4) for particle transport Monte Carlo so that the computational time could be successfully reduced. (author)
High performance dosimetry calculations using adapted ray-tracing
Perrotte, Lancelot; Saupin, Guillaume
2010-11-01
When preparing interventions on nuclear sites, it is interesting to study different scenarios, to identify the most appropriate one for the operator(s). Using virtual reality tools is a good way to simulate the potential scenarios. Thus, taking advantage of very efficient computation times can help the user studying different complex scenarios, by immediately evaluating the impact of any changes. In the field of radiation protection, people often use computation codes based on the straight line attenuation method with build-up factors. As for other approaches, geometrical computations (finding all the interactions between radiation rays and the scene objects) remain the bottleneck of the simulation. We present in this paper several optimizations used to speed up these geometrical computations, using innovative GPU ray-tracing algorithms. For instance, we manage to compute every intersectionbetween 600 000 rays and a huge 3D industrial scene in a fraction of second. Moreover, our algorithm works the same way for both static and dynamic scenes, allowing easier study of complex intervention scenarios (where everything moves: the operator(s), the shielding objects, the radiation sources).
Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models
McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.
2009-01-01
Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.
Ray Tracing RF Field Prediction: An Unforgiving Validation
E. M. Vitucci
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction of RF coverage in urban environments is now commonly considered a solved problem with tens of models proposed in the literature showing good performance against measurements. Among these, ray tracing is regarded as one of the most accurate ones available. In the present work, however, we show that a great deal of work is still needed to make ray tracing really unleash its potential in practical use. A very extensive validation of a state-of-the-art 3D ray tracing model is carried out through comparison with measurements in one of the most challenging environments: the city of San Francisco. Although the comparison is based on RF cellular coverage at 850 and 1900 MHz, a widely studied territory, very relevant sources of error and inaccuracy are identified in several cases along with possible solutions.
Simplification of vector ray tracing by the groove function.
Hu, Zhongwen; Liu, Zuping; Wang, Qiuping
2005-01-01
Tracing rays through arbitrary diffraction gratings (including holographic gratings of the second generation fabricated on a curved substrate) by the vector form is somewhat complicated. Vector ray tracing utilizes the local groove density, the calculation of which highly depends on how the grooves are generated. Characterizing a grating by its groove function, available for almost arbitrary gratings, is much simpler than doing so by its groove density, essentially being a vector. Applying the concept of Riemann geometry, we give an expression of the groove density by the groove function. The groove function description of a grating can thus be incorporated into vector ray tracing, which is beneficial especially at the design stage. A unified explicit grating ray-tracing formalism is given as well.
Three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus II: retardance.
Yun, Garam; McClain, Stephen C; Chipman, Russell A
2011-06-20
The concept of retardance is critically analyzed for ray paths through optical systems described by a three-by-three polarization ray-tracing matrix. Algorithms are presented to separate the effects of retardance from geometric transformations. The geometric transformation described by a "parallel transport matrix" characterizes nonpolarizing propagation through an optical system, and also provides a proper relationship between sets of local coordinates along the ray path. The proper retardance is calculated by removing this geometric transformation from the three-by-three polarization ray-tracing matrix. Two rays with different ray paths through an optical system can have the same polarization ray-tracing matrix but different retardances. The retardance and diattenuation of an aluminum-coated three fold-mirror system are analyzed as an example.
IONORT: IONOsphere Ray-Tracing - Ray-tracing program in ionospheric magnetoplasma
Bianchi, Cesidio; Azzarone, Adriano
2010-01-01
The application package "IONORT" for the calculation of ray-tracing can be used by customers using the Windows operating system. It is a program whose interface with the user is created in MATLAB. In fact, the program launches an executable that integrates the system of differential equations written in Fortran and imports the output in the MATLAB program, which generates graphics and other information on the ray. This work is inspired mainly by the program of Jones and Stephenson, widespread in the scientific community that is interested in radio propagation via the ionosphere. The program is written in FORTRAN 77, a mainframe CDC-3800. The code itself, as well as being very elegant, is highly efficient and provides the basis for many programs now in use mainly in the Coordinate Registration (CR) of Over The Horizon (OTH) radar. The input and output of this program require devices no longer in use for several decades and there are no compilers that accept instructions written for that type of mainframe. For ...
GPU-based Ray Tracing of Dynamic Scenes
Christopher Lux
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Interactive ray tracing of non-trivial scenes is just becoming feasible on single graphics processing units (GPU. Recent work in this area focuses on building effective acceleration structures, which work well under the constraints of current GPUs. Most approaches are targeted at static scenes and only allow navigation in the virtual scene. So far support for dynamic scenes has not been considered for GPU implementations. We have developed a GPU-based ray tracing system for dynamic scenes consisting of a set of individual objects. Each object may independently move around, but its geometry and topology are static.
Masmoudi, Nabil
2014-01-01
We present an approximate, but efficient and sufficiently accurate P-wave ray tracing and dynamic ray tracing procedure for 3D inhomogeneous, weakly orthorhombic media with varying orientation of symmetry planes. In contrast to commonly used approaches, the orthorhombic symmetry is preserved at any point of the model. The model is described by six weak-anisotropy parameters and three Euler angles, which may vary arbitrarily, but smoothly, throughout the model. We use the procedure for the calculation of rays and corresponding two-point traveltimes in a VSP experiment in a part of the BP benchmark model generalized to orthorhombic symmetry.
Kashima RAy-Tracing Service (KARATS) for high accurate GNSS positioning
Ichikawa, R.; Hobiger, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Tsutsumi, M.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.
2010-12-01
Radio signal delays associated with the neutral atmosphere are one of the major error sources of space geodesy such as GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO, VLBI, In-SAR measurements. We have developed a state-of-art tool to estimate the atmospheric path delays by ray-tracing through JMA meso-scale analysis (MANAL data) data. The tools, which we have named 'KAshima RAytracing Tools (KARAT)', are capable of calculating total slant delays and ray-bending angles considering real atmospheric phenomena. Numerical weather models such as MANAL data have undergone a significant improvement of accuracy and spatial resolution, which makes it feasible to utilize them for the correction of atmosphere excess path delays. In the previous studies for evaluating KARAT performance, the KARAT solutions are slightly better than the solutions using VMF1 and GMF with linear gradient model for horizontal and height positions. Based on these results we have started the web-based online service, 'KAshima RAytracing Service (KARATS)' for providing the atmospheric delay correction of RINEX files on Jan 27th, 2010. The KARATS receives user's RINEX data via a proper web site (http://vps.nict.go.jp/karats/index.html) and processes user's data files using KARAT for reducing atmospheric slant delays. The reduced RINEX files are archived in the specific directory for each user on the KARATS server. Once the processing is finished the information of data archive is sent privately via email to each user. If user want to process a large amount of data files, user can prepare own server which archives them. The KARATS can get these files from the user's server using GNU ¥emph{wget} and performs ray-traced corrections. We will present a brief status of the KARATS and summarize first experiences gained after this service went operational in December 2009. In addition, we will also demonstrate the newest KARAT performance based on the 5km MANAL data which has been operational from April 7th, 2009 and an outlook on
Ray-tracing and physical-optics analysis of the aperture efficiency in a radio telescope.
Olmi, Luca; Bolli, Pietro
2007-07-01
The performance of telescope systems working at microwave or visible-IR wavelengths is typically described in terms of different parameters according to the wavelength range. Most commercial ray-tracing packages have been specifically designed for use with visible-IR systems and thus, though very flexible and sophisticated, do not provide the appropriate parameters to fully describe microwave antennas and to compare with specifications. We demonstrate that the Strehl ratio is equal to the phase efficiency when the apodization factor is taken into account. The phase efficiency is the most critical contribution to the aperture efficiency of an antenna and the most difficult parameter to optimize during the telescope design. The equivalence between the Strehl ratio and the phase efficiency gives the designer/user of the telescope the opportunity to use the faster commercial ray-tracing software to optimize the design. We also discuss the results of several tests performed to check the validity of this relationship that we carried out using a ray-tracing software, ZEMAX, and a full Physical Optics software, GRASP9.3, applied to three different telescope designs that span a factor of approximately 10 in terms of D/lambda. The maximum measured discrepancy between phase efficiency and Strehl ratio varies between approximately 0.4% and 1.9% up to an offset angle of >40 beams, depending on the optical configuration, but it is always less than 0.5% where the Strehl ratio is >0.95.
Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces
Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...
Ray Tracing Modelling of Reflector for Vertical Bifacial Panel
Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff
2016-01-01
Bifacial solar panels have recently become a new attractive building block for PV systems. In this work we propose a reflector system for a vertical bifacial panel, and use ray tracing modelling to model the performance. Particularly, we investigate the impact of the reflector volume being filled...
Ray tracing and refraction in the modified US1976 atmosphere
van der Werf, SY
2003-01-01
A new and flexible ray-tracing procedure for calculating astronomical refraction is outlined and applied to the US1976 standard atmosphere. This atmosphere is generalized to allow for a free choice of the temperature and pressure at sea level, and in this form it has been named the modified US1976
Benthin, Carsten; Wald, Ingo; Woop, Sven; Ernst, Manfred; Mark, William R
2012-09-01
Wide-SIMD hardware is power and area efficient, but it is challenging to efficiently map ray tracing algorithms to such hardware especially when the rays are incoherent. The two most commonly used schemes are either packet tracing, or relying on a separate traversal stack for each SIMD lane. Both work great for coherent rays, but suffer when rays are incoherent: The former experiences a dramatic loss of SIMD utilization once rays diverge; the latter requires a large local storage, and generates multiple incoherent streams of memory accesses that present challenges for the memory system. In this paper, we introduce a single-ray tracing scheme for incoherent rays that uses just one traversal stack on 16-wide SIMD hardware. It uses a bounding-volume hierarchy with a branching factor of four as the acceleration structure, exploits four-wide SIMD in each box and primitive intersection test, and uses 16-wide SIMD by always performing four such node or primitive tests in parallel. We then extend this scheme to a hybrid tracing scheme that automatically adapts to varying ray coherence by starting out with a 16-wide packet scheme and switching to the new single-ray scheme as soon as rays diverge. We show that on the Intel Many Integrated Core architecture this hybrid scheme consistently, and over a wide range of scenes and ray distributions, outperforms both packet and single-ray tracing.
The Super Gaussian Laser Intensity Profile in HYDRA's 3D Laser Ray Trace Package
Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-01-05
In this note, the laser focal plane intensity pro le for a beam modeled using the 3D ray trace package in HYDRA is determined. First, the analytical model is developed followed by a practical numerical model for evaluating the resulting computationally intensive normalization factor for all possible input parameters.
3D ultrasonic ray tracing in AutoCAD®
Reilly, D.; Leggat, P.; McNab, A.
2001-04-01
To assist with the design and validation of testing procedures for NDT, add-on modules have been developed for AutoCAD® 2000. One of the modules computes and displays ultrasonic 3D ray tracing. Another determines paths between two points, for instance a probe and a target or two probes. The third module displays phased array operational modes and calculates element delays for phased array operation. The modules can be applied to simple or complex solid model components.
Improved algorithm of ray tracing in ICF cryogenic targets
Zhang, Rui; Yang, Yongying; Ling, Tong; Jiang, Jiabin
2016-10-01
The high precision ray tracing inside inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cryogenic targets plays an important role in the reconstruction of the three-dimensional density distribution by algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. The traditional Runge-Kutta methods, which is restricted by the precision of the grid division and the step size of ray tracing, cannot make an accurate calculation in the case of refractive index saltation. In this paper, we propose an improved algorithm of ray tracing based on the Runge-Kutta methods and Snell's law of refraction to achieve high tracing precision. On the boundary of refractive index, we apply Snell's law of refraction and contact point search algorithm to ensure accuracy of the simulation. Inside the cryogenic target, the combination of the Runge-Kutta methods and self-adaptive step algorithm are employed for computation. The original refractive index data, which is used to mesh the target, can be obtained by experimental measurement or priori refractive index distribution function. A finite differential method is performed to calculate the refractive index gradient of mesh nodes, and the distance weighted average interpolation methods is utilized to obtain refractive index and gradient of each point in space. In the simulation, we take ideal ICF target, Luneberg lens and Graded index rod as simulation model to calculate the spot diagram and wavefront map. Compared the simulation results to Zemax, it manifests that the improved algorithm of ray tracing based on the fourth-order Runge-Kutta methods and Snell's law of refraction exhibits high accuracy. The relative error of the spot diagram is 0.2%, and the peak-to-valley (PV) error and the root-mean-square (RMS) error of the wavefront map is less than λ/35 and λ/100, correspondingly.
Tropospheric Refraction Modeling Using Ray-Tracing and Parabolic Equation
P. Pechac
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Refraction phenomena that occur in the lower atmospheresignificantly influence the performance of wireless communicationsystems. This paper provides an overview of corresponding computationalmethods. Basic properties of the lower atmosphere are mentioned.Practical guidelines for radiowave propagation modeling in the loweratmosphere using ray-tracing and parabolic equation methods are given.In addition, a calculation of angle-of-arrival spectra is introducedfor multipath propagation simulations.
Ray Tracing Modelling of Reflector for Vertical Bifacial Panel
Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff
2016-01-01
Bifacial solar panels have recently become a new attractive building block for PV systems. In this work we propose a reflector system for a vertical bifacial panel, and use ray tracing modelling to model the performance. Particularly, we investigate the impact of the reflector volume being filled...... with a refractive medium, and shows the refractive medium improves the reflector performance since it directs almost all the light incident on the incoming plane into the PV panel....
Parallel Ray Tracing Using the Message Passing Interface
2007-09-01
efficiency of 97.9% and a normalized ray-tracing rate of 6.95 ?106 rays ? surfaces/(s ? processor) in a system with 22 planar surfaces, two paraboloid ...with 22 planar surfaces, two paraboloid reflectors, and one hyperboloid refractor. The need for a load-balancing software was obviated by the use of a...specified for each type of optical surface—planar, spherical, paraboloid , hyperboloid, aspheric—and whether it applies for reflection or refraction. The
The Search for Efficiency in Arboreal Ray Tracing Applications
van Leeuwen, M.; Disney, M.; Chen, J. M.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Kelbe, D.; van Aardt, J. A.; Lewis, P.
2016-12-01
Forest structure significantly impacts a range of abiotic conditions, including humidity and the radiation regime, all of which affect the rate of net and gross primary productivity. Current forest productivity models typically consider abstract media to represent the transfer of radiation within the canopy. Examples include the representation forest structure via a layered canopy model, where leaf area and inclination angles are stratified with canopy depth, or as turbid media where leaves are randomly distributed within space or within confined geometric solids such as blocks, spheres or cones. While these abstract models are known to produce accurate estimates of primary productivity at the stand level, their limited geometric resolution restricts applicability at fine spatial scales, such as the cell, leaf or shoot levels, thereby not addressing the full potential of assimilation of data from laboratory and field measurements with that of remote sensing technology. Recent research efforts have explored the use of laser scanning to capture detailed tree morphology at millimeter accuracy. These data can subsequently be used to combine ray tracing with primary productivity models, providing an ability to explore trade-offs among different morphological traits or assimilate data from spatial scales, spanning the leaf- to the stand level. Ray tracing has a major advantage of allowing the most accurate structural description of the canopy, and can directly exploit new 3D structural measurements, e.g., from laser scanning. However, the biggest limitation of ray tracing models is their high computational cost, which currently limits their use for large-scale applications. In this talk, we explore ways to more efficiently exploit ray tracing simulations and capture this information in a readily computable form for future evaluation, thus potentially enabling large-scale first-principles forest growth modelling applications.
Ray tracing reconstruction investigation for C-arm tomosynthesis
Malalla, Nuhad A. Y.; Chen, Ying
2016-04-01
C-arm tomosynthesis is a three dimensional imaging technique. Both x-ray source and the detector are mounted on a C-arm wheeled structure to provide wide variety of movement around the object. In this paper, C-arm tomosynthesis was introduced to provide three dimensional information over a limited view angle (less than 180o) to reduce radiation exposure and examination time. Reconstruction algorithms based on ray tracing method such as ray tracing back projection (BP), simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) were developed for C-arm tomosynthesis. C-arm tomosynthesis projection images of simulated spherical object were simulated with a virtual geometric configuration with a total view angle of 40 degrees. This study demonstrated the sharpness of in-plane reconstructed structure and effectiveness of removing out-of-plane blur for each reconstruction algorithms. Results showed the ability of ray tracing based reconstruction algorithms to provide three dimensional information with limited angle C-arm tomosynthesis.
Product and Commutativity of Slant Toeplitz Operators
Chaomei LIU; Yufeng LU
2013-01-01
In this paper,the product and commutativity of slant Toeplitz operators are discussed.We show that the product of kth1-order slant Toeplitz operators and kth2-order slant Toeplitz operators must be a (k1k2)th-order slant Toeplitz operator except for zero operators,and the commutativity and essential commutativity of two slant Toeplitz operators with different orders are the same.
Microseismic network design assessment based on 3D ray tracing
Näsholm, Sven Peter; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Lubrano-Lavadera, Paul; Lang, Dominik; Kaschwich, Tina; Oye, Volker
2016-04-01
There is increasing demand on the versatility of microseismic monitoring networks. In early projects, being able to locate any triggers was considered a success. These early successes led to a better understanding of how to extract value from microseismic results. Today operators, regulators, and service providers work closely together in order to find the optimum network design to meet various requirements. In the current study we demonstrate an integrated and streamlined network capability assessment approach. It is intended for use during the microseismic network design process prior to installation. The assessments are derived from 3D ray tracing between a grid of event points and the sensors. Three aspects are discussed: 1) Magnitude of completeness or detection limit; 2) Event location accuracy; and 3) Ground-motion hazard. The network capability parameters 1) and 2) are estimated at all hypothetic event locations and are presented in the form of maps given a seismic sensor coordinate scenario. In addition, the ray tracing traveltimes permit to estimate the point-spread-functions (PSFs) at the event grid points. PSFs are useful in assessing the resolution and focusing capability of the network for stacking-based event location and imaging methods. We estimate the performance for a hypothetical network case with 11 sensors. We consider the well-documented region around the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) located north of Parkfield, California. The ray tracing is done through a detailed velocity model which covers a 26.2 by 21.2 km wide area around the SAFOD drill site with a resolution of 200 m both for the P-and S-wave velocities. Systematic network capability assessment for different sensor site scenarios prior to installation facilitates finding a final design which meets the survey objectives.
Simplifying numerical ray tracing for characterization of optical systems.
Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Speiser, Daniel I; Johnsen, Sönke
2014-07-20
Ray tracing, a computational method for tracing the trajectories of rays of light through matter, is often used to characterize mechanical or biological visual systems with aberrations that are larger than the effect of diffraction inherent in the system. For example, ray tracing may be used to calculate geometric point spread functions (PSFs), which describe the image of a point source after it passes through an optical system. Calculating a geometric PSF is useful because it gives an estimate of the detail and quality of the image formed by a given optical system. However, when using ray tracing to calculate a PSF, the accuracy of the estimated PSF directly depends on the number of discrete rays used in the calculation; higher accuracies may require more computational power. Furthermore, adding optical components to a modeled system will increase its complexity and require critical modifications so that the model will describe the system correctly, sometimes necessitating a completely new model. Here, we address these challenges by developing a method that represents rays of light as a continuous function that depends on the light's initial direction. By utilizing Chebyshev approximations (via the chebfun toolbox in MATLAB) for the implementation of this method, we greatly simplified the calculations for the location and direction of the rays. This method provides high precision and fast calculation speeds that allow the characterization of any symmetrical optical system (with a centered point source) in an analytical-like manner. Next, we demonstrate our methods by showing how they can easily calculate PSFs for complicated optical systems that contain multiple refractive and/or reflective interfaces.
Trans-Ionospheric High Frequency Signal Ray Tracing
Wright, S.; Gillespie, R. J.
2012-09-01
All electromagnetic radiation undergoes refraction as it propagates through the atmosphere. Tropospheric refraction is largely governed by interaction of the radiation with bounded electrons; ionospheric refraction is primarily governed by free electron interactions. The latter phenomenon is important for propagation and refraction of High Frequency (HF) through Extremely High Frequency (EHF) signals. The degree to which HF to EHF signals are bent is dependent upon the integrated refractive effect of the ionosphere: a result of the signal's angle of incidence with the boundaries between adjacent ionospheric regions, the magnitude of change in electron density between two regions, as well as the frequency of the signal. In the case of HF signals, the ionosphere may bend the signal so much that it is directed back down towards the Earth, making over-the-horizon HF radio communication possible. Ionospheric refraction is a major challenge for space-based geolocation applications, where the ionosphere is typically the biggest contributor to geolocation error. Accurate geolocation requires an algorithm that accurately reflects the physical process of a signal transiting the ionosphere, and an accurate specification of the ionosphere at the time of the signal transit. Currently implemented solutions are limited by both the algorithm chosen to perform the ray trace and by the accuracy of the ionospheric data used in the calculations. This paper describes a technique for adapting a ray tracing algorithm to run on a General-Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU or GPU), and using a physics-based model specifying the ionosphere at the time of signal transit. This technique allows simultaneous geolocation of significantly more signals than an equivalently priced Central Processing Unit (CPU) based system. Additionally, because this technique makes use of the most widely accepted numeric algorithm for ionospheric ray tracing and a timely physics-based model of the ionosphere
Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.
Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu
2014-10-20
We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.
The ray-tracing mapping operator in an asymmetric atmosphere
无
2008-01-01
In a spherically symmetric atmosphere, the refractive index profile is retrieved from bending angle measurements through Abel integral transform. As horizontal refractivity inhomogeneity becomes significant in the moist low atmosphere, the error in refractivity profile obtained from Abel inversion reaches about 10%. One way to avoid this error is to directly assimilate bending angle profile into numerical weather models. This paper discusses the 2D ray-tracing mapping operator for bending angle in an asymmetric atmosphere. Through simulating computations, the retrieval error of the refractivity in horizontal inhomogeneity is assessed. The step length of 4 rank Runge-Kutta method is also tested.
Ray tracing study for non-imaging daylight collectors
Wittkopf, Stephen [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, 06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland); Oliver Grobe, Lars; Geisler-Moroder, David [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (NUS), 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, 06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Compagnon, Raphael [College of Engineering and Architecture of Fribourg (EIA-FR), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO) (Switzerland); Kaempf, Jerome; Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
This paper presents a novel method to study how well non-imaging daylight collectors pipe diffuse daylight into long horizontal funnels for illuminating deep buildings. Forward ray tracing is used to derive luminous intensity distributions curves (LIDC) of such collectors centered in an arc-shaped light source representing daylight. New photometric characteristics such as 2D flux, angular spread and horizontal offset are introduced as a function of such LIDC. They are applied for quantifying and thus comparing different collector contours. (author)
Inter-technique validation of tropospheric slant total delays
Kačmařík, Michal; Douša, Jan; Dick, Galina; Zus, Florian; Brenot, Hugues; Möller, Gregor; Pottiaux, Eric; Kapłon, Jan; Hordyniec, Paweł; Václavovic, Pavel; Morel, Laurent
2017-06-01
An extensive validation of line-of-sight tropospheric slant total delays (STD) from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), ray tracing in numerical weather prediction model (NWM) fields and microwave water vapour radiometer (WVR) is presented. Ten GNSS reference stations, including collocated sites, and almost 2 months of data from 2013, including severe weather events were used for comparison. Seven institutions delivered their STDs based on GNSS observations processed using 5 software programs and 11 strategies enabling to compare rather different solutions and to assess the impact of several aspects of the processing strategy. STDs from NWM ray tracing came from three institutions using three different NWMs and ray-tracing software. Inter-techniques evaluations demonstrated a good mutual agreement of various GNSS STD solutions compared to NWM and WVR STDs. The mean bias among GNSS solutions not considering post-fit residuals in STDs was -0.6 mm for STDs scaled in the zenith direction and the mean standard deviation was 3.7 mm. Standard deviations of comparisons between GNSS and NWM ray-tracing solutions were typically 10 mm ± 2 mm (scaled in the zenith direction), depending on the NWM model and the GNSS station. Comparing GNSS versus WVR STDs reached standard deviations of 12 mm ± 2 mm also scaled in the zenith direction. Impacts of raw GNSS post-fit residuals and cleaned residuals on optimal reconstructing of GNSS STDs were evaluated at inter-technique comparison and for GNSS at collocated sites. The use of raw post-fit residuals is not generally recommended as they might contain strong systematic effects, as demonstrated in the case of station LDB0. Simplified STDs reconstructed only from estimated GNSS tropospheric parameters, i.e. without applying post-fit residuals, performed the best in all the comparisons; however, it obviously missed part of tropospheric signals due to non-linear temporal and spatial variations in the troposphere. Although the
Dynamic ray tracing and its application in triangulated media
Rueger, A.
1993-07-01
Hale and Cohen (1991) developed software to generate two-dimensional computer models of complex geology. Their method uses a triangulation technique designed to support efficient and accurate computation of seismic wavefields for models of the earth`s interior. Subsequently, Hale (1991) used this triangulation approach to perform dynamic ray tracing and create synthetic seismograms based on the method of Gaussian beams. Here, I extend this methodology to allow an increased variety of ray-theoretical experiments. Specifically, the developed program GBmod (Gaussian Beam MODeling) can produce arbitrary multiple sequences and incorporate attenuation and density variations. In addition, I have added an option to perform Fresnel-volume ray tracing (Cerveny and Soares, 1992). Corrections for reflection and transmission losses at interfaces, and for two-and-one-half-dimensional (2.5-D) spreading are included. However, despite these enhancements, difficulties remain in attempts to compute accurate synthetic seismograms if strong lateral velocity inhomogeneities are present. Here, these problems are discussed and, to a certain extent, reduced. I provide example computations of high-frequency seismograms based on the method of Gaussian beams to exhibit the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed modeling method and illustrate new features for both surface and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) acquisition geometries.
Ray-tracing software comparison for linear focusing solar collectors
Osório, Tiago; Horta, Pedro; Larcher, Marco; Pujol-Nadal, Ramón; Hertel, Julian; van Rooyen, De Wet; Heimsath, Anna; Schneider, Simon; Benitez, Daniel; Frein, Antoine; Denarie, Alice
2016-05-01
Ray-Tracing software tools have been widely used in the optical design of solar concentrating collectors. In spite of the ability of these tools to assess the geometrical and material aspects impacting the optical performance of concentrators, their use in combination with experimental measurements in the framework of collector testing procedures as not been implemented, to the date, in none of the current solar collector testing standards. In the latest revision of ISO9806 an effort was made to include linear focusing concentrating collectors but some practical and theoretical difficulties emerged. A Ray-Tracing analysis could provide important contributions to overcome these issues, complementing the experimental results obtained through thermal testing and allowing the achievement of more thorough testing outputs with lower experimental requirements. In order to evaluate different available software tools a comparison study was conducted. Taking as representative technologies for line-focus concentrators the Parabolic Trough Collector and the Linear Fresnel Reflector Collector, two exemplary cases with predefined conditions - geometry, sun model and material properties - were simulated with different software tools. This work was carried out within IEA/SHC Task 49 "Solar Heat Integration in Industrial Processes".
The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)
2015-02-01
The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S
Implementation of Refined Ray Tracing inside a Space Module
Balamati Choudhury
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Modern space modules are susceptible to EM radiation from both external and internal sources within the space module. Since the EM waves for various operations are frequently in the high-frequency domain, asymptotic raytheoretic methods are often the most optimal choice for deterministic EM field analysis. In this work, surface modeling of a typical manned space module is done by hybridizing a finite segment of right circular cylinder and a general paraboloid of revolution (GPOR frustum. A transmitting source is placed inside the space module and test rays are launched from the transmitter. The rays are allowed to propagate inside the cavity. Unlike the available ray-tracing package, that use numerical search methods, a quasi-analytical ray-propagation model is developed to obtain the ray-path details inside the cavity which involves the ray-launching, ray-bunching, and an adaptive cube for ray-reception.
OSPRay - A CPU Ray Tracing Framework for Scientific Visualization.
Wald, I; Johnson, G P; Amstutz, J; Brownlee, C; Knoll, A; Jeffers, J; Gunther, J; Navratil, P
2017-01-01
Scientific data is continually increasing in complexity, variety and size, making efficient visualization and specifically rendering an ongoing challenge. Traditional rasterization-based visualization approaches encounter performance and quality limitations, particularly in HPC environments without dedicated rendering hardware. In this paper, we present OSPRay, a turn-key CPU ray tracing framework oriented towards production-use scientific visualization which can utilize varying SIMD widths and multiple device backends found across diverse HPC resources. This framework provides a high-quality, efficient CPU-based solution for typical visualization workloads, which has already been integrated into several prevalent visualization packages. We show that this system delivers the performance, high-level API simplicity, and modular device support needed to provide a compelling new rendering framework for implementing efficient scientific visualization workflows.
Ionospheric Plasma Drift Analysis Technique Based On Ray Tracing
Ari, Gizem; Toker, Cenk
2016-07-01
Ionospheric drift measurements provide important information about the variability in the ionosphere, which can be used to quantify ionospheric disturbances caused by natural phenomena such as solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. One of the prominent ways for drift measurement depends on instrumentation based measurements, e.g. using an ionosonde. The drift estimation of an ionosonde depends on measuring the Doppler shift on the received signal, where the main cause of Doppler shift is the change in the length of the propagation path of the signal between the transmitter and the receiver. Unfortunately, ionosondes are expensive devices and their installation and maintenance require special care. Furthermore, the ionosonde network over the world or even Europe is not dense enough to obtain a global or continental drift map. In order to overcome the difficulties related to an ionosonde, we propose a technique to perform ionospheric drift estimation based on ray tracing. First, a two dimensional TEC map is constructed by using the IONOLAB-MAP tool which spatially interpolates the VTEC estimates obtained from the EUREF CORS network. Next, a three dimensional electron density profile is generated by inputting the TEC estimates to the IRI-2015 model. Eventually, a close-to-real situation electron density profile is obtained in which ray tracing can be performed. These profiles can be constructed periodically with a period of as low as 30 seconds. By processing two consequent snapshots together and calculating the propagation paths, we estimate the drift measurements over any coordinate of concern. We test our technique by comparing the results to the drift measurements taken at the DPS ionosonde at Pruhonice, Czech Republic. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR14/001 projects.
Shi, Shengxian; Ding, Junfei; New, T. H.; Soria, Julio
2017-07-01
This paper presents a dense ray tracing reconstruction technique for a single light-field camera-based particle image velocimetry. The new approach pre-determines the location of a particle through inverse dense ray tracing and reconstructs the voxel value using multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART). Simulation studies were undertaken to identify the effects of iteration number, relaxation factor, particle density, voxel-pixel ratio and the effect of the velocity gradient on the performance of the proposed dense ray tracing-based MART method (DRT-MART). The results demonstrate that the DRT-MART method achieves higher reconstruction resolution at significantly better computational efficiency than the MART method (4-50 times faster). Both DRT-MART and MART approaches were applied to measure the velocity field of a low speed jet flow which revealed that for the same computational cost, the DRT-MART method accurately resolves the jet velocity field with improved precision, especially for the velocity component along the depth direction.
Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report
GARDNER, M.G.
2000-07-19
This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.
a Highly-Accurate and Fast Ray Tracing Sysyem for HF and UHF Simulations
Jones, J. C.; Richards, G. P.
2016-12-01
Accurate and fast ray tracing is critical for radiowave propagation tools and applications. A ray tracer needs to be accurate to reduce accumulated errors which come from the myriad of models (ionospheric electron density, magnetic field, ion density, neutral molecule density, absorption, land surface, ocean surface, and potentially others) required for accurate simulation. A ray tracer must also be fast to make the use of applications practical. Here we introduce NINJART Is Not Just Another Ray Tracer (NINJART), a highly accurate and fast ray tracing system. NINJART consists of an embarrassingly parallel algorithm rigorously solving the 3-D Hasselgrove equations with a Runge-Kutta adaptive step quadrature rule to accurately trace high frequency to ultra-high frequency radiowaves. It is capable of a wide range of propagation modes from multi-ground hops to vertical and near vertical incidence rays, chordal modes, and other esoteric paths. It is capable of using a variety of ionospheric models to include operational data assimilative or empirical models depending on the needs of the user. It can forward and backward ray trace, calculate time of flight, find the focus factor for signals near the skip zone and calculate the angle of arrival from a known transmitter to a known receiver location. Additionally NINJART uses magnetic field data from various models including the International Geomagnetic Reference Field to reduce the inaccuracies introduced by the simple dipole model, which is commonly used by other ray tracers, in calculating the effects of magneto-ionic splitting thereby allowing accurate traces of both the ordinary and extraordinary mode rays. The NINJART algorithm is a heterogeneous system utilizing the CUDA programming language to take advantage of the computing power of graphical processing units. This allows tracing of thousands of rays concurrently. NINJART achieves additional processing savings, without sacrificing accuracy, by use of an adaptive
Testing the validity of the ray-tracing code GYOTO
Grould, Marion; Perrin, Guy
2016-01-01
In the next few years, the near-infrared interferometer GRAVITY will be able to observe the Galactic center. Astrometric data will be obtained with an anticipated accuracy of 10 $\\mu$as. To analyze these future data, we have developed a code called GYOTO to compute orbits and images. We want to assess the validity and accuracy of GYOTO in a variety of contexts, in particular for stellar astrometry in the Galactic center. Furthermore, we want to tackle and complete a study made on the astrometric displacements that are due to lensing effects of a star of the central parsec with GYOTO. We first validate GYOTO in the weak-deflection limit (WDL) by studying primary caustics and primary critical curves obtained for a Kerr black hole. We compare GYOTO results to available analytical approximations and estimate GYOTO errors using an intrinsic estimator. In the strong-deflection limit (SDL), we choose to compare null geodesics computed by GYOTO and the ray-tracing code named Geokerr. Finally, we use GYOTO to estimate...
Distance measurement based on light field geometry and ray tracing.
Chen, Yanqin; Jin, Xin; Dai, Qionghai
2017-01-09
In this paper, we propose a geometric optical model to measure the distances of object planes in a light field image. The proposed geometric optical model is composed of two sub-models based on ray tracing: object space model and image space model. The two theoretic sub-models are derived on account of on-axis point light sources. In object space model, light rays propagate into the main lens and refract inside it following the refraction theorem. In image space model, light rays exit from emission positions on the main lens and subsequently impinge on the image sensor with different imaging diameters. The relationships between imaging diameters of objects and their corresponding emission positions on the main lens are investigated through utilizing refocusing and similar triangle principle. By combining the two sub-models together and tracing light rays back to the object space, the relationships between objects' imaging diameters and corresponding distances of object planes are figured out. The performance of the proposed geometric optical model is compared with existing approaches using different configurations of hand-held plenoptic 1.0 cameras and real experiments are conducted using a preliminary imaging system. Results demonstrate that the proposed model can outperform existing approaches in terms of accuracy and exhibits good performance at general imaging range.
Weiland, C.M. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Steck, L.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dawson, P.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others
1995-10-10
The authors explore the impact of three-dimensional minimum travel time ray tracing on nonlinear teleseismic inversion. This problem has particular significance when trying to image strongly contrasting low-velocity bodies, such as magma chambers, because strongly refracted/and/or diffracted rays may precede the direct P wave arrival traditionally used in straight-ray seismic tomography. They use a simplex-based ray tracer to compute the three-dimensional, minimum travel time ray paths and employ an interative technique to cope with nonlinearity. Results from synthetic data show that their algorithm results in better model reconstructions compared with traditional straight-ray inversions. The authors reexamine the teleseismic data collected at Long Valley caldera by the U.S. Geological Survey. The most prominent feature of their result is a 25-30% low-velocity zone centered at 11.5 km depth beneath the northwestern quandrant of the caldera. Beneath this at a depth of 24.5 km is a more diffuse 15% low-velocity zone. In general, the low velocities tend to deepen to the south and east. The authors interpret the shallow feature to be the residual Long Valley caldera magma chamber, while the deeper feature may represent basaltic magmas ponded in the midcrust. The deeper position of the prominent low-velocity region in comparison to earlier tomographic images is a result of using three-dimensional rays rather than straight rays in the ray tracing. The magnitude of the low-velocity anomaly is a factor of {approximately}3 times larger than earlier models from linear arrival time inversions and is consistent with models based on observations of ray bending at sites within the caldera. These results imply the presence of anywhere from 7 to 100% partial melt beneath the caldera. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Virtual Ray Tracing as a Conceptual Tool for Image Formation in Mirrors and Lenses
Heikkinen, Lasse; Savinainen, Antti; Saarelainen, Markku
2016-12-01
The ray tracing method is widely used in teaching geometrical optics at the upper secondary and university levels. However, using simple and straightforward examples may lead to a situation in which students use the model of ray tracing too narrowly. Previous studies show that students seem to use the ray tracing method too concretely instead of as a conceptual model. This suggests that introductory physics students need to understand the nature of the ray model more profoundly. In this paper, we show how a virtual ray tracing model can be used as a tool for image formation in more complex and unconventional cases. We believe that this tool has potential in helping students to better appreciate the nature of the ray model.
Study of improved ray tracing parallel algorithm for CGH of 3D objects on GPU
Cong, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Yao, Jun; Zhao, Kai
2014-11-01
An improved parallel algorithm for holograms of three-dimensional objects was presented. According to the physical characteristics and mathematical properties of the original ray tracing algorithm for computer generated holograms (CGH), using transform approximation and numerical analysis methods, we extract parts of ray tracing algorithm which satisfy parallelization features and implement them on graphics processing unit (GPU). Meanwhile, through proper design of parallel numerical procedure, we did parallel programming to the two-dimensional slices of three-dimensional object with CUDA. According to the experiments, an effective method of dealing with occlusion problem in ray tracing is proposed, as well as generating the holograms of 3D objects with additive property. Our results indicate that the improved algorithm can effectively shorten the computing time. Due to the different sizes of spatial object points and hologram pixels, the speed has increased 20 to 70 times comparing with original ray tracing algorithm.
Validation of Three-Dimensional Ray-Tracing Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Propagations
Majdi Salem; Mahamod Ismail; Norbahiah Misran
2011-01-01
A 3D ray tracing simulator has been developed for indoor wireless networks. The simulator uses geometrical optics (GOs) to propagate the electromagnetic waves inside the buildings. The prediction technique takes into account multiple reflections and transmissions of the propagated waves. An interpolation prediction method (IPM) has been proposed to predict the propagated signal and to make the ray-tracing algorithm faster, accurate, and simple. The measurements have been achieved by using a s...
Fox, Christopher; Romeijn, H Edwin; Dempsey, James F
2006-05-01
We present work on combining three algorithms to improve ray-tracing efficiency in radiation therapy dose computation. The three algorithms include: An improved point-in-polygon algorithm, incremental voxel ray tracing algorithm, and stereographic projection of beamlets for voxel truncation. The point-in-polygon and incremental voxel ray-tracing algorithms have been used in computer graphics and nuclear medicine applications while the stereographic projection algorithm was developed by our group. These algorithms demonstrate significant improvements over the current standard algorithms in peer reviewed literature, i.e., the polygon and voxel ray-tracing algorithms of Siddon for voxel classification (point-in-polygon testing) and dose computation, respectively, and radius testing for voxel truncation. The presented polygon ray-tracing technique was tested on 10 intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning cases that required the classification of between 0.58 and 2.0 million voxels on a 2.5 mm isotropic dose grid into 1-4 targets and 5-14 structures represented as extruded polygons (a.k.a. Siddon prisms). Incremental voxel ray tracing and voxel truncation employing virtual stereographic projection was tested on the same IMRT treatment planning cases where voxel dose was required for 230-2400 beamlets using a finite-size pencil-beam algorithm. Between a 100 and 360 fold cpu time improvement over Siddon's method was observed for the polygon ray-tracing algorithm to perform classification of voxels for target and structure membership. Between a 2.6 and 3.1 fold reduction in cpu time over current algorithms was found for the implementation of incremental ray tracing. Additionally, voxel truncation via stereographic projection was observed to be 11-25 times faster than the radial-testing beamlet extent approach and was further improved 1.7-2.0 fold through point-classification using the method of translation over the cross product technique.
Three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus I: definition and diattenuation.
Yun, Garam; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A
2011-06-20
A three-by-three polarization ray-tracing matrix method for polarization ray tracing in optical systems is presented for calculating the polarization transformations associated with ray paths through optical systems. The method is a three-dimensional generalization of the Jones calculus. Reflection and refraction algorithms are provided. Diattenuation of the optical system is calculated via singular value decomposition. Two numerical examples, a three fold-mirror system and a hollow corner cube, demonstrate the method.
Design of indoor WLANs: Combination of a ray-tracing tool with the BPSO method
Moreno Delgado, José; Domingo Gracia, Marta; Valle López, Luis; Pérez López, Jesús Ramón; Torres Jménez, Rafael Pedro; Basterrechea Verdeja, José
2015-01-01
This paper presents an approach that combines a ray tracing tool with a binary version of the particle swarm optimization method (BPSO) for the design of infrastructure mode indoor wireless local area networks (WLAN). The approach uses the power levels of a set of candidate access point (AP) locations obtained with the ray tracing tool at a mesh of potential receiver locations or test points to allow the BPSO optimizer to carry out the design of the WLAN. For this purpose, several restriction...
Pujol Nadal, Ramon; Martínez Moll, Víctor
2013-10-20
Fixed-mirror solar concentrators (FMSCs) use a static reflector and a moving receiver. They are easily installable on building roofs. However, for high-concentration factors, several flat mirrors would be needed. If curved mirrors are used instead, high-concentration levels can be achieved, and such a solar concentrator is called a curved-slats fixed-mirror solar concentrator (CSFMSC), on which little information is available. Herein, a methodology is proposed to characterize the CSFMSC using 3D ray-tracing tools. The CSFMSC shows better optical characteristics than the FMSC, as it needs fewer reflector segments for achieving the same concentration and optical efficiency.
Real-time ray tracing of implicit surfaces on the GPU.
Singh, Jag Mohan; Narayanan, P J
2010-01-01
Compact representation of geometry using a suitable procedural or mathematical model and a ray-tracing mode of rendering fit the programmable graphics processor units (GPUs) well. Several such representations including parametric and subdivision surfaces have been explored in recent research. The important and widely applicable category of the general implicit surface has received less attention. In this paper, we present a ray-tracing procedure to render general implicit surfaces efficiently on the GPU. Though only the fourth or lower order surfaces can be rendered using analytical roots, our adaptive marching points algorithm can ray trace arbitrary implicit surfaces without multiple roots, by sampling the ray at selected points till a root is found. Adapting the sampling step size based on a proximity measure and a horizon measure delivers high speed. The sign test can handle any surface without multiple roots. The Taylor test that uses ideas from interval analysis can ray trace many surfaces with complex roots. Overall, a simple algorithm that fits the SIMD architecture of the GPU results in high performance. We demonstrate the ray tracing of algebraic surfaces up to order 50 and nonalgebraic surfaces including a Blinn's blobby with 75 spheres at better than interactive frame rates.
A comprehensive ray tracing study on the impact of solar reflections from glass curtain walls.
Wong, Justin S J
2016-01-01
To facilitate the investigation of the impact of solar reflection from the façades of skyscrapers to surrounding environment, a comprehensive ray tracing model has been developed using the International Commerce Centre (ICC) in Hong Kong as an example. Taking into account the actual physical dimensions of buildings and meteorological data, the model simulates and traces the paths of solar reflections from ICC to the surrounding buildings, assessing the impact in terms of hit locations, light intensity and the hit time on each day throughout the year. Our analyses show that various design and architectural features of ICC have amplified the intensity of reflected solar rays and increased the hit rates of surrounding buildings. These factors include the high reflectivity of glass panels, their upward tilting angles, the concave profile of the 'Dragon Tail' (glass panels near the base), the particular location and orientation of ICC, as well as the immense height of ICC with its large reflective surfaces. The simulation results allow us to accurately map the date and time when the ray projections occur on each of the target buildings, rendering important information such as the number of converging (overlapping) projections, and the actual light intensity hitting each of the buildings at any given time. Comparisons with other skyscrapers such as Taipei 101 in Taiwan and 2-IFC (International Finance Centre) Hong Kong are made. Remedial actions for ICC and preventive measures are also discussed.
Woei Leow, Shin; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Isaacson, Michael; Alers, Glenn; Carter, Sue A.
2013-06-01
Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) collect ambient light from a broad range of angles and concentrate the captured light onto photovoltaic (PV) cells. LSCs with front-facing cells collect direct and indirect sunlight ensuring a gain factor greater than one. The flexible placement and percentage coverage of PV cells on the LSC panel allow for layout adjustments to be made in order to balance re-absorption losses and the level of light concentration desired. A weighted Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in the LSC to aid in design optimization. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra of an organic luminescent dye (LR305), the transmission coefficient, and refractive index of acrylic as parameters that describe the system. Simulations suggest that for LR305, 8-10 cm of luminescent material surrounding the PV cell yields the highest increase in power gain per unit area of LSC added, thereby determining the ideal spacing between PV cells in the panel. For rectangular PV cells, results indicate that for each centimeter of PV cell width, an additional increase of 0.15 mm to the waveguide thickness is required to efficiently transport photon collected by the LSC to the PV cell with minimal loss.
Leow, Shin Woei; Corrado, Carley; Osborn, Melissa; Carter, Sue A.
2013-09-01
Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) have the ability to receive light from a wide range of angles, concentrating the captured light onto small photo active areas. This enables greater incorporation of LSCs into building designs as windows, skylights and wall claddings in addition to rooftop installations of current solar panels. Using relatively cheap luminescent dyes and acrylic waveguides to effect light concentration onto lesser photovoltaic (PV) cells, there is potential for this technology to approach grid price parity. We employ a panel design in which the front facing PV cells collect both direct and concentrated light ensuring a gain factor greater than one. This also allows for flexibility in determining the placement and percentage coverage of PV cells during the design process to balance reabsorption losses against the power output and level of light concentration desired. To aid in design optimization, a Monte-Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transport of photons and loss mechanisms in LSC panels. The program imports measured absorption/emission spectra and transmission coefficients as simulation parameters with interactions of photons in the panel determined by comparing calculated probabilities with random number generators. LSC panels with multiple dyes or layers can also be simulated. Analysis of the results reveals optimal panel dimensions and PV cell layouts for maximum power output for a given dye concentration, absorbtion/emission spectrum and quantum efficiency.
A three-dimensional sound ray tracing method by deploying regular tetrahedrons
JIANG Wei; LI Taibao
2005-01-01
A sound ray tracing algorithm is presented, which helps to rapidly find the sound ray trajectories in three-dimensional (3-D) space. At each step of ray tracing, a small regular tetrahedron is made in front of a ray, so that the sound speed field inside may be approximately regarded as linear. Since a ray trajectory in the linear sound speed field is always on a plane, it may be obtained by the two-dimensional (2-D) sound ray tracing method by deploying triangles.The theoretical derivation is given and a numerical model is discussed. It shows that the algorithm is fast and precise. It is also more concise and reliable than the traditional 3-D algorithms, and may be used to avoid the damage to the precision by the acoustic refraction in the 3-D ultrasound computerized tomography.
Ray-Tracing studies in a perturbed atmosphere I- The initial value problem
Tannous, C
2001-01-01
We report the development of a new ray-tracing simulation tool having the potential of the full characterization of a radio link through the accurate study of the propagation path of the signal from the transmitting to the receiving antennas across a perturbed atmosphere. The ray-tracing equations are solved, with controlled accuracy, in three dimensions (3D) and the propagation characteristics are obtained using various refractive index models. The launching of the rays, the atmospheric medium and its disturbances are characterized in 3D. The novelty in the approach stems from the use of special numerical techniques dealing with so called stiff differential equations without which no solution of the ray-tracing equations is possible. Starting with a given launching angle, the solution consists of the ray trajectory, the propagation time information at each point of the path, the beam spreading, the transmitted (resp. received) power taking account of the radiation pattern and orientation of the antennas and ...
Refined ray tracing inside single- and double-curvatured concave surfaces
Choudhury, Balamati
2016-01-01
This book describes the ray tracing effects inside different quadric surfaces. Analytical surface modeling is a priori requirement for electromagnetic (EM) analysis over aerospace platforms. Although numerically-specified surfaces and even non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) can be used for modeling such surfaces, for most practical EM applications, it is sufficient to model them as quadric surface patches and the hybrids thereof. It is therefore apparent that a vast majority of aerospace bodies can be conveniently modeled as combinations of simpler quadric surfaces, i.e. hybrid of quadric cylinders and quadric surfaces of revolutions. Hence the analysis of geometric ray tracing inside is prerequisite to analyzing the RF build-up. This book, describes the ray tracing effects inside different quadric surfaces such as right circular cylinder, general paraboloid of revolution (GPOR), GPOR frustum of different shaping parameters and the corresponding visualization of the ray-path details. Finally ray tracin...
Reflection formulae for ray tracing in uniaxial anisotropic media using Huygens's principle.
Alemán-Castañeda, Luis A; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha
2016-11-01
Ray tracing in uniaxial anisotropic materials is important because they are widely used for instrumentation, liquid-crystal displays, laser cavities, and quantum experiments. There are previous works regarding ray tracing refraction and reflection formulae using the common electromagnetic theory approach, but only the refraction formulae have been deduced using Huygens's principle. In this paper we obtain the reflection expressions using this unconventional approach with a specific coordinate system in which both refraction and reflection formulae are simplified as well as their deduction. We compute some numerical examples to compare them with the common expressions obtained using electromagnetic theory.
Accounting for partiality in serial crystallography using ray-tracing principles.
Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Schreurs, Antoine M M; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Gros, Piet
2015-09-01
Serial crystallography generates `still' diffraction data sets that are composed of single diffraction images obtained from a large number of crystals arbitrarily oriented in the X-ray beam. Estimation of the reflection partialities, which accounts for the expected observed fractions of diffraction intensities, has so far been problematic. In this paper, a method is derived for modelling the partialities by making use of the ray-tracing diffraction-integration method EVAL. The method estimates partialities based on crystal mosaicity, beam divergence, wavelength dispersion, crystal size and the interference function, accounting for crystallite size. It is shown that modelling of each reflection by a distribution of interference-function weighted rays yields a `still' Lorentz factor. Still data are compared with a conventional rotation data set collected from a single lysozyme crystal. Overall, the presented still integration method improves the data quality markedly. The R factor of the still data compared with the rotation data decreases from 26% using a Monte Carlo approach to 12% after applying the Lorentz correction, to 5.3% when estimating partialities by EVAL and finally to 4.7% after post-refinement. The merging R(int) factor of the still data improves from 105 to 56% but remains high. This suggests that the accuracy of the model parameters could be further improved. However, with a multiplicity of around 40 and an R(int) of ∼50% the merged still data approximate the quality of the rotation data. The presented integration method suitably accounts for the partiality of the observed intensities in still diffraction data, which is a critical step to improve data quality in serial crystallography.
An Energy Conservative Ray-Tracing Method With a Time Interpolation of the Force Field
Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-02-10
A new algorithm that constructs a continuous force field interpolated in time is proposed for resolving existing difficulties in numerical methods for ray-tracing. This new method has improved accuracy, but with the same degree of algebraic complexity compared to Kaisers method.
A Ray-tracing Method to Analyzing Modulated Planar Fabry-Perot Antennas
Hougs, Mikkel Dahl; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2015-01-01
A new approach for fast modelling of Fabry-Perot antennas with modulated partially reflective surfaces (PRS) using ray-tracing is proposed. For validation of the method, a configuration is introduced which consists of a cavity with a modulated PRS, fed internally by a magnetic dipole. The PRS con...
Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing
Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka
2016-01-01
This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results demonst...
The Gaussian Laser Angular Distribution in HYDRA's 3D Laser Ray Trace Package
Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-04-10
In this note, the angular distribution of rays launched by the 3D LZR ray trace package is derived for Gaussian beams (npower==2) with bm model=3±. Beams with bm model=+3 have a nearly at distribution, and beams with bm model=-3 have a nearly linear distribution when the spot size is large compared to the wavelength.
Magnetospheric Whistler Mode Ray Tracing with the Inclusion of Finite Electron and Ion Temperature
Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.
2015-12-01
Ray tracing is an important technique for the study of whistler mode wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere. In numerical ray tracing the trajectory of a wave packet is calculated at each point in space by solving the Haselgrove equations, assuming a smooth, loss-less medium with no mode coupling. Previous work on ray tracing has assumed a cold plasma environment with negligible electron and ion temperatures. In this work we present magnetospheric whistler mode wave ray tracing results with the inclusion of finite ion and electron temperature. The inclusion of finite temperature effects makes the fourth order dispersion relation become sixth order. We compare our results with the work done by previous researchers for cold plasma environments, using two near earth space models (NGO and GCPM). Inclusion of finite temperature closes the otherwise open refractive index surface near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and affects the magnetospheric reflection of whistler waves. We also asses the main changes in the ray trajectory and implications for cyclotron resonance wave particle interactions including energetic particle precipitation.
McXtrace: A modern ray-tracing package for X-ray instrumentation
Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Prodi, A.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær
2011-01-01
we present the developments of the McXtrace project, a free, open source software package based on Monte Carlo ray tracing for simulations and optimisation of complete X-ray instruments. The methodology of building a simulation is presented through an example beamline, namely Beamline 811 at MAX-...
A Ray-tracing Method to Analyzing Modulated Planar Fabry-Perot Antennas
Hougs, Mikkel Dahl; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav
2015-01-01
A new approach for fast modelling of Fabry-Perot antennas with modulated partially reflective surfaces (PRS) using ray-tracing is proposed. For validation of the method, a configuration is introduced which consists of a cavity with a modulated PRS, fed internally by a magnetic dipole. The PRS...
Investigation of propagation algorithms for ray-tracing simulation of polarized neutrons
Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Tranum-Rømer, A.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær
2014-01-01
Ray-tracing of polarized neutrons faces a challenge when the neutron propagates through an inhomogeneous magnetic field. This affects simulations of novel instruments using encoding of energy or angle into the neutron spin. We here present a new implementation of propagation of polarized neutrons...
GPU-based ray tracing algorithm for high-speed propagation prediction in typical indoor environments
Guo, Lixin; Guan, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhongyu
2015-10-01
A fast 3-D ray tracing propagation prediction model based on virtual source tree is presented in this paper, whose theoretical foundations are geometrical optics(GO) and the uniform theory of diffraction(UTD). In terms of typical single room indoor scene, taking the geometrical and electromagnetic information into account, some acceleration techniques are adopted to raise the efficiency of the ray tracing algorithm. The simulation results indicate that the runtime of the ray tracing algorithm will sharply increase when the number of the objects in the single room is large enough. Therefore, GPU acceleration technology is used to solve that problem. As is known to all, GPU is good at calculation operation rather than logical judgment, so that tens of thousands of threads in CUDA programs are able to calculate at the same time, in order to achieve massively parallel acceleration. Finally, a typical single room with several objects is simulated by using the serial ray tracing algorithm and the parallel one respectively. It can be found easily from the results that compared with the serial algorithm, the GPU-based one can achieve greater efficiency.
HUANG Yueqin; ZHANG Jianzhong
2008-01-01
A kind of three-dimensional(3-D) sound ray tracing algorithm in heterogeneous media is studied. This algorithm includes two steps: the first step computes the wavefront traveltimes forward; the second step traces the sound rays backward. In the first step, the computation of wavefront traveltimes at discrete grid points from the sound source, was found on Eikonal equation solutions and carried out by GMM (Group marching method) wavefront marching method based on level set. In the second step, sound ray tracing was proceeded gradually from the receiver to each cell towards the sound source, with wavefront traveltimes computed in the first step. Time values on arbitrary positions in each cuboid cell can be expressed by linear interpolation of wavefront traveltimes at the same cell's grid points. Thus,an algorithm of 3-D sound ray tracing in heterogeneous media is put forward. The simulation results indicate that this method can improve both the accuracy and the efficiency of 3-D sound ray tracing greatly.
A Sub-band Divided Ray Tracing Algorithm Using the DPS Subspace in UWB Indoor Scenarios
Gan, Mingming; Xu, Zhinan; Hofer, Markus
2015-01-01
Sub-band divided ray tracing (SDRT) is one technique that has been extensively used to obtain the channel characteristics for ultra-wideband (UWB) radio wave propagation in realistic indoor environments. However, the computational complexity of SDRT scales directly with the number of sub-bands. A...
Gold dimer nanoantenna with slanted gap for tunable LSPR and improved SERS
Kessentini, Sameh
2014-02-13
We focus on improving the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of dimer nanoantenna by tailoring the shape of the coupled nanoantennas extremities from rounded to straight or slanted ones. A numerical model based on the discrete dipole approximation method-taking into account periodicity, adhesion layer, and roughness-is first validated by comparison with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and SERS experiments on round-edged dimer nanoantennas and then used to investigate the effect of the straight or slanted gap in the dimer antenna. Simulations show that both LSPR and SERS can be tuned by changing the gap slanting angle. The SERS enhancement factor can also be improved by 2 orders of magnitude compared to the one reached using a rounded gap. Therefore, the slanting angle can be used as a new control parameter in the design of SERS substrates to guarantee stronger field confinement and higher sensitivity, especially as its feasibility is demonstrated. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Ray-tracing simulations of liquid-crystal gradient-index lenses for three-dimensional displays
Sluijter, M.; Herzog, A.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Krijn, M.P.C.M.; Urbach, P.H.
2009-01-01
For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ray-tracing simulations of an advanced liquid-crystal gradientindex lens structure for application in switchable two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic displays. We present ray-tracing simulations of the angular-dependent lens action.
A study of slanted-edge MTF stability and repeatability
Roland, Jackson K. M.
2015-01-01
The slanted-edge method of measuring the spatial frequency response (SFR) as an approximation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) has become a well known and widely used image quality testing method over the last 10 years. This method has been adopted by multiple international standards including ISO and IEEE. Nearly every commercially available image quality testing software includes the slanted-edge method and there are numerous open-source algorithms available. This method is one of the most important image quality algorithms in use today. This paper explores test conditions and the impacts they have on the stability and precision of the slanted-edge method as well as details of the algorithm itself. Real world and simulated data are used to validate the characteristics of the algorithm. Details of the target such as edge angle and contrast ratio are tested to determine the impact on measurement under various conditions. The original algorithm defines a near vertical edge so that errors introduced are minor but the theory behind the algorithm requires a perfectly vertical edge. A correction factor is introduced as a way to compensate for this problem. Contrast ratio is shown to have no impact on results in an absence of noise.
Slanted snaking bifurcation of localized Faraday waves
Pradenas, Bastián; Clerc, Marcel G; Falcón, Claudio; Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar
2016-01-01
We report on an experimental, theoretical and numerical study of slanted snaking of spatially localized parametrically excited waves on the surface of a water-surfactant mixture in a Hele-Shaw cell. We demonstrate experimentally the presence of a hysteretic transition to spatially extended parametrically excited surface waves when the acceleration amplitude is varied, as well as the presence of spatially localized waves exhibiting slanted snaking. The latter extend outside the hysteresis loop. We attribute this behavior to the presence of a conserved quantity, the liquid volume, and introduce a universal model which couples the wave amplitude with such a conserved quantity. The model captures both the observed slanted snaking and the presence of localized waves outside the hysteresis loop, as demonstrated by numerical integration of the model equations.
CUDA-Accelerated Geodesic Ray-Tracing for Fiber Tracking.
van Aart, Evert; Sepasian, Neda; Jalba, Andrei; Vilanova, Anna
2011-01-01
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) allows to noninvasively measure the diffusion of water in fibrous tissue. By reconstructing the fibers from DTI data using a fiber-tracking algorithm, we can deduce the structure of the tissue. In this paper, we outline an approach to accelerating such a fiber-tracking algorithm using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). This algorithm, which is based on the calculation of geodesics, has shown promising results for both synthetic and real data, but is limited in its applicability by its high computational requirements. We present a solution which uses the parallelism offered by modern GPUs, in combination with the CUDA platform by NVIDIA, to significantly reduce the execution time of the fiber-tracking algorithm. Compared to a multithreaded CPU implementation of the same algorithm, our GPU mapping achieves a speedup factor of up to 40 times.
CUDA-Accelerated Geodesic Ray-Tracing for Fiber Tracking
Evert van Aart
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI allows to noninvasively measure the diffusion of water in fibrous tissue. By reconstructing the fibers from DTI data using a fiber-tracking algorithm, we can deduce the structure of the tissue. In this paper, we outline an approach to accelerating such a fiber-tracking algorithm using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. This algorithm, which is based on the calculation of geodesics, has shown promising results for both synthetic and real data, but is limited in its applicability by its high computational requirements. We present a solution which uses the parallelism offered by modern GPUs, in combination with the CUDA platform by NVIDIA, to significantly reduce the execution time of the fiber-tracking algorithm. Compared to a multithreaded CPU implementation of the same algorithm, our GPU mapping achieves a speedup factor of up to 40 times.
Modelling unidirectional liquid spreading on slanted microposts
Cavalli, Andrea; Blow, Matthew L.; Yeomans, Julia M.
2013-01-01
A lattice Boltzmann algorithm is used to simulate the slow spreading of drops on a surface patterned with slanted micro-posts. Gibb's pinning of the interface on the sides or top of the posts leads to unidirectional spreading over a wide range of contact angles and inclination angles of the posts...
SLANT IMMERSIONS OF COMPLEX SPACE FORMS AND CHEN'S INEQUALITY
Li Guanghan; Wu Chuanxi
2005-01-01
A submanifold in a complex space form is called slant if it has constant Wirtinger angles. B. Y. Chen and Y. Tazawa proved that there do not exist minimal proper slant surfaces in CP2 and CH2. So it seems that the slant immersion has some interesting properties. The authors have great interest to consider slant immersions satisfying some additional conditions, such as unfull first normal bundles or Chen's equality holding. They prove that there do not exist n-dimensional Kaehlerian slant immersions in CPn and CHn with unfull first normal bundles. Next, it is seen that every Kaehlerian slant submanifold satisfying an equality of Chen is minimal which is similar to that of Lagrangian immersions. But in contrast, it is shown that a large class of slant immersions do not exist thoroughly. Finally, they give an application of Chen's inequality to general slant immersions in a complex projective space, which generalizes a result of Chen.
MCViNE -- An object oriented Monte Carlo neutron ray tracing simulation package
Lin, Jiao Y Y; Granroth, Garrett E; Abernathy, Douglas L; Lumsden, Mark D; Winn, Barry; Aczel, Adam A; Aivazis, Michael; Fultz, Brent
2015-01-01
MCViNE (Monte-Carlo VIrtual Neutron Experiment) is a versatile Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing program that provides researchers with tools for performing computer modeling and simulations that mirror real neutron scattering experiments. By adopting modern software engineering practices such as using composite and visitor design patterns for representing and accessing neutron scatterers, and using recursive algorithms for multiple scattering, MCViNE is flexible enough to handle sophisticated neutron scattering problems including, for example, neutron detection by complex detector systems, and single and multiple scattering events in a variety of samples and sample environments. In addition, MCViNE can take advantage of simulation components in linear-chain-based MC ray tracing packages widely used in instrument design and optimization, as well as NumPy-based components that make prototypes useful and easy to develop. These developments have enabled us to carry out detailed simulations of neutron scatteri...
Herlocker, J. A.; Jiang, J.; Garcia, K. J.
2008-08-01
Common digital display systems have evolved into sophisticated optical devices. The rapid market growth in liquid crystal displays makes the simulation of full systems attractive, promoting virtual prototyping with decreased development times and improved manufacturability. Realistic simulation using commercial non-sequential ray tracing tools has been instrumental in this process, but the need to accurately model polarization devices has become critical in many designs. As display systems seek more efficient use of light and more accurate color representation, the proper simulation of polarization devices with large acceptance angles is essential. This paper examines non-uniform polarization effects in the simulation of modern display devices using realistic polarizer and retarder models in the ASAPÂ® non-sequential ray-tracing environment.
Solar Proton Transport Within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Ray-trace Geometry
Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.
2015-01-01
A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z is less than or equal to 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.
GRay: a Massively Parallel GPU-Based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes
Chan, Chi-kwan; Ozel, Feryal
2013-01-01
We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This GPU-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 nanosecond per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing CPU-based ray tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and lightcurves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of K...
Robust Image Denoising using a Virtual Flash Image for Monte Carlo Ray Tracing
Moon, Bochang; Jun, Jong Yun; Lee, JongHyeob
2013-01-01
parameters. To highlight the benefits of our method, we apply our method to two Monte Carlo ray tracing methods, photon mapping and path tracing, with various input scenes. We demonstrate that using virtual flash images and homogeneous pixels with a standard denoising method outperforms state-of-the-art......We propose an efficient and robust image-space denoising method for noisy images generated by Monte Carlo ray tracing methods. Our method is based on two new concepts: virtual flash images and homogeneous pixels. Inspired by recent developments in flash photography, virtual flash images emulate...... values. While denoising each pixel, we consider only homogeneous pixels—pixels that are statistically equivalent to each other. This makes it possible to define a stochastic error bound of our method, and this bound goes to zero as the number of ray samples goes to infinity, irrespective of denoising...
Mathematic models for a ray tracing method and its applications in wireless optical communications.
Zhang, Minglun; Zhang, Yangan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Jinnan
2010-08-16
This paper presents a new ray tracing method, which contains a whole set of mathematic models, and its validity is verified by simulations. In addition, both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the computational complexity of the method is much lower than that of previous ones. Therefore, the method can be used to rapidly calculate the impulse response of wireless optical channels for complicated systems.
Modeling pyramidal sensors in ray-tracing software by a suitable user-defined surface
Antichi, Jacopo; Munari, Matteo; Magrin, Demetrio; Riccardi, Armando
2016-04-01
Following the unprecedented results in terms of performances delivered by the first light adaptive optics system at the Large Binocular Telescope, there has been a wide-spread and increasing interest on the pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS), which is the key component, together with the adaptive secondary mirror, of the adaptive optics (AO) module. Currently, there is no straightforward way to model a PWFS in standard sequential ray-tracing software. Common modeling strategies tend to be user-specific and, in general, are unsatisfactory for general applications. To address this problem, we have developed an approach to PWFS modeling based on user-defined surface (UDS), whose properties reside in a specific code written in C language, for the ray-tracing software ZEMAX™. With our approach, the pyramid optical component is implemented as a standard surface in ZEMAX™, exploiting its dynamic link library (DLL) conversion then greatly simplifying ray tracing and analysis. We have utilized the pyramid UDS DLL surface-referred to as pyramidal acronyms may be too risky (PAM2R)-in order to design the current PWFS-based AO system for the Giant Magellan Telescope, evaluating tolerances, with particular attention to the angular sensitivities, by means of sequential ray-tracing tools only, thus verifying PAM2R reliability and robustness. This work indicates that PAM2R makes the design of PWFS as simple as that of other optical standard components. This is particularly suitable with the advent of the extremely large telescopes era for which complexity is definitely one of the main challenges.
Statistical Inverse Ray Tracing for Image-Based 3D Modeling.
Liu, Shubao; Cooper, David B
2014-10-01
This paper proposes a new formulation and solution to image-based 3D modeling (aka "multi-view stereo") based on generative statistical modeling and inference. The proposed new approach, named statistical inverse ray tracing, models and estimates the occlusion relationship accurately through optimizing a physically sound image generation model based on volumetric ray tracing. Together with geometric priors, they are put together into a Bayesian formulation known as Markov random field (MRF) model. This MRF model is different from typical MRFs used in image analysis in the sense that the ray clique, which models the ray-tracing process, consists of thousands of random variables instead of two to dozens. To handle the computational challenges associated with large clique size, an algorithm with linear computational complexity is developed by exploiting, using dynamic programming, the recursive chain structure of the ray clique. We further demonstrate the benefit of exact modeling and accurate estimation of the occlusion relationship by evaluating the proposed algorithm on several challenging data sets.
A rapid and accurate two-point ray tracing method in horizontally layered velocity model
TIAN Yue; CHEN Xiao-fei
2005-01-01
A rapid and accurate method for two-point ray tracing in horizontally layered velocity model is presented in this paper. Numerical experiments show that this method provides stable and rapid convergence with high accuracies, regardless of various 1-D velocity structures, takeoff angles and epicentral distances. This two-point ray tracing method is compared with the pseudobending technique and the method advanced by Kim and Baag (2002). It turns out that the method in this paper is much more efficient and accurate than the pseudobending technique, but is only applicable to 1-D velocity model. Kim(s method is equivalent to ours for cases without large takeoff angles, but it fails to work when the takeoff angle is close to 90o. On the other hand, the method presented in this paper is applicable to cases with any takeoff angles with rapid and accurate convergence. Therefore, this method is a good choice for two-point ray tracing problems in horizontally layered velocity model and is efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of seismic problems.
Vertex shading of the three-dimensional model based on ray-tracing algorithm
Hu, Xiaoming; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan
2016-10-01
Ray Tracing Algorithm is one of the research hotspots in Photorealistic Graphics. It is an important light and shadow technology in many industries with the three-dimensional (3D) structure, such as aerospace, game, video and so on. Unlike the traditional method of pixel shading based on ray tracing, a novel ray tracing algorithm is presented to color and render vertices of the 3D model directly. Rendering results are related to the degree of subdivision of the 3D model. A good light and shade effect is achieved by realizing the quad-tree data structure to get adaptive subdivision of a triangle according to the brightness difference of its vertices. The uniform grid algorithm is adopted to improve the rendering efficiency. Besides, the rendering time is independent of the screen resolution. In theory, as long as the subdivision of a model is adequate, cool effects as the same as the way of pixel shading will be obtained. Our practical application can be compromised between the efficiency and the effectiveness.
RAY-RAMSES: a code for ray tracing on the fly in N-body simulations
Barreira, Alexandre; Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu
2016-01-01
We present a ray tracing code to compute integrated cosmological observables on the fly in AMR N-body simulations. Unlike conventional ray tracing techniques, our code takes full advantage of the time and spatial resolution attained by the N-body simulation by computing the integrals along the line of sight on a cell-by-cell basis through the AMR simulation grid. Moroever, since it runs on the fly in the N-body run, our code can produce maps of the desired observables without storing large (or any) amounts of data for post-processing. We implemented our routines in the RAMSES N-body code and tested the implementation using an example of weak lensing simulation. We analyse basic statistics of lensing convergence maps and find good agreement with semi-analytical methods. The ray tracing methodology presented here can be used in several cosmological analysis such as Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect studies as well as modified gravity. Our code can also be used in cross-checks of the more conv...
Comparing FDTD and Ray-Tracing Models in Numerical Simulation of HgCdTe LWIR Photodetectors
Vallone, Marco; Goano, Michele; Bertazzi, Francesco; Ghione, Giovanni; Schirmacher, Wilhelm; Hanna, Stefan; Figgemeier, Heinrich
2016-09-01
We present a simulation study of HgCdTe-based long-wavelength infrared detectors, focusing on methodological comparisons between the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and ray-tracing optical models. We performed three-dimensional simulations to determine the absorbed photon density distributions and the corresponding photocurrent and quantum efficiency spectra of isolated n-on- p uniform-composition pixels, systematically comparing the results obtained with FDTD and ray tracing. Since ray tracing is a classical optics approach, unable to describe interference effects, its applicability has been found to be strongly wavelength dependent, especially when reflections from metallic layers are relevant. Interesting cavity effects around the material cutoff wavelength are described, and the cases where ray tracing can be considered a viable approximation are discussed.
Fabrication of Slanted Cu Nanopillars with Uniform Arrays
Sung-Woon Cho
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Slanted Cu nanopillars with uniform arrays were fabricat‐ ed using slanted Si channel structures as templates. A slanted plasma etching technique was employed, utilizing a Faraday cage system for the formation of these slanted channel structures. The angle of the slanted channel structures was accurately controlled because ions entering the Faraday cage maintained their direction. After the slanted channel structures were formed, they were filled with Cu by electroless deposition. Chemical mechanical polishing was then used to remove the excess Cu film and the SiO2 masks. Finally, the remaining poly Si of the channel structures was removed by wet chemical etching. This work offers a novel method for the fabrication of slanted metal nanostructures with uniform arrays covering a large area.
Slant hole completion test. Final report
Mann, R.L.
1993-07-01
One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.
Spin tracking simulations in AGS based on ray-tracing methods - bare lattice, no snakes -
Meot, F.; Ahrens, L.; Gleen, J.; Huang, H.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.
2009-09-01
This Note reports on the first simulations of and spin dynamics in the AGS using the ray-tracing code Zgoubi. It includes lattice analysis, comparisons with MAD, DA tracking, numerical calculation of depolarizing resonance strengths and comparisons with analytical models, etc. It also includes details on the setting-up of Zgoubi input data files and on the various numerical methods of concern in and available from Zgoubi. Simulations of crossing and neighboring of spin resonances in AGS ring, bare lattice, without snake, have been performed, in order to assess the capabilities of Zgoubi in that matter, and are reported here. This yields a rather long document. The two main reasons for that are, on the one hand the desire of an extended investigation of the energy span, and on the other hand a thorough comparison of Zgoubi results with analytical models as the 'thin lens' approximation, the weak resonance approximation, and the static case. Section 2 details the working hypothesis : AGS lattice data, formulae used for deriving various resonance related quantities from the ray-tracing based 'numerical experiments', etc. Section 3 gives inventories of the intrinsic and imperfection resonances together with, in a number of cases, the strengths derived from the ray-tracing. Section 4 gives the details of the numerical simulations of resonance crossing, including behavior of various quantities (closed orbit, synchrotron motion, etc.) aimed at controlling that the conditions of particle and spin motions are correct. In a similar manner Section 5 gives the details of the numerical simulations of spin motion in the static case: fixed energy in the neighboring of the resonance. In Section 6, weak resonances are explored, Zgoubi results are compared with the Fresnel integrals model. Section 7 shows the computation of the {rvec n} vector in the AGS lattice and tuning considered. Many details on the numerical conditions as data files etc. are given in the
TIM, a ray-tracing program for METATOY research and its dissemination
Lambert, Dean; Hamilton, Alasdair C.; Constable, George; Snehanshu, Harsh; Talati, Sharvil; Courtial, Johannes
2012-03-01
TIM (The Interactive METATOY) is a ray-tracing program specifically tailored towards our research in METATOYs, which are optical components that appear to be able to create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. For this reason, TIM possesses features not found in other ray-tracing programs. TIM can either be used interactively or by modifying the openly available source code; in both cases, it can easily be run as an applet embedded in a web page. Here we describe the basic structure of TIM's source code and how to extend it, and we give examples of how we have used TIM in our own research. Program summaryProgram title: TIM Catalogue identifier: AEKY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 124 478 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 120 052 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Any computer capable of running the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.6 Operating system: Any; developed under Mac OS X Version 10.6 RAM: Typically 145 MB (interactive version running under Mac OS X Version 10.6) Classification: 14, 18 External routines: JAMA [1] (source code included) Nature of problem: Visualisation of scenes that include scene objects that create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. Solution method: Ray tracing. Unusual features: Specifically designed to visualise wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields; can visualise ray trajectories; can visualise geometric optic transformations; can create anaglyphs (for viewing with coloured "3D glasses") and random-dot autostereograms of the scene; integrable into web pages. Running time: Problem-dependent; typically seconds for a simple scene.
Infrasonic ray tracing applied to mesoscale atmospheric structures: refraction by hurricanes.
Bedard, Alfred J; Jones, R Michael
2013-11-01
A ray-tracing program is used to estimate the refraction of infrasound by the temperature structure of the atmosphere and by hurricanes represented by a Rankine-combined vortex wind plus a temperature perturbation. Refraction by the hurricane winds is significant, giving rise to regions of focusing, defocusing, and virtual sources. The refraction of infrasound by the temperature anomaly associated with a hurricane is small, probably no larger than that from uncertainties in the wind field. The results are pertinent to interpreting ocean wave generated infrasound in the vicinities of tropical cyclones.
Invisibility cloaking via non-smooth transformation optics and ray tracing
Crosskey, Miles M., E-mail: mmc31@duke.ed [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320 (United States); Nixon, Andrew T., E-mail: andrew_nixon@brown.ed [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, 182 George Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Schick, Leland M., E-mail: lschick@math.arizona.ed [Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona, 617 N. Santa Rita Ave., P.O. Box 210089, Tucson, AZ 85721-0089 (United States); Kovacic, Gregor, E-mail: kovacg@rpi.ed [Mathematical Sciences Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)
2011-05-02
We present examples of theoretically-predicted invisibility cloaks with shapes other than spheres and cylinders, including cones and ellipsoids, as well as shapes spliced from parts of these simpler shapes. In addition, we present an example explicitly displaying the non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. We depict rays propagating through these example cloaks using ray tracing for geometric optics. - Highlights: Theoretically-predicted conical and ellipsoidal invisibility cloaks. Non-smooth cloaks spliced from parts of simpler shapes. Example displaying non-uniqueness of invisibility cloaks of the same shape. Rays propagating through example cloaks depicted using geometric optics.
Shi, Guangyuan; Li, Song; Huang, Ke; Li, Zile; Zheng, Guoxing
2016-10-01
We have developed a new numerical ray-tracing approach for LIDAR signal power function computation, in which the light round-trip propagation is analyzed by geometrical optics and a simple experiment is employed to acquire the laser intensity distribution. It is relatively more accurate and flexible than previous methods. We emphatically discuss the relationship between the inclined angle and the dynamic range of detector output signal in biaxial LIDAR system. Results indicate that an appropriate negative angle can compress the signal dynamic range. This technique has been successfully proved by comparison with real measurements.
A Fast Ray-Tracing Using Bounding Spheres and Frustum Rays for Dynamic Scene Rendering
Suzuki, Ken-Ichi; Kaeriyama, Yoshiyuki; Komatsu, Kazuhiko; Egawa, Ryusuke; Ohba, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki
Ray tracing is one of the most popular techniques for generating photo-realistic images. Extensive research and development work has made interactive static scene rendering realistic. This paper deals with interactive dynamic scene rendering in which not only the eye point but also the objects in the scene change their 3D locations every frame. In order to realize interactive dynamic scene rendering, RTRPS (Ray Tracing based on Ray Plane and Bounding Sphere), which utilizes the coherency in rays, objects, and grouped-rays, is introduced. RTRPS uses bounding spheres as the spatial data structure which utilizes the coherency in objects. By using bounding spheres, RTRPS can ignore the rotation of moving objects within a sphere, and shorten the update time between frames. RTRPS utilizes the coherency in rays by merging rays into a ray-plane, assuming that the secondary rays and shadow rays are shot through an aligned grid. Since a pair of ray-planes shares an original ray, the intersection for the ray can be completed using the coherency in the ray-planes. Because of the three kinds of coherency, RTRPS can significantly reduce the number of intersection tests for ray tracing. Further acceleration techniques for ray-plane-sphere and ray-triangle intersection are also presented. A parallel projection technique converts a 3D vector inner product operation into a 2D operation and reduces the number of floating point operations. Techniques based on frustum culling and binary-tree structured ray-planes optimize the order of intersection tests between ray-planes and a sphere, resulting in 50% to 90% reduction of intersection tests. Two ray-triangle intersection techniques are also introduced, which are effective when a large number of rays are packed into a ray-plane. Our performance evaluations indicate that RTRPS gives 13 to 392 times speed up in comparison with a ray tracing algorithm without organized rays and spheres. We found out that RTRPS also provides competitive
Tichý, Vladimír; Hudec, René; Němcová, Šárka
2016-06-01
The algorithm presented is intended mainly for lobster eye optics. This type of optics (and some similar types) allows for a simplification of the classical ray-tracing procedure that requires great many rays to simulate. The method presented performs the simulation of a only few rays; therefore it is extremely effective. Moreover, to simplify the equations, a specific mathematical formalism is used. Only a few simple equations are used, therefore the program code can be simple as well. The paper also outlines how to apply the method to some other reflective optical systems.
Monocular and binocular edges enhance the perception of stereoscopic slant.
Wardle, Susan G; Palmisano, Stephen; Gillam, Barbara J
2014-07-01
Gradients of absolute binocular disparity across a slanted surface are often considered the basis for stereoscopic slant perception. However, perceived stereo slant around a vertical axis is usually slow and significantly under-estimated for isolated surfaces. Perceived slant is enhanced when surrounding surfaces provide a relative disparity gradient or depth step at the edges of the slanted surface, and also in the presence of monocular occlusion regions (sidebands). Here we investigate how different kinds of depth information at surface edges enhance stereo slant about a vertical axis. In Experiment 1, perceived slant decreased with increasing surface width, suggesting that the relative disparity between the left and right edges was used to judge slant. Adding monocular sidebands increased perceived slant for all surface widths. In Experiment 2, observers matched the slant of surfaces that were isolated or had a context of either monocular or binocular sidebands in the frontal plane. Both types of sidebands significantly increased perceived slant, but the effect was greater with binocular sidebands. These results were replicated in a second paradigm in which observers matched the depth of two probe dots positioned in front of slanted surfaces (Experiment 3). A large bias occurred for the surface without sidebands, yet this bias was reduced when monocular sidebands were present, and was nearly eliminated with binocular sidebands. Our results provide evidence for the importance of edges in stereo slant perception, and show that depth from monocular occlusion geometry and binocular disparity may interact to resolve complex 3D scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Mona Lisa effect: Testing the limits of perceptual robustness vis-à-vis slanted images
Hecht Heiko
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We report three experiments that test the limits of the Mona Lisa effect. The gaze of a portrait that is looking at us appears to follow us around as we move with respect to the picture. Even if our position is shifted considerably to the side, or if the picture is severely slanted, do we feel the gaze to be directed at us? We determined the threshold where this effect breaks down to be maximally 70° of picture slant relative to the observer. Different factors modulate this remarkable robustness, among them being the display medium and the nature of the picture. The threshold was considerably lower when the picture was mounted on a physical surface as opposed to a computer simulation of slant. Also, the more the portrayed object deviated from the photograph of a human head, the less robust the Mona Lisa effect became. Implications for theories of perspective distortion are discussed.
A Novel Magnetic Linear Encoder Designed by Using the Slant Multi-Phase Filtering Model
SHI Yu; XING Huai-Zhong; ZHANG Huai-Wu; LIU Ying-Li; JING Yu-Lan; ZHONG Zhi-Yong
2004-01-01
@@ A novel design model based on the slant multi-phase filtering model is presented. A magnetic linear encoder with sinusoidal output voltage waveform has been investigated, and the improved sinusoidal output waveform can be easily acquired. A minimum 6% of distortion factor, when the difference of slant phase is 2π/3, is observed. It is found that the Wheatstone bridge type sensor, made of NiFe(450A)/NiO(300A) bilayers deposited on Si (001)substrate, can enhance both output signal and thermal stability, and then can be widely used in the field of magneto-resistive sensor.
GRay: A Massively Parallel GPU-based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes
Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal
2013-11-01
We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.
Integrated ray tracing simulation of spectral bio-signatures from full 3D earth model
Ryu, Dongok; Seong, Sehyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Hong, Jinsuk; Jeong, Soomin; Jeong, Yukyeong; Kim, Sug-Whan
2009-08-01
Accurate identification and understanding of spectral bio-signatures from possible extra terrestrial planets have received an ever increasing attention from both astronomy and space science communities in recent years. In pursuance of this subject, one of the most important scientific breakthroughs would be to obtain the detailed understanding on spectral biosignatures of the Earth, as it serves as a reference datum for accurate interpretation of collapsed (in temporal and spatial domains) information from the spectral measurement using TPF instruments. We report a new Integrated Ray Tracing (IRT) model capable of computing various spectral bio-signatures as they are observed from the Earth surface. The model includes the Sun, the full 3-D Earth, and an optical instrument, all combined into single ray tracing environment in real scale. In particular, the full 3-D Earth surface is constructed from high resolution coastal line data and defined with realistic reflectance and BSDF characteristics depending on wavelength, vegetation types and their distributions. We first examined the model validity by confirming the imaging and radiometric performance of the AmonRa visible channel camera, simulating the Earth observation from the L1 halo orbit. We then computed disk averaged spectra, light curves and NDVI indexes, leading to the construction of the observed disk averaged spectra at the AmonRa instrument detector plane. The model, computational procedure and the simulation results are presented. The future plan for the detailed spectral signature simulation runs for various input conditions including seasonal vegetation changes and variable cloud covers is discussed.
N. H. Abd Rahman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.
MCViNE - An object oriented Monte Carlo neutron ray tracing simulation package
Lin, Jiao Y. Y.; Smith, Hillary L.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Winn, Barry; Aczel, Adam A.; Aivazis, Michael; Fultz, Brent
2016-02-01
MCViNE (Monte-Carlo VIrtual Neutron Experiment) is an open-source Monte Carlo (MC) neutron ray-tracing software for performing computer modeling and simulations that mirror real neutron scattering experiments. We exploited the close similarity between how instrument components are designed and operated and how such components can be modeled in software. For example we used object oriented programming concepts for representing neutron scatterers and detector systems, and recursive algorithms for implementing multiple scattering. Combining these features together in MCViNE allows one to handle sophisticated neutron scattering problems in modern instruments, including, for example, neutron detection by complex detector systems, and single and multiple scattering events in a variety of samples and sample environments. In addition, MCViNE can use simulation components from linear-chain-based MC ray tracing packages which facilitates porting instrument models from those codes. Furthermore it allows for components written solely in Python, which expedites prototyping of new components. These developments have enabled detailed simulations of neutron scattering experiments, with non-trivial samples, for time-of-flight inelastic instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source. Examples of such simulations for powder and single-crystal samples with various scattering kernels, including kernels for phonon and magnon scattering, are presented. With simulations that closely reproduce experimental results, scattering mechanisms can be turned on and off to determine how they contribute to the measured scattering intensities, improving our understanding of the underlying physics.
Monte Carlo tolerancing tool using nonsequential ray tracing on a computer cluster
Reimer, Christopher
2010-08-01
The development of a flexible tolerancing tool for illumination systems based on Matlab® and Zemax® is described in this paper. Two computationally intensive techniques are combined, Monte Carlo tolerancing and non-sequential ray tracing. Implementation of the tool on a computer cluster allows for relatively rapid tolerancing. This paper explores the tool structure, describing the splitting the task of tolerancing between Zemax and Matlab. An equation is derived that determines the number of simulated ray traces needed to accurately resolve illumination uniformity. Two examples of tolerancing illuminators are given. The first one is a projection system consisting of a pico-DLP, a light pipe, a TIR prism and the critical illumination relay optics. The second is a wide band, high performance Köhler illuminator, which includes a modified molded LED as the light source. As high performance illumination systems evolve, the practice of applying standard workshop tolerances to these systems may need to be re-examined.
Product and Commutativity of kth-Order Slant Toeplitz Operators
Chaomei Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The commutativity of kth-order slant Toeplitz operators with harmonic polynomial symbols, analytic symbols, and coanalytic symbols is discussed. We show that, on the Lebesgue space and Bergman space, necessary and sufficient conditions for the commutativity of kth-order slant Toeplitz operators are that their symbol functions are linearly dependent. Also, we study the product of two kth-order slant Toeplitz operators and give some necessary and sufficient conditions.
Mitsuishi, I.; Ezoe, Y.; Ogawa, T.; Sato, M.; Nakamura, K.; Numazawa, M.; Takeuchi, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Mitsuda, K.
2016-01-01
To investigate a feasibility for in situ X-ray imaging spectrometer JUXTA (Jupiter X-ray Telescope Array) onboard a Japanese Jupiter exploration mission, we demonstrated the ideal performances, i.e., angular resolution, effective area and grasp, of our original, conically-approximated Wolter type-I MEMS-processed optics, by extending the previous ray-tracing simulator. The novel simulator enables us to study both on- and off-axis responses for our optics with two-stage optical configurations for the first time. The on-axis angular resolution is restricted to ∼ 13 μm corresponding to ∼ 10 arcsec on the detector plane without considering the diffraction effect and dominated by the diffraction effect below ∼ 1 keV (e.g., 13 arcsec at 1 keV). Si optics can achieve effective area of >700 mm2 and grasp of >1600 mm2 deg2 at our interesting energy of 600 eV. Larger effective area and grasp can be attained by employing Ni as a substrate material or Ir as a reflecting surface material. However, other factors produced in the fabrication processes such as the waviness on the mirror surface and the deformation error cause the significant performance degradation. Thus, we concluded that MEMS-processed optics can satisfy all the requirements of JUXTA only if the manufacturing accuracy can be controlled.
KARAT-LAMBDA - frequency dependent ray-traced troposphere delays for space applications
Hobiger, Thomas; Baron, Philippe
2014-05-01
Space-geodetic microwave techniques work under the assumption that the only dispersive, i.e. frequency dependent delay contribution is caused by the ionosphere. In general, the refractivity, even for the troposphere, is a complex quantity which can be denoted as N = N0 + (N'(f) + i N''(f)) where N0 is a frequency independent term, and N'(f) and N''(f) represent the complex frequency dependence. Thereby, the imaginary part can be used to derive the loss of energy (absorption) and the real part can be assigned to the changes in the propagation velocity (refraction) and thus describes the delay of an electromagnetic wave which propagates through that medium. Although the frequency dependent delay contribution appears to be of small order, one has to consider that signals are propagating through few kilometers of troposphere at high elevations to hundredths of kilometers at low elevations. Therefore, the Kashima Ray-Tracing package (Hobiger et al., 2008) has been modified (and named KARAT-LAMBDA) to enable the consideration of a frequency dependent refractivity. By using this tool, it was studied if and to which extent future space geodetic instruments are affected from dispersive troposphere delays. Moreover, a semi-empirical correction model for the microwave link of the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) has been developed, based on ray-tracing calculations with KARAT-LAMBDA. The proposed model (Hobiger et al., 2013) has been tested with simulated ISS overflights at different potential ACES ground station sites and it could be demonstrated that this model is capable to remove biases and elevation dependent features caused by the dispersive troposphere delay difference between the up-link and down-link. References: T. Hobiger, R. Ichikawa, T. Kondo, and Y. Koyama (2008), Fast and accurate ray-tracing algorithms for real-time space geodetic applications using numerical weather models, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, iss. D203027, pp. 1-14. T. Hobiger, D
Ray tracing simulation of aero-optical effect using multiple gradient index layer
Yang, Seul Ki; Seong, Sehyun; Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kwon, Hyeuknam; Jin, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Ho; Kong, Hyun Bae; Lim, Jae Wan; Choi, Jong Hwa
2016-10-01
We present a new ray tracing simulation of aero-optical effect through anisotropic inhomogeneous media as supersonic flow field surrounds a projectile. The new method uses multiple gradient-index (GRIN) layers for construction of the anisotropic inhomogeneous media and ray tracing simulation. The cone-shaped projectile studied has 19° semi-vertical angle; a sapphire window is parallel to the cone angle; and an optical system of the projectile was assumed via paraxial optics and infrared image detector. The condition for the steady-state solver conducted through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) included Mach numbers 4 and 6 in speed, 25 km altitude, and 0° angle of attack (AoA). The grid refractive index of the flow field via CFD analysis and Gladstone-Dale relation was discretized into equally spaced layers which are parallel with the projectile's window. Each layer was modeled as a form of 2D polynomial by fitting the refractive index distribution. The light source of ray set generated 3,228 rays for varying line of sight (LOS) from 10° to 40°. Ray tracing simulation adopted the Snell's law in 3D to compute the paths of skew rays in the GRIN layers. The results show that optical path difference (OPD) and boresight error (BSE) decreases exponentially as LOS increases. The variation of refractive index decreases, as the speed of flow field increases the OPD and its rate of decay at Mach number 6 in speed has somewhat larger value than at Mach number 4 in speed. Compared with the ray equation method, at Mach number 4 and 10° LOS, the new method shows good agreement, generated 0.33% of relative root-mean-square (RMS) OPD difference and 0.22% of relative BSE difference. Moreover, the simulation time of the new method was more than 20,000 times faster than the conventional ray equation method. The technical detail of the new method and simulation is presented with results and implication.
Modeling of 3D In—Building Propagation by Ray Tracing Technique
GongKe; XuRui
1995-01-01
The modeling of in-building propagation is of great importance for planning of indoor wireless networks.To model the transmission system comprising of transmitter,receiver and dif-ferent kinds of obstacles,ray tracing technique is used by taking a transmitter as a source launch-ing radio rays in different directions,some of these can reach the receiver through different paths with different path loss and delay,adding them together gives out the field strength at the receiv-ing point.Based on this model,computer simulation is carried out to predict the propagation loss and delay spread,it is shown that the simulation agrees well with the experiments.
Yang, Yufei; Yan, Changxiang
2016-02-20
The polarization properties of a two-axis periscopic optical scanner constituted by a pair of rotating planar mirrors have been studied by using the three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing matrix method. The separate and cumulative matrices that define the transformation of the polarization state are obtained and expressed in terms of the rotation angles of two mirrors. The variations of diattenuation and retardance are investigated and graphically shown as functions of the rotation angles. On this basis, a further investigation about the cumulative polarization aberrations of three different metal-coated periscopic scanners is accomplished. Finally, the output polarization states of the three metal-coated scanners are calculated with the input beam of the arbitrary polarization states, and the results show that aluminum film is more appropriate than gold film or silver film for the polarization-maintaining periscopic scanner.
Novel applications of the x-ray tracing software package McXtrace
Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Haldrup, Kristoffer
2014-01-01
We will present examples of applying the X-ray tracing software package McXtrace to different kinds of X-ray scattering experiments. In particular we will be focusing on time-resolved type experiments. Simulations of full scale experiments are particularly useful for this kind, especially when...... some of the issues encountered. Generally more than one or all of these effects are present at once. Simulations can in these cases be used to identify distinct footprints of such distortions and thus give the experimenter a means of deconvoluting them from the signal. We will present a study...... of this kind along with the newest developments of the McXtrace software package....
MC ray-tracing optimization of lobster-eye focusing devices with RESTRAX
Saroun, Jan [Nuclear Physics Institute, ASCR, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: saroun@ujf.cas.cz; Kulda, Jiri [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2006-11-15
The enhanced functionalities of the latest version of the RESTRAX software, providing a high-speed Monte Carlo (MC) ray-tracing code to represent a virtual three-axis neutron spectrometer, include representation of parabolic and elliptic guide profiles and facilities for numerical optimization of parameter values, characterizing the instrument components. As examples, we present simulations of a doubly focusing monochromator in combination with cold neutron guides and lobster-eye supermirror devices, concentrating a monochromatic beam to small sample volumes. A Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm is used to optimize simultaneously several parameters of the monochromator and lobster-eye guides. We compare the performance of optimized configurations in terms of monochromatic neutron flux and energy spread and demonstrate the effect of lobster-eye optics on beam transformations in real and momentum subspaces.
Stress optical path difference analysis of off-axis lens ray trace footprint
Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Kun-Huan; Chen, Chih-Wen; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming
2013-06-01
The mechanical and thermal stress on lens will cause the glass refractive index different, the refractive index of light parallel and light perpendicular to the direction of stress. The refraction index changes will introduce Optical Path Difference (OPD). This study is applying Finite Element Method (FEM) and optical ray tracing; calculate off axis ray stress OPD. The optical system stress distribution result is calculated from finite element simulation, and the stress coordinate need to rotate to optical path direction. Meanwhile, weighting stress to each optical ray path and sum the ray path OPD. The Z-direction stress OPD can be fitted by Zernike polynomial, the separated to sag difference, and rigid body motion. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the stress effect on optical component.
Ray-tracing analysis of crosstalk in multi-core polymer optical fibers.
Berganza, Amaia; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka
2010-10-11
The aim of this paper is to present a new ray-tracing model which describes the propagation of light in multi-core polymer optical fibers (MCPOFs), taking into account the crosstalk among their cores. The new model overcomes many of the limitations of previous approaches allowing us to simulate MCPOFs of arbitrary designs. Additionally, it provides us with the output ray distribution at the end of the fiber, making it possible to calculate useful parameters related to the fiber performance such as the Near-Field Pattern, the Far-Field Pattern or the bandwidth. We also present experimental measurements in order to validate the computational model and we analyze the importance of crosstalk in different MCPOF configurations.
Simulation of radiation damping in rings, using stepwise ray-tracing methods
Méot, F.
2015-06-01
The ray-tracing code Zgoubi computes particle trajectories in arbitrary magnetic and/or electric field maps or analytical field models. It includes a built-in fitting procedure, spin tracking, many Monte Carlo processes. The accuracy of the integration method makes it an efficient tool for multi-turn tracking in periodic machines. Energy loss by synchrotron radiation, based on Monte Carlo techniques, had been introduced in Zgoubi in the early 2000s for studies regarding the linear collider beam delivery system. However, only recently has this Monte Carlo tool been used for systematic beam dynamics and spin diffusion studies in rings, including the eRHIC electron-ion collider project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Some beam dynamics aspects of this recent use of Zgoubi capabilities, including considerations of accuracy as well as further benchmarking in the presence of synchrotron radiation in rings, are reported here.
Microcellular propagation prediction model based on an improved ray tracing algorithm.
Liu, Z-Y; Guo, L-X; Fan, T-Q
2013-11-01
Two-dimensional (2D)/two-and-one-half-dimensional ray tracing (RT) algorithms for the use of the uniform theory of diffraction and geometrical optics are widely used for channel prediction in urban microcellular environments because of their high efficiency and reliable prediction accuracy. In this study, an improved RT algorithm based on the "orientation face set" concept and on the improved 2D polar sweep algorithm is proposed. The goal is to accelerate point-to-point prediction, thereby making RT prediction attractive and convenient. In addition, the use of threshold control of each ray path and the handling of visible grid points for reflection and diffraction sources are adopted, resulting in an improved efficiency of coverage prediction over large areas. Measured results and computed predictions are also compared for urban scenarios. The results indicate that the proposed prediction model works well and is a useful tool for microcellular communication applications.
Heat-Flux Analysis of Solar Furnace Using the Monte Carlo Ray-Tracing Method
Lee, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Nam; Kang, Yong Heack [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-15
An understanding of the concentrated solar flux is critical for the analysis and design of solar-energy-utilization systems. The current work focuses on the development of an algorithm that uses the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method with excellent flexibility and expandability; this method considers both solar limb darkening and the surface slope error of reflectors, thereby analyzing the solar flux. A comparison of the modeling results with measurements at the solar furnace in Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) show good agreement within a measurement uncertainty of 10%. The model evaluates the concentration performance of the KIER solar furnace with a tracking accuracy of 2 mrad and a maximum attainable concentration ratio of 4400 sun. Flux variations according to measurement position and flux distributions depending on acceptance angles provide detailed information for the design of chemical reactors or secondary concentrators.
Ray-tracing for coordinate knowledge in the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module
Sabatke, Derek; Rohrbach, Scott; Kubalak, David
2014-01-01
Optical alignment and testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module of the James Webb Space Telescope is underway. We describe the Optical Telescope Element Simulator used to feed the science instruments with point images of precisely known location and chief ray pointing, at appropriate wavelengths and flux levels, in vacuum and at operating temperature. The simulator's capabilities include a number of devices for in situ monitoring of source flux, wavefront error, pupil illumination, image position and chief ray angle. Taken together, these functions become a fascinating example of how the first order properties and constructs of an optical design (coordinate systems, image surface and pupil location) acquire measurable meaning in a real system. We illustrate these functions with experimental data, and describe the ray tracing system used to provide both pointing control during operation and analysis support subsequently. Prescription management takes the form of optimization and fitting. Our core too...
Betremieux, Yan
2015-01-01
Atmospheric refraction affects to various degrees exoplanet transit, lunar eclipse, as well as stellar occultation observations. Exoplanet retrieval algorithms often use analytical expressions for the column abundance along a ray traversing the atmosphere as well as for the deflection of that ray, which are first order approximations valid for low densities in a spherically symmetric homogeneous isothermal atmosphere. We derive new analytical formulae for both of these quantities, which are valid for higher densities, and use them to refine and validate a new ray tracing algorithm which can be used for arbitrary atmospheric temperature-pressure profiles. We illustrate with simple isothermal atmospheric profiles the consequences of our model for different planets: temperate Earth-like and Jovian-like planets, as well as HD189733b, and GJ1214b. We find that, for both hot exoplanets, our treatment of refraction does not make much of a difference to pressures as high as 10 atmosphere, but that it is important to ...
Ray tracing optical analysis of offset solar collector for Space Station solar dynamic system
Jefferies, Kent S.
1988-01-01
OFFSET, a detailed ray tracing computer code, was developed at NASA Lewis Research Center to model the offset solar collector for the Space Station solar dynamic electric power system. This model traces rays from 50 points on the face of the sun to 10 points on each of the 456 collector facets. The triangular facets are modeled with spherical, parabolic, or toroidal reflective surface contour and surface slope errors. The rays are then traced through the receiver aperture to the walls of the receiver. Images of the collector and of the sun within the receiver produced by this code provide insight into the collector receiver interface. Flux distribution on the receiver walls, plotted by this code, is improved by a combination of changes to aperture location and receiver tilt angle. Power loss by spillage at the receiver aperture is computed and is considerably reduced by using toroidal facets.
Photorealistic ray tracing of free-space invisibility cloaks made of uniaxial dielectrics
Halimeh, Jad C
2012-01-01
The design rules of transformation optics generally lead to spatially inhomogeneous and anisotropic impedance-matched magneto-dielectric material distributions for, e.g., free-space invisibility cloaks. Recently, simplified anisotropic non-magnetic free-space cloaks made of a locally uniaxial dielectric material (calcite) have been realized experimentally. In a two-dimensional setting and for in-plane polarized light propagating in this plane, the cloaking performance can still be perfect for light rays. However, for general views in three dimensions, various imperfections are expected. In this paper, we study two different purely dielectric uniaxial cylindrical free-space cloaks. For one, the optic axis is along the radial direction, for the other one it is along the azimuthal direction. The azimuthal uniaxial cloak has not been suggested previously to the best of our knowledge. We visualize the cloaking performance of both by calculating photorealistic images rendered by ray tracing. Following and complemen...
Enzo+Moray: Radiation Hydrodynamics Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations with Adaptive Ray Tracing
Wise, John H
2010-01-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological hydrodynamics code, Enzo. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilised to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole (BH) feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large timesteps and poor sampling, therefore we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. (2006, 2009). We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionisation front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities, and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an...
Construction of Virtual Tuming Scene Based on Local Ray Tracing Algorithm
王国锋; 王子良; 王太勇
2003-01-01
According to the features of the turning simulation, a simplified Whitted lighting model is proposed based on the analysis of Phong and other local illumination model. Moreover, in order to obtain the natural lighting effects, local ray tracing algorithm is given to calculate the light intensity of every position during the course of the simulation. This method can calculate the refresh area before calculating the intersection line,simulate the machining environment accurately and reduce the calculating time. Finally, an example of the virtual cutting scene is shown to demonstrate the effects of the global illumination model. If the CUP is 1.3 G and the internal memory is 128 M, the refreshing time of virtual turning scene can be reduced by nine times. This study plays an important role in the enrichment of the virtual manufacturing theory and the promotion of the development of the advanced manufacturing technology.
Ray trace algorithm description for the study of pump power absorption in double clad fibers
Narro, R.; Rodriguez, E.; Ponce, L.; de Posada, E.; Flores, T.; Arronte, M.
2011-09-01
An algorithm for the analysis of the double clad fiber design is presented. The algorithm developed in the MATLAB computing language, is based on ray tracing method applied to three-dimensional graphics figures which are composed of a set of plans. The algorithm can evaluate thousands of ray paths in sequence and its corresponding pump absorption in each of the elements of the fiber according to the Lambert-Beer law. The beam path is evaluated in 3 dimensions considering the losses by reflexion and refraction in the faces and within the fiber. Due to its flexibility, the algorithm can be used to study the ray propagation in single mode or multimode fibers, bending effects in fibers, variable geometries of the inner clad and the core, and could also be used to study tappers.
Skew ray tracing in a step-index optical fiber using Geometric Algebra
Ang, Angeleene; McNamara, Daniel J
2015-01-01
We used Geometric Algebra to compute the paths of skew rays in a cylindrical, step-index multimode optical fiber. To do this, we used the vector addition form for the law of propagation, the exponential of an imaginary vector form for the law of refraction, and the juxtaposed vector product form for the law of reflection. In particular, the exponential forms of the vector rotations enables us to take advantage of the addition or subtraction of exponential arguments of two rotated vectors in the derivation of the ray tracing invariants in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. We showed that the light rays inside the optical fiber trace a polygonal helical path characterized by three invariants that relate successive reflections inside the fiber: the ray path distance, the difference in axial distances, and the difference in the azimuthal angles. We also rederived the known generalized formula for the numerical aperture for skew rays, which simplifies to the standard form for meridional rays.
ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON
Liliana liliana
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.
Numerical simulation and comparison of nonlinear self-focusing based on iteration and ray tracing
Li, Xiaotong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weiwei; Ruan, Wangchao; Zhang, Luwei; Cen, Zhaofeng
2017-05-01
Self-focusing is observed in nonlinear materials owing to the interaction between laser and matter when laser beam propagates. Some of numerical simulation strategies such as the beam propagation method (BPM) based on nonlinear Schrödinger equation and ray tracing method based on Fermat's principle have applied to simulate the self-focusing process. In this paper we present an iteration nonlinear ray tracing method in that the nonlinear material is also cut into massive slices just like the existing approaches, but instead of paraxial approximation and split-step Fourier transform, a large quantity of sampled real rays are traced step by step through the system with changing refractive index and laser intensity by iteration. In this process a smooth treatment is employed to generate a laser density distribution at each slice to decrease the error caused by the under-sampling. The characteristics of this method is that the nonlinear refractive indices of the points on current slice are calculated by iteration so as to solve the problem of unknown parameters in the material caused by the causal relationship between laser intensity and nonlinear refractive index. Compared with the beam propagation method, this algorithm is more suitable for engineering application with lower time complexity, and has the calculation capacity for numerical simulation of self-focusing process in the systems including both of linear and nonlinear optical media. If the sampled rays are traced with their complex amplitudes and light paths or phases, it will be possible to simulate the superposition effects of different beam. At the end of the paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm are discussed.
Anisoptropic Bruggeman Effective Medium Approaches for Slanted Columnar Thin Films
Schmidt, Daniel
2013-01-01
Two different formalisms for the homogenization of composite materials containing ellipsoidal inclusions based on Bruggeman's original formula for spherical inclusions can be found in the literature. Both approximations determine the effective macroscopic permittivity of such an idealized composite assuming randomly distributed dielectric particles of equal shape and differ only in the definition of the depolarization factors. The two approaches are applied to analyze ellipsometric Mueller matrix spectra acquired in the visible and near-infrared spectral region from metal and semiconductor slanted columnar thin films. Furthermore, the effective dielectric function tensor generated by the two Bruggeman formalisms is compared to effective major axes dielectric functions individually determined with a homogeneous biaxial layer approach. Best-match model parameters of all three model approaches are discussed and compared to estimates from scanning electron microscope images. The structural parameters obtained fro...
High-performance micromachined gyroscope with a slanted suspension cantilever
Xiao Dingbang; Wu Xuezhong; Hou Zhanqiang; Chen Zhihua; Dong Peitao; Li Shengyi, E-mail: Dingbangxiao@yahoo.com.c [Microsystem Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2009-04-15
This paper presents a novel structure for improving the stability and the mechanical noise of micromachined gyroscopes. Only one slanted cantilever is used for suspension in this gyroscope, so the asymmetry spring and the thermal stress, which most micromachined gyroscopes suffer from, are reduced. In order to reduce the mechanical noise, the proof masses are designed to be much larger than in most micromachined gyroscopes. The gyroscope chip is sealed at 0.001 Pa vacuum. A gyroscope sample and its read-out circuit are fabricated. The scale factor of this gyroscope is measured as 57.6 mV/(deg/sec) with a nonlinearity better than 0.12% in a measurement range of +-100 deg/sec. The short-term bias stability in 20 min is 60 deg/h.
High-performance micromachined gyroscope with a slanted suspension cantilever
Xiao Dingbang; Wu Xuezhong; Hou Zhanqiang; Chen Zhihua; Dong Peitao; Li Shengyi
2009-01-01
This paper presents a novel structure for improving the stability and the mechanical noise of micromachined gyroscopes.Only one slanted cantilever is used for suspension in this gyroscope,so the asymmetry spring and the thermal stress,which most micromachined gyroscopes suffer from,are reduced.In order to reduce the mechanical noise,the proof masses are designed to be much larger than in most micromachined gyroscopes.The gyroscope chip is sealed at 0.00 1 Pa vacuum.A gyroscope sample and its read-out circuit are fabricated.The scale factor of this gyroscope is measured as 57.6 mV/(deg/sec) with a nonlinearity better than 0.12%in a measurement range of ±100 deg/sec.The short-term bias stability in 20 min is 60 deg/h.
Texture Gradient Effectiveness in the Perception of Surface Slant
Rosinski, Richard R.; Levine, Nancy Parker
1976-01-01
To assess the development of monocular slant perception as well as the relative effectiveness of different sources of information, 90 children in first, third, and fifth grades and 30 college adults were asked to make judgments of surface slant on the basis of monocular texture gradient information. (Author/JH)
Observation of slant column NO2 using the super-zoom mode of AURA-OMI
R. C. Cohen
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We retrieve slant column NO2 from the super-zoom mode of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to explore its utility for understanding NOx emissions and variability. Slant column NO2 is operationally retrieved from OMI (Boersma et al., 2007; Bucsela et al., 2006 with a nadir footprint of 13 × 24 km2, the result of averaging eight detector elements on board the instrument. For 85 orbits in late 2004, OMI reported observations from individual "super-zoom" detector elements (spaced at 13 × 3 km2 at nadir. We assess the spatial response of these individual detector elements in-flight and determine an upper-bound on spatial resolution of 9 km, in good agreement with on-ground calibration (7 km FWHM. We determine the precision of the super-zoom mode to be 2.1 × 1015 molecules cm−2, approximately a factor of √8 lower than an identical retrieval at operational scale as expected if random noise dominates the uncertainty. We retrieve slant column NO2 over the Satpura power plant in India; Seoul, South Korea; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and a set of large point sources on the Rihand Reservoir in India using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS. Over these sources, the super-zoom mode of OMI observes variation in slant column NO2 of up to 30 × the instrumental precision within one operational footprint.
Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Ahn, Tae In; Shin, Jong Hwa; Park, Kyung Sub; Son, Jung Eek
2016-01-01
Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis. The objective of the current study is to estimate the canopy photosynthesis of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with an analysis of by simulating the intercepted irradiation of the canopy using a 3D ray-tracing and photosynthetic capacity in each layer. By inputting the structural data of an actual plant, the 3D architecture of paprika was reconstructed using graphic software (Houdini FX, FX, Canada). The light curves and A/C i curve of each layer were measured to parameterize the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) model. The difference in photosynthetic capacity within the canopy was observed. With the intercepted irradiation data and photosynthetic parameters of each layer, the values of an entire plant's photosynthesis rate were estimated by integrating the calculated photosynthesis rate at each layer. The estimated photosynthesis rate of an entire plant showed good agreement with the measured plant using a closed chamber for validation. From the results, this method was considered as a reliable tool to predict canopy photosynthesis using light interception, and can be extended to analyze the canopy photosynthesis in actual greenhouse conditions.
Jee Hoon Kim
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis. The objective of the current study is to estimate the canopy photosynthesis of paprika (Capsicum annuum L. with an analysis of by simulating the intercepted irradiation of the canopy using a 3D ray-tracing and photosynthetic capacity in each layer. By inputting the structural data of an actual plant, the 3D architecture of paprika was reconstructed using graphic software (Houdini FX, FX, Canada. The light curves and A/Ci curve of each layer were measured to parameterize the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB model. The difference in photosynthetic capacity within the canopy was observed. With the intercepted irradiation data and photosynthetic parameters of each layer, the values of an entire plant’s photosynthesis rate were estimated by integrating the calculated photosynthesis rate at each layer. The estimated photosynthesis rate of an entire plant showed good agreement with the measured plant using a closed chamber for validation. From the results, this method was considered as a reliable tool to predict canopy photosynthesis using light interception, and can be extended to analyze the canopy photosynthesis in actual greenhouse conditions.
Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Joon Woo; Ahn, Tae In; Shin, Jong Hwa; Park, Kyung Sub; Son, Jung Eek
2016-01-01
Canopy photosynthesis has typically been estimated using mathematical models that have the following assumptions: the light interception inside the canopy exponentially declines with the canopy depth, and the photosynthetic capacity is affected by light interception as a result of acclimation. However, in actual situations, light interception in the canopy is quite heterogenous depending on environmental factors such as the location, microclimate, leaf area index, and canopy architecture. It is important to apply these factors in an analysis. The objective of the current study is to estimate the canopy photosynthesis of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with an analysis of by simulating the intercepted irradiation of the canopy using a 3D ray-tracing and photosynthetic capacity in each layer. By inputting the structural data of an actual plant, the 3D architecture of paprika was reconstructed using graphic software (Houdini FX, FX, Canada). The light curves and A/Ci curve of each layer were measured to parameterize the Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) model. The difference in photosynthetic capacity within the canopy was observed. With the intercepted irradiation data and photosynthetic parameters of each layer, the values of an entire plant's photosynthesis rate were estimated by integrating the calculated photosynthesis rate at each layer. The estimated photosynthesis rate of an entire plant showed good agreement with the measured plant using a closed chamber for validation. From the results, this method was considered as a reliable tool to predict canopy photosynthesis using light interception, and can be extended to analyze the canopy photosynthesis in actual greenhouse conditions. PMID:27667994
Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Salim, S.
2008-01-01
The Green Solar Collector (GSC), a photobioreactor designed for area efficient outdoor cultivation of microalgae uses Fresnel lenses and light guides to focus, transport and distribute direct light into the algae suspension. Calculating the path of rays of light, so-called ray tracing, is used to de
Snellenburg, J.J.; Braaf, B.; Hermans, E.A.; Heijde, van der R.G.L.; Sicam, V.A.
2010-01-01
A forward ray tracing (FRT) model is presented to determine the exact image projection in a general corneal topography system. Consequently, the skew ray error in Placido-based topography is demonstrated. A quantitative analysis comparing FRT-based algorithms and Placido-based algorithms in reconstr
Maliage, M
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to validate SolTrace for concentrating solar investigations at CSIR by means of a test case: the comparison of the flux distribution in the focal spot of a 1.25 m2 target aligned heliostat predicted by the ray tracing...
,
2015-01-01
We have developed a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library, ROot-BAsed Simulator for ray Tracing (ROBAST), which is aimed for wide use in optical simulations of cosmic-ray (CR) and gamma-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++ and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT analysis framework. Despite the importance of optics simulations in CR experiments, no open-source software for ray-tracing simulations that can be widely used existed. To reduce the unnecessary effort demanded when different research groups develop multiple ray-tracing simulators, we have successfully used ROBAST for many years to perform optics simulations for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Among the proposed telescope designs for CTA, ROBAST is currently being used for three telescopes: a Schwarzschild--Couder telescope, one of the Schwarzschild--Couder small-sized telescopes, and a large-sized telescope (LST). ROBAST is also used for the simulations and the development of hexagonal light concentrators that has be...
Baltser, Jana; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Vickery, Anette
2011-01-01
of X-ray beamline designs for particular user experiments. In this work we used the newly developed McXtrace ray-tracing package and the SRW wave-optics code to simulate the beam propagation of X-ray undulator radiation through such a "transfocator" as implemented at ID- 11 at ESRF. By applying two...
User and programmers guide to the neutron ray-tracing package McStas, version 1.2
Nielsen, K.; Lefmann, K.
2000-01-01
The software package McStas is a tool for writing Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations of neutron scattering instruments with very high complexity and precision. The simulations can compute all aspects of the performance of instruments and can thus be usedto optimize the use of existing equipment...
Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Salim, S.
2008-01-01
The Green Solar Collector (GSC), a photobioreactor designed for area efficient outdoor cultivation of microalgae uses Fresnel lenses and light guides to focus, transport and distribute direct light into the algae suspension. Calculating the path of rays of light, so-called ray tracing, is used to de
Magnetospherically reflected chorus waves revealed by ray tracing with CLUSTER data
M. Parrot
Full Text Available This paper is related to the propagation characteristics of a chorus emission recorded simultaneously by the 4 satellites of the CLUSTER mission on 29 October 2001 between 01:00 and 05:00 UT. During this day, the spacecraft (SC 1, 2, and 4 are relatively close to each other but SC3 has been delayed by half an hour. We use the data recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF spectrum analyser. This instrument provides the cross spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric field components. Dedicated software processes this spectral matrix in order to determine the wave normal directions relative to the Earth’s magnetic field. This calculation is done for the 4 satellites at different times and different frequencies and allows us to check the directions of these waves. Measurements around the magnetic equator show that the parallel component of the Poynting vector changes its sign when the satellites cross the equator region. It indicates that the chorus waves propagate away from this region which is considered as the source area of these emissions. This is valid for the most intense waves observed on the magnetic and electric power spectrograms. But it is also observed on SC1, SC2, and SC4 that lower intensity waves propagate toward the equator simultaneously with the SC3 intense chorus waves propagating away from the equator. Both waves are at the same frequency. Using the wave normal directions of these waves, a ray tracing study shows that the waves observed by SC1, SC2, and SC4 cross the equatorial plane at the same location as the waves observed by SC3. SC3 which is 30 minutes late observes the waves that originate first from the equator; meanwhile, SC1, SC2, and SC4 observe the same waves that have suffered a Lower Hybrid Resonance (LHR reflection at low altitudes (based on the ray tracing analysis and now return to the equator at a different location with a lower intensity. Similar phenomenon is observed when all SC are on the other side
Identification of gravity wave sources using reverse ray tracing over Indian region
M. Pramitha
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Reverse ray tracing method is successfully implemented for the first time in the Indian region for identification of the sources and propagation characteristics of the gravity waves observed using airglow emissions from Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E and Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.5° E. Wave amplitudes are also traced back for these wave events by including both radiative and diffusive damping. Background temperature and wind data obtained from MSISE-90 and HWM-07 models, respectively, are used for the ray tracing. For Gadanki region suitability of these models is tested. Further, a climatological model of background atmosphere for Gadanki region has been developed using a long-term of nearly 30 years of observations available from a variety of ground-based (MST radar, radiosonde, MF radar, rocket-, and satellite-borne measurements. For considering real-time atmospheric inputs, ERA-Interim products are utilized. By this reverse ray method, the source locations for nine wave events could be identified to be in the upper troposphere, whereas, for five other events the waves seem to have been ducted in the mesosphere itself. Uncertainty in locating the terminal points in the horizontal direction is estimated to be within 50–100 and 150–300 km for Gadanki and Hyderabad wave events, respectively. This uncertainty arises mainly due to non-consideration of the day-to-day variability in tidal amplitudes. As no convection in-and-around the terminal points are noticed, it is unlikely to be the source. Interestingly, large (~9 m s−1 km−1 vertical shear in the horizontal wind is noted near the ray terminal points (at 10–12 km altitude and is identified to be the source for generating the nine wave events. Conditions prevailing at the terminal points for each of the 14 events are also provided. These events provide leads to a greater understanding of the tropical lower and upper atmospheric coupling through gravity waves.
GPU-based four-dimensional general-relativistic ray tracing
Kuchelmeister, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Ament, Marco; Wunner, Günter; Weiskopf, Daniel
2012-10-01
This paper presents a new general-relativistic ray tracer that enables image synthesis on an interactive basis by exploiting the performance of graphics processing units (GPUs). The application is capable of visualizing the distortion of the stellar background as well as trajectories of moving astronomical objects orbiting a compact mass. Its source code includes metric definitions for the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes that can be easily extended to other metric definitions, relying on its object-oriented design. The basic functionality features a scene description interface based on the scripting language Lua, real-time image output, and the ability to edit almost every parameter at runtime. The ray tracing code itself is implemented for parallel execution on the GPU using NVidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), which leads to performance improvement of an order of magnitude compared to a single CPU and makes the application competitive with small CPU cluster architectures. Program summary Program title: GpuRay4D Catalog identifier: AEMV_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 73649 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1334251 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, CUDA. Computer: Linux platforms with a NVidia CUDA enabled GPU (Compute Capability 1.3 or higher), C++ compiler, NVCC (The CUDA Compiler Driver). Operating system: Linux. RAM: 2 GB Classification: 1.5. External routines: OpenGL Utility Toolkit development files, NVidia CUDA Toolkit 3.2, Lua5.2 Nature of problem: Ray tracing in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Numerical integration of light rays, GPU-based parallel programming using CUDA, 3D
Eccentric small-zone ray tracing wavefront aberrometry for refraction in keratoconus.
Fredriksson, Anneli; Behndig, Anders
2016-11-01
To compare objective refraction using small-zone eccentric laser ray tracing (LRT) wavefront aberrometry to standard autorefraction in keratoconus (KC), and whether the visual acuities achieved with these refractions differ from corresponding values in healthy eyes. Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients with KC and 29 eyes of 29 healthy controls were included in this prospective unmasked case-control study. The uncorrected (UCVA) and spectacle-corrected (SCVA) Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuities based on refractions derived from LRT in central and four eccentric zones were compared to those achieved with standard autorefraction. The spherical equivalent (M) and two astigmatic power vectors (C0 and C45) were calculated for all refractions. Pentacam HR(®) was used to generate keratometry readings of the corresponding zones. In KC, the refraction from the upper nasal zone rendered a higher SCVA than the standard autorefraction more often than in the controls (p refractions rendered similar SCVA:s in KC. Pentacam HR(®) showed higher keratometry readings infero-temporally, but also lower readings supero-nasally, compared to controls. In KC, eccentric LRT measurements gave better SCVA than standard autorefraction more often than in healthy eyes. Eccentric LRT may become a valuable tool in the demanding task of subjective refraction in KC. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stevens, John Colby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2012-12-01
Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO_{3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-to-center spacing was 14 μm for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-to-center spacing was 14 μm. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO_{3} microrods with an average center-to-center spacing of 20 μm, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.
ENZO+MORAY: radiation hydrodynamics adaptive mesh refinement simulations with adaptive ray tracing
Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom
2011-07-01
We describe a photon-conserving radiative transfer algorithm, using a spatially-adaptive ray-tracing scheme, and its parallel implementation into the adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamics code ENZO. By coupling the solver with the energy equation and non-equilibrium chemistry network, our radiation hydrodynamics framework can be utilized to study a broad range of astrophysical problems, such as stellar and black hole feedback. Inaccuracies can arise from large time-steps and poor sampling; therefore, we devised an adaptive time-stepping scheme and a fast approximation of the optically-thin radiation field with multiple sources. We test the method with several radiative transfer and radiation hydrodynamics tests that are given in Iliev et al. We further test our method with more dynamical situations, for example, the propagation of an ionization front through a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, time-varying luminosities and collimated radiation. The test suite also includes an expanding H II region in a magnetized medium, utilizing the newly implemented magnetohydrodynamics module in ENZO. This method linearly scales with the number of point sources and number of grid cells. Our implementation is scalable to 512 processors on distributed memory machines and can include the radiation pressure and secondary ionizations from X-ray radiation. It is included in the newest public release of ENZO.
Yang, Que; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Lu; Meng, Qingyu; Zhu, Qiudong
2015-08-01
For normal eyes without history of any ocular surgery, traditional equations for calculating intraocular lens (IOL) power, such as SRK-T, Holladay, Higis, SRK-II, et al., all were relativley accurate. However, for eyes underwent refractive surgeries, such as LASIK, or eyes diagnosed as keratoconus, these equations may cause significant postoperative refractive error, which may cause poor satisfaction after cataract surgery. Although some methods have been carried out to solve this problem, such as Hagis-L equation[1], or using preoperative data (data before LASIK) to estimate K value[2], no precise equations were available for these eyes. Here, we introduced a novel intraocular lens power estimation method by accurate ray tracing with optical design software ZEMAX. Instead of using traditional regression formula, we adopted the exact measured corneal elevation distribution, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and estimated effective lens plane as the input parameters. The calculation of intraocular lens power for a patient with keratoconus and another LASIK postoperative patient met very well with their visual capacity after cataract surgery.
Kjartansson, Einar; Bjarnason, Ingi Th.
2017-04-01
Tools for ray-tracing through one dimensional earth models consisting of layers of constant velocity gradients, and continuous values across layers, have been developed. They are used to investigate stability and robustness of earthquake locations and velocity determinations in the South Iceland Lowlands (SIL) a transform seismic zone. These tools will also be used to invert for velocity functions for different regions and time periods, by inverting simultaneously for micro-earthquake source parameters and P and S velocities. Increase of velocity gradient with depth will cause rays with different take-off angles to cross, which can result in focusing and triplication when velocity is plotted versus time. It is therefore important to constrain the velocity solutions to avoid this. Large changes in gradient between adjacent layers causes variability of ray density and geometrical spreading, particularly for rays that turn just below the boundaries. This may create artificial clustering in the depth distribution of micro-earthquake source solutions. Resampling of the velocity functions using cubic spline interpolation can be used to reduce these effects. The software is open source and can be accessed at https://github.com/4dseismic
Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao
2015-02-07
Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity.
Three-dimensional ray tracing for refractive correction of human eye ametropies
Jimenez-Hernandez, J. A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Trujillo-Romero, F.; Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.; Juarez-Salazar, R.; Santiago-Alvarado, A.
2016-09-01
Ametropies of the human eye, are refractive defects hampering the correct imaging on the retina. The most common ways to correct them is by means of spectacles, contact lenses, and modern methods as laser surgery. However, in any case it is very important to identify the ametropia grade for designing the optimum correction action. In the case of laser surgery, it is necessary to define a new shape of the cornea in order to obtain the wanted refractive correction. Therefore, a computational tool to calculate the focal length of the optical system of the eye versus variations on its geometrical parameters is required. Additionally, a clear and understandable visualization of the evaluation process is desirable. In this work, a model of the human eye based on geometrical optics principles is presented. Simulations of light rays coming from a punctual source at six meter from the cornea are shown. We perform a ray-tracing in three dimensions in order to visualize the focusing regions and estimate the power of the optical system. The common parameters of ametropies can be easily modified and analyzed in the simulation by an intuitive graphic user interface.
A model of polarized-beam AGS in the ray-tracing code Zgoubi
Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Glenn, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-07-12
A model of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, based on the AGS snapramps, has been developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi. It has been used over the past 5 years in a number of accelerator studies aimed at enhancing RHIC proton beam polarization. It is also used to study and optimize proton and Helion beam polarization in view of future RHIC and eRHIC programs. The AGS model in Zgoubi is operational on-line via three different applications, ’ZgoubiFromSnaprampCmd’, ’AgsZgoubiModel’ and ’AgsModelViewer’, with the latter two essentially interfaces to the former which is the actual model ’engine’. All three commands are available from the controls system application launcher in the AGS ’StartUp’ menu, or from eponymous commands on shell terminals. Main aspects of the model and of its operation are presented in this technical note, brief excerpts from various studies performed so far are given for illustration, means and methods entering in ZgoubiFromSnaprampCmd are developed further in appendix.
Seismic ray-tracing calculation based on parabolic travel-time interpolation
周竹生; 张赛民; 陈灵君
2004-01-01
A new seismic ray-tracing method is put forward based on parabolic travel-time interpolation(PTI) method, which is more accurate than the linear travel-time interpolation (LTI) method. Both PTI method and LTI method are used to compute seismic travel-time and ray-path in a 2-D grid cell model. Firstly, some basic concepts are introduced. The calculations of travel-time and ray-path are carried out only at cell boundaries. So, the ray-path is always straight in the same cells with uniform velocity. Two steps are applied in PTI and LTI method, step 1 computes travel-time and step 2 traces ray-path. Then, the derivation of LTI formulas is described. Because of the presence of refraction wave in shot cell, the formula aiming at shot cell is also derived. Finally, PTI method is presented. The calculation of PTI method is more complex than that of LTI method, but the error is limited. The results of numerical model show that PTI method can trace ray-path more accurately and efficiently than LTI method does.
Using Stochastic Ray Tracing to Simulate a Dense Time Series of Gross Primary Productivity
Martin van Leeuwen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Eddy-covariance carbon dioxide flux measurement is an established method to estimate primary productivity at the forest stand level (typically 10 ha. To validate eddy-covariance estimates, researchers rely on extensive time-series analysis and an assessment of flux contributions made by various ecosystem components at spatial scales much finer than the eddy-covariance footprint. Scaling these contributions to the stand level requires a consideration of the heterogeneity in the canopy radiation field. This paper presents a stochastic ray tracing approach to predict the probabilities of light absorption from over a thousand hemispherical directions by thousands of individual scene elements. Once a look-up table of absorption probabilities is computed, dynamic illumination conditions can be simulated in a computationally realistic time, from which stand-level gross primary productivity can be obtained by integrating photosynthetic assimilation over the scene. We demonstrate the method by inverting a leaf-level photosynthesis model with eddy-covariance and meteorological data. Optimized leaf photosynthesis parameters and canopy structure were able to explain 75% of variation in eddy-covariance gross primary productivity estimates, and commonly used parameters, including photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield, fell within reported ranges. Remaining challenges are discussed including the need to address the distribution of radiation within shoots and needles.
Zhu, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Tao; Wu, Yanxiong; Shi, Guangwei; Wang, Lingjie
2015-07-01
A long wave infrared imaging system operated for space exploration of faint target is highly sensitive to stray radiation. We present an integrative suppression process of internal and external stray radiation. A compact and re-imaging LWIR catadioptric telescope is designed as practical example and internal and external stray radiation is analyzed for this telescope. The detector is cryogenically cooled with 100% cold shield efficiency of Lyot stop. A non-sequential ray tracing technique is applied to investigate how the stray radiation propagates inside optical system. The simulation and optimization during initial design stage are proceeded to avoid subversive defect that the stray radiation disturbs the target single. The quantitative analysis of stray radiation irradiance emitted by lenses and structures inside is presented in detail. The optical elements, which operate at room-temperature due to the limitation of weight and size, turn to be the significant stray radiation sources. We propose a method combined infrared material selection and optical form optimization to reduce the internal stray radiation of lens. We design and optimize mechanical structures to achieve a further attenuation of internal stray radiation power. The point source transmittance (PST) is calculated to assess the external radiation which comes from the source out of view field. The ghost of bright target due to residual reflection of optical coatings is simulated. The results show that the performance of stray radiation suppression is dramatically improved by iterative optimization and modification of optomechanical configurations.
Cheng, Ruida; Jackson, Jennifer N.; McCreedy, Evan S.; Gandler, William; Eijkenboom, J. J. F. A.; van Middelkoop, M.; McAuliffe, Matthew J.; Sheehan, Frances T.
2016-03-01
The paper presents an automatic segmentation methodology for the patellar bone, based on 3D gradient recalled echo and gradient recalled echo with fat suppression magnetic resonance images. Constricted search space outlines are incorporated into recursive ray-tracing to segment the outer cortical bone. A statistical analysis based on the dependence of information in adjacent slices is used to limit the search in each image to between an outer and inner search region. A section based recursive ray-tracing mechanism is used to skip inner noise regions and detect the edge boundary. The proposed method achieves higher segmentation accuracy (0.23mm) than the current state-of-the-art methods with the average dice similarity coefficient of 96.0% (SD 1.3%) agreement between the auto-segmentation and ground truth surfaces.
Weeratunga, S K
2008-11-06
Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.
Identification of Gravity wave Sources over Tropical Latitudes Using Reverse Ray Tracing technique
Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Pramitha, M.
2016-07-01
Sources and propagation characteristics of high-frequency gravity waves (GWs) observed in the mesosphere using airglow emissions from Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) and Hyderabad (17.5oN, 78.5oE) are investigated using reverse ray tracing. Wave amplitudes are also traced back, including both radiative and diffusive damping. For this a climatological model of the background atmosphere for the Gadanki region has been developed using nearly 30 years of observations available from a variety of ground based (MST radar, radiosondes, MF radar) and rocket- and satellite-borne measurements. With the reverse ray-tracing method, the source locations for wave events could be identified to be in the upper troposphere. Uncertainty in locating the terminal points of wave events in the horizontal direction is estimated to be within 50-100 km and 150-300 km for Gadanki and Hyderabad wave events, respectively. This uncertainty arises mainly due to non-consideration of the day-to-day variability in the tidal amplitudes. Interestingly, large (~9ms-1 km-1) vertical shears in the horizontal wind are noticed near the ray terminal points (at 10-12 km altitude) and are thus identified to be the source for generating the observed high phase- speed, high-frequency GWs. We also tried to identify the sources for the GWs which are observed during Indo-French campaign conducted during May 2014. Uniqueness of the present study lies in using near-real time background atmosphere data from simultaneous radiosonde and meteor radar covering both source and propagation/dissipation regions of GWs. When we searched for the sources near the terminal points, deep convection is found to be a source for these events. We also tried to identify the sources of inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) that are observed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere during different seasons using long-term (2006-2014) high resolution radiosonde observations. In general, 50% of the waves observed over this location have convection as
Fokker-Planck/Ray Tracing for Electron Bernstein and Fast Wave Modeling in Support of NSTX
Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA (United States)
2009-11-12
This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over
Lo, Ch. K.; Lim, Y. S.; Tan, S. G.; Rahman, F. A. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Klang, 53300, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2010-12-15
A Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) is a transparent plate containing luminescent material with photovoltaic (PV) cells attached to its edges. Sunlight entering the plate is absorbed by the luminescent material, which in turn emits light. The emitted light propagates through the plate and arrives at the PV cells through total internal reflection. The ratio of the area of the relatively cheap polymer plate to that of the expensive PV cells is increased, and the cost per unit of solar electricity can be reduced by 75%. To improve the emission performance of LSCs, simulation modeling of LSCs becomes essential. Ray-tracing modeling is a popular approach for simulating LSCs due to its great ability of modeling various LSC structures under direct and diffuse sunlight. However, this approach requires substantial amount of measurement input data. Also, the simulation time is enormous because it is a forward-ray tracing method that traces all the rays propagating from the light source to the concentrator. On the other hand, the thermodynamic approach requires substantially less input parameters and simulation time, but it can only be used to model simple LSC designs with direct sunlight. Therefore, a new hybrid model was developed to perform various simulation studies effectively without facing the issues arisen from the existing ray-tracing and thermodynamic models. The simulation results show that at least 60% of the total output irradiance of a LSC is contributed by the light trapped and channeled by the LSC. The novelty of this hybrid model is the concept of integrating the thermodynamic model with a well-developed Radiance ray-tracing model, hence making this model as a fast, powerful and cost-effective tool for the design of LSCs. (authors)
Chin Kim Lo
2010-11-01
Full Text Available A Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC is a transparent plate containing luminescent material with photovoltaic (PV cells attached to its edges. Sunlight entering the plate is absorbed by the luminescent material, which in turn emits light. The emitted light propagates through the plate and arrives at the PV cells through total internal reflection. The ratio of the area of the relatively cheap polymer plate to that of the expensive PV cells is increased, and the cost per unit of solar electricity can be reduced by 75%. To improve the emission performance of LSCs, simulation modeling of LSCs becomes essential. Ray-tracing modeling is a popular approach for simulating LSCs due to its great ability of modeling various LSC structures under direct and diffuse sunlight. However, this approach requires substantial amount of measurement input data. Also, the simulation time is enormous because it is a forward-ray tracing method that traces all the rays propagating from the light source to the concentrator. On the other hand, the thermodynamic approach requires substantially less input parameters and simulation time, but it can only be used to model simple LSC designs with direct sunlight. Therefore, a new hybrid model was developed to perform various simulation studies effectively without facing the issues arisen from the existing ray-tracing and thermodynamic models. The simulation results show that at least 60% of the total output irradiance of a LSC is contributed by the light trapped and channeled by the LSC. The novelty of this hybrid model is the concept of integrating the thermodynamic model with a well-developed Radiance ray-tracing model, hence making this model as a fast, powerful and cost-effective tool for the design of LSCs.
Desnijder, Karel; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri
2016-04-01
A key requirement to obtain a uniform luminance for a side-lit LED backlight is the optimised spatial pattern of structures on the light guide that extract the light. The generation of such a scatter pattern is usually performed by applying an iterative approach. In each iteration, the luminance distribution of the backlight with a particular scatter pattern is analysed. This is typically performed with a brute-force ray-tracing algorithm, although this approach results in a time-consuming optimisation process. In this study, the Adding-Doubling method is explored as an alternative way for evaluating the luminance of a backlight. Due to the similarities between light propagating in a backlight with extraction structures and light scattering in a cloud of light scatterers, the Adding-Doubling method which is used to model the latter could also be used to model the light distribution in a backlight. The backlight problem is translated to a form upon which the Adding-Doubling method is directly applicable. The calculated luminance for a simple uniform extraction pattern with the Adding-Doubling method matches the luminance generated by a commercial raytracer very well. Although successful, no clear computational advantage over ray tracers is realised. However, the dynamics of light propagation in a light guide as used the Adding-Doubling method, also allow to enhance the efficiency of brute-force ray-tracing algorithms. The performance of this enhanced ray-tracing approach for the simulation of backlights is also evaluated against a typical brute-force ray-tracing approach.
3-D TECATE/BREW: Thermal, stress, and birefringent ray-tracing codes for solid-state laser design
Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Nelson, R. G.
1994-07-01
This report describes the physics, code formulations, and numerics that are used in the TECATE (totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermo-elasticity) and BREW (birefringent ray-tracing of electromagnetic waves) codes for laser design. These codes resolve thermal, stress, and birefringent optical effects in 3-D stationary solid-state systems. This suite of three constituent codes is a package referred to as LASRPAK.
Ray tracing based path-length calculations for polarized light tomographic imaging
Manjappa, Rakesh; Kanhirodan, Rajan
2015-09-01
A ray tracing based path length calculation is investigated for polarized light transport in a pixel space. Tomographic imaging using polarized light transport is promising for applications in optical projection tomography of small animal imaging and turbid media with low scattering. Polarized light transport through a medium can have complex effects due to interactions such as optical rotation of linearly polarized light, birefringence, di-attenuation and interior refraction. Here we investigate the effects of refraction of polarized light in a non-scattering medium. This step is used to obtain the initial absorption estimate. This estimate can be used as prior in Monte Carlo (MC) program that simulates the transport of polarized light through a scattering medium to assist in faster convergence of the final estimate. The reflectance for p-polarized (parallel) and s-polarized (perpendicular) are different and hence there is a difference in the intensities that reach the detector end. The algorithm computes the length of the ray in each pixel along the refracted path and this is used to build the weight matrix. This weight matrix with corrected ray path length and the resultant intensity reaching the detector for each ray is used in the algebraic reconstruction (ART) method. The proposed method is tested with numerical phantoms for various noise levels. The refraction errors due to regions of different refractive index are discussed, the difference in intensities with polarization is considered. The improvements in reconstruction using the correction so applied is presented. This is achieved by tracking the path of the ray as well as the intensity of the ray as it traverses through the medium.
Sheil, Conor; Goncharov, Alexander V.
2013-05-01
A physical model eye was constructed to test the quality of ophthalmic instruments. The accuracy and precision of two commercially available instruments were analysed. For these instruments, a particular model eye was obtained which mimicked the physical properties that would be usually measured e.g. corneal topography or optical path within the human eye. The model eye was designed using relatively simple optical components (e.g. plano-convex lenses) separated by appropriate intraocular distances taken from the literature. The dimensions of the model eye were known a priori: The lenses used in the construction of the model eye were characterised ac cording to values given in the manufacturers' data sheets and also through measurement using an interferometer. The distances between the lens surfaces were calculated using the interferometric data with reverse ray-tracing. Optical paths were calculated as the product of refractive index and axial distance. The errors inherent in mea suring these ocular parameters by different ophthalmic instruments can be considered as producing an erroneous value for the overall refractive power of the eye. The latter is a useful metric for comparing various ophthalmic devices where the direct comparison of quality is not possible or is not practical. For example, a 1% error in anterior corneal radius of curvature will have a more detrimental effect than the same error in posterior corneal radius, due to the relative differences in refractive indices at those surface boundaries. To quantify the error in ocular refractive power, a generic eye model was created in ZEMAX optical design software. The parametric errors were then used to compute the overall error in predicting ocular refractive power, thus highlighting the relative importance of individual errors. This work will help in future determination of acceptable levels of metrological errors in ocular instrumentation.
Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Yan; Hu, Ying; Qin, Qian-Qing
2013-05-01
We present a new method of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic ray tracing, based on an improvement to the linear traveltime interpolation (LTI) ray tracing algorithm. This new technique involves two separate steps. The first involves a forward calculation based on the LTI method and the dynamic successive partitioning scheme, which is applied to calculate traveltimes on cell boundaries and assumes a wavefront that expands from the source to all grid nodes in the computational domain. We locate several dynamic successive partition points on a cell's surface, the traveltimes of which can be calculated by linear interpolation between the vertices of the cell's boundary. The second is a backward step that uses Fermat's principle and the fact that the ray path is always perpendicular to the wavefront and follows the negative traveltime gradient. In this process, the first-arriving ray path can be traced from the receiver to the source along the negative traveltime gradient, which can be calculated by reconstructing the continuous traveltime field with cubic B-spline interpolation. This new 3-D ray tracing method is compared with the LTI method and the shortest path method (SPM) through a number of numerical experiments. These comparisons show obvious improvements to computed traveltimes and ray paths, both in precision and computational efficiency.
E. Achmad
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Gravity wave signatures were extracted from OH airglow observations using all-sky CCD imagers at four different stations: Cachoeira Paulista (CP (22.7° S, 45° W and São João do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W, Brazil; Tanjungsari (TJS (6.9° S, 107.9° E, Indonesia and Shigaraki (34.9° N, 136° E, Japan. The gravity wave parameters are used as an input in a reverse ray tracing model to study the gravity wave vertical propagation trajectory and to estimate the wave source region. Gravity waves observed near the equator showed a shorter period and a larger phase velocity than those waves observed at low-middle latitudes. The waves ray traced down into the troposphere showed the largest horizontal wavelength and phase speed. The ray tracing results also showed that at CP, Cariri and Shigaraki the majority of the ray paths stopped in the mesosphere due to the condition of m2m2m|→∞, which suggests the presence of ducting waves and/or waves generated in-situ. In the troposphere, the possible gravity wave sources are related to meteorological front activities and cloud convections at CP, while at Cariri and TJS tropical cloud convections near the equator are the most probable gravity wave sources. The tropospheric jet stream and the orography are thought to be the major responsible sources for the waves observed at Shigaraki.
The Use of Pro/Engineer CAD Software and Fishbowl Tool Kit in Ray-tracing Analysis
Nounu, Hatem N.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2009-01-01
This document is designed as a manual for a user who wants to operate the Pro/ENGINEER (ProE) Wildfire 3.0 with the NASA Space Radiation Program's (SRP) custom-designed Toolkit, called 'Fishbowl', for the ray tracing of complex spacecraft geometries given by a ProE CAD model. The analysis of spacecraft geometry through ray tracing is a vital part in the calculation of health risks from space radiation. Space radiation poses severe risks of cancer, degenerative diseases and acute radiation sickness during long-term exploration missions, and shielding optimization is an important component in the application of radiation risk models. Ray tracing is a technique in which 3-dimensional (3D) vehicle geometry can be represented as the input for the space radiation transport code and subsequent risk calculations. In ray tracing a certain number of rays (on the order of 1000) are used to calculate the equivalent thickness, say of aluminum, of the spacecraft geometry seen at a point of interest called the dose point. The rays originate at the dose point and terminate at a homogenously distributed set of points lying on a sphere that circumscribes the spacecraft and that has its center at the dose point. The distance a ray traverses in each material is converted to aluminum or other user-selected equivalent thickness. Then all equivalent thicknesses are summed up for each ray. Since each ray points to a direction, the aluminum equivalent of each ray represents the shielding that the geometry provides to the dose point from that particular direction. This manual will first list for the user the contact information for help in installing ProE and Fishbowl in addition to notes on the platform support and system requirements information. Second, the document will show the user how to use the software to ray trace a Pro/E-designed 3-D assembly and will serve later as a reference for troubleshooting. The user is assumed to have previous knowledge of ProE and CAD modeling.
Component-level test of molded freeform optics for LED beam shaping using experimental ray tracing
Gutierrez, Gustavo; Hilbig, David; Fleischmann, Friedrich; Henning, Thomas
2017-06-01
Due to the high demand of LED light sources, the need to modify their radiation pattern to meet specific application requirements has also increased. This is mostly achieved by using molded secondary optics, which are composed of a combination of several aspherical and freeform surfaces. Unfortunately, the manufacturers of these secondary optics only provide output information at system level, making impossible to independently characterize the secondary optic in order to determine the sources of erroneous results. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a component-level verification leading to the validation of the correctness of the produced secondary optic independently of the light source. To understand why traditional inspection methods fail, it is necessary to take into account that not only errors due to irregularities on the lens surface like pores, glass indentations or scratches affect the performance of the lens, but also differences in refractive index appear after the compression during fabrication process. These internal alterations are generally produced during the cooling stage and their effect over the performance of the lens are not possible to be measured using tactile techniques. Additionally, the small size of the lens and the freeform characteristics of its surface introduce additional difficulties to perform its validation. In this work, the component-level test is done by obtaining the ray mapping function (RMF) which describes the deflection of the light beam as a function of the input angle. To obtain the RMF, firstly a collimated light source is held fix and the lens is rotated. Thus, a virtual point source is created and subsequently by using experimental ray tracing it is possible to determine the ray slopes, which are used to the retrieve the RMF. Under the assumption that the optical system under analysis is lossless and considering the principle of energy conservation, it is possible under specific conditions to use this new
Effects of slant angle and illumination angle on MTF estimations
Vhengani, LM
2012-07-01
Full Text Available .085 0.09 0.095 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements _20120302_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.05 0.055 0.06 0....065 0.07 0.075 0.08 0.085 0.09 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements_20120303_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression Figure 6. Regression of positive slant...
Numerical analysis of cavitation within slanted axial-flow pump
张睿; 陈红勋
2013-01-01
In this paper, the cavitating flow within a slanted axial-flow pump is numerically researched. The hydraulic and cavitation performance of the slanted axial-flow pump under different operation conditions are estimated. Compared with the experimental hydraulic performance curves, the numerical results show that the filter-based model is better than the standard k-e model to predict the parameters of hydraulic performance. In cavitation simulation, compared with the experimental results, the proposed numerical method has good predicting ability. Under different cavitation conditions, the internal cavitating flow fields within slanted axial-flow pump are investigated. Compared with flow visualization results, the major internal flow features can be effectively grasped. In order to explore the origin of the cavitation performance breakdown, the Boundary Vorticity Flux (BVF) is introduced to diagnose the cavitating flow fields. The analysis results indicate that the cavitation performance drop is relevant to the instability of cavitating flow on the blade suction surface.
Chorus wave-normal statistics in the Earth's radiation belts from ray tracing technique
H. Breuillard
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Discrete ELF/VLF (Extremely Low Frequency/Very Low Frequency chorus emissions are one of the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves observed in radiation belts and in the outer terrestrial magnetosphere. These waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of radiation belts, and are responsible for the loss and the acceleration of energetic electrons. The objective of our study is to reconstruct the realistic distribution of chorus wave-normals in radiation belts for all magnetic latitudes. To achieve this aim, the data from the electric and magnetic field measurements onboard Cluster satellite are used to determine the wave-vector distribution of the chorus signal around the equator region. Then the propagation of such a wave packet is modeled using three-dimensional ray tracing technique, which employs K. Rönnmark's WHAMP to solve hot plasma dispersion relation along the wave packet trajectory. The observed chorus wave distributions close to waves source are first fitted to form the initial conditions which then propagate numerically through the inner magnetosphere in the frame of the WKB approximation. Ray tracing technique allows one to reconstruct wave packet properties (electric and magnetic fields, width of the wave packet in k-space, etc. along the propagation path. The calculations show the spatial spreading of the signal energy due to propagation in the inhomogeneous and anisotropic magnetized plasma. Comparison of wave-normal distribution obtained from ray tracing technique with Cluster observations up to 40° latitude demonstrates the reliability of our approach and applied numerical schemes.
Kohei Arai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Monte Carlo Ray Tracing: MCRT based sensitivity analysis of the geophysical parameters (the atmosphere and the ocean on Top of the Atmosphere: TOA radiance in visible to near infrared wavelength regions is conducted. As the results, it is confirmed that the influence due to the atmosphere is greater than that of the ocean. Scattering and absorption due to aerosol particles and molecules in the atmosphere is major contribution followed by water vapor and ozone while scattering due to suspended solid is dominant contribution for the ocean parameters.
Cervera, M. A.; Harris, T. J.
2014-01-01
The Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) has initiated an experimental program, Spatial Ionospheric Correlation Experiment, utilizing state-of-the-art DSTO-designed high frequency digital receivers. This program seeks to understand ionospheric disturbances at scales employ a 3-D magnetoionic Hamiltonian ray tracing engine, developed by DSTO, to (1) model the various disturbance features observed on both the O and X polarization modes in our QVI data and (2) understand how they are produced. The ionospheric disturbances which produce the observed features were modeled by perturbing the ionosphere with atmospheric gravity waves.
He, Wenjun; Fu, Yuegang; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jiake; Liu, Zhiying; Zheng, Jianping
2013-07-01
The output polarization states of corner cubes (for both uncoated and metal-coated surfaces) with an input beam of arbitrary polarization state and of arbitrary tilt angle to the cube have been analyzed by using the three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing matrix method. The diattenuation and retardance of the corner-cube retroreflector (CCR) for all six different ray paths are calculated, and the relationships to the tilt angle and the tilt orientation angle are shown. When the tilt angle is large, hollow metal-coated CCR is more appropriate than solid metal-coated CCR for the case that the polarization states of output beam should be controlled.
Jefferies, K.
1994-01-01
OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at
Qiao Liya; Wan Xiuhua; Cai Xiaogu; Balamurali Vasudevan; Xiong Ying; Tan Jiaxuan; Guan Zheng
2014-01-01
Background The evaluation of retinal image quality in cataract eyes has gained importance and the clinical modulation transfer functions (MTF) can obtained by aberrometer and double pass (DP) system.This study aimed to compare MTF derived from a ray tracing aberrometer and a DP system in eady cataractous and normal eyes.Methods There were 128 subjects with 61 control eyes and 67 eyes with early cataract defined according to the Lens Opacities Classification System Ⅲ.A laser ray-tracing wavefront aberrometer (iTrace) and a double pass (DP) system (OQAS) assessed ocular MTF for 6.0 mm pupil diameters following dilation.Areas under the MTF (AUMTF) and their correlations were analyzed.Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed factors affecting the differences between iTrace-and OQAS-derived AUMTF for the early cataract group.Results For both early cataract and control groups,iTrace-derived MTFs were higher than OQAS-derived MTFs across a range of spatial frequencies (P ＜0.01).No significant difference between the two groups occurred for iTrace-derived AUMTF,but the early cataract group had significantly smaller OQAS-derived AUMTF than did the control group (P ＜0.01).AUMTF determined from both the techniques demonstrated significant correlations with nuclear opacities,higher-order aberrations (HOAs),visual acuity,and contrast sensitivity functions,while the OQAS-derived AUMTF also demonstrated significant correlations with age and cortical opacity grade.The factors significantly affecting the difference between iTrace and OQAS AUMTF were root-mean-squared HOAs (standardized beta coefficient=-0.63,P ＜0.01) and age (standardized beta coefficient=0.26,P ＜0.01).Conclusions MTFs determined from a iTrace and a DP system (OQAS) differ significantly in early cataractous and normal subjects.Correlations with visual performance were higher for the DP system.OQAS-derived MTF may be useful as an indicator of visual performance in early cataract eyes.
Texture Gradient Registration and the Development of Slant Perception
Degelman, Douglas; Rosinski, Richard R.
1976-01-01
Twenty-four subjects at each of four grade levels (first, third, fifth, and college) made judgments of physical slant of surfaces with three levels of variability. Absolute error of judgment decreased with age, but texture variability had no effect at any grade level. (JH)
Geographical slant facilitates navigation and orientation in virtual environments.
Restat, Jan D; Steck, Sibylle D; Mochnatzki, Horst F; Mallot, Hanspeter A
2004-01-01
Theoretical considerations and earlier experimental findings indicate that traveling over slanted terrain can lead to an enrichment of the perceived spatial cues relevant for navigation. We investigated the proposed facilitation of a uniformly slanted environment on navigation and orientation performance with a virtual environment presented on a large 180 degrees screen, using as material a virtual town with eight places and twenty-four landmarks. In the control condition, this town was placed on a flat surface; in the two experimental conditions, the town was placed on a slope with a uniform angle of 4 degrees. Pedaling on a bicycle simulator, participants first explored the environment, then solved navigation tasks, pointed from various positions to distant landmarks, judged the relative elevation of pairs of distant landmarks from memory, and finally drew a sketch map of the environment. In comparison to the control condition, the number of navigation errors was significantly lower in the slanted conditions, and the deviations in the pointings to distant landmarks were massively reduced. Participants from the slant conditions also showed good knowledge of the relative elevations of pairs of distant locations. However, no differences in map-drawing quality were found. The results lend additional support to the proposition that our spatial knowledge, which is used in navigation and orientation, contains vertical information.
Comparison of a 3-D GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code and Ray Tracing for Reflectometry on ITER
Gady, Sarah; Kubota, Shigeyuki; Johnson, Irena
2015-11-01
Electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in magnetized plasmas are important diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. 1-D and 2-D full-wave codes are standard tools for measurements of the electron density profile and fluctuations; however, ray tracing results have shown that beam propagation in tokamak plasmas is inherently a 3-D problem. The GPU-Assisted Maxwell Code utilizes the FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method for solving the Maxwell equations with the cold plasma approximation in a 3-D geometry. Parallel processing with GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units) is used to accelerate the computation. Previously, we reported on initial comparisons of the code results to 1-D numerical and analytical solutions, where the size of the computational grid was limited by the on-board memory of the GPU. In the current study, this limitation is overcome by using domain decomposition and an additional GPU. As a practical application, this code is used to study the current design of the ITER Low Field Side Reflectometer (LSFR) for the Equatorial Port Plug 11 (EPP11). A detailed examination of Gaussian beam propagation in the ITER edge plasma will be presented, as well as comparisons with ray tracing. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No.DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99-ER54527.
Kolski, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barlow, David B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macek, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCrady, Rodney C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01
Particle ray tracing through simulated 3D magnetic fields was executed to investigate the effective quadrupole strength of the edge focusing of the rectangular bending magnets in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). The particle rays receive a kick in the edge field of the rectangular dipole. A focal length may be calculated from the particle tracking and related to the fringe field integral (FINT) model parameter. This tech note introduces the baseline lattice model of the PSR and motivates the need for an improvement in the baseline model's vertical tune prediction, which differs from measurement by .05. An improved model of the PSR is created by modifying the fringe field integral parameter to those suggested by the ray tracing investigation. This improved model is then verified against measurement at the nominal PSR operating set point and at set points far away from the nominal operating conditions. Lastly, Linear Optics from Closed Orbits (LOCO) is employed in an orbit response matrix method for model improvement to verify the quadrupole strengths of the improved model.
Effect of MR Element Slant Angle on Output Voltage of Magnetoresistive Device
Y L Jing; Yu Shi; H W Zhang; X D Jiang; H J Zheng
2006-01-01
Correlation between optimum of MR element slant angle and the ratio of magnetic pole length to magnetoresistance element length on linear magnetic encoder is explored in this paper. Optimum slant angle of MR element is different and increases in proportion to the ratio of magnetic pole length to MR element length by slant multi-phase filtering model.
Un-Hong Wong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we model the reflectance of the lunar regolith by a new method combining Monte Carlo ray tracing and Hapke’s model. The existing modeling methods exploit either a radiative transfer model or a geometric optical model. However, the measured data from an Interference Imaging spectrometer (IIM on an orbiter were affected not only by the composition of minerals but also by the environmental factors. These factors cannot be well addressed by a single model alone. Our method implemented Monte Carlo ray tracing for simulating the large-scale effects such as the reflection of topography of the lunar soil and Hapke’s model for calculating the reflection intensity of the internal scattering effects of particles of the lunar soil. Therefore, both the large-scale and microscale effects are considered in our method, providing a more accurate modeling of the reflectance of the lunar regolith. Simulation results using the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC data and Chang’E-1 elevation map show that our method is effective and useful. We have also applied our method to Chang’E-1 IIM data for removing the influence of lunar topography to the reflectance of the lunar soil and to generate more realistic visualizations of the lunar surface.
Full parallax multifocus three-dimensional display using a slanted light source array
Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook
2011-11-01
A new multifocus three-dimensional display which gives full parallax monocular depth cue and omni-directional focus is developed with the least parallax images. The key factor of this display system is a slanted array of light-emitting diode light source, not a horizontal array. In this system, defocus effects are experimentally achieved and the monocular focus effect is tested by four parallax images and even two parallax images. The full parallax multifocus three-dimensional display is more applicable to monocular or binocular augmented reality three-dimensional display in the modification to a see-through type.
Fano resonance engineering in slanted cavities with hyperbolic metamaterials
Vaianella, Fabio; Maes, Bjorn
2016-09-01
We present the possibility to engineer Fano resonances using multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials. The proposed cavity designs are composed of multilayers with a central slanted part. The highly tunable resonances originate from the interference between a propagating and an evanescent mode inside the slanted section. The propagating mode can reach an extremely high effective index, making the realization of deeply subwavelength cavities possible, as small as 5 nm. The evanescent mode is rarely analyzed but plays an important role here, as its contribution determines the particular shape of the cavity characteristic. Moreover, these phenomena cannot be described using effective medium theory, and we provide a more rigorous analysis. The reported resonances are very sensitive to any structural changes and could be used for sensing applications.
A model of the AGS based on stepwise ray-tracing through the measured field maps of the main magnets
Dutheil Y.; Meot, F.; Tsoupas, N.
2012-05-20
Two-dimensional mid-plane magnetic field maps of two of the main AGS magnets were produced, from Hall probe measurements, for a series of different current settings. The analysis of these data yielded the excitation functions [1] and the harmonic coefficients [2] of the main magnets which have been used so far in all the models of the AGS. The constant increase of the computation power makes it possible today to directly use a stepwise raytracing through these measured field maps with a reasonable computation time. We describe in detail how these field maps have allowed the generation of models of the 6 different types of AGS main magnets, and how they are being handled with the Zgoubi ray-tracing code [3]. We give and discuss a number of results obtained regarding both beam and spin dynamics in the AGS, and we provide comparisons with other numerical and analytical modelling methods.
Christophe Lièbe
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new software for design of through-the-wall imaging radars. The first part describes the evolution of a ray tracing simulator, originally designed for propagation of narrowband signals, and then for ultra-wideband signals. This simulator allows to obtain temporal channel response to a wide-band emitter (3 GHz to 10 GHz. An experimental method is also described to identify the propagation paths. Simulation results are compared to propagation experiments under the same conditions. Different configurations are tested and then discussed. Finally, a configuration of through-the-wall imaging radar is proposed, with different antennas patterns and different targets. Simulated images will be helpful for understanding the experiment obtained images.
He, Wenjun; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jiake; Zheng, Yang; Li, Yahong
2017-03-01
The polarization aberrations of a complex optical system with multi-element lens have been investigated using a 3D polarization aberration function. The 3D polarization ray-tracing matrix has been combined with the optical path difference to obtain a 3D polarization aberration function, which avoids the need for a complicated phase unwrapping process. The polarization aberrations of a microscope objective have been analyzed to include, the distributions of 3D polarization aberration functions, diattenuation aberration, retardance aberration, and polarization-dependent intensity on the exit pupil. Further, the aberrations created by the field of view and the coating on the distribution rules of 3D polarization aberration functions are discussed in detail. Finally a novel appropriate field of view and wavelength correction is proposed for a polarization aberration function which optimizes the image quality of a multi-element optical system.
Nugent, Allen H; Bertram, Christopher D
2010-02-01
Prediction of the effects of refractive index (RI) mismatch on laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements within a curvilinear cavity (an artificial ventricle) was achieved by developing a general technique for modelling the paths of the convergent beams of the LDA system using 3D vector geometry. Validated by ray tracing through CAD drawings, the predicted maximum tolerance in RI between the solid model and the working fluid was +/- 0.0005, equivalent to focusing errors commensurate with the geometric and alignment uncertainties associated with the flow model and the LDA arrangement. This technique supports predictions of the effects of refraction within a complex geometry. Where the RI mismatch is unavoidable but known, it is possible not only to calculate the true position of the measuring volume (using the probe location and model geometry), but also to estimate degradation in signal quality arising from differential displacement and refraction of the laser beams.
The Ray Tracing Analytical Solution within the RAMOD framework. The case of a Gaia-like observer
Crosta, Mariateresa; de Felice, Fernando; Lattanzi, Mario Gilberto
2015-01-01
This paper presents the analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem for photons emitted by a star and collected by an observer located in the gravitational field of the Solar System. This solution has been conceived to suit the accuracy achievable by the ESA Gaia satellite (launched on December 19, 2013) consistently with the measurement protocol in General relativity adopted within the RAMOD framework. Aim of this study is to provide a general relativistic tool for the science exploitation of such a revolutionary mission, whose main goal is to trace back star directions from within our local curved space-time, therefore providing a three-dimensional map of our Galaxy. The results are useful for a thorough comparison and cross-checking validation of what already exists in the field of Relativistic Astrometry. Moreover, the analytical solutions presented here can be extended to model other measurements that require the same order of accuracy expected for Gaia.
改进的地震模型初值射线追踪方法%Improved Seismic Model Initial Value Ray Tracing Method
贺中银; 高阳
2011-01-01
The initial value ray tracing method is one of major method in modem ray tracing methods. It overcomes time-consuming computing efficiency in two spots ray tracing. Based on eikonal equation, improved initial value ray tracing, that is using square slowness to replace velocity parameters in model, make eikonal equation produces analytic solutions, a step further to derive computing expressions of reflection and transmission slowness vectors when the ray confiont with interface, and reflection and transmission coefficients function expressions. Through ray tracings of simple two layered interface syncline model and complex multiple layered salt-dome model, have shown the improvement of initial value ray tracing by comparison with Runge-Kutta discrete numerical solution, not only improved ray tracing efficiency (about 10 times), but also extended limit for the use of ray tracing method.%初值射线追踪方法是现代射线追踪方法中的一个很重要的理论,它克服了两点法射线追踪方法耗时的计算效率问题.以程函方程为基础,对初值射线追踪方法进行改进,即利用平方慢度来替换模型中的速度参数,使得程函方程产生解析解,从而进一步导出当射线遇到界面时的反射和透射慢度向量的计算表达式,以及反射、透射系数的函数表达式.通过对简单的两层界面向斜模型及复杂的多层盐丘模型的射线追踪,表明该初值射线追踪方法的改进相比于以往的龙格库塔离散数值解法,不但使射线追踪效率得到了大幅度提高(10倍左右),且也扩大了射线法使用范围.
Ray-tracing critical-angle transmission gratings for the X-ray Surveyor and Explorer-size missions
Günther, Hans M.; Bautz, Marshall W.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Marshall, Herman L.; Nowak, Michael A.; Schulz, Norbert S.
2016-07-01
We study a critical angle transmission (CAT) grating spectrograph that delivers a spectral resolution significantly above any X-ray spectrograph ever own. This new technology will allow us to resolve kinematic components in absorption and emission lines of galactic and extragalactic matter down to unprecedented dispersion levels. We perform ray-trace simulations to characterize the performance of the spectrograph in the context of an X-ray Surveyor or Arcus like layout (two mission concepts currently under study). Our newly developed ray-trace code is a tool suite to simulate the performance of X-ray observatories. The simulator code is written in Python, because the use of a high-level scripting language allows modifications of the simulated instrument design in very few lines of code. This is especially important in the early phase of mission development, when the performances of different configurations are contrasted. To reduce the run-time and allow for simulations of a few million photons in a few minutes on a desktop computer, the simulator code uses tabulated input (from theoretical models or laboratory measurements of samples) for grating efficiencies and mirror reflectivities. We find that the grating facet alignment tolerances to maintain at least 90% of resolving power that the spectrometer has with perfect alignment are (i) translation parallel to the optical axis below 0.5 mm, (ii) rotation around the optical axis or the groove direction below a few arcminutes, and (iii) constancy of the grating period to 1:105. Translations along and rotations around the remaining axes can be significantly larger than this without impacting the performance.
Tsujimura, T., Ii; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Makino, R.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Ida, K.; Suzuki, C.; Emoto, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Moon, C.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Ejiri, A.; Mutoh, T.
2015-11-01
The central electron temperature has successfully reached up to 7.5 keV in large helical device (LHD) plasmas with a central high-ion temperature of 5 keV and a central electron density of 1.3× {{10}19} m-3. This result was obtained by heating with a newly-installed 154 GHz gyrotron and also the optimisation of injection geometry in electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The optimisation was carried out by using the ray-tracing code ‘LHDGauss’, which was upgraded to include the rapid post-processing three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium mapping obtained from experiments. For ray-tracing calculations, LHDGauss can automatically read the relevant data registered in the LHD database after a discharge, such as ECH injection settings (e.g. Gaussian beam parameters, target positions, polarisation and ECH power) and Thomson scattering diagnostic data along with the 3D equilibrium mapping data. The equilibrium map of the electron density and temperature profiles are then extrapolated into the region outside the last closed flux surface. Mode purity, or the ratio between the ordinary mode and the extraordinary mode, is obtained by calculating the 1D full-wave equation along the direction of the rays from the antenna to the absorption target point. Using the virtual magnetic flux surfaces, the effects of the modelled density profiles and the magnetic shear at the peripheral region with a given polarisation are taken into account. Power deposition profiles calculated for each Thomson scattering measurement timing are registered in the LHD database. The adjustment of the injection settings for the desired deposition profile from the feedback provided on a shot-by-shot basis resulted in an effective experimental procedure.
Sarmah, Nabin; Richards, Bryce S; Mallick, Tapas K
2011-07-01
We present a detailed design concept and optical performance evaluation of stationary dielectric asymmetric compound parabolic concentrators (DiACPCs) using ray-tracing methods. Three DiACPC designs, DiACPC-55, DiACPC-66, and DiACPC-77, of acceptance half-angles (0° and 55°), (0° and 66°), and (0° and 77°), respectively, are designed in order to optimize the concentrator for building façade photovoltaic applications in northern latitudes (>55 °N). The dielectric concentrator profiles have been realized via truncation of the complete compound parabolic concentrator profiles to achieve a geometric concentration ratio of 2.82. Ray-tracing simulation results show that all rays entering the designed concentrators within the acceptance half-angle range can be collected without escaping from the parabolic sides and aperture. The maximum optical efficiency of the designed concentrators is found to be 83%, which tends to decrease with the increase in incidence angle. The intensity is found to be distributed at the receiver (solar cell) area in an inhomogeneous pattern for a wide range of incident angles of direct solar irradiance with high-intensity peaks at certain points of the receiver. However, peaks become more intense for the irradiation incident close to the extreme acceptance angles, shifting the peaks to the edge of the receiver. Energy flux distribution at the receiver for diffuse radiation is found to be homogeneous within ±12% with an average intensity of 520 W/m².
Modeling of multi-depth slanted airgun source for deghosting
Shen Hong-Lei; Elboth Thomas; Tian Gang; Lin Zhi
2014-01-01
To obtain high-resolution of the subsurface structure, we modeled multi-depth slanted airgun sources to attenuate the source ghost. By firing the guns in sequence according to their relative depths, such a source can build constructive primaries and destructive ghosts. To evaluate the attenuation of ghosts, the normalized squared error of the spectrum of the actual vs the expected signature is computed. We used a typical 680 cu.in airgun string and found via simulations that a depth interval of 1 or 1.5 m between airguns is optimum when considering deghosting performance and operational feasibility. When more subarrays are combined, preliminary simulations are necessary to determine the optimum depth combination. The frequency notches introduced by the excess use of subarrays may negatively affect the deghosting performance. Two or three slanted subarrays can be combined to remove the ghost effect. The sequence combination may partly affect deghosting but this can be eliminated by matched filtering. Directivity comparison shows that a multi-depth slanted source can significantly attenuate the notches and widen the energy transmission stability area.
Modeling of multi-depth slanted airgun source for deghosting
Shen, Hong-Lei; Elboth, Thomas; Tian, Gang; Lin, Zhi
2014-12-01
To obtain high-resolution of the subsurface structure, we modeled multi-depth slanted airgun sources to attenuate the source ghost. By firing the guns in sequence according to their relative depths, such a source can build constructive primaries and destructive ghosts. To evaluate the attenuation of ghosts, the normalized squared error of the spectrum of the actual vs the expected signature is computed. We used a typical 680 cu.in airgun string and found via simulations that a depth interval of 1 or 1.5 m between airguns is optimum when considering deghosting performance and operational feasibility. When more subarrays are combined, preliminary simulations are necessary to determine the optimum depth combination. The frequency notches introduced by the excess use of subarrays may negatively affect the deghosting performance. Two or three slanted subarrays can be combined to remove the ghost effect. The sequence combination may partly affect deghosting but this can be eliminated by matched filtering. Directivity comparison shows that a multi-depth slanted source can significantly attenuate the notches and widen the energy transmission stability area.
Okumura, Akira; Rulten, Cameron
2016-01-01
We have developed a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library, ROOT-based simulator for ray tracing (ROBAST), which is aimed to be widely used in optical simulations of cosmic-ray (CR) and gamma-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++, and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT framework. Despite the importance of optics simulations in CR experiments, no open-source software for ray-tracing simulations that can be widely used in the community has existed. To reduce the dispensable effort needed to develop multiple ray-tracing simulators by different research groups, we have successfully used ROBAST for many years to perform optics simulations for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Among the six proposed telescope designs for CTA, ROBAST is currently used for three telescopes: a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-sized telescope, one of SC small-sized telescopes, and a large-sized telescope (LST). ROBAST is also used for the simulation and development of hexagonal light concentrators propose...
Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Deffet, Sylvain; Meijers, Arturs; Vander Stappen, Francois
2016-01-01
Purpose: To introduce a fast ray-tracing algorithm in pencil proton radiography (PR) with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) for in vivo range error mapping. Methods: Pencil beam PR was obtained by delivering spots uniformly positioned in a square (45x45 mm(2) field-of-view) of 9x9 spots capable
Perception of Stand-on-ability: Do Geographical Slants Feel Steeper Than They Look?
Hajnal, Alen; Wagman, Jeffrey B; Doyon, Jonathan K; Clark, Joseph D
2016-07-01
Past research has shown that haptically perceived surface slant by foot is matched with visually perceived slant by a factor of 0.81. Slopes perceived visually appear shallower than when stood on without looking. We sought to identify the sources of this discrepancy by asking participants to judge whether they would be able to stand on an inclined ramp. In the first experiment, visual perception was compared to pedal perception in which participants took half a step with one foot onto an occluded ramp. Visual perception closely matched the actual maximal slope angle that one could stand on, whereas pedal perception underestimated it. Participants may have been less stable in the pedal condition while taking half a step onto the ramp. We controlled for this by having participants hold onto a sturdy tripod in the pedal condition (Experiment 2). This did not eliminate the difference between visual and haptic perception, but repeating the task while sitting on a chair did (Experiment 3). Beyond balance requirements, pedal perception may also be constrained by the limited range of motion at the ankle and knee joints while standing. Indeed, when we restricted range of motion by wearing an ankle brace pedal perception underestimated the affordance (Experiment 4). Implications for ecological theory were offered by discussing the notion of functional equivalence and the role of exploration in perception.
Greenwald, R. A.; Frissell, N. A.; de Larquier, S.
2016-12-01
In this paper, we evaluate the performance of three methods used by HF radars in the SuperDARN network for determining the ground ranges to ionospheric scattering volumes. Each method uses somewhat different approaches, but the same equivalent-path analysis. We also show that Snell's Law can be added to this analysis to determine the refractive index of each scattering volume and thereby correct Doppler velocity measurements for ionospheric refraction. Two of these methods make their predictions using the group range to the scattering volume and a virtual height model, while the third method uses the group range and the elevation angle each backscattered return. The effectiveness of each of these methods is evaluated using ray tracing analyses through the International Reference Ionosphere. Ray tracings analysis provides determinations of the initial elevation angle, group range, group range, and refractive index of each ionospheric volume that backscatters signals to the radar. The initial or final elevation angle and the group range are used as inputs to the geolocation methods and the ground range and refractive index serve as reference data against which the predictions of the geolocation methods can be evaluated. We find that the methods using virtual height models actually change the initial elevation angle determined from ray tracing to a different elevation angle that is consistent with the virtual height model. Due to this change, predictions of the ground range and refractive index of scattering volumes located with virtual-height models are rarely consistent with the predictions obtained from ray tracing. In contrast, the geolocation method that uses the group range and initial or final elevation angle yields predictions that are in good agreement with ray tracing. Modifications to the equivalent-path analysis are required to obtain consistent predictions of the ground range and refractive index of backscatter from the topside F-layer.
周庆华; 史建魁; 肖伏良
2011-01-01
A three-dimensional ray tracing study of a whistler-mode chorus is conducted for different geomagnetic activities by using a global core plasma density model. For the upperband chorus, the initial azimuthal wave angle affects slightly the projection of ray trajectories onto the plane （Z, √（x^2 ＋ y^2））, but controls the longitudinal propagation. The trajectory of the upper-band chorus is strongly associated with the plasmapause and the magnetic local time （MLT） of chorus source region. For the high geomagnetic activity, the chorus trajectory moves inward together with the plasmapause. In the bulge region, the plasmapause extends outward, while the chorus trajectory moves outward together with the plasmapause. For moderately or high geomagnetic activity, the lower-band chorus suffers low hybrid resonance （LHR） reflection before it reaches the plasmapause, leading to a weak correlation with the geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time of the chorus source region. For low geomagnetic activity, the lower-band chorus may be reflected firstly at the plasmapause instead of suffering LHR reflection, exhibiting a propagation characteristic similar to that of the upper-band chorus. The results provide a new insight into the propagation characteristics of the chorus for different geomagnetic activities and contribute to further understanding of the acceleration of energetic electron by a chorus wave.
Classification of flat slant surfaces in complex Euclidean plane
Chen, Bang-Yen
2002-01-01
It is well-known that the classification of flat surfaces in Euclidean 3space is one of the most basic results in differential geometry. For surfaces in the complex Euclidean plane $C^{2}$ endowed with almost complex structure $J$ , flat surfaces are the simplest ones from intrinsic point of views. On the other hand, from $J$ -action point of views, the most natural surfaces in $C^{2}$ are slant surfaces, i.e., surfaces with constant Wintinger angle. In this paper the author completely classi...
Dominance of orientation over frequency in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.
Tam, Danny M; Shin, Ji; Li, Andrea
2013-01-01
In images of textured three-dimensional surfaces, pattern changes can be characterized as changes in orientation and spatial frequency, features for which neurons in primary visual cortex are classically selective. Previously, we have demonstrated that correct 3-D shape perception is contingent on the visibility of orientation flows that run parallel to the surface curvature. We sought to determine the relative contributions of orientation modulations (OMs) and frequency modulations (FMs) for the detection of slant and shape from 3-D surfaces. Results show that 1) when OM and FM indicate inconsistent degrees of surface slant or curvature, observer responses were consistent with the slant or curvature specified by OM even if the FM indicated a slant or curvature in the opposite direction to the same degree. 2) For slanted surfaces, OM information dictates slant perception at both shallow and steep slants while FM information is effective only for steep slants. Together these results point to a dominant role of OM information in the perception of 3-D slant and shape.
Optimizing heliostat positions with local search metaheuristics using a ray tracing optical model
Reinholz, Andreas; Husenbeth, Christof; Schwarzbözl, Peter; Buck, Reiner
2017-06-01
The life cycle costs of solar tower power plants are mainly determined by the investment costs of its construction. Significant parts of these investment costs are used for the heliostat field. Therefore, an optimized placement of the heliostats gaining the maximal annual power production has a direct impact on the life cycle costs revenue ratio. We present a two level local search method implemented in MATLAB utilizing the Monte Carlo raytracing software STRAL [1] for the evaluation of the annual power output for a specific weighted annual time scheme. The algorithm was applied to a solar tower power plant (PS10) with 624 heliostats. Compared to former work of Buck [2], we were able to improve both runtime of the algorithm and quality of the output solutions significantly. Using the same environment for both algorithms, we were able to reach Buck's best solution with a speed up factor of about 20.
Song Fu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Although the uniform theory of diffraction (UTD could be theoretically applied to arbitrarilyshaped convex objects modeled by nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS, one of the great challenges in calculation of the UTD surface diffracted fields is the difficulty in determining the geodesic paths along which the creeping waves propagate on arbitrarilyshaped NURBS surfaces. In differential geometry, geodesic paths satisfy geodesic differential equation (GDE. Hence, in this paper, a general and efficient adaptive variable step Euler method is introduced for solving the GDE on arbitrarilyshaped NURBS surfaces. In contrast with conventional Euler method, the proposed method employs a shape factor (SF ξ to efficiently enhance the accuracy of tracing and extends the application of UTD for practical engineering. The validity and usefulness of the algorithm can be verified by the numerical results.
Fu, Lei
2017-05-11
Full-waveform inversion of land seismic data tends to get stuck in a local minimum associated with the waveform misfit function. This problem can be partly mitigated by using an initial velocity model that is close to the true velocity model. This initial starting model can be obtained by inverting traveltimes with ray-tracing traveltime tomography (RT) or wave-equation traveltime (WT) inversion. We have found that WT can provide a more accurate tomogram than RT by inverting the first-arrival traveltimes, and empirical tests suggest that RT is more sensitive to the additive noise in the input data than WT. We present two examples of applying WT and RT to land seismic data acquired in western Saudi Arabia. One of the seismic experiments investigated the water-table depth, and the other one attempted to detect the location of a buried fault. The seismic land data were inverted by WT and RT to generate the P-velocity tomograms, from which we can clearly identify the water table depth along the seismic survey line in the first example and the fault location in the second example.
A Three-Dimensional Ray-Tracing Study of R-X Mode Waves during High Geomagnetic Activity
XIAO Fu-Liang; CHEN Lun-Jin; ZHENG Hui-Nan; WANG Shui; GUO Jun
2008-01-01
We further present a three-dimensional(3D)ray-tracing study on the propagation characteristic of the superluminous R-X mode waves during high geomagnetic activity following our recent two-dimensional results [J.Geophys.Res.112(2007)A10214].We perform numerical calculations for this mode which originates at specific altitude r=2.0RE in the souice cavity along a 70°night geomagnetic field line.We demonstrate that the ray path of the R-X mode is essentially governed by the azimuthal angle of the wave vector k.Ray paths starting with azimuthal angle 180°(or in the meridian plane)can reach the lowest latitude,but stay at relatively higher latitudes with the azimuthal anglas other than 180°(or off the meridian plane).The results further supports the previous finding that the R-X mode may be physically present in the radiation belts under appropriate conditions.
Connolly, G D; Lowe, M J S; Temple, J A G; Rokhlin, S I
2010-05-01
The use of ultrasonic arrays has increased dramatically within recent years due to their ability to perform multiple types of inspection and to produce images of the structure through post-processing of received signals. Phased arrays offer many advantages over conventional transducers in the inspection of materials that are inhomogeneous with spatially varying anisotropic properties. In this paper, the arrays are focused on austenitic steel welds as a representative inhomogeneous material. The method of ray-tracing through a previously developed model of an inhomogeneous weld is shown, with particular emphasis on the difficulties presented by material inhomogeneity. The delay laws for the structure are computed and are used to perform synthetic focusing at the post-processing stage of signal data acquired by the array. It is demonstrated for a simulated austenitic weld that by taking material inhomogeneity and anisotropy into account, superior reflector location (and hence, superior sizing) results when compared to cases where these are ignored. The image is thus said to have been corrected. Typical images are produced from both analytical data in the frequency domain and data from finite element simulations in the time domain in a variety of wave modes, including cases with mode conversion and reflections.
Stevens, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2013-12-01
Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO_{3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-to-center spacing was 14 μm for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-to-center spacing was 14 μm. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-to-center spacing of 20 μm, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.
Pelzers, R S; Yu, Q L; Mangkuto, R A
2014-10-01
This article aims to understand the radiation behavior within a photo-reactor, following the ISO 22197-1:2007 standard. The RADIANCE lighting simulation tool, based on the backward ray-tracing modeling method, is employed for a numerical computation of the radiation field. The reflection of the glass cover in the photo-reactor and the test sample influence the amount of irradiance received by the test-sample surface in the photo-reactor setup. The reflection of a white sample limits the irradiance reduction by the glass cover to 1.4 %, but darker samples can lead to an overestimation up to 9.8 % when used in the same setup. This overestimation could introduce considerable error into the interpretation of experiments. Furthermore, this method demonstrates that the kinetics for indoor photocatalytic pollutant degradation can be refined through radiation modeling of the reactor setup. In addition, RADIANCE may aid in future modeling of the more complex indoor environment where radiation affects significantly photocatalytic activity.
Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.
1994-01-01
During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.
Jensen, K. A.; Ripoll, J.-F.; Wray, A. A.; Joseph, D.; ElHafi, M.
2004-01-01
Five computational methods for solution of the radiative transfer equation in an absorbing-emitting and non-scattering gray medium were compared on a 2 m JP-8 pool fire. The temperature and absorption coefficient fields were taken from a synthetic fire due to the lack of a complete set of experimental data for fires of this size. These quantities were generated by a code that has been shown to agree well with the limited quantity of relevant data in the literature. Reference solutions to the governing equation were determined using the Monte Carlo method and a ray tracing scheme with high angular resolution. Solutions using the discrete transfer method, the discrete ordinate method (DOM) with both S(sub 4) and LC(sub 11) quadratures, and moment model using the M(sub 1) closure were compared to the reference solutions in both isotropic and anisotropic regions of the computational domain. DOM LC(sub 11) is shown to be the more accurate than the commonly used S(sub 4) quadrature technique, especially in anisotropic regions of the fire domain. This represents the first study where the M(sub 1) method was applied to a combustion problem occurring in a complex three-dimensional geometry. The M(sub 1) results agree well with other solution techniques, which is encouraging for future applications to similar problems since it is computationally the least expensive solution technique. Moreover, M(sub 1) results are comparable to DOM S(sub 4).
Ray-trace simulation of CuInS(Se)₂ quantum dot based luminescent solar concentrators.
Hu, Xiangmin; Kang, Ruidan; Zhang, Yongyou; Deng, Luogen; Zhong, Haizheng; Zou, Bingsuo; Shi, Li-Jie
2015-07-27
To enhance the performance of luminescent solar concentrator (LSC), there is an increased need to search novel emissive materials with broad absorption and large Stokes shifts. I-III-VI colloidal CuInS2 and CuInSe2 based nanocrystals, which exhibit strong photoluminescence emissions in the visible to near infrared region with large Stokes shifts, are expected to improve performance in luminescent solar concentrator applications. In this work, the performance of CuInS(Se)2 quantum dots in simple planar LSC is evaluated by applying Monte-Carlo ray-trace simulation. A systematic parameters study was conducted to optimize the performance. An optimized photon concentration ratio of 0.34 for CuInS2 nanocrystals and 1.25 for CuInSe2 nanocrystals doping LSC are obtained from the simulation. The results demonstrated that CuInSe2 based nanocrystals are particularly interesting for luminescent solar concentrator applications, especially to combine with low price Si solar cells.
Cashen, M. T.; Koch, P. M.
1997-04-01
In our fast-beam apparatus we have long used( P. Koch and K. van Leeuwen, Phys. Rep. 255), 289 (1995). an electrostatic filter lens (FL) selectively to transmit energy labeled signal ions (e.g., H^+ or He^+) whose energy EB + EL is E_L=40--300 eV above the energy, typically E_B=14.6 keV, of the much more intense primary ion beam. Based on one originally used( H. Zeman, K. Jost, and S. Gilad, Rev. Sci. Inst. 42), 485 (1971). with hundred-eV-energy-range electrons, our 12.8 cm long FL has 21 identical, equally spaced, 0.1 cm thick mumetal disks (11.4 cm OD with 1.91 cm dia. axial hole) electrically biased via resistors so that its near-axis electrostatic field is approximately hyperbolic. We have long noted that the analysis presented in Ref. [3], which ignores focusing effects, fails to explain why our FL has a final cutoff up to five or more times sharper than `theory'. We present ray tracing results obtained with the computer program uc(Simion) to show that strong focusing and higher operating regions (initially parallel rays crossing the axis more than once) play a very important role in the operation of the FL near cutoff and in sharpening its cutoff. Agreement is good.
Ray-tracing simulations of spherical Johann diffraction spectrometer for in-beam X-ray experiments
Jagodziński, P., E-mail: jagodzin@tu.kielce.pl [Department of Physics, Kielce University of Technology, Tysiaclecia PP 7, 25-314 Kielce (Poland); Pajek, M.; Banaś, D. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, Świȩtokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Beyer, H.F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Trassinelli, M. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75015 Paris (France); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Insitut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Institut für Optic und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany)
2014-07-01
The results of the Monte-Carlo ray-tracing simulations for a Johann-type Bragg spectrometer with spherically curved-crystal designed to detect the X-rays from a fast-moving source are reported. These calculations were performed to optimize the X-ray spectrometer to be used at the gas-target installed at ion storage ring for high-resolution X-ray experiments. In particular, the two-dimensional distributions of detected photons were studied using the Monte-Carlo method both for the stationary and moving X-ray sources, taking into account a detailed description of X-ray source and X-ray diffraction on the crystal as well as a role of the Doppler effect for in-beam experiments. The origin of the asymmetry of observed X-ray profiles was discussed in detail and the procedure to derive a precise (sub-eV) X-ray transition energy for such asymmetric profiles was proposed. The results are important for the investigations of 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 2}→1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} intrashell transition in excited He-like uranium ions in in-beam X-ray experiments.
Design and Fabrication of a Slanted-Beam MEMS Accelerometer
Wei Xu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS accelerometer with slanted supporting beams and all-silicon sandwich structure. Its sensing mechanism is quite similar to an ordinary sandwich-type MEMS accelerometer, except that its proof mass is suspended by a beam parallel to the {111} plane of a (100 silicon wafer. In this way, each sensing element can detect accelerations in two orthogonal directions. Four of these sensing elements could work together and constitute a 3-axis micro-accelerometer by using a simple planar assembly process. This design avoids the traditional 3-axis accelerometer’ disadvantage of possible placement inaccuracy when assembling on three different planes and largely reduces the package volume. The slanted-beam accelerometer’s performance was modeled and analyzed by using both analytical calculations and finite element method (FEM simulations. A prototype of one sensing element was fabricated and tested. Measured results show that this accelerometer has a good bias stability 76.8 ppm (1σ, tested immediately after power on, two directional sensitivities (sensitivity angle α = 45.4° and low nonlinearity (<0.5% over a sensing range up to ±50 g, which demonstrates a great opportunity for future high-precision three-axis inertial measurement.
Slant Hole Completion Test, Cozzette and Paludal production testing
Mann, R.L.; Malinowsky, M.S.
1993-12-31
The Slant Hole Completion Test has been successful in providing good technology transfer to the oil and gas industry. The gas-producing rate from the Cozzette horizontal open-hole interval was significantly greater than from offset vertical wells. The source of water production from the Cozzette is not presently understood. Diagnosis of the water production mechanism is vital to economic exploitation of the Cozzette gas resource using horizontal well technology. Stimulation in a high-angle cased and cemented wellbore, such as the Paludal 2, 3 and 4 intervals in SHCT No. 1, is more difficult because of high near-wellbore stress that results in higher treating pressures. Low gas production potential following the Paludal 2, 3 and 4 stimulation may result from damage to the natural fracture system resulting from casing cementing operations. Comparison of gas production rates in SHCT No. 1 and MWX No. 1 following similar stimulations in the Paludal 3 and 4 intervals, indicate there is no advantage to a hydraulic fracture treatment in a slant wellbore when compared to a vertical wellbore.
4D tropospheric tomography using GPS slant wet delays
A. Flores
Full Text Available Tomographic techniques are successfully applied to obtain 4D images of the tropospheric refractivity in a local dense network of global positioning system (GPS receivers. We show here how GPS data are processed to obtain the tropospheric slant wet delays and discuss the validity of the processing. These slant wet delays are the observables in the tomographic processing. We then discuss the inverse problem in 4D tropospheric tomography making extensive use of simulations to test the system and define the resolution and the impact of noise. Finally, we use data from the Kilauea network in Hawaii for February 1, 1997, and a local 4×4×40 voxel grid on a region of 400 km^{2} and 15 km in height to produce the corresponding 4D wet refractivity fields, which are then validated using forecast analysis from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. We conclude that tomographic techniques can be used to monitor the troposphere in time and space.
Key words: Radio science (remote sensing; instruments and techniques
Julien Barra
Full Text Available Perspective (route or survey during the encoding of spatial information can influence recall and navigation performance. In our experiment we investigated a third type of perspective, which is a slanted view. This slanted perspective is a compromise between route and survey perspectives, offering both information about landmarks as in route perspective and geometric information as in survey perspective. We hypothesized that the use of slanted perspective would allow the brain to use either egocentric or allocentric strategies during storage and recall. Twenty-six subjects were scanned (3-Tesla fMRI during the encoding of a path (40-s navigation movie within a virtual city. They were given the task of encoding a segment of travel in the virtual city and of subsequent shortcut-finding for each perspective: route, slanted and survey. The analysis of the behavioral data revealed that perspective influenced response accuracy, with significantly more correct responses for slanted and survey perspectives than for route perspective. Comparisons of brain activation with route, slanted, and survey perspectives suggested that slanted and survey perspectives share common brain activity in the left lingual and fusiform gyri and lead to very similar behavioral performance. Slanted perspective was also associated with similar activation to route perspective during encoding in the right middle occipital gyrus. Furthermore, slanted perspective induced intermediate patterns of activation (in between route and survey in some brain areas, such as the right lingual and fusiform gyri. Our results suggest that the slanted perspective may be considered as a hybrid perspective. This result offers the first empirical support for the choice to present the slanted perspective in many navigational aids.
Niccolini, Gilles; De Souza, Armando Domiciano
2010-01-01
The physical interpretation of spectro-interferometric data is strongly model-dependent. On one hand, models involving elaborate radiative transfer solvers are too time consuming in general to perform an automatic fitting procedure and derive astrophysical quantities and their related errors. On the other hand, using simple geometrical models does not give sufficient insights into the physics of the object. We propose to stand in between these two extreme approaches by using a physical but still simple parameterised model for the object under consideration. Based on this philosophy, we developed a numerical tool optimised for mid-infrared (mid-IR) interferometry, the fast ray-tracing algorithm for circumstellar structures (FRACS) which can be used as a stand-alone model, or as an aid for a more advanced physical description or even for elaborating observation strategies. FRACS is based on the ray-tracing technique without scattering, but supplemented with the use of quadtree meshes and the full symmetries of ...
Jie Ji
2012-09-01
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the necessity of applying a mirror coating on the side of a truncated solid dielectric CPC (compound parabolic concentrator since ray tracing analysis has revealed that part of the incoming rays do not undergo total internal reflection, even within the half acceptance angle of the CPC. An experiment was designed and conducted indoors and outdoors to study the effect of mirror coating on the optical performance of a solid dielectric CPC. Ray tracing was also employed for the detailed analysis and its results are compared with the measurements. Based on these, a concept of partial coating is proposed and verified through simulation. The results show that a partly coated solid dielectric CPC may have a better optical efficiency than a solid CPC without coating for a certain range of incidence angles.
Britto jr., A. de S.; Sabourin, R.; Lethelier, E.; Bortolozzi, F.; Suen, C.Y.
2004-01-01
This work describes a way of enhancing handwritten numeral string recognition by considering slant normalization and contextual information to train an implicit segmentationbased system. A word slant normalization method is modified in order to improve the results for handwritten numeral strings.
Binocular perception of slant about oblique axes relative to a visual frame of reference
Ee, R. van; Erkelens, Casper J.
2001-01-01
From the literature it is known that the processing of disparity for slant is different in the presence and in the absence of a visual frame of reference. We elaborate the experimental finding that vertical disparity is not processed for slant perception in the presence of a visual reference. This t
Observation of slant column NO2 using the super-zoom mode of AURA-OMI
Valin, L.C.; Russell, A.R.; Bucsela, E.J.; Veefkind, J.P.; Cohen, R.C.
2011-01-01
We retrieve slant column NO2 from the superzoom mode of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to explore its utility for understanding NOx emissions and variability. Slant column NO2 is operationally retrieved from OMI (Boersma et al., 2007; Bucsela et al., 2006) with a nadir footprint of 13×24 km2,
Modeling and control of the driving system of slant mount telescopes
Zhou, Wangping; Wang, Ya; Cai, Ziyuan; Tian, Yan
2016-10-01
The angle between slant and azimuth axes is 45 degrees in slant-mount telescopes, which use the slant rotation to replace altitude movement in traditional mounts. The circular motion can achieve more smooth driving in altitude direction, and can effectively overcome problems in traditional mounts such as vibrations around the zenith. It is a hot topic in researches of current astronomical instruments. While the vertical displacement of the structure is composed by circle rotation of the slant axis, which causes displacements of the two direction coupled. Moreover, the slant rotation can also leads to the revolving movement of CCD images of the tracking system. These two problems bring great challenges to the slant mount driving. In this paper, based on a slant mount, we establish accurate mathematical model of the drive system to effectively compensate for the revolving movement of the image field, decompose in real time the deviation of vertical and horizontal directions by the decoupling algorithm, and design the control system using FPGA to carry out testing experiments. We strive to solve the displacement coupling and the image revolving movement problem, and thus provide a feasible technical support for driving control of slant mounts.
van Aardt, J. A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Kelbe, D.; Kampe, T.; Krause, K.
2015-12-01
Remote sensing is widely accepted as a useful technology for characterizing the Earth surface in an objective, reproducible, and economically feasible manner. To date, the calibration and validation of remote sensing data sets and biophysical parameter estimates remain challenging due to the requirements to sample large areas for ground-truth data collection, and restrictions to sample these data within narrow temporal windows centered around flight campaigns or satellite overpasses. The computer graphics community have taken significant steps to ameliorate some of these challenges by providing an ability to generate synthetic images based on geometrically and optically realistic representations of complex targets and imaging instruments. These synthetic data can be used for conceptual and diagnostic tests of instrumentation prior to sensor deployment or to examine linkages between biophysical characteristics of the Earth surface and at-sensor radiance. In the last two decades, the use of image generation techniques for remote sensing of the vegetated environment has evolved from the simulation of simple homogeneous, hypothetical vegetation canopies, to advanced scenes and renderings with a high degree of photo-realism. Reported virtual scenes comprise up to 100M surface facets; however, due to the tighter coupling between hardware and software development, the full potential of image generation techniques for forestry applications yet remains to be fully explored. In this presentation, we examine the potential computer graphics techniques have for the analysis of forest structure-function relationships and demonstrate techniques that provide for the modeling of extremely high-faceted virtual forest canopies, comprising billions of scene elements. We demonstrate the use of ray tracing simulations for the analysis of gap size distributions and characterization of foliage clumping within spatial footprints that allow for a tight matching between characteristics
Flandes, Alberto; Spilker, Linda; Déau, Estelle
2016-10-01
Saturn's rings are a complex collection of icy particles with diameters from 1 m to few meters. Their natural window of study is the infrared because its temperatures are between 40K and 120K. The main driver of the temperature of these rings is the direct solar radiation as well as the solar radiation reflected off Saturn's atmosphere. The second most important energy source is the infrared radiation coming from Saturn itself. The study of the variations of temperatures of the rings, or, in general, their thermal behavior, may provide important information on their composition, their structure and their dynamics. Models that consider these and other energy sources are able to explain, to a first approximation, the observed temperature variations of the rings. The challenge for these models is to accurately describe the variation of illumination on the rings, i. e., how the illuminated and non-illuminated regions of the ring particles change at the different observation geometries. This shadowing mainly depends on the optical depth, as well as the general structure of the rings.In this work, We show a semi-analytical model that considers the main energy sources of the rings and their average properties (e.g., optical depth, particle size range and vertical distribution). In order to deal with the shadowing at specific geometries, the model uses the ray-tracing technique. The goal is to describe the ring temperatures observed by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer, CIRS, onboard the Cassini spacecraft, which is in orbit around Saturn since 2004. So far, the model is able to reproduce some of the general features of specific regions of the A, B and C rings.
张昕; 刘月巍; 王斌; 季仲贞
2004-01-01
The Spectral Statistical Interpolation (SSI) analysis system of NCEP is used to assimilate meteorological data from the Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS/MET) refraction angles with the variational technique. Verified by radiosonde, including GPS/MET observations into the analysis makes an overall improvement to the analysis variables of temperature, winds, and water vapor. However, the variational model with the ray-tracing method is quite expensive for numerical weather prediction and climate research. For example, about 4 000 GPS/MET refraction angles need to be assimilated to produce an ideal global analysis. Just one iteration of minimization will take more than 24 hours CPU time on the NCEP's Gray C90 computer. Although efforts have been taken to reduce the computational cost, it is still prohibitive for operational data assimilation. In this paper, a parallel version of the three-dimensional variational data assimilation model of GPS/MET occultation measurement suitable for massive parallel processors architectures is developed. The divide-and-conquer strategy is used to achieve parallelism and is implemented by message passing. The authors present the principles for the code's design and examine the performance on the state-of-the-art parallel computers in China. The results show that this parallel model scales favorably as the number of processors is increased. With the Memory-IO technique implemented by the author, the wall clock time per iteration used for assimilating 1420 refraction angles is reduced from 45 s to 12 s using 1420 processors. This suggests that the new parallelized code has the potential to be useful in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate studies.
Influence of slant of objective on image formation in optical microscopes
Jiangang Wang; Rainer Koning
2008-01-01
A microscope image formation model based on scalar diffraction and Fourier optics has been developed, which takes a slant angle between the optical axis and the observed surface into account. The theoretical investigations of the imaging of line structures using this model show that reflection type microscopes are much stronger influenced by the slant angle than transmission type microscopes. In addition, the slant angle changes the image contrast and the image shape of a line structure, especially its edge. The larger the slant angle, the stronger the decrease of the image contrast, and the less steep the edge slope in both types of microscopes. Furthermore, the larger the numerical aperture of the objective, the less the effect of the slant angle on the line image shape.
Nosikov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Zhbankov, G. A.
2017-07-01
Point-to-point ray tracing is an important problem in many fields of science. While direct variational methods where some trajectory is transformed to an optimal one are routinely used in calculations of pathways of seismic waves, chemical reactions, diffusion processes, etc., this approach is not widely known in ionospheric point-to-point ray tracing. We apply the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method to a radio wave propagation problem. In the NEB method, a chain of points which gives a discrete representation of the radio wave ray is adjusted iteratively to an optimal configuration satisfying the Fermat's principle, while the endpoints of the trajectory are kept fixed according to the boundary conditions. Transverse displacements define the radio ray trajectory, while springs between the points control their distribution along the ray. The method is applied to a study of point-to-point ionospheric ray tracing, where the propagation medium is obtained with the International Reference Ionosphere model taking into account traveling ionospheric disturbances. A 2-dimensional representation of the optical path functional is developed and used to gain insight into the fundamental difference between high and low rays. We conclude that high and low rays are minima and saddle points of the optical path functional, respectively.
Okumura, Akira; Noda, Koji; Rulten, Cameron
2016-03-01
We have developed a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library, ROOT-basedsimulatorforraytracing (ROBAST), which is aimed to be widely used in optical simulations of cosmic-ray (CR) and gamma-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++, and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT framework. Despite the importance of optics simulations in CR experiments, no open-source software for ray-tracing simulations that can be widely used in the community has existed. To reduce the dispensable effort needed to develop multiple ray-tracing simulators by different research groups, we have successfully used ROBAST for many years to perform optics simulations for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Among the six proposed telescope designs for CTA, ROBAST is currently used for three telescopes: a Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium-sized telescope, one of SC small-sized telescopes, and a large-sized telescope (LST). ROBAST is also used for the simulation and development of hexagonal light concentrators proposed for the LST focal plane. Making full use of the ROOT geometry library with additional ROBAST classes, we are able to build the complex optics geometries typically used in CR experiments and ground-based gamma-ray telescopes. We introduce ROBAST and its features developed for CR experiments, and show several successful applications for CTA.
Slant total electron content for Sirio-Mortelliccio ray path
P. Spalla
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The Total Electron Content (TEC is used to indicate the ionisation of the ionosphere. TEC is a quantity that concern for predicting space weather effects on telecommunications, improving the accuracy of satellite navigation, fly control vehicles and other systems that use transionospheric signals, because the ionospheric layer affects the mentioned signals. In this work the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC was calculated with a technique that uses so-called «auxiliaries stations model», and a Chapman layer with scale height equal to atomic oxygen scale height (CHO. The validity was checked with STEC measurements obtained from geosynchronous satellite signals, for SIRIO-Mortelliccio link considering solstices and equinox, in high solar activity period. In general, the deviations between predictions and measurements were lower than 30% for 16 h per day (average. The results suggest that additional studies for other links and solar activity are required in order to improve the model predictions.
HUANG Yuan-dong; JIN Ming-xia; SUN Ya-nan
2007-01-01
Based on the CFD technique, fifteen cases were evaluated for the airflows and pollutant dispersions inside urban street canyons formed by slanted roof buildings. The simulated wind fields and concentration contours show that W/H, W/h and h/H (where W is the street width, and H and h are the heights of buildings at the leeward and windward sides of the street, respectively) are the crucial factors in determining the vortex structure and pollutant distribution within a canyon. It is concluded that (1) in a symmetrical canyon, at W/H =0.5 two vortices (an upper clockwise vortex between the slanted roofs and a lower counter-clockwise one) are developed and pollutants accumulate on the windward side of the street, whereas at W/H=2.0 only one clockwise vortex is generated and thus pollution piles up on the leeward side, (2) in a step-up canyon with W/H =0.5 to 2.0 (at h/H =1.5 to 2.0)and a step-down canyon with W/h=1.0 (at h/H =0.5 to 0.667), the pollution level close to the lower building is higher than that close to the taller building since a clockwise vortex is generated in the step-up canyon and a counter-clockwise one in the step-down canyon, (3) in a narrow step-down canyon with W/h=0.5 (at h/H =0.667) very poor ventilation properties is detected, and inside a wider step-down canyon with W/h=2.0 the vortex structure and consequently pollutant distribution varies greatly with h/H.
Multiplexing slanted spiral microchannels for ultra-fast blood plasma separation.
Rafeie, Mehdi; Zhang, Jun; Asadnia, Mohsen; Li, Weihua; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi
2016-08-07
Blood and blood products are critical components of health care. Blood components perform distinct functions in the human body and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components (i.e., plasma and cellular components) is of utmost importance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Although conventional approaches like centrifugation and membrane filtration for blood processing have been successful in generating relatively pure fractions, they are largely limited by factors such as the required blood sample volume, component purity, clogging, processing time and operation efficiency. In this work, we developed a high-throughput inertial microfluidic system for cell focusing and blood plasma separation from small to large volume blood samples (1-100 mL). Initially, polystyrene beads and blood cells were used to investigate the inertial focusing performance of a single slanted spiral microchannel as a function of particle size, flow rate, and blood cell concentration. Afterwards, blood plasma separation was conducted using an optimised spiral microchannel with relatively large dimensions. It was found that the reject ratio of the slanted spiral channel is close to 100% for blood samples with haematocrit (HCT) values of 0.5% and 1% under an optimal flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). Finally, through a unique multiplexing approach, we built a high-throughput system consisting of 16 spiral channels connected together, which can process diluted samples with a total flow rate as high as 24 mL min(-1). The proposed multiplexed system can surmount the shortcomings of previously reported microfluidic systems for plasma separation and cell sorting in terms of throughput, yield and operation efficiency.
Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy
2014-07-01
Austenitic welds and dissimilar welds are extensively used in primary circuit pipes and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants, chemical industries and fossil fuelled power plants because of their high fracture toughness, resistance to corrosion and creep at elevated temperatures. However, cracks may initiate in these weld materials during fabrication process or stress operations in service. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the structural integrity of these materials using highly reliable non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. Ultrasonic non-destructive inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components is complicated because of anisotropic columnar grain structure leading to beam splitting and beam deflection. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques and optimizing experimental parameters for inspection of austenitic welds and dissimilar weld components. The main aim of the thesis is to develop a 3D ray tracing model for quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic austenitic weld material. Inhomogenity in the anisotropic weld material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The influence of anisotropy on ultrasonic reflection and transmission behaviour in an anisotropic austenitic weld material are quantitatively analyzed in three dimensions. The ultrasonic beam directivity in columnar grained austenitic steel material is determined three dimensionally using Lamb's reciprocity theorem. The developed ray tracing model evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase
Analytical Solution for Three-Dimensional Capture Zone of a Slanted Well
Zhou, Yu-Hui; Chen, Chia-Shyun
2016-04-01
It is rather impractical to install vertical wells inside a building for the sake of dealing with groundwater contamination under the building. Slant wells, however, provide an alternative because they can be drilled with a θ angle (with respect to the horizontal surface) from the edge of the building foundation to the target aquifer. Herein, a steady-state, analytical solution is developed for the three-dimensional (3D) capture zone created by a slant well pumping under the influence of a uniform regional flow field of a constant hydraulic gradient, i. The aquifer is assumed to be confined, homogeneous with a vertical anisotropy ratio, κ(Kx /Kz ≤ 1). The 3D capture zone is the largest when the slant well is in the same direction of +i, and the smallest when the slant well is in the direction at a right angle to +i; other conditions remain the same. Decreasingκ compresses the 3D capture zone in the vertical direction while elongates its horizontal extent. The stagnation point moves upward and closer to the slant well screen when i increases. Application of the linear superposition principle to this 3D analytical solution can yield information for various conditions that involve multiple slant wells with different orientation and θ angles, providing a useful understanding of how to employ slant wells to withdraw contaminated groundwater that cannot be done using the conventional vertical wells.
The role of the foreshortening cue in the perception of 3D object slant.
Ivanov, Iliya V; Kramer, Daniel J; Mullen, Kathy T
2014-01-01
Slant is the degree to which a surface recedes or slopes away from the observer about the horizontal axis. The perception of surface slant may be derived from static monocular cues, including linear perspective and foreshortening, applied to single shapes or to multi-element textures. It is still unclear the extent to which color vision can use these cues to determine slant in the absence of achromatic contrast. Although previous demonstrations have shown that some pictures and images may lose their depth when presented at isoluminance, this has not been tested systematically using stimuli within the spatio-temporal passband of color vision. Here we test whether the foreshortening cue from surface compression (change in the ratio of width to length) can induce slant perception for single shapes for both color and luminance vision. We use radial frequency patterns with narrowband spatio-temporal properties. In the first experiment, both a manual task (lever rotation) and a visual task (line rotation) are used as metrics to measure the perception of slant for achromatic, red-green isoluminant and S-cone isolating stimuli. In the second experiment, we measure slant discrimination thresholds as a function of depicted slant in a 2AFC paradigm and find similar thresholds for chromatic and achromatic stimuli. We conclude that both color and luminance vision can use the foreshortening of a single surface to perceive slant, with performances similar to those obtained using other strong cues for slant, such as texture. This has implications for the role of color in monocular 3D vision, and the cortical organization used in 3D object perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On f-Eikonal Helices And f-Eikonal Slant Helices In Riemannian Manifolds
Şenol, Ali; Ziplar, Evren; Yayli, Yusuf
2012-01-01
In this paper, we define f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves in a n-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Also, we give the definition of harmonic curvature functions related to f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves in a n-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Moreover, we give characterizations for f-eikonal helix curves and f-eikonal V_{n}-slant helix curves by making use of the harmonic curvature functions.
Eikonal slant helices and eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifolds
Önder, Mehmet; Ziplar, Evren
2013-01-01
In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of eikonal slant helices, eikonal Darboux helices and non-normed eikonal Darboux helices in 3-dimensional pseudo- Riemannian manifold M . We show that every eikonal slant helix is also an eikonal Darboux helix for timelike and spacelike curves. Furthermore, we obtain that if the non-null curve a is a non-normed eikonal Darboux helix, then a is an eikonal slant helix if and only if 2 2 e 3k +e1t = constant, where k and t are curvature an...
Eikonal Slant Helices and Eikonal Darboux Helices In 3-Dimensional Riemannian Manifolds
Önder, Mehmet; Ziplar, Evren; Kaya, Onur
2013-01-01
In this study, we give definitions and characterizations of eikonal slant helix curves, eikonal Darboux helices and non-normed eikonal Darboux helices in three dimensional Riemannian manifold 3 M . We show that every eikonal slant helix is also an eikonal Darboux helix. Furthermore, we obtain that if the curve a is a non-normed eikonal Darboux helix, then a is an eikonal slant helix if and only if k 2 +t 2 = constant, where k and t are curvature and torsion of a, respectively.
Continuous blood fractionation using an array of slanted grooves
Bernate, Jorge A.; Chengxun, Liu; Lagae, Liesbet; Drazer, German
2011-11-01
Blood is a complex fluid having different specialized biological functions and containing a plethora of clinical information. The separation of different blood components is a crucial step in many research and clinical applications. In this work we take advantage of the flow characteristics in microfluidic devices in which the bottom surface is patterned with slanted rectangular grooves to continuously fractionate blood. We exploit the flow in the vicinity of the patterned surface when the dimensions of the grooves are much smaller than the dimensions of the main channel. In these devices, we observed that the grooves act as open channels guiding flow along them with the flow over them being in the direction of the main channel. We present experiments in which the different blood components are deflected laterally to a different extent by the flow along the grooves depending on their sedimentation velocity, which allows their continuous fractionation. In particular, the heavier red blood cells experience the largest deflection while the lighter white blood cells deflect the least, allowing their passive and minimally invasive isolation. In addition, this fluidic platform can also be used to separate magnetically labeled circulating cancer cells which can be retained in the flow along the grooves using a sufficiently strong magnetic force.
Haptic adaptation to slant: No transfer between exploration modes
van Dam, Loes C. J.; Plaisier, Myrthe A.; Glowania, Catharina; Ernst, Marc O.
2016-01-01
Human touch is an inherently active sense: to estimate an object’s shape humans often move their hand across its surface. This way the object is sampled both in a serial (sampling different parts of the object across time) and parallel fashion (sampling using different parts of the hand simultaneously). Both the serial (moving a single finger) and parallel (static contact with the entire hand) exploration modes provide reliable and similar global shape information, suggesting the possibility that this information is shared early in the sensory cortex. In contrast, we here show the opposite. Using an adaptation-and-transfer paradigm, a change in haptic perception was induced by slant-adaptation using either the serial or parallel exploration mode. A unified shape-based coding would predict that this would equally affect perception using other exploration modes. However, we found that adaptation-induced perceptual changes did not transfer between exploration modes. Instead, serial and parallel exploration components adapted simultaneously, but to different kinaesthetic aspects of exploration behaviour rather than object-shape per se. These results indicate that a potential combination of information from different exploration modes can only occur at down-stream cortical processing stages, at which adaptation is no longer effective. PMID:27698392
design and determination of the efficiency of a slanting-type solar ...
user
parameters like the surface area, slanting angle of the roof, and the evaporation rate. Also, since the materials ... Keywords: Imo State, potable water, solar still efficiency, water distillation, water purification. 1. .... panel heating. PV integrated.
Performance of block lining in the zone of slanted ducts of a coke dry quenching unit
Frolova, L.S.; Drozd, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, T.A.; Minasov, A.N.; Surenskii, O.N.; Ershov, N.A.; Ignashin, G.I.; Mishin, E.N. (UkrNIIO (USSR))
1991-01-01
Discusses service life and wear of concrete blocks used for construction of dry coke quenching chambers. Concrete blocks replaced conventional refractory bricks. A filler from calcinated bauxites and a high-alumina cement were used for concrete block production. The blocks were used for construction of the zones of slanted ducts. Concrete block properties are analyzed: dimensions, weight, ultimate compression strength, open porosity, apparent density, linear shrinkage at 1,400 C and holding for 5 hours, content of calcium, aluminium and iron oxides. Abrasive wear and spalling of the working surface of the slanted duct zone made of the concrete blocks was 1.5-2.0 lower than that of conventional refractory bricks in chambers with the same service life. Tests carried out 8 years long showed that the slanted duct zones made of concrete blocks were characterized by higher abrasion resistance and heat resistance, reduced number of joints and increased rigidity of the slanted duct structure. 4 refs.
Kohei Arai
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Simulation method of sea water which contains spherical and non-spherical particles of suspended solid and phytoplankton based on Monte Carlo Ray Tracing: MCRT is proposed for identifying non-spherical species of phytoplankton. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed MCRT model is validated. Also some possibility of identification of spherical and non-spherical shapes of particles which are contained in sea water is shown. Meanwhile, simulations with the different shape of particles, Prolate and Oblate show that Degree of Polarization: DP depends on shapes. Therefore, non-spherical shape of phytoplankton can be identified with polarization characteristics measurements of the ocean.
Kohei Arai
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Comparative study on linear and nonlinear mixed pixel models of which pixels in remote sensing satellite images is composed with plural ground cover materials mixed together, is conducted for remote sensing satellite image analysis. The mixed pixel models are based on Cierniewski of ground surface reflectance model. The comparative study is conducted by using of Monte Carlo Ray Tracing: MCRT simulations. Through simulation study, the difference between linear and nonlinear mixed pixel models is clarified. Also it is found that the simulation model is validated.
Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto;
2013-01-01
Abstract Purpose. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality is limited by scattered photons. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations provide the ability of predicting the patient-specific scatter contamination in clinical CBCT imaging. Lengthy simulations prevent MC-based scatter correction from...... and pelvis scan were simulated within 2% statistical uncertainty in two hours per scan. Within the same time, the ray tracing algorithm provided the primary signal for each of the projections. Thus, all the data needed for MC-based scatter correction in clinical CBCT imaging was obtained within two hours per...
Null eikonal helices and Null eikonal slant helices in the 4-dimensional Lorentzian manifold
Zıplar, Evren
2014-01-01
In this paper, we define the notion of eikonal helix and eikonal slant helix for null curves in the 4-dimensional Lorentzian manifold M 1 4 and give a characterization for the null curve to be the null eikonal helix. Moreover, we indicate an important relation between the null eikonal helix and null eikonal slant helix and find the axis of the null eikonal helix. We obtain some relationships between the curvatures of these curves.
The venetian-blind effect: A preference for zero disparity or zero slant?
Björn N.S. Vlaskamp
2013-11-01
Full Text Available When periodic stimuli, such as vertical sinewave gratings, are presented to the two eyes, the initial stage of disparity estimation yields multiple solutions stacked in at multiple depths. The solutions are all frontoparallel when the sinewaves have the same spatial frequency;. They are all slanted when the sinewaves have quite different frequencies. Despite the multiple solutions, humans perceive only one depth in each visual direction: a single frontoparallel plane when the frequencies are the same and a series of small slanted planes—Venetian blinds—when the frequencies are quite different. These percepts are consistent with a preference for solutions that minimize absolute disparity or that minimize overall slant. We conducted two psychophysical experiments to determine whether the preference is for minimum disparity or and for minimum slant are identical for gaze at zero eccentricity., We dissociated the predictions of the two by measuring the occurrence of Venetian blinds when the stimuli were viewed in eccentric gaze. The results were generally quite consistent with a zero-disparity preference (experiment 1, but we also observed a shift toward a zero-slant preference when the edges of the stimulus had zero slant (experiment 2. These observations provide useful insights into how the visual system constructs depth percepts from a multitude of possible depths.
Feizi, Sepehr; Delfazayebaher, Siamak; Ownagh, Vahid; Sadeghpour, Fatemeh
2017-08-03
To evaluate the agreement between total corneal astigmatism calculated by vector summation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (TCAVec) and total corneal astigmatism measured by ray tracing (TCARay). This study enrolled a total of 204 right eyes of 204 normal subjects. The eyes were measured using a Galilei double Scheimpflug analyzer. The measured parameters included simulated keratometric astigmatism using the keratometric index, anterior corneal astigmatism using the corneal refractive index, posterior corneal astigmatism, and TCARay. TCAVec was derived by vector summation of the astigmatism on the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. The magnitudes and axes of TCAVec and TCARay were compared. The Pearson correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the relationship and agreement between TCAVec and TCARay, respectively. The mean TCAVec and TCARay magnitudes were 0.76±0.57D and 1.00±0.78D, respectively (Pvector summation and ray tracing methods cannot be used interchangeably. There was a systematic error between the TCAVec and TCARay magnitudes. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc
2014-02-01
Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Eesti ja Vene katkenud koostöö ajab Slantsõ põlevkivilinna kriisi äärele / Aleksei Günter
Günter, Aleksei, 1979-
2005-01-01
AS Narva Elektrijaamad katkestas 2005. aasta aprillis põlevkivi tarnimislepingu Leningradslanetsiga. Lepingu katkestamise mõjust põlevkiviettevõttele, sotsiaalse olukorra halvenemisest Slantsõs. Vt. samas lühiintervjuud majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõuniku Heido Vitsuriga: Ministeerium: mõistame Slantsõ linna olukorda. Vt. samas: Slantsõ päästab põlevkiviõli. Lisa: Slantsõ linn. Kaart: Tööstuslinn Slantsõ
Direct electrical contact of slanted ITO film on axial p-n junction silicon nanowire solar cells.
Lee, Ya-Ju; Yao, Yung-Chi; Yang, Chia-Hao
2013-01-14
A novel scheme of direct electrical contact on vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) axial p-n junction is demonstrated by means of oblique-angle deposition of slanted indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film for photovoltaic applications. The slanted ITO film exhibits an acceptable resistivity of 1.07 x 10⁻³Ω-cm underwent RTA treatment of T = 450°C, and the doping concentration and carrier mobility by Hall measurement amount to 3.7 x 10²⁰ cm⁻³ and 15.8 cm²/V-s, respectively, with an n-type doping polarity. Because of the shadowing effect provided by the SiNWs, the incident ITO vapor-flow is deposited preferentially on the top of SiNWs, which coalesces and eventually forms a nearly continuous film for the subsequent fabrication of grid electrode. Under AM 1.5 G normal illumination, our axial p-n junction SiNW solar cell exhibits an open circuit voltage of VOC = 0.56 V, and a short circuit current of JSC = 1.54 mA/cm² with a fill factor of FF = 30%, resulting in a total power conversion efficiency of PEC = 0.26%.
Corrado Caudek
Full Text Available We measured perceived depth from the optic flow (a when showing a stationary physical or virtual object to observers who moved their head at a normal or slower speed, and (b when simulating the same optic flow on a computer and presenting it to stationary observers. Our results show that perceived surface slant is systematically distorted, for both the active and the passive viewing of physical or virtual surfaces. These distortions are modulated by head translation speed, with perceived slant increasing directly with the local velocity gradient of the optic flow. This empirical result allows us to determine the relative merits of two alternative approaches aimed at explaining perceived surface slant in active vision: an "inverse optics" model that takes head motion information into account, and a probabilistic model that ignores extra-retinal signals. We compare these two approaches within the framework of the bayesian theory. The "inverse optics" bayesian model produces veridical slant estimates if the optic flow and the head translation velocity are measured with no error; because of the influence of a "prior" for flatness, the slant estimates become systematically biased as the measurement errors increase. The bayesian model, which ignores the observer's motion, always produces distorted estimates of surface slant. Interestingly, the predictions of this second model, not those of the first one, are consistent with our empirical findings. The present results suggest that (a in active vision perceived surface slant may be the product of probabilistic processes which do not guarantee the correct solution, and (b extra-retinal signals may be mainly used for a better measurement of retinal information.
Talat Körpınar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study spacelike biharmonic slant helices according to Bishop frame in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1. We characterize the spacelike biharmonic slant helices in terms of their curvatures in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1. Finally, we obtain parametric equations of spacelike biharmonic slant helices according to Bishop frame in the Lorentzian group of rigid motions E(1,1.
Pingbo, An; Li, Wang; Hongxi, Lu; Zhiguo, Yu; Lei, Liu; Xin, Xi; Lixia, Zhao; Junxi, Wang; Jinmin, Li
2016-06-01
The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the light-emitting diodes can be calculated by the ratio of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the light extraction efficiency (LEE). The EQE can be measured experimentally, but the LEE is difficult to calculate due to the complicated LED structures. In this work, a model was established to calculate the LEE by combining the transfer matrix formalism and an in-plane ray tracing method. With the calculated LEE, the IQE was determined and made a good agreement with that obtained by the ABC model and temperature-dependent photoluminescence method. The proposed method makes the determination of the IQE more practical and conventional. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.11574306, 61334009), the China International Science and Technology Cooperation Program (No. 2014DFG62280), and the National High Technology Program of China (No. 2015AA03A101).
Yuan, Cadmus C. A.
2015-12-01
Optical ray tracing modeling applied Beer-Lambert method in the single luminescence material system to model the white light pattern from blue LED light source. This paper extends such algorithm to a mixed multiple luminescence material system by introducing the equivalent excitation and emission spectrum of individual luminescence materials. The quantum efficiency numbers of individual material and self-absorption of the multiple luminescence material system are considered as well. By this combination, researchers are able to model the luminescence characteristics of LED chip-scaled packaging (CSP), which provides simple process steps and the freedom of the luminescence material geometrical dimension. The method will be first validated by the experimental results. Afterward, a further parametric investigation has been then conducted.
Moiré-reduction method for slanted-lenticular-based quasi-three-dimensional displays
Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Surman, Phil; Zhang, Lei; Rawat, Rahul; Wang, Shizheng; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei
2016-12-01
In this paper we present a method for determining the preferred slanted angle for a lenticular film that minimizes moiré patterns in quasi-three-dimensional (Q3D) displays. We evaluate the preferred slanted angles of the lenticular film for the stripe-type sub-pixel structure liquid crystal display (LCD) panel. Additionally, the sub-pixels mapping algorithm of the specific angle is proposed to assign the images to either the right or left eye channel. A Q3D display prototype is built. Compared with the conventional SLF, this newly implemented Q3D display can not only eliminate moiré patterns but also provide 3D images in both portrait and landscape orientations. It is demonstrated that the developed slanted lenticular film (SLF) provides satisfactory 3D images by employing a compact structure, minimum moiré patterns and stabilized 3D contrast.
Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Yin, Tiangang; Lauret, Nicolas; Grau, Eloi; Rubio, Jeremy; Cook, Bruce D.; Morton, Douglas C.; Sun, Guoqing
2016-01-01
Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) provides unique data on the 3-D structure of atmosphere constituents and the Earth's surface. Simulating LiDAR returns for different laser technologies and Earth scenes is fundamental for evaluating and interpreting signal and noise in LiDAR data. Different types of models are capable of simulating LiDAR waveforms of Earth surfaces. Semi-empirical and geometric models can be imprecise because they rely on simplified simulations of Earth surfaces and light interaction mechanisms. On the other hand, Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) models are potentially accurate but require long computational time. Here, we present a new LiDAR waveform simulation tool that is based on the introduction of a quasi-Monte Carlo ray tracing approach in the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model. Two new approaches, the so-called "box method" and "Ray Carlo method", are implemented to provide robust and accurate simulations of LiDAR waveforms for any landscape, atmosphere and LiDAR sensor configuration (view direction, footprint size, pulse characteristics, etc.). The box method accelerates the selection of the scattering direction of a photon in the presence of scatterers with non-invertible phase function. The Ray Carlo method brings traditional ray-tracking into MCRT simulation, which makes computational time independent of LiDAR field of view (FOV) and reception solid angle. Both methods are fast enough for simulating multi-pulse acquisition. Sensitivity studies with various landscapes and atmosphere constituents are presented, and the simulated LiDAR signals compare favorably with their associated reflectance images and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) waveforms. The LiDAR module is fully integrated into DART, enabling more detailed simulations of LiDAR sensitivity to specific scene elements (e.g., atmospheric aerosols, leaf area, branches, or topography) and sensor configuration for airborne or satellite LiDAR sensors.
BENDING RAY-TRACING BASED ON SIMULATED ANNEALING METHOD%基于模拟退火法的弯曲射线追踪
周竹生; 谢金伟
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a new ray-tracing method based on the concept of simulated annealing. With the new method, not only the problem that the traditional ray-tracing method is over dependent on pre - established initial ray-paths is well solved, but also the quality of desirable ray-paths construction and the associated traveltime calculation between fixed sources and receivers is ensured, even if the model is of much complicated velocity-field. As a result, the ray-paths whose traveltime approach is overall minimum are searched out successfully. Furthermore, the algorithm may calculate ray-paths with local extreme lower traveltime too and restrict them easily by instructing rays to pass through some fixed points. The feasibility and stability of the method have been proved by trial results of theoretical models.%提出了一种新的射线追踪方法——模拟退火法.新方法不仅较好地解决了传统射线追踪方法过分依赖初始模型的问题,而且对于复杂速度场模型也能保证在固定的发射与接收点之间构建令人满意的射线路径及其相应的走时,搜索到满足旅行时全局最小的射线路径.此外,新方法还可计算局部最小旅行时,并可方便地通过指定射线经过固定点来对射线路径进行限制.理论模型的试算结果证明了该方法的可行性和稳健性.
Islam, M J; Reza, A W; Kausar, A S M Z; Ramiah, H
2014-01-01
The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs) and wireless access point (AP) in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT), Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP), and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB) methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average -9.44 dBm, -8.23 dBm, and -9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario.
M. J. Islam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs and wireless access point (AP in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT, Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP, and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average −9.44 dBm, −8.23 dBm, and −9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario.
Retroflection from a double-slanted coastline: a model for the Agulhas leakage variability
V. Zharkov
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The Agulhas leakage to the South Atlantic exhibits a strong anti-correlation with the mass flux of the Agulhas Current. When the Agulhas retroflection is in its normal position near Cape Agulhas, leakage is relatively high and the nearby South African coastal slant (angle of derivation from zonal is very small and relatively invariant alongshore. During periods of strong incoming flux (low leakage, the retroflection shifts upstream to Port Elizabeth or East London, where the coastline shape has a "kink", i.e., the slant changes abruptly from small on the west side, to large (about 55° on the east side. Here, we show that the variability of rings shedding and anti-correlation between Agulhas mass flux and leakage to the South Atlantic may be attributed to this kink.
To do so, we develop a nonlinear analytical model for retroflection near a coastline that consists of two sections, a zonal western section and a strongly slanted eastern section. The principal difference between this and the model of a straight slanted coast (discussed in our earlier papers is that, here, free purely westward propagation of eddies along the zonal coastline section is allowed. This introduces an interesting situation in which strong slant of the coast east of the kink prohibits the formation and shedding of rings, while the almost zonal coastal orientation west of the kink encourages shedding. Therefore, the kink "locks" the position of the retroflection, forcing it to occur just downstream of the kink. Rings are necessarily shed from the retroflection area in our kinked model, regardless of the degree of eastern coast slant. In contrast, a no-kink model with a coastline of intermediate slant indicates that shedding is almost completely arrested by that slant.
We suggest that the observed difference in ring-shedding intensity during times of normal retroflection position and times when the retroflection is shifted eastward is due to the change in
Ionospheric Slant Total Electron Content Analysis Using Global Positioning System Based Estimation
Sparks, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Komjathy, Attila (Inventor)
2017-01-01
A method, system, apparatus, and computer program product provide the ability to analyze ionospheric slant total electron content (TEC) using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-based estimation. Slant TEC is estimated for a given set of raypath geometries by fitting historical GNSS data to a specified delay model. The accuracy of the specified delay model is estimated by computing delay estimate residuals and plotting a behavior of the delay estimate residuals. An ionospheric threat model is computed based on the specified delay model. Ionospheric grid delays (IGDs) and grid ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) are computed based on the ionospheric threat model.
The effects of field of view on the perception of 3D slant from texture
Todd, J.T.; Thaler, L.; Dijkstra, T.M.H.
2005-01-01
Observers judged the apparent signs and magnitudes of surface slant from monocular textured images of convex or concave dihedral angles with varying fields of view between 5 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The results revealed that increasing the field of view or the regularity of the surface texture
Field gradient calculation of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice
Baek, Geon Woo; Kim, Jin Sub; Song, Seung Hyun; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Seung [JH ENGINEERING CO., LTD., Gunpo (Korea, Republic of); Lee, On You [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
To obtain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurement of membrane protein, an NMR magnet is required to generate high intensity, homogeneity, and stability of field. A High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is a promising alternative to a conventional Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) NMR magnet for high field, current density, and stability margin. Conventionally, an HTS coil has been wound by several winding techniques such as Single-Pancake (SP), Double-Pancake (DP), and layer-wound. The DP winding technique has been frequently used for a large magnet because long HTS wire is generally difficult to manufacture, and maintenance of magnet is convenient. However, magnetic field generated by the slanted turns and the splice leads to field inhomogeneity in Diameter of Spherical Volume (DSV). The field inhomogeneity degrades performance of NMR spectrometer and thus effect of the slanted turns and the splice should be analyzed. In this paper, field gradient of HTS double-pancake coils considering the slanted turns and the splice was calculated using Biot-Savart law and numerical integration. The calculation results showed that magnetic field produced by the slanted turns and the splice caused significant inhomogeneity of field.
Hilhorst, J.; Wolters, J. R.; Petukhov, A.V.
2010-01-01
Hard sphere crystal growth is a delicate interplay between kinetics and thermodynamics, where the former is commonly thought to favour a random hexagonal close packed structure and the latter leads to a face centered cubic crystal. In this article, we discuss the influence of slanted stacking faults
Ee, R. van; Erkelens, Casper J.
2001-01-01
We investigated temporal aspects of stereoscopically perceived slant produced by the following transformations: horizontal scale, horizontal shear, vertical scale, vertical shear, divergence and rotation, between the half-images of a stereogram. Six subjects viewed large field stimuli (70 deg diamet
Dittmann, Jonas
2016-01-01
Cone beam projection is an essential and particularly time consuming part of any iterative tomographic reconstruction algorithm. On current graphics hardware especially the amount and pattern of memory accesses is a limiting factor when read-only textures cannot be used. With the final objective of accelerating iterative reconstruction techniques, a non-oversampling Joseph-like raytracing projection algorithm for three dimensions featuring both a branchless sampling loop and a cache friendly memory access pattern is presented. An interpretation of the employed interpolation scheme is given with respect to the effective beam and voxel models implied. The method is further compared to existing techniques, and the modifications required to implement further voxel and beam shape models are outlined. Both memory access rates and total run time are benchmarked on a current consumer grade graphics processing unit and explicitly compared to the performance of a classic Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) algorithm. T...
Kovács, Z.; Harko, T.
2011-11-01
We present a full general relativistic numerical code for estimating the energy-momentum deposition rate (EMDR) from neutrino pair annihilation (?). The source of the neutrinos is assumed to be a neutrino-cooled accretion disc around neutron and quark stars. We calculate the neutrino trajectories by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the general relativistic Hamilton's equations for neutrinos and derive the spatial distribution of the EMDR due to the annihilations of neutrinos and antineutrinos around rotating neutron and quark stars. We obtain the EMDR for several classes of rotating neutron stars, described by different equations of state of the neutron matter, and for quark stars, described by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) bag model equation of state and in the colour-flavour-locked (CFL) phase. The distribution of the total annihilation rate of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs around rotating neutron and quark stars is studied for isothermal discs and accretion discs in thermodynamical equilibrium. We demonstrate both the differences in the equations of state for neutron and quark matter and rotation with the general relativistic effects significantly modify the EMDR of the electrons and positrons generated by the neutrino-antineutrino pair annihilation around compact stellar objects, as measured at infinity.
Viridi, Sparisoma
2013-01-01
Trace of ray deviated by a prism, which is common in a TIR (total internal reflection) measurement system, is sometimes difficult to manage, especially if the prism is an equilateral right angle prism (ERAP). The point where the ray is reflected inside the right-angle prism is also changed as the angle of incident ray changed. In an ATR (attenuated total reflectance) measurement system, range of this point determines size of sample. Using JavaScript and HTML5 model and visualization of ray tracing deviated by an ERAP is perform and reported in this work. Some data are obtained from this visualization and an empirical relations between angle of incident ray source \\theta_S, angle of ray detector hand \\theta_D, and angle of ray detector \\theta'_D are presented for radial position of ray source R_S, radial position of ray detector R_D, height of right-angle prism t, and refractive index of the prism n. Keywords: deviation angle, equilateral right angle prism, total internal reflection, JavaScript, HTML5.
Xiao, Yi; Tholen, Danny; Zhu, Xin-Guang
2016-11-01
Leaf photosynthesis is determined by biochemical properties and anatomical features. Here we developed a three-dimensional leaf model that can be used to evaluate the internal light environment of a leaf and its implications for whole-leaf electron transport rates (J). This model includes (i) the basic components of a leaf, such as the epidermis, palisade and spongy tissues, as well as the physical dimensions and arrangements of cell walls, vacuoles and chloroplasts; and (ii) an efficient forward ray-tracing algorithm, predicting the internal light environment for light of wavelengths between 400 and 2500nm. We studied the influence of leaf anatomy and ambient light on internal light conditions and J The results show that (i) different chloroplasts can experience drastically different light conditions, even when they are located at the same distance from the leaf surface; (ii) bundle sheath extensions, which are strips of parenchyma, collenchyma or sclerenchyma cells connecting the vascular bundles with the epidermis, can influence photosynthetic light-use efficiency of leaves; and (iii) chloroplast positioning can also influence the light-use efficiency of leaves. Mechanisms underlying leaf internal light heterogeneity and implications of the heterogeneity for photoprotection and for the convexity of the light response curves are discussed.
Miksat, J.; Müller, T. M.; Wenzel, F.
2008-07-01
Finite difference (FD) simulation of elastic wave propagation is an important tool in geophysical research. As large-scale 3-D simulations are only feasible on supercomputers or clusters, and even then the simulations are limited to long periods compared to the model size, 2-D FD simulations are widespread. Whereas in generally 3-D heterogeneous structures it is not possible to infer the correct amplitude and waveform from 2-D simulations, in 2.5-D heterogeneous structures some inferences are possible. In particular, Vidale & Helmberger developed an approach that simulates 3-D waveforms using 2-D FD experiments only. However, their method requires a special FD source implementation technique that is based on a source definition which is not any longer used in nowadays FD codes. In this paper, we derive a conversion between 2-D and 3-D Green tensors that allows us to simulate 3-D displacement seismograms using 2-D FD simulations and the actual ray path determined in the geometrical optic limit. We give the conversion for a source of a certain seismic moment that is implemented by incrementing the components of the stress tensor. Therefore, we present a hybrid modelling procedure involving 2-D FD and kinematic ray-tracing techniques. The applicability is demonstrated by numerical experiments of elastic wave propagation for models of different complexity.
Rucker, Dale F.; Ferré, Ty P. A.
2004-08-01
A MATLAB program was developed to invert first arrival travel time picks from zero offset profiling borehole ground penetrating radar traces to obtain the electromagnetic wave propagation velocities in soil. Zero-offset profiling refers to a mode of operation wherein the centers of the bistatic antennae being lowered to the same depth below ground for each measurement. The inversion uses a simulated annealing optimization routine, whereby the model attempts to reduce the root mean square error between the measured and modeled travel time by perturbing the velocity in a ray tracing routine. Measurement uncertainty is incorporated through the presentation of the ensemble mean and standard deviation from the results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The program features a pre-processor to modify or delete travel time information from the profile before inversion and post-processing through presentation of the ensemble statistics of the water contents inferred from the velocity profile. The program includes a novel application of a graphical user interface to animate the velocity fitting routine.
The role of the centre of projection in the estimation of slant from texture of planar surfaces
Tibau, Stefaan; Willems, B.; Van den Bergh, Erik; Wagemans, Johan
2001-01-01
Displays were presented consisting of a perspective projection of a regular square grid, made up of vertical and horizontal equally spaced white lines, that was slanted in depth. The surface was viewed monocularly, through a circular aperture. A range of slants was shown (0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees, 40 degrees, 50 degrees, or 60 degrees) and the observers' task was to match the slant by means of a mouse-driven probe. The viewing distance (50, 75, or 100 cm) as well as the f...
Optical absorption enhancement in slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays for solar photovoltaics
Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Wen; Li, Zhao-Feng; Liu, Min; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Fu-Hua
2016-10-01
We investigate slanted silicon nanocone hole arrays as light absorbing structures for solar photovoltaics via simulation. With only 1-μm equivalent thickness, a maximum short-circuit current density of 34.9 mA/cm2 is obtained. Moreover, by adding an Ag mirror under the whole structure, a short-circuit current density of 37.9 mA/cm2 is attained. It is understood that the optical absorption enhancement mainly results from three aspects. First, the silicon nanocone holes provide a highly efficient antireflection effect. Second, after breaking the geometric symmetry, the slanted silicon nanocone hole supports more resonant absorption modes than vertical structures. Third, the Fabry-Perot resonance enhances the light absorption after adding an Ag mirror. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274066, 61474115, and 61504138) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032602).
Interference-free measurements of the subsonic aerodynamics of slanted-base ogive cylinders
Britcher, Colin P.; Alcorn, Charles W.
1991-01-01
Drag, lift, pitching moment, and base-pressure measurements have been made, free of support interference, on a range of slanted-base ogive cylinders, using the NASA Langley Research Center 13-in magnetic suspension and balance system. Test Mach numbers were in the range 0.04-0.2. Two types of wake flow were observed, a quasi-symmetric turbulent closure or a longitudinal vortex flow. Aerodynamic characteristics differ dramatically between the two wake types. Drag measurements are shown to be in agreement with previous tests. A hysteretic behavior of the wake with varying Reynold's number has been discovered for the 45-deg base. An interaction between forebody boundary-layer state and wake flow and base pressures has been detected for higher slant angles.
Dynamic Analysis of Rotating Shaft Subjects to Slant Crack with Experimentation and ANSYS Validation
Rushikesh V. Dhokate
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The paper contents the dynamic study of rotating shaft with slant crack on surface of shaft. Slant cracks are prepared artificially on surface of shaft with material EN8. In this study, crack location taken on shaft 150 mm from motor side and also for effective study healthy shaft of EN8 material is taken. Experimental results are taken with the help of FFT analyzer. Analysis is carried out from these results and finally these results are validated in FEA software i. e. ANSYS14 software. These validated results with graphs are explained in this paper. The experimentation is also done on healthy shaft of EN8 material for analysis. This paper mainly focused on validation of experimental results with ANSYS software.
Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H
2011-06-01
Palm boards are often used as a nonverbal measure in human slant perception studies. It was recently found that palm boards are biased and relatively insensitive measures, and that an unrestricted hand gesture provides a more sensitive response (Durgin, Hajnal, Li, Tonge, & Stigliani, Acta Psychologica, 134, 182-197, 2010a). In this article, we describe an original design for a portable lightweight digital device for measuring hand orientation. This device is microcontroller-based and uses a micro inclinometer chip as its inclination sensor. The parts are fairly inexpensive. This device, used to measure hand orientation, provides a sensitive nonverbal method for studying slant perception, which can be used in both indoor and outdoor environments. We present data comparing the use of a free hand to palm-board and verbal measures for surfaces within reach and explain how to interpret free-hand measures for outdoor hills.
Slant path average intensity of finite optical beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere
Yixin Zhang; Gaogang Wang
2006-01-01
The average intensity of finite laser beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere is calculated from the extended Huygens Fresnel principle. Formulas are presented for the slant path average intensity from an arbitrarily truncated Gaussian beam. The new expressions are derived from the modified von Karman spectrum for refractive-index fluctuations, quadratic approximation of the structure function,and Gaussian approximation for the product of Gaussian function and Bessel function. It is shown that the form of average intensity is not a Gaussian function but a polynomial of the power of the binomial function, Gaussian function, and the incomplete gamma function. The results also show that the mean irradiance of a finite optical beam propagating in slant path turbulent atmosphere not only depends on the effective beam radius at the transmitting aperture plane, propagation distance, and long-term lateral coherence length of spherical wave, but also on the radius of emit aperture.
Radiometric Measurements of Slant Path Attenuation in the V/W Bands
2014-09-01
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BER of flat-topped Gaussian beam in slant path turbulent atmosphere
Lu, Fang; Han, Yanyan; Han, Xiang-e.; Yang, Rui-ke
2013-08-01
Based on the theory of optical wave propagation in the slant path and the ITU-R turbulence structure constant model which is dependent on altitude, the on-axis scintillation index of the flat-topped Gaussian beam at the receiver plane in slant path turbulence was given by using Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence power spectrum model. The influences of the link altitudes, atmospheric refractive index structure constant C0 at the ground，the source size and the beam order on scintillation index of the flat-topped Gaussian beam are discussed in detail. The result shows that the scintillation index increased first and then decreased with the increase of the beam order. The advantage of a flat-topped Gaussian beam over a single Gaussian beam is restricted to small source sizes, which is consistent with the case of the horizontal path. To find the average bit error rate under weak slant path turbulence, the log-normal distribution model of the intensity fluctuation was used. The influence of beam order and source size on BER was discussed. The result indicates that the smaller sized flat-topped Gaussian beam will bring average bit error rate advantage over the same size Gaussian beam. Our results correctly reduce to the result of the horizontal path with atmospheric structure constant fixed.
Asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting and incident modes in slanted graphene junctions
Hsieh, S. H.; Chu, C. S. [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)
2016-01-18
Electron injection into a graphene sheet through a slanted armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. An incident mode, or subband, in the AGNR is valley-unpolarized. Our attention is on the valley-resolved nature of the injected electron beams and its connection to the incident mode. It is known for a normal injection that an incident mode will split symmetrically into two valley-resolved beams of equal intensity. We show, in contrast, that slanted injections result in asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting. The most asymmetric beam splitting cases, when one of the valley-resolved beams has basically disappeared, are found and the condition derived. This is shown not due to trigonal warping because it holds even in the low incident energy regime, as long as collimation allows. These most asymmetric beam splitting cases occur at energies within an energy interval near and include the subband edge of an incident mode. The physical picture is best illustrated by a projection of the slanted AGNR subband states onto that of the 2D graphene sheet. It follows that the disappearing of a valley-resolved beam coincides with the situation that the group velocities of the projected states in the corresponding valley are in backward directions.
Dielectrophoresis in a slanted microchannel for separation of microparticles and bacteria.
Nam, Seong-Won; Kim, So Hyun; Park, Je-Kyun; Park, Sungsu
2013-12-01
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an effective method to trap, manipulate and separate various dielectric particles. To generate a DEP force, a spatially nonuniform electrical field has been generated by an array of electrodes, while electrodeless DEP has been accomplished by placing an insulating material between two electrodes. Here, we describe a new DEP method for generating a nonuniform electrical field using a slanted microchannel. The electric field gradient is induced due to a slope in the channel and can be used to move and separate particles. Based on the gradual electric field induced by three dimensional structure of the microchannel, our method enables particles of different sizes to be separated solely by DEP force without flow. The slanted microchannel was easily fabricated by a replica molding technique using a commercial UV-cured photopolymer (NOA 63) and bonded as an insulating layer between two indium-tin-oxide films. By applying the electrical field, polystyrene beads of different sizes (6-45 microm in diameter) were trapped and separated depending on the applied electric strength and frequency. Using this method, the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa attached to antibody-conjugated microbeads was successfully separated from Escherichia coli in a slanted microchannel.
Drag reduction on the 25 slant angle Ahmed reference body using pulsed jets
Joseph, Pierric [CNAM, Institut AeroTechnique (IAT), Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Amandolese, Xavier [CNAM, Aerodynamics Department, Saint Cyr l' Ecole (France); Aider, Jean-Luc [UMR 7636, CNRS, ESPCI ParisTech, PMMH Laboratory, Paris (France)
2012-05-15
This paper highlights steady and unsteady measurements and flow control results obtained on an Ahmed model with slant angle of 25 in wind tunnel. On this high-drag configuration characterized by a large separation bubble along with energetic streamwise vortices, time-averaged and time-dependent results without control are first presented. The influence of rear-end periodic forcing on the drag coefficient is then investigated using electrically operated magnetic valves in an open-loop control scheme. Four distinct configurations of flow control have been tested: rectangular pulsed jets aligned with the spanwise direction or in winglets configuration on the roof end and rectangular jets or a large open slot at the top of the rear slant. For each configuration, the influence of the forcing parameters (non-dimensional frequency, injected momentum) on the drag coefficient has been studied, along with their impact on the static pressure on both the rear slant and vertical base of the model. Depending on the type and location of pulsed jets actuation, the maximum drag reduction is obtained for increasing injected momentum or well-defined optimal pulsation frequencies. (orig.)
Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.
Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-09-19
Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope.
Wee, Tae-Kwon; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Lee, Dong-Kyou
2010-12-01
A two-dimensional curved ray tracer (CRT) is developed to study the propagation path of radio signals across a heterogeneous planetary atmosphere. The method, designed to achieve improvements in both computational efficiency and accuracy over conventional straight-line methods, takes rays' first-order bending into account to better describe curved raypaths in the stratified atmosphere. CRT is then used to simulate the phase path from GPS radio occultation (RO). The merit of the ray tracing approach in GPS RO is explicit consideration of horizontal variation in the atmosphere, which may lead to a sizable error but is disregarded in traditional retrieval schemes. In addition, direct modeling of the phase path takes advantage of simple error characteristics in the measurement. With provision of ionospheric and neutral atmospheric refractive indices, in this effort, rays are traced along the full range of GPS-low Earth orbiting (LEO) radio links just as the measurements are made in real life. Here, ray shooting is employed to realize the observed radio links with controlled accuracy. CRT largely reproduces the very measured characteristics of GPS signals. When compared, the measured and simulated phases show remarkable agreement. The cross validation between CRT and GPS RO has confirmed not only the strength of CRT but also the high accuracy of GPS RO measurements. The primary motivation for this study is enabling effective quality control for GPS RO data, overcoming a complicated error structure in the high-level data. CRT has also shown a great deal of potential for improved utilization of GPS RO data for geophysical research.
Baran, A. J.; Hesse, Evelyn; Sourdeval, Odran
2017-03-01
Future satellite missions, from 2022 onwards, will obtain near-global measurements of cirrus at microwave and sub-millimetre frequencies. To realise the potential of these observations, fast and accurate light-scattering methods are required to calculate scattered millimetre and sub-millimetre intensities from complex ice crystals. Here, the applicability of the ray tracing with diffraction on facets method (RTDF) in predicting the bulk scalar optical properties and phase functions of randomly oriented hexagonal ice columns and hexagonal ice aggregates at millimetre frequencies is investigated. The applicability of RTDF is shown to be acceptable down to size parameters of about 18, between the frequencies of 243 and 874 GHz. It is demonstrated that RTDF is generally well within about 10% of T-matrix solutions obtained for the scalar optical properties assuming hexagonal ice columns. Moreover, on replacing electromagnetic scalar optical property solutions obtained for the hexagonal ice aggregate with the RTDF counterparts at size parameter values of about 18 or greater, the bulk scalar optical properties can be calculated to generally well within ±5% of an electromagnetic-based database. The RTDF-derived bulk scalar optical properties result in brightness temperature errors to generally within about ±4 K at 874 GHz. Differing microphysics assumptions can easily exceed such errors. Similar findings are found for the bulk scattering phase functions. This finding is owing to the scattering solutions being dominated by the processes of diffraction and reflection, both being well described by RTDF. The impact of centimetre-sized complex ice crystals on interpreting cirrus polarisation measurements at sub-millimetre frequencies is discussed.
Krumer, Zachar; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; de Mello Donegá, Celso; Schropp, Ruud E. I.
2013-09-01
Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) are low cost photovoltaic devices, which reduce the amount of necessary semiconductor material per unit area of a photovoltaic solar energy converter by means of concentration. The device is comprised of a thin plastic plate in which luminescent species (fluorophores) have been incorporated.The fluorophores absorb the solar light and radiatively re-emit a part of the energy. Total internal reflection traps most of the emitted light inside the plate and wave-guides it to a narrow side facet with a solar cell attached, where conversion into electricity occurs. The eciency of such devices is as yet rather low, due to several loss mechanisms, of which self-absorption is of high importance. Combined ray-tracing and Monte-Carlosimulations is a widely used tool for efficiency estimations of LSC-devices prior to manufacturing. We have applied this method to a model experiment, in which we analysed the impact of self-absorption onto LSC-efficiency of fluorophores with different absorption/emission-spectral overlap (Stokes-shift): several organic dyes and semiconductor quantum dots (single compound and core/shell of type-II). These results are compared with the ones obtained experimentally demonstrating a good agreement. The validated model is used to investigate systematically the influence of spectral separation and luminescence quantum efficiency on the intensity loss inconsequence of increased self-absorption. The results are used to adopt a quantity called the self-absorption cross-section and establish it as reliable criterion for self-absorption properties of materials that can be obtained from fundamental data and has a more universal scope of application, than the currently used Stokes-shift.
Fast Ray Tracing NURBS Surfaces
秦开怀; 龚明伦; 等
1996-01-01
In this paper,a new algorithm wit extrapolation process for computing the ray/surface intersection is presented.Also,a ray is defined to be the intersection of two planes,which are non-orthogonal in general,in such a way that the number of multiplication operations is reduced.In the preprocessing step,NURBS surfaces are subdivded adaptively into rational Bezier patches.Parallelepipeds are used to enclose the respective patches as tightly as possible Therefore,for each ray that hits the enclosure(i.e.,parallelepiped)of a patch the intersection points with the parallelepiped's faces can be used to yield a good starting point for the following iteration.The improved Newton iteration with extrapolation process saves CPU time by reducing the number of iteration steps.The intersection scheme is facter than previous methods for which published performance data allow reliable comparison.The method may also be used to speed up tracing the intersection of two parametric surfaces and oter operations that need Newton iteration.
Isik, Hakan
This study is premised on the fact that student conceptions of optics appear to be unrelated to student characteristics of gender, age, years since high school graduation, or previous academic experiences. This study investigated the relationships between student characteristics and student performance on image formation test items and the changes in student conceptions of optics after an introductory inquiry-based physics course. Data was collected from 39 college students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course teaching topics of geometrical optics. Student data concerning characteristics and previous experiences with optics and mathematics were collected. Assessment of student understanding of optics knowledge for pinholes, plane mirrors, refraction, and convex lenses was collected with, the Test of Image Formation with Light-Ray Tracing instrument. Total scale and subscale scores representing the optics instrument content were derived from student pretest and posttest responses. The types of knowledge, needed to answer each optics item correctly, were categorized as situational, conceptual, procedural, and strategic knowledge. These types of knowledge were associated with student correct and incorrect responses to each item to explain the existences and changes in student scientific and naive conceptions. Correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the student characteristics and academic experiences that significantly predicted scores on the subscales of the test. The results showed that student experience with calculus was a significant predictor of student performance on the total scale as well as on the refraction subscale of the Test of Image Formation with Light-Ray Tracing. A combination of student age and previous academic experience with precalculus was a significant predictor of student performance on the pretest pinhole subscale. Student characteristic of years since high school graduation
Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu
2014-01-01
A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TMþIGOM are considered as a benchmark because the IITM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TMþIGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 micrometers) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical
Forbang, R Teboh [John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: MultiPlan, the treatment planning system for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery system offers two approaches to dose computation, namely Ray-Tracing (RT), the default technique and Monte Carlo (MC), an option. RT is deterministic, however it accounts for primary heterogeneity only. MC on the other hand has an uncertainty associated with the calculation results. The advantage is that in addition, it accounts for heterogeneity effects on the scattered dose. Not all sites will benefit from MC. The goal of this work was to focus on central nervous system (CNS) tumors and compare dosimetrically, treatment plans computed with RT versus MC. Methods: Treatment plans were computed using both RT and MC for sites covering (a) the brain (b) C-spine (c) upper T-spine (d) lower T-spine (e) L-spine and (f) sacrum. RT was first used to compute clinically valid treatment plans. Then the same treatment parameters, monitor units, beam weights, etc., were used in the MC algorithm to compute the dose distribution. The plans were then compared for tumor coverage to illustrate the difference if any. All MC calculations were performed at a 1% uncertainty. Results: Using the RT technique, the tumor coverage for the brain, C-spine (C3–C7), upper T-spine (T4–T6), lower T-spine (T10), Lspine (L2) and sacrum were 96.8%, 93.1%, 97.2%, 87.3%, 91.1%, and 95.3%. The corresponding tumor coverage based on the MC approach was 98.2%, 95.3%, 87.55%, 88.2%, 92.5%, and 95.3%. It should be noted that the acceptable planning target coverage for our clinical practice is >95%. The coverage can be compromised for spine tumors to spare normal tissues such as the spinal cord. Conclusion: For treatment planning involving the CNS, RT and MC appear to be similar for most sites but for the T-spine area where most of the beams traverse lung tissue. In this case, MC is highly recommended.
Modeling of a slanted-hole collimator in a compact endo-cavity gamma camera.
Kamuda, Mark; Cui, Yonggang; Lall, Terry; Ionson, Jim; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Hossain, Anwar; Yang, Ge; Roy, Utpal N.; James, Ralph B.
2013-09-01
Having the ability to take an accurate 3D image of a tumor greatly helps doctors diagnose it and then create a treatment plan for a patient. One way to accomplish molecular imaging is to inject a radioactive tracer into a patient and then measure the gamma rays emitted from regions with high-uptake of the tracer, viz., the cancerous tissues. In large, expensive PET- or SPECT-imaging systems, the 3D imaging easily is accomplished by rotating the gamma-ray detectors and then employing software to reconstruct the 3D images from the multiple 2D projections at different angles of view. However, this method is impractical in a very compact imaging system due to anatomical considerations, e.g., the transrectal gamma camera under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for detection of intra-prostatic tumors. The camera uses pixilated cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors with matched parallel-hole collimator. Our research investigated the possibility of using a collimator with slanted holes to create 3D pictures of a radioactive source. The underlying concept is to take 2D projection images at different angles of view by adjusting the slant angle of the collimator, then using the 2D projection images to reconstruct the 3D image. To do this, we first simulated the response of a pixilated CZT detector to radiation sources placed in the field of view of the camera. Then, we formulated an algorithm to use the simulation results as prior knowledge and estimate the distribution of a shaped source from its 2D projection images. From the results of the simulation, we measured the spatial resolution of the camera as ~7-mm at a depth of 13.85-mm when using a detector with 2.46-mm pixel pitch and a collimator with 60° slant angle.
G. Pinardi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present intercomparison results for formaldehyde (HCHO slant column measurements performed during the Cabauw Intercomparison campaign of Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI that took place in Cabauw, the Netherlands, in summer 2009. During two months, nine atmospheric research groups simultaneously operated MAX-DOAS (MultiAXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instruments of various designs to record UV-visible spectra of scattered sunlight at different elevation angles that were analysed using common retrieval settings. The resulting HCHO data set was found to be highly consistent, the mean difference between instruments generally not exceeding 15% or 7.5 × 10^{15} molec cm^{−2}, for all viewing elevation angles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the uncertainties in the HCHO slant column retrieval when varying key input parameters such as the molecular absorption cross sections, correction terms for the Ring effect or the width and position of the fitting interval. This study led to the identification of potentially important sources of errors associated with cross-correlation effects involving the Ring effect, O_{4}, HCHO and BrO cross sections and the DOAS closure polynomial. As a result, a set of updated recommendations was formulated for HCHO slant column retrieval in the 336.5–359 nm wavelength range. To conclude, an error budget is proposed which distinguishes between systematic and random uncertainties. The total systematic error is estimated to be of the order of 20% and is dominated by uncertainties in absorption cross sections and related spectral cross-correlation effects. For a typical integration time of one minute, random uncertainties range between 5 and 30%, depending on the noise level of individual instruments.
Effect of optical turbulence along a downward slant path on probability of laser hazard
Gustafsson, K. Ove S.
2016-10-01
The importance of the optical turbulence effect along a slant path downward on probability of exceeding the maximum permissible exposure level (MPE) from a laser is discussed. The optical turbulence is generated by fluctuations (variations) in refractive index of the atmosphere. These fluctuations are caused in turn by changes in atmospheric temperature and humidity. The structure function of refractive index, Cn2, is the single most important parameter in the description of turbulence effects on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. In the boundary layer, the lowest part of the atmosphere where the ground directly influence the atmosphere, is the variation of Cn2 in Sweden between about 10-17 and 10-12 m-2/3, see Bergström et al. [5]. Along a horizontal path is the Cn 2 often assumed to be constant. The variation of the Cn2 along a slant path is described by the Tatarski model as function of height to the power of -4/3 or -2/3, depending on day or night conditions. The hazard of laser damage of eye is calculated for a long slant path downward. The probability of exceeding the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) level is given as a function of distance in comparison with nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) for adopted levels of turbulence. Furthermore, calculations are carried out for a laser pointer or a designator laser from a high altitude and long distance down to a ground target. The used example shows that there is an 10% risk of exceeding the MPE at a distance 2 km beyond the NOHD, in this example 48 km, due to turbulence level of 5·10-15 m-2/3 at ground height. The turbulence influence on a laser beam along horizontal path on NOHD have been shown before by Zilberman et al. [4].
Rotary slanted single wire CTA – a useful tool for 3D flows investigations
Jonáš P.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the instantaneous velocity vector. Some recommendations are presented based on long time experiences, e.g. on the choice of probe, on the probe calibration, to the measurement organization and to the evaluation of results.
Development and optimization of the IPM MM5 GPS slant path 4DVAR system
Florian Zus
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This article describes the development of tools for routine 4-dimensional variational data assimilation of Global Positioning System Slant Total Delay (STD data in the framework of the MM5 system at the Institute of Physics and Meteorology of the University of Hohenheim. The Slant Total Delay forward operator is introduced which allows model validation and the assimilation in the Message-Passing Interface environment. An experiment is conducted which highlights the importance of accurate model physics in the variational assimilation system. We demonstrate that the model minus observation statistics of STD data crucially depends on the convection scheme and the implementation of horizontal diffusion. A set of modifications to the existing non linear, tangent linear and adjoint model is presented. These include an improvement of the horizontal diffusion scheme and the implementation of the Grell cumulus convective scheme in order to eliminate the observed systematic tendency in the model minus observation statistics of the STD data and precipitation in mountainous terrain. A first assimilation experiment with the improved MM5 variational assimilation system shows promising results.
Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading on surfaces with slanted micro-pillar arrays
Yang, Xiaoming
2013-01-01
Uni-directional liquid spreading on asymmetric silicone-fabricated nanostructured surfaces has recently been reported. In this work, uniformly deflected polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars covered with silver films were fabricated. Asymmetric liquid wetting and spreading behaviors in a preferential direction were observed on the slanted micro-pillar surfaces and a micro-scale thin liquid film advancing ahead of the bulk liquid droplet was clearly observed by high-speed video imaging. It is found that the slanted micro-pillar array is able to promote or inhibit the propagation of this thin liquid film in different directions by the asymmetric capillary force. The spreading behavior of the bulk liquid was guided and finally controlled by this micro-scale liquid film. Different spreading regimes are defined by the relationship between the liquid intrinsic contact angle and the critical angles, which were determined by the pillar height, pillar deflection angle and inter-pillar spacing. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.
The application of the LAMBDA method in the estimation of the GPS slant wet vapour
Huang, S. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Chen, J. P.
2009-01-01
By far, the technology of GPS data processing has been improved well and the accuracy of this processing has increased greatly. So, GPS has been applied in meteorology widely.The SWV (Slant Wet Vapour) is a very important parameter in the GPS meteorology. In 2004, Song Shuli had advanced a SWV estimation method which used the precision orbit of JPL, IGS clock and the LC observations without cycle-slip. But this method is bad in real-time character. LAMBDA method, which is working well in the VRS (Virtual Reference Station) /COORS, is used in the ambiguity estimation. The method was proved by some true data calculation. The ZTD(Zenith Time Delay), which is calculated by projecting SWD (Slant Wet Delay) to zenith direction, has good coherence. Compairing the ZTD with the results of GAMIT and BERNESE, the deviation between our result and the GAMIT one is commonly little than 3cm, and the BERNESE one is commonly little than 1.5cm.
Slanted gold mushroom array: a switchable bi/tridirectional surface plasmon polariton splitter.
Shen, Yang; Fang, Guisheng; Cerjan, Alexander; Chi, Zhenguo; Fan, Shanhui; Jin, Chongjun
2016-08-25
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) show great promise in providing an ultracompact platform for integrated photonic circuits. However, challenges remain in easily and efficiently coupling light into and subsequently routing SPPs. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a switchable bi/tridirectional beam splitter which can simultaneously perform both tasks. The photonic device consists of a periodic array of slanted gold 'mushrooms' composed of angled dielectric pillars with gold caps extruding from a periodic array of perforations in a gold film. The unidirectional coupling results from the interference of the in-plane guided modes scattered by a pair of dislocated gold gratings, while the output channel is determined by the polarization of the incident beam. This device, in combination with dynamic polarization modulation techniques, has the potential to serve as a router or switch in plasmonic integrated circuits.
Li Ya-Qing; Wu Zhen-Sen
2012-01-01
On the basis of the extended Huygens Fresnel principle and the model of the refractive-index structure constant in the atmospheric turbulence proposed by the International Telecommunication Union-Radio Communication Sector,the characteristics of the partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model(GSM)beams propagating in slanted atmospheric turbulence are studied.Using the cross-spectral density function(CSDF),we derive the expressions for the effective beam radius,the spreading angle,and the average intersity.The variance of the angle-of-arrival fluctuation and the wander effect of the GSM beam in the turbulence are calculated numerically.The influences of the coherence degree,the propagation distance,the propagation height,and the waist radius on the propagation characteristics of the partially coherent beams are discussed and compared with those of the fully coherent Gaussian beams.
Vector separation of particles and cells using an array of slanted open cavities
Bernate, Jorge A; Lagae, Liesbet; Konstantopoulo, Konstantinos; Drazer, German
2014-01-01
We present a microfluidic platform for the continuous separation of suspended particles based on their size and settling velocity. The separation method takes advantage of the flow field in the vicinity and inside a parallel array of slanted open cavities. These cavities induce flow along them, which deflects the suspended particles to a different degree depending on the extent to which they penetrate into the cavities. The cumulative deflection in the periodic array ultimately leads to vector chromatography, with the different species in the sample moving in different directions. We demonstrate density and size based separation over a range of flow rates by separating polystyrene and silica particles and show that purities nearing 100% can be achieved for multicomponent mixtures. We also demonstrate the potential of the platform to separate biological cells by fractionating different blood components. We discuss the presence of two regimes, which can be distinguished depending on the ratio between the settli...
Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Bernate, Jorge A.; Yang, Mengfei
2016-12-01
Within the past decade, the separation of particles via continuous flow through microfluidic devices has been developed largely through an Edisonian approach whereby devices have been developed based on observation and intuition. This is particularly true in the development of vector chromatography at vanishingly small Reynolds number for non-Brownian particles. Note that this latter phenomenon has its origins in the irreversible forces that are at work in the device, since Stokes flow reversibility typically prohibits their function otherwise. We present a numerical simulation of the vector separation of non-Brownian particles of different sizes and deformabilities in the Stokes flow through channels whose lower surface is composed of slanted cavities. The simulations are designed to understand the physical principles behind the separation as well as to provide design criteria for devices for separating particles in a given size and flexibility range. The numerical simulations are Stokes flow boundary element simulations using techniques defined elsewhere in the literature, but including a close-range repulsive force between the particles and the slanted cavities. We demonstrate that over a range of repulsive force that is comparable to the roughness in the experimental devices, the separation data (particularly in particle size) are predicted quantitatively and are a very weak function of the range of the force. We then vary the geometric parameters of the simulated devices to demonstrate the sensitivity of the separation efficiency to these parameters, thus making design predictions as to which devices are appropriate for separating particles in different size, shape, and deformability ranges.
Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display with slanted wall-shaped electrodes
Feng Zhou; Qionghua Wang; Di Wu; Jianpeng Cui
2012-01-01
A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed. Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes, the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes. The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.%A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed.Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes,the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes.The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.Owing to the continuous improvement in image quality of liquid crystal displays (LCDs),they have been widely employed in desktop monitors,TVs,and mobile displays at present[1-5].With the development of LCDs the polymer-stabilized blue phase LCDs (BPLCDs)[6-11]can replace the conventional LCDs and become the nextgeneration display technology.The polymer-stabilized BPLCDs have numerous attractive features,such as submillisecond gray-to-gray response time,alignmentlayer-free process optically isotropic dark state and cell gap insensitivity[12-14].Because of these advantages,the fabrication processes of the BPLCDs are simplified,motion-image blurs are reduced,and color-sequential displays using RGB LEDs are enabled.
Friedrich, M. M.; Stremme, W.; Rivera, C. I.; Arellano, E. J.; Grutter, M.
2014-12-01
The new MAX-DOAS network in Mexico City provides results of O4, HCHO and NO2 slant column densities (SCD). Here, we present a new numerical code developed to retrieve gas profiles of NO2 and HCHO using radiative transfer simulations. We present first results of such profiles from the MAX-DOAS station located at UNAM campus. The code works in two steps: First, the O4 slant column density information is used to retrieve an aerosol profile. As an a-priori aerosol profile, we use averaged ceilometer data measured at UNAM and scaled to the total optical depth provided by the Aeronet data base. In the second step, the retrieved aerosol profile information is used together with the trace gas (HCHO or NO2) SCDs to retrieve the trace gas profiles. The inversion is based on a gauss-newton iteration scheme and uses constrained least square fitting with either optimal estimation or Tihkonov regularization. For the latter, the regulation matrix is currently constructed from the discrete first derivative operator. The forward model uses the radiative transfer code VLIDORT. The inputs to VLIDORT are calculated using temperature and pressure information from daily radiosounde measurements and aerosol single scattering optical depths and asymmetry factors from the Aeronet data base for Mexico City. For the gas absorption cross sections we use the same values as were used for the SCD calculation from the recorded spectra using QDOAS. Besides demonstrating the functionality of the algorithm showing profile retrievals of simulated SCDs with added random noise, we present HCHO and NO2 profiles retrieved from SCDs calculated from the MAX-DOAS measurements at UNAM campus at selected days.
短波射线追踪技术中的电离层混合建模方法%Ionosphere hybrid modeling method for short-wave ray tracing
栗伟珉; 苏东林; 阎照文; 刘焱
2012-01-01
在国际参考电离层模型和多层准抛物模型的基础上,提出了一种混合应用两种模型进行电离层建模的新方法.利用射线追踪技术,分别对混合模型和传统国际参考电离层模型下短波射线在电离层中的轨迹进行了仿真,得到了电波群路径.通过与实测电波群路径的对比,结果表明：对中国中纬度地区在电离层混合模型下的射线追踪精度优于传统国际参考电离层模型下的射线追踪精度,同时混合建模方法降低了多层准抛物模型对输入条件的要求,扩展了多层准抛物模型在射线追踪技术中的应用范围.%Based on the international reference ionosphere（IRI） and the quasi-parabolic segments（QPS） model,a new ionosphere hybrid modeling method for short-wave ray tracing was proposed.The group ranges which show the short-wave propagation trace in the ionosphere were obtained separately by simulation in the hybrid model and the IRI model.By comparing the simulated results and the ionospheric oblique incidence sounding experimental data,the hybrid modeling method accuracy at mid-latitude region in China was analyzed.It indicates the ray tracing simulation accuracy in the hybrid model on experimental day better than the one in the IRI model.The limit to the QPS model＇s input is reduced by the hybrid modeling method and the QPS model＇s application range is extended in ray tracing technology.
基于GPU和均匀栅格法的光线追踪算法研究%Research of ray-tracing algorithm based on GPU and uniform grid method
童星; 袁道华
2011-01-01
由于GPU(图形处理器)性能的大幅提高和可编程性的发展,基于GPU的光线追踪算法逐渐成为研究热点,光线追踪算法需要的计算量大,基于此,分析了光线追踪算法的基本原理,在NVIDIA公司的CUDA(计算统一设备体系结构)环境下采用均匀栅格法作为加速结构实现了光线追踪算法.实验结果表明,该计算模式相对于传统基于CPU的光线追踪算法具有更快的整体运算速度,GPU适合处理高密度数据计算.%Ray-tracing is the technique that rendering images from a three dimensional model of a scene by projecting it on to a two dimensional image plane. In the past decades, the development of the computer graphic (especial for raster graphics systems) emphasize on building the high-efficient, low-cost large graphic systems. For the above-mentioned reasons such as the implementation of a large number of mathematical calculation, the large-scale parallel processing technologies play a important role in graphics compose. The principle of ray-tracing algorithm is introduced. A ray-tracing parallel processing model is built through the research on GPU stream processing and MPICH, and it is proved that applying this mode reduces computation time effectively and the quality of the generated graph holds no difference with that by traditional stand-alone computer.
Stream depletion rate with horizontal or slanted wells in confined aquifers near a stream
Pei Rong Tsou
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The stream depletion rate (SDR associated with pumping from vertical wells located in an aquifer is commonly estimated, where a large drawdown near the well may, however, be produced. In this paper, the solution is first developed for describing the groundwater flow associated with a point source in a confined aquifer near a stream. Based on the principle of superposition, analytical solutions for horizontal and slanted wells are then developed by integrating the point source solution along the well axis. The solutions can be simplified to quasi-steady solutions by neglecting the exponential terms to describe the late-time drawdown, which can provide useful information in designing horizontal well location and length. The direction of the well axis can be determined from the best SDR subject to the drawdown constraint. It is found that hydraulic conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the stream plays a crucial role in influencing the time required for reaching quasi-steady SDR. In addition, the effects of the well length as well as the distance between the well and stream on the SDR are also examined.
Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N
2014-01-01
To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step.
Application of LAMBDA Method to the Calculation of Slant Path Wet Vapor Content of GPS Signals
Huang, Shan-Qi; Wang, Jie-Xian; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Jun-Ping
2009-10-01
With the improvement of the GPS data processing techniques and calculating accuracy, the GPS has been increasingly and widely applied to atmospheric science. In the research on GPS meteorology the slant path wet vapor content (SWV) is one of the significant parameters. In the light of the problem of poorer real time, which existed in the method proposed by Song Shuli et al. in 2004, for directly calculating the SWV by means of the precise ephemeris, IGS clock error and observed value of the LC combination after the cycle skip processing, the LAMBDA method which has more mature application to the city virtual reference station (VRS) is applied to the problem of the processing of ambiguity search. Through the trial calculation of data, it is tested and verified that the method is feasible and there is a better uniformity when the calculated result is projected into the zenith direction. The atmospheric delay in the vertical direction obtained by using this method is compared with the result of the GAMIT or the BERNESE, with the result showing that the accuracy of the coincidence of the result of the method with that of the BERNESE is generally smaller than 1.5 cm and the accuracy of the coincidence of the result of the method with that of the GAMIT is generally smaller than 10 cm.
Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays.
Clark, Gregory A; Ledbetter, Noah M; Warren, David J; Harrison, Reid R
2011-01-01
Recording and stimulation via high-count penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves may help restore precise motor and sensory function after nervous system damage or disease. Although previous work has demonstrated safety and relatively successful stimulation for long-term implants of 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) in feline sciatic nerve [1], two major remaining challenges were 1) to maintain viable recordings of nerve action potentials long-term, and 2) to overcome contamination of unit recordings by myoelectric (EMG) activity in awake, moving animals. In conjunction with improvements to USEAs themselves, we have redesigned several aspects of our USEA containment and connector systems. Although further increases in unit yield and long-term stability remain desirable, here we report considerable progress toward meeting both of these goals: We have successfully recorded unit activity from USEAs implanted intrafascicularly in sciatic nerve for periods up to 4 months (the terminal experimental time point), and we have developed a containment system that effectively eliminates or substantially reduces EMG contamination of unit recordings in the moving animal. In addition, we used a 100-channel wireless recording integrated circuit attached to implanted USEAs to transmit broadband or spike-threshold data from nerve. Neural data thusly obtained during imposed limb movements were decoded blindly to drive a virtual prosthetic limb in real time. These results support the possibility of using USEAs in peripheral nerves to provide motor control and cutaneous or proprioceptive sensory feedback in individuals after limb loss or spinal cord injury.
Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.
2015-06-01
Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.
Dou, Lingyu; Ji, Xiaoling; Li, Peiyun
2012-04-09
The model of partially coherent annular beams with linear non-uniformity field profile in the x direction is set up. The analytic expressions for the average intensity and the centre of gravity of partially coherent annular beams with decentered field propagating through atmospheric turbulence along a slant path are derived. The propagation equation governing the position of the intensity maximum is also given. It is found that the beam non-uniformity is amended gradually as the propagation distance and the strength of turbulence increase. The centre of beam gravity is independent of both the propagation distance and the turbulence. However, the position of the intensity maximum changes versus the propagation distance and the turbulence, and is farthest away from the propagation z-axis at a certain propagation distance. When the propagation distance is large enough, the position of the intensity maximum reaches an asymptotic value which increases with decreasing the zenith angle and is largest for the free space case. When the propagation distance is large enough, the position of the intensity maximum is not on the propagation z-axis, and is nearer to the propagation z-axis than the centre of beam gravity. On the other hand, changes in the intensity maximum in the far field are also examined in this paper.
Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Roma-Dollase, David; Krankowski, Andrzej; García-Rigo, Alberto; Orús-Pérez, Raül
2017-05-01
A summary of the main concepts on global ionospheric map(s) [hereinafter GIM(s)] of vertical total electron content (VTEC), with special emphasis on their assessment, is presented in this paper. It is based on the experience accumulated during almost two decades of collaborative work in the context of the international global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) service (IGS) ionosphere working group. A representative comparison of the two main assessments of ionospheric electron content models (VTEC-altimeter and difference of Slant TEC, based on independent global positioning system data GPS, dSTEC-GPS) is performed. It is based on 26 GPS receivers worldwide distributed and mostly placed on islands, from the last quarter of 2010 to the end of 2016. The consistency between dSTEC-GPS and VTEC-altimeter assessments for one of the most accurate IGS GIMs (the tomographic-kriging GIM `UQRG' computed by UPC) is shown. Typical error RMS values of 2 TECU for VTEC-altimeter and 0.5 TECU for dSTEC-GPS assessments are found. And, as expected by following a simple random model, there is a significant correlation between both RMS and specially relative errors, mainly evident when large enough number of observations per pass is considered. The authors expect that this manuscript will be useful for new analysis contributor centres and in general for the scientific and technical community interested in simple and truly external ways of validating electron content models of the ionosphere.
Extended-reach slant drilling application : MacKay River SAGD project
Teotico, D.; Van Thiel, A. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
The thermal in-situ method is commonly used and involves the injection of steam to reduce the viscosity of oil. This presentation discussed an extended-reach slant drilling application known as the MacKay River steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project or MRX. An overview of the MacKay River area was presented and the objectives of the project were outlined. The MacKay area is located 60 kilometres northwest of Fort McMurray and was Petro Canada's first commercial SAGD project. It has an estimated lifespan of 25 to 30 years. The MRX objectives are to ensure bitumen supply of 40,000 bbl/day at the central facility; to design injectors and producers that minimize liquid level build-up; and to optimize SOR by even steam chamber development. The intent of the project was to reduce logistics, drilling, and facilities costs. The presentation also discussed extended reach cost savings; rig utilization; geology; well design challenges; MRX planning and preparation; MRX directional planning; and liner running installation limits. It was concluded that in going forward, continued well design is important for configuring casing/tubing, slotting design, and cement integrity. figs.
Data assimilation of plasmasphere and upper ionosphere using COSMIC/GPS slant TEC measurements
Wu, M. J.; Guo, P.; Xu, T. L.; Fu, N. F.; Xu, X. S.; Jin, H. L.; Hu, X. G.
2015-11-01
Increasing total electron content (TEC) measurements from the low Earth orbiting satellites to Global Positioning System satellites flourish the exploration of the ionosphere and plasmasphere for decades. This paper indicates a method that 3-D Var is applied to assimilate precise orbit determination antenna TEC measurements of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites into the background global core plasma model (GCPM). The slant TEC data archived in the COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center from 500 km to 20,200 km are used to reconstruct a new electron density model. This model has a temporal resolution of 2 h and spatial resolutions of 2.5° in geomagnetic latitude, 5° in longitude, 50 km in the upper ionosphere, and several hundred kilometers in the plasmasphere. Preliminary results show that the data assimilation modifies the initial GCPM forecast to be better coincident with actual COSMIC measurements in internal quality check. Furthermore, independent validation with upper ionosphere-retrieved electron density and TEC of global ionosphere maps implies a reasonable improvement in the estimation of plasmaspheric electron density after the assimilation.
Comparison of MAX-DOAS NO2 slant column densities and DOAS fit properties during MADCAT
Beirle, Steffen; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas
2014-05-01
The 'Multi Axis Doas - Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases' (MADCAT) took place at MPI-C in Mainz/Germany in summer 2013. MAX-DOAS instruments from ten institutes were operated simultaneously in order to investigate the crucial settings of instrumental properties, calibration, and algorithms, for a) the retrieval of slant column densities (SCDs) of various trace gases (NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, H2O) and O4 as tracer for photon path lengths and b) the retrieval of tropospheric profiles. Here we focus on the first step, i.e. the retrieval of SCDs, for NO2. The DOAS analysis for NO2 was done independently by the different groups, but based on concerted DOAS retrieval setups for the UV and vis spectral ranges. We present intercomparisons of NO2 SCDs for different elevation angles from the different instruments. A statistical analysis of the deviations of each dataset with respect to the ensemble mean was performed. In addition, further DOAS fit results, like intensity offsets, the fit coefficients for water vapour and the ring effect, etc. are compared.
Combining slanted-frame classifiers for improved HMM-based Arabic handwriting recognition.
Al-Hajj Mohamad, Ramy; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence; Mokbel, Chafic
2009-07-01
The problem addressed in this study is the offline recognition of handwritten Arabic city names. The names are assumed to belong to a fixed lexicon of about 1,000 entries. A state-of-the-art classical right-left hidden Markov model (HMM)-based recognizer (reference system) using the sliding window approach is developed. The feature set includes both baseline-independent and baseline-dependent features. The analysis of the errors made by the recognizer shows that the inclination, overlap, and shifted positions of diacritical marks are major sources of errors. In this paper, we propose coping with these problems. Our approach relies on the combination of three homogeneous HMM-based classifiers. All classifiers have the same topology as the reference system and differ only in the orientation of the sliding window. We compare three combination schemes of these classifiers at the decision level. Our reported results on the benchmark IFN/ENIT database of Arabic Tunisian city names give a recognition rate higher than 90 percent accuracy and demonstrate the superiority of the neural network-based combination. Our results also show that the combination of classifiers performs better than a single classifier dealing with slant-corrected images and that the approach is robust for a wide range of orientation angles.
无
2008-01-01
With a novel light-weight and absolutely calibrated ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer,UV skylight radiances and O3 slant column densities are measured by balloon-borne limb measurements in Xinjiang area,China.UV skylight radiances measured at the height of 31 km are compared with the results from Modtran in the wavelength range from 290 to 420 nm.03 slant column densities are derived from radiance spectra in the Huggins bands (320 - 335 nm) using differential optical absorption spectroscopy method.And the parameter exhibits a good correlation with the same value simulated by radiative transfer model (Tracy).The O3 profile simultaneously measured by an O3 sonde is used as input in Tracy calculations.The O3 sonde is launched on the same balloon.
Zhao-Huang Zhang; Sun Fei; Meng Liang
2016-01-01
At present, disc cutters of a full face rock tun-nel boring machine are mostly mounted in the traditional way. Practical use in engineering projects reveals that this installation method not only heavily affects the operation life of disc cutters, but also increases the energy consump-tion of a full face rock tunnel boring machine. To straighten out this issue, therefore, a rock-breaking model is devel-oped for disc cutters’ movement after the research on the rock breaking of forward-slanting disc cutters. Equations of its displacement are established based on the analysis of velocity vector of a disc cutter’s rock-breaking point. The functional relations then are brought forward between the displacement parameters of a rock-breaking point and its coordinate through the analysis of micro displacement of a rock-breaking point. Thus, the geometric equations of rock deformation are derived for the forward-slanting installation of disc cutters. With a linear relationship remaining between the acting force and its deformation either before or after the leap breaking, the constitutive relation of rock deformation can be expressed in the form of generalized Hooke law, hence the comparative analysis of the variation in the resistance of rock to the disc cutters mounted in the forward-slanting way with that in the traditional way. It is discovered that with the same penetration, strain of the rock in contact with forward-slanting disc cutters is apparently on the decline, in other words, the resistance of rock to disc cutters is reduced. Thus wear of disc cutters resulted from friction is lowered and energy consumption is correspondingly decreased. It will be useful for the development of installation and design theory of disc cutters, and significant for the breakthrough in the design of full face rock tunnel boring machine.
Kimverly H. I. Coronel; Mark A. J. Torres; Cesar G. Demayo
2013-01-01
The wings of insects are highly compartmentalized by their major and minor veins. Each compartment in insect wings are believed to be potential candidates for separate developmental modules which may correspond to distinct cell lineages and domains of gene expression. Are the entire wings of striped slant-faced grasshopper (Amphitornus sp.) integrated? Or, are the compartments, even smaller part of the wings can be considered as autonomous units of “gene regulation”? Hence, this s...
Reinhardt-Rutland, A H
1999-01-01
The perceived slant of a surface relative to the frontal plane can be reduced when the surface is viewed through a frame between the observer and the surface. Aspects of this framing effect were investigated in three experiments in which observers judged the orientations-in-depth of rectangular and trapezoidal surfaces which were matched for pictorial depth. In experiments 1 and 2, viewing was stationary-monocular. In experiment 1, a frontal rectangular frame was present or absent during viewing. The perceived slants of the surfaces were reduced in the presence of the frame; the reduction for the trapezoidal surface was greater, suggesting that conflict in stimulus information contributes to the phenomenon. In experiment 2, the rectangular frame was either frontal or slanted; in a third condition, a frame was trapezoidal and frontal. The conditions all elicited similar results, suggesting that the framing effect is not explained by pictorial perception of the display, or by assimilation of the surface orientation to the frame orientation. In experiment 3, viewing was moving-monocular to introduce motion parallax; the framing effect was reduced, being appreciable only for a trapezoidal surface. The results are related to other phenomena in which depth perception of points in space tends towards a frontal plane; this frontal-plane tendency is attributed to heavy experimental demands, mainly concerning impoverished, conflicting, and distracting information.
Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Ali A.
2017-05-01
In recent research, anisoplanatic electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation along a slanted path in the presence of low atmosphere phase turbulence (modified von Karman spectrum or MVKS) has been investigated assuming a Hufnagel-Valley (HV) type structure parameter. Preliminary results indicate a strong dependence on the slant angle especially for long range transmission and relatively strong turbulence. The investigation was further divided into two regimes, viz. (a) one where the EM source consisted of a plane wave modulated with a digitized image, which is propagated along the turbulent path and recovered via demodulation at the receiver; and (b) transmit the plane wave without modulation along the turbulent path through an image transparency and a thin lens designed to gather the received image in the focal plane. In this paper, we reexamine the same problem (part (a) only) in the presence of a chaotic optical carrier where the chaos is generated in the feedback loop of an acousto-optic Bragg cell. The image information is encrypted within the chaos wave, and subsequently propagated along a similar slant path and identical turbulence conditions. The recovered image extracted via heterodyning from the received chaos is compared quantitatively (through image cross-correlations and mean-squared error measures) for the non-chaotic versus the chaotic approaches. Generally, "packaging" the information in chaos improves performance through turbulent propagation, and results are discussed from this perspective. Concurrently, we will also examine the effect of a non-encrypted plane EM wave propagation through a transparency-lens combination. These results are also presented with appropriate comparisons with the cases involving lensless transmission of imagery through corresponding turbulent and non-turbulent layers.
Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I., E-mail: fbaida@univ-fcomte.fr [Département d' Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Université de Franche–Comté, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Belkhir, Abderrahmane [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)
2013-11-18
We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.
Elias, Thierry; Ramon, Didier; Garnero, Marie-Agnès; Dubus, Laurent; Bourdil, Charles
2017-06-01
By scattering and absorbing solar radiation, aerosols generate production losses in solar plants. Due to the specific design of solar tower plants, solar radiation is attenuated not only in the atmospheric column but also in the slant path between the heliostats and the receiver. Broadband attenuation by aerosols is estimated in both the column and the slant path for Ouarzazate, Morocco, using spectral measurements of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) collected by AERONET. The proportion of AOT below the tower's height is computed assuming a single uniform aerosol layer of height equal to the boundary layer height computed by ECMWF for the Operational Analysis. The monthly average of the broadband attenuation by aerosols in the slant path was 6.9±3.0% in August 2012 at Ouarzazate, for 1-km distance between the heliostat and the receiver. The slant path attenuation should be added to almost 40% attenuation along the atmospheric column, with aerosols in an approximate 4.7-km aerosol layer. Also, around 1.5% attenuation is caused by Rayleigh and water vapour in the slant path. The monochromatic-broadband extrapolation is validated by comparing computed and observed direct normal irradiance (DNI). DNI observed around noon varied from more than 1000 W/m2 to around 400 W/m2 at Ouarzazate in 2012 because of desert dust plumes transported from North African desert areas.
Jung, Sung-Min; Kang, In-Byeong
2014-02-10
We developed a 3D simulation model describing the optical phenomena on a slanted lenticular surface with aspherical lenses for autostereoscopic displays and analyzed the optical behavior of the multiview autostereoscopic display under actual design conditions by using a 3D simulation model. Optical characteristics, such as 3D crosstalk and 3D luminance differences, are obtained from the simulation of the light distribution for the multiview autostereoscopic displays with slated angles of 0.0°, 9.46°, 12.59°, and 14.04°. By investigating the effect of the conic constant of an aspherical lens surface on the 3D crosstalk and the 3D luminance differences for given several design conditions, we find the optimal values of the conic constant for slanted angles of 0.0° and 9.46° in order to minimize the 3D crosstalk and the 3D luminance difference. From these results, we think that our simulation model is very useful for designing the lens array to optimize the optical characteristics of autostereoscopic displays.
Xu, Yun L; Li, Jue X; Zhong, Deng J; Jia, Jin P
2013-01-01
A dual slant-placed electrodes thin-film photocatalytic (PC) reactor was proposed and successfully applied to degrade Amaranth. In this PC reactor, both the TiO2/Ti photoanode and the Cu cathode are slant-placed in the reaction chamber, and aqueous thin-film formed on the surface of both electrodes as wastewater flowed over them. The degradation efficiency was significantly improved as a result of additional degradation at the cathode. When the TiO2 photocatalyst was irradiated with UV light, photogenerated electrons were spontaneously transferred from the anode to the cathode, driven by the electric field self-generated between the TiO2/Ti anode and the Cu cathode, based on the principle of establishing a Schottky barrier. On the Cu cathode surface, the transferred photoelectrons either reacted with dissolved oxygen to form H2O2, which then oxidized the dye, resulting in indirect oxidation decolourization, or reacted with the dye, resulting in direct reduction decolourization. The colour removal efficiency of the cathode was about half that of the photoanode. These processes together with direct oxidation of the photogenerated holes on the photoanode gave dual electrode degradation of the dye, and the degradation efficiency was significantly improved.
Berdanier, Reid A.; Key, Nicole L.
2016-03-01
The single slanted hot-wire technique has been used extensively as a method for measuring three velocity components in turbomachinery applications. The cross-flow orientation of probes with respect to the mean flow in rotating machinery results in detrimental prong interference effects when using multi-wire probes. As a result, the single slanted hot-wire technique is often preferred. Typical data reduction techniques solve a set of nonlinear equations determined by curve fits to calibration data. A new method is proposed which utilizes a look-up table method applied to a simulated triple-wire sensor with application to turbomachinery environments having subsonic, incompressible flows. Specific discussion regarding corrections for temperature and density changes present in a multistage compressor application is included, and additional consideration is given to the experimental error which accompanies each data reduction process. Hot-wire data collected from a three-stage research compressor with two rotor tip clearances are used to compare the look-up table technique with the traditional nonlinear equation method. The look-up table approach yields velocity errors of less than 5 % for test conditions deviating by more than 20 °C from calibration conditions (on par with the nonlinear solver method), while requiring less than 10 % of the computational processing time.
Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area
Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.
2008-09-11
This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).
Najafi, Sedigheh; Madanipour, Khosro
2013-07-01
In this paper, by a combination of the self-imaging effect for Ronchi gratings and the standard slanted edge modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method for CCD cameras, the MTF of the CCD array without optics is measured. For this purpose, a Ronchi-type grating is illuminated by an expanded He-Ne laser. A self-image of the grating appears without optics on the CCD array that is located on the Talbot distance. The lines of the self-image of the grating are used as a slanted edge array. This method has all the advantages of the slanted edge method, and also since the array of the edge is ready, the total area of the CCD can be tested. The measured MTF is related to the CCD array without optics.
董建军; 杨正华; 曹柱荣; 韦敏习; 詹夏宇; 刘慎业; 丁永坤
2011-01-01
The spatial resolution of KBA X-ray microscope is studied with ray-tracing simulation and experimental test. In the experiment, the imaging object is Au grid, backlit by X-rays produced by the 9th laser interaction with Cu target on Shen-guang II laser facility. The spatial resolution of KBA X-ray microscope is found to be asymmetric about the center of its field of view. Moreover, the experimental data show that, the variation of resolution in the reducing direction of grazing incidence angle is smaller than that in the increasing direction, and the resolution asymmetry is about 30% relative to the field center.%通过光线追踪模拟在SGⅡ激光装置上利用第9路激光入射到Cu背光靶面产生X射线,通过Au网格背光照相,利用KBA显微镜对此网格成像,获得了清晰的网格图像.通过对实验网格数据的分析发现:在掠射角减小的方向,空间分辨力随视场的变化比掠射角增大的方向变化小,与光线追踪模拟比较,二者均表明KBA的视场是非对称的,从实验图像数据得出,视场的不对称相对于中心位置约为30％.
A General Purpose Ionospheric Ray Tracing Procedure
1993-08-01
PUBUC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED i IIt ii 11 UNCLASSIFIED DST0O A U S T R A L I A SURVEILLANCE RESEARCH LABORATORY ZDMC QUAIrrY High Frequency Radar ...tol = tolerance (Kms) at each step of raytracing (a value of * * l.d-6 is sufficient in most cases) * * CHARACTER * * cha - ’y’ if magnetic fields...Director, Surveillance Research Laboratory 1 Chief High Frequency Radar Division 1 Research Leader, Jindalee Operational Radar Network 1 Head, Radar
Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition
Ya-Ju Lee
2014-05-01
Full Text Available High-efficient ZnO-based nanorod array light-emitting diodes (LEDs were grown by an oblique-angle deposition scheme. Due to the shadowing effect, the inclined ZnO vapor-flow was selectively deposited on the tip surfaces of pre-fabricated p-GaN nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of nanosized heterojunctions. The LED architecture composed of the slanted n-ZnO film on p-GaN nanorod arrays exhibits a well-behaving current rectification of junction diode with low turn-on voltage of 4.7 V, and stably emits bluish-white luminescence with dominant peak of 390 nm under the operation of forward injection currents. In general, as the device fabrication does not involve passivation of using a polymer or sophisticated material growth techniques, the revealed scheme might be readily applied on other kinds of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Ya-Qing
2011-07-01
On the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the scattering of partially coherent Gaussian-Schell-model (GSM) beams from a diffuse target in slant double-passage atmospheric turbulence is studied and compared with that of fully coherent Gaussian beams. Using the cross-spectral density function of the GSM beams, we derive the expressions of the mutual coherence function, angle-of-arrival fluctuation, and covariance and variance of the intensity of the scattered field, taking into account the fluctuations of both the log-amplitude and phase. The numerical results are presented, and the influences of the wavelength, propagation distance, and waist radius on scattering properties are discussed. The perturbation region of the normalized intensity variance of the partially coherent GSM beam is smaller than that of the fully coherent Gaussian beam at the middle turbulence level. The normalized intensity variance of long-distance beam propagation is smaller than that of beam propagation along a short distance.
Slanted n-ZnO/p-GaN nanorod arrays light-emitting diodes grown by oblique-angle deposition
Lee, Ya-Ju; Yang, Zu-Po; Lo, Fang-Yuh; Siao, Jhih-Jhong; Xie, Zhong-Han; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Sheu, Jinn-Kong
2014-05-01
High-efficient ZnO-based nanorod array light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown by an oblique-angle deposition scheme. Due to the shadowing effect, the inclined ZnO vapor-flow was selectively deposited on the tip surfaces of pre-fabricated p-GaN nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of nanosized heterojunctions. The LED architecture composed of the slanted n-ZnO film on p-GaN nanorod arrays exhibits a well-behaving current rectification of junction diode with low turn-on voltage of 4.7 V, and stably emits bluish-white luminescence with dominant peak of 390 nm under the operation of forward injection currents. In general, as the device fabrication does not involve passivation of using a polymer or sophisticated material growth techniques, the revealed scheme might be readily applied on other kinds of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
Zhang, Baocheng
2016-07-01
The high sampling rate along with the global coverage of ground-based receivers makes Global Positioning System (GPS) data particularly ideal for sensing the Earth's ionosphere. Retrieval of slant total electron content measurements (TECMs) constitutes a key first step toward extracting various ionospheric parameters from GPS data. Within the ionospheric community, the interpretation of TECM is widely recognized as the slant total electron content along the satellite receiver line of sight, biased by satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs). The Carrier-to-Code Leveling (CCL) has long been used as a geometry-free method for retrieving TECM, mainly because of its simplicity and effectiveness. In fact, however, the CCL has proven inaccurate as it may give rise to TECM very susceptible to so-called leveling errors. With the goal of attaining more accurate TECM retrieval, we report in this contribution two other methods than the CCL, namely, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and the Array-aided PPP (A-PPP). The PPP further exploits the International GPS Service (IGS) orbit and clock products and turns out to be a geometry-based method. The A-PPP is designed to retrieve TECM from an array of colocated receivers, taking advantage of the broadcast orbit and clock products. Moreover, A-PPP also takes into account the fact that the ionospheric effects measured from one satellite to all colocated receivers ought to be the same, thus leading to the estimability of interreceiver DCB. We perform a comparative study of the formal precision and the empirical accuracy of the TECM that are retrieved, respectively, by three methods from the same set of GPS data. Results of such a study can be used to assess the actual performance of the three methods. In addition, we check the temporal stability in A-PPP-derived interreceiver DCB estimates over time periods ranging from 1 to 3 days.
Lucas-Vegas, María. José; Riera, José Manuel
2016-11-01
Broadband satellite communications systems, either used for broadcast or fixed satellite services, have grown continuously in recent years. This has led to the use of higher frequency bands, from the Ku (14/11 GHz) to the Ka band (30/20 GHz) in the last decade, and with the expectation of using the Q/V band (50/40 GHz) and even the W band (75-110 GHz) in the future. As frequency increases, radio wave propagation effects in the slant-path within the troposphere are becoming more and more relevant. The objective of this research is the proposal of frequency scaling approximations for the total attenuation in the absence of rain, a condition that occurs during the highest percentages of time, usually more than 95% in temperate climates. There is a strong relationship between total attenuation at different frequencies, as it arises from the same physical phenomena, namely, the presence of oxygen, water vapor, and clouds in the slant path. This strong relationship allows frequency scaling estimations to be proposed. In particular, polynomials for instantaneous frequency scaling of total attenuation under these conditions have been calculated for a set of frequencies in the range 10-100 GHz, based on atmospheric profiles of 60 sites from all over the world and physical models of attenuation. Global polynomials are provided for the 72 combinations of nine significant frequencies, which can be used to estimate attenuation at a frequency band from its known value at a different one. Refined expressions have also been calculated for different climatic zones, providing more precise estimations.
Simulation of Ray Tracing in Misaligned Optical System under Mechanical Vibration%振动失调下光学系统光线追迹仿真计算
沈东富; 刘顺发; 扈宏毅
2013-01-01
运动平台上的光学系统不可避免的产生镜面失调,如何描述失调光学系统的光路传输是一个非常迫切的问题.本文利用Matlab符号运算,通过两次坐标旋转和坐标平移得出了失调镜面方程,随后用矢量形式反射定律求出光线经过失调镜面后的方向矢量,通过光线追迹法,建立了失调光路传输模型.实例计算中,以某仪器的望远镜结构为光学模型,用Patran_Nastran的瞬态求解功能,求得在xyz方向同时加载相应正弦振动时镜面的失调位移,随后利用光路传输模型,得出了过主镜中心的光线(视轴)经主镜、次镜和反射镜反射后的最大抖动角度分别为0.0034°,0.0161°,0.0177°,并且得出了光斑在靶面及空间运动轨迹.%A simulation of light beam propagation in the misaligned optical system under mechanical vibration is deduced by the means of ray tracing method based on coordinate transformation and reflection law. A telescope structure of an apparatus was constructed which was then imported into Patran_Nastran to perform a transient response after sine vibrations was applied in the xyz directions simultaneously so as to obtain the displacement of key points of mirrors. Then, the displacement was used by the simulation program to compute the jitter angles. The amplitude of beam jitter angles were 0.003 4°, 0.016 1°, 0.017 7° respectively after optical beam reflected by primary mirror, secondary mirror and reflection mirror. Moreover, the traces of facula in the target plane and in the space were drawn.
Ray-tracing for qP waves in media with rotated axis of symmetry%旋转轴对称介质中的qP波射线追踪
杨文军; 孙福利
2011-01-01
本文使用qP波一阶射线追踪方程(FORT)计算光滑、非均匀旋转轴对称弱各向异性介质中qP波传播的路径和走时.此FORT方程只依赖于15个弱各向异性参数,而非标准射线方程中的21个弹性参数.通常弹性参数模型是在局部坐标系中给定的,而在实际中需要的是全局坐标系下的弹性参数,因此为了解决两个坐标系下弹,性参数的变换问题,本文从Bond变换方程出发,推导出了旋转轴对称介质中的弹性参数张量变换方程.全局坐标系中的弹性参数是由局部坐标系中弹性参数通过两个坐标系间极角和方位角的正、余弦函数组合给出的,所得到的弹性参数能够完全匹配FORT方程.最后通过对旋转TI模型和正交模型进行数值模拟验证本方法的有效性和适应性,结果表明本方法对于具有不同各向异性类型、各向异性强度和旋转角度的介质都具有很高的计算精度.%We use the first-order ray tracing (FORT) formulas of qP waves to calculate pathes and traveltimes of qP waves propagation in smooth, inhomogeneous and weakly anisotropic medium with arbitrarily symmetric axes. The FORT equations depend only on 15 weak-anisotropy parameters, not on the 21 elastic moduli used in the standard raytracing equations. The elastic modulus of anisotropic media is presented in the local coordinate system, while practical coordinate is in the global system, the Cartesian coordinate system. In order to solve the inconsistency problem between the global coordinate system and the local coordinate system, in this paper, the tensor transformation equations of elastic modulus in media with rotated axis of symmetry are derived from the Bond transformation equations. The weak-anisotropy parameters in the global coordinate system can be explicitly expressed as the combination with the sine and cosine functions of polar angle and azimuth between these different coordinate systems,and the weak
Rojas-Trigos, J.B., E-mail: rjosebruno@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico); Marín, E. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico); Mansanares, A.M. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cedeño, E.; Juárez-Gracia, G.; Calderón, A. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Legaría 694, Colonia Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D. F. (Mexico)
2014-04-01
Highlights: • A model for photopyroelectric thermal characterization of fluids is presented. • A slanted detector configuration is considered with a finite measurement cell. • The mean temperature distribution in the photopyroelectric detector, as function of the beam spot position, is calculated. • The influence of the excitation beam spot size, the thermal diffusion length and size of the sample is discussed. • The high lateral resolution of the method observed in experiments is explain. - Abstract: This work presents an extended description about the theoretical aspects related to the generation of the photopyroelectric signal in a recently proposed wedge-like heat transmission detection configuration, which recreates the well-known Angstrom method (widely used for solid samples) for accurate thermal diffusivity measurement in gases and liquids. The presented model allows for the calculation of the temperature profile detected by the pyroelectric sensor as a function of the excitation beam position, and the study of the influence on it of several parameters, such as spot size, thermal properties of the absorber layer, and geometrical parameters of the measurement cell. Through computer simulations, it has been demonstrated that a narrow temperature distribution is created at the sensor surface, independently of the lateral diffusion of heat taking place at the sample's surface.
Anand, Jasdeep S.; Leigh, Roland J.; Monks, Paul S.
2014-08-01
Future satellite instruments measuring urban NO2 will need to have high spatio-temporal resolution in order to improve air quality model forecasts. However, the likely cost and data telemetry requirements for such instruments will be high with current techniques. In this work we propose a new retrieval algorithm for deriving tropospheric NO2 slant column densities (SCDs) by DOAS fitting an earthshine reference spectrum measured over the Pacific to account for stratospheric NO2, which would eliminate the need for a solar reference and simplify instrument and retrieval design. The retrieval is tested by fitting earthshine radiance spectra measured by the Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI) during its spatial-zoom mode (nadir pixel size: 13 x 12 km2) and super-zoom mode (nadir pixel size: 13 x 3 km2) using a Pacific reference spectrum. Transects taken over urban areas showed that the retrieval appears to retrieve tropospheric NO2 SCDs with good agreement with the operational L2 DOMINO product over regions with high NOx emissions. The retrieval also appeared to supress across-track striping without the need for a posteriori correction and showed sensitivity to absorption due to sand and liquid water over deserts and oceans. Comparisons with operational-scale retrievals also showed improved SCD precision, if random noise is expected to be the cause of retrieval uncertainty.
Sumbatyan, Mezhlum A.; Lannie, Michael Yu.; Zampoli, Vittorio
2016-04-01
This paper proposes a Galerkin-type numerical algorithm for an efficient calculation of low eigenfrequencies for rectangular parallelepiped rooms with slanted boundary planes, in the frequency interval (0 , 200) Hz, with the volume V ≤ 200m3. The main idea of the algorithm is to apply a system of Galerkin's basis functions which are orthogonal, after a certain change of variables, in a unit cube. As a result, the problem is reduced to a classical problem of the computational algebra about eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. If applied to any parallelepiped of non-splayed geometry, the algorithm automatically gives the known classical modes. For rooms with the splayed planes, the sought mode frequencies can precisely be calculated in real time on a personal computer, by taking from 11 to 13 basis functions along each coordinate axis. Some particular examples are considered, in order to demonstrate the capability of the proposed algorithm, as well as its precision with a change of basis functions. It is also seen from the discussed examples that splaying the boundary planes can indeed make more uniform distribution of the low natural frequencies.
Ojo, J. S.; Adediji, A. T.; Mandeep, J. S.; Ismail, M.
2016-04-01
In this paper, rain characteristics and slant path rain attenuation at 30 and 40 GHz using synthetic storm techniques over seven tropical locations in Nigeria have been presented. The technique can be used to predict the local first-order statistical rain attenuation to mitigate the severe fade experienced at higher frequency bands by employing local rainfall rate statistics. Three years rain rate data at seven tropical and equatorial locations in Nigeria were utilized for the purpose of this work. The predicted statistics are in good agreement with those obtained from the propagation beacon measurement (EUTELSAT W4/W7 satellite-12.245 GHz) It could be observed that at 99.99 % link availability over these locations, the fade margin of higher dB (74 and 81 dB) are required at 30 and 40 GHz frequency bands, respectively. When diurnal variation was observed for four time intervals: 00:00-06:00, 06:00-12:00, 12:00-18:00, and 18:00-24:00, there is a variation of the fade margin over the hours of the day. The overall results will be needed for an acceptable planning that can effectively reduce the fade margin to a very low value for an optimum data communication over the studied locations.
Mock, Alyssa, E-mail: amock@huskers.unl.edu; Korlacki, Rafał; Briley, Chad; Sekora, Derek; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Hofmann, Tino [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Wilson, Peter; Sinitskii, Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)
2016-02-01
Highly ordered and spatially coherent cobalt slanted columnar thin films (SCTFs) were deposited by glancing angle deposition onto silicon substrates, and subsequently oxidized by annealing at 475 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering, generalized ellipsometry, and density functional theory investigations reveal shape-invariant transformation of the slanted nanocolumns from metallic to transparent metal-oxide core-shell structures with properties characteristic of spinel cobalt oxide. We find passivation of Co-SCTFs yielding Co-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} core-shell structures produced by conformal deposition of a few nanometers of alumina using atomic layer deposition fully prevents cobalt oxidation in ambient and from annealing up to 475 °C.
Gaudez, Clarisse; Cail, François
2016-11-01
This study compared muscular and postural stresses, performance and subject preference in women aged 18-40 years using a standard mouse, a vertical mouse and a slanted mouse in three different computer workstation positions. Four tasks were analysed: pointing, pointing-clicking, pointing-clicking-dragging and grasping-pointing the mouse after typing. Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) activities were greater using the standard mouse compared to the vertical or slanted mouse. In all cases, the wrist position remained in the comfort zone recommended by standard ISO 11228-3. The vertical mouse was less comfortable and more difficult to use than the other two mice. FDS and ECR activities, shoulder abduction and wrist extension were greater when the mouse was placed next to the keyboard. Performance and subject preference were better with the unrestricted mouse positioning on the desktop. Grasping the mouse after typing was the task that caused the greatest stress. Practitioner Summary: In women, the slanted mouse and the unrestricted mouse positioning on the desktop provide a good blend of stresses, performance and preference. Unrestricted mouse positioning requires no keyboard, which is rare in practice. Placing the mouse in front of the keyboard, rather than next to it, reduced the physical load.
Gratsea, Myrto; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Richter, Andreas; Wittrock, Folkard; Schönhardt, Anja; Burrows, John; Kazadzis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos
2016-06-01
Slant column (SC) densities of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and oxygen dimer (O4) were successfully retrieved for the first time in Athens, by using spectral measurements from a ground-based multi-azimuth Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) system. The data span the period from October 2012 to March 2014 and measurements were conducted at NOA's (National Observatory of Athens) station in Penteli (38.0°N, 23.9°E, 527 m a.s.l.) at eight azimuth angles and eight off-axis elevation angles. The SCNO2, SCHCHO and SCCHOCHO measurements at +1ο elevation angle, pointing towards the urban area, range from 0.6 to 24·1016, 0.8-9.6·1016 and 0.3-5.2·1015 molec cm-2 (mean daily values throughout the whole period), respectively. Seasonal modulation characterised by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum was observed for HCHO and CHOCHO, while for NO2 the maximum values were recorded during winter. Changes in the diurnal variability of all trace gases with season and day of the week are investigated suggesting a strong link to primary anthropogenic sources for NO2 and a weaker one, compared to photochemistry, for HCHO and CHOCHO. In addition, the impact of the reduced anthropogenic emissions during weekends on the measured SC values was quantified and 30%-50% lower SCNO2 values were found during weekends. The contribution of local urban emissions to the overall recorded amounts of the selected species was assessed. Using meteorological data from NOA's station in Penteli, the impact of the local circulation patterns on the SC levels was estimated, and a strong relation between western wind direction, which is related to the industrial area, and enhanced SC measurements was found.
... exam. Tests to confirm a disorder may include: Chromosome studies Enzyme assays Metabolic studies X-rays ... Dollfus H, Verloes A. Developmental anomalies of the lids. In: ... the Newborn . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...
D. V. Arkhipov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The flow redistribution in the axial stage through the stator axis blade deformation can create favorable conditions for raising stage efficiency and combined actions for axial compressor elements especially in ambient conditions. For this purpose, the axis deformation impact on the gas-dynamic stability margin and the coefficient of efficiency of axial compressor has been numerically investigated.The influence of guide vane (GV axis was considered with invariable rotor blades and different variants of stator. The GV axis form was changed on the arc of a circle in the range of ± 15% guide vane height in circumferential direction and in the axial direction in the range ± 10% of guide vane height, increments ± 2.5%.As an object, for investigation was chosen a numerical 3D model of transonic stage of axial compressor with the following values of basic parameters: circumferential speed in the rotor blade trips of 345 m/s, relative diameter of the hub being 0.7, and coefficient of discharge being 0.5. The stage was profiling by classic low Cu*r=const. Rotor and stator profiles for all variants under investigation were the same in the same radii.As to initial radial axis guide vane, the losses of total pressure in stator become substantially less throughout the height of blade in case there is a guide vane axis bending in axial direction in line of flow. Bending of the axis in the circumferential direction against the rotation leads to reducing total pressure losses especially in hub and shroud regions, and in the flow core there is no change.In future, the effects of a tangent pitch and a slanting flow can be of interest in case of the simultaneous bending in both directions, as well as when studying the influence of bending of the guide vanes, which are a part of a sector of stages and a multi-stage compressor in a wide range of operating conditions.
The Bistatic SAR Imaging Algorithm Based on the Slanting Flight Mode%基于斜飞模式的双基地SAR成像算法
彭岁阳; 张军; 沈振康
2011-01-01
The slanting flight mode bistatic SAR system has a flexible configuration and broad application prospects. However, because of the transceiver platform's movement in the range direction,the equation of instantaneous slant range gets very complex, and motion compensation also becomes rather difficult. Through an analysis of squint flight mode geometries, the thesis expounds the keystone of motion compensation in the range domain on slant flight mode, and presents two methods of motion compensation - the taylor approximation method and model approximation method. Then through analyzing the echo which has compensated the deviation in the range domain,the bistatic SAR Algorithm with range walk correction in time domain is conducted completely. Simulation results show that the motion compensation model approximation method is superior to the first-order taylor approximation method, and is equal to the second-order taylor approximation method, as well as verify the effectiveness of the method of slanting flight mode bistatic SAR imaging.%斜飞模式双基地SAR系统配置灵活,具有广阔的应用前景.但由于收发平台存在距离向的运动,瞬时斜距方程非常复杂,运动补偿也更困难.本文通过分析斜飞模式下的几何构形,阐述了斜飞模式下距离向运动补偿的基本原理,并设计了两种运动补偿方法——泰勒近似法和模型近似法.然后通过对距离向偏移补偿后的回波分析,完整的推导了基于时域距离走动的双基地SAR成像算法.仿真实验表明模型近似法运动补偿的效果要优于泰勒一阶近似法,与泰勒二阶近似法相当,并验证了本文方法对斜飞模式双基地SAR成像的有效性.
Glushkov, A. V., E-mail: a.v.glushkov@ikfia.ysn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk Research Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2011-01-15
The results obtained by analyzing arrival directions for primary cosmic particles characterized by energies in the region E{sub 0} Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles in the range {theta} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 60 Degree-Sign and detected at the Yakutsk array for studying extensive air showers (EASs) over the period spanning 1974 and 2009 are presented. It is shown that these events exhibit different anisotropies in different energy intervals.
Maximum twin shear stress factor criterion for sliding mode fracture initiation
黎振兹; 李慧剑; 黎晓峰; 周洪彬; 郝圣旺
2002-01-01
Previous researches on the mixed mode fracture initiation criteria were mostly focused on opening mode fracture. In this study, the authors proposed a new criterion for mixed mode sliding fracture initiation, which is the maximum twin shear stress factor criterion. The authors studied a finite width plate with central slant crack, subject to a far-field uniform uniaxial tensile or compressive stress.
Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Choe, Yeong-Seon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Youngsik; Park, Min-Chul
2013-05-01
Autostereoscopic multi-views 3D display system has a narrow freedom of degrees to the observational directions such as horizontal and perpendicular direction to the display plane than the glasses on type. In this paper, we proposed an innovative method that expanding a width of formed viewing zone on the depth direction keeping with the number of views on horizontal direction by using the triple segmented-slanted parallax barrier (TS-SPB) in the glasses-off type of 3D display. The validity of the proposal is verified by optical simulation based on the environment similar to an actual case. In benefits, the maximum number of views to display on horizontal direction is to be 2n and the width of viewing zone on depth direction is to be increased up to 3.36 times compared to the existing one-layered parallax barrier system.
基于最优斜面参数估计的局部立体匹配算法%Best slant-plane estimation based stereo matching algorithm
曹晓倩; 马彩文
2014-01-01
A novel stereo matching algorithm based on best slant-plane estimation was proposed in this paper in the purpose of eliminating "stair-casing" which showed up frequently in the slant scene matching process where the window-based matching algorithm was used. In this procedure, a slant parameter vector was randomly attributed to every pixel in the reference image firstly, then, those vectors were iteratively propagated between neighbor pixels followed by a recursively slant-plane parameter refinement process for each pixels in the principle of whether a lower cost could be got under the new slant-plane parameter vectors, until the parameter vectors were converged to the best slant-plane parameter vectors while a sub-pixel disparity was got for each pixel in the reference image. Experiment results indicate the effectiveness of the algorithm, the performance of the algorithm on the slant scene is ranked on top of those state-of-art algorithm which is relatively close to the algorithm proposed here, while the performance on the normal scene is comparable with the state-of -art algorithm.%针对传统局部匹配算法在斜面场景匹配中所表现出的“阶梯效应”，提出了一种基于最优斜面参数估计的局部立体匹配算法。该算法首先为每一个像素随机地分配一组斜面参数，然后以新的斜面参数所定义的支撑域下当前像素的匹配代价是否减小为准则，迭代地进行斜面参数的“邻域传播-单点优化”过程，并最终使得计算结果收敛到最优斜面，同时估计得到稠密的亚像素级视差。通过对典型斜面场景图像和Middlebury标准测试图像对的匹配实验表明，文中算法在将对普通场景的匹配效果保持在当前先进水平的同时，对斜面场景的匹配消除了“阶梯效应”，且匹配率代表了局部匹配的先进水平。
Mima, K., E-mail: k.mima@gpi.ac.jp [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1, Kurematsu, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Gonzalez-Arrabal, R. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Azuma, H. [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Yamazaki, A. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Gunma (Japan); Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Sawada, H. [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Fujita, K.; Kato, Y. [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1, Kurematsu, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Nakai, S. [Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1, Kurematsu, Nishiku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-1202 (Japan)
2012-11-01
The elemental distribution of as-received (non-charged) and charged Li-ion battery positive electrodes containing Li{sub x}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2} (0.75 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To x Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1.0) microparticles as active material is characterized by combining {mu}-PIXE and {mu}-PIGE techniques. PIGE measurements evidence that the Li distribution is inhomogeneous (existence of Li-rich and Li-depleted regions) in as-received electrodes corresponding with the distribution of secondary particles but it is homogeneous within the studied individual secondary micro-particles. The dependence of the Li distribution on electrode thickness and on charging conditions is characterized by measuring the Li distribution maps in specifically fabricated cross-sectional samples. These data show that decreasing the electrode thickness down to 35 {mu}m and charging the batteries at slow rate give rise to more homogeneous Li depth profiles.
Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.
2015-12-01
In most high-resolution studies of the Earth's Deep Interior, the limited amount and uneven distribution of high-quality observations of short-period teleseismic body waves are major obstacles. Dense broadband seismic networks help to overcome major challenges of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target phases and of signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of other (often stronger) mantle phases when the slowness difference is large enough. Intuitive delay-and-sum (i.e. slant-stack) approaches are routinely applied to combine data of many spatially close stations to improve data quality. Alternative methods developed in the context of image processing, such as Radon transform-based methods, have proven useful in exploration seismology to facilitate enhancement and separation of signals according to their slowness and time of arrival. In this spirit, we have introduced the slant-stacklet transform to define coherency-guided filters able to exploit signals that would have been otherwise rejected because of low SNR or SIR. As an illustration, this method allows us to dramatically increase the amount of high-quality PcP observations using dense arrays in North America and Japan, sampling Central America, the western Pacific and Alaska/western Canada with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. After mantle corrections, the main signal left in these regions is relatively long wavelength in these regions of fast velocities around the Pacific, except at the western border of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity province (LLSVP) where we observe a rapid reduction of Vp velocity over a distance of about 10˚. This is just one step to further increase lowermost mantle imaging using P waves, much more information from PcP and other complementary signals (e.g. PdP) around the globe are needed to resolve volumetric structure, topography of the core-mantle boundary and D" discontinuity, and the trade-offs between them, in order to improve our understanding of the interaction
Park, Sang Seo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kim, Jhoon
2017-03-01
The sensitivities of oxygen dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) were examined by applying temperature-dependent O4 cross sections using the radiative transfer model (RTM) calculation with the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. For the sensitivity study, we used a newly developed cross section database in place of the database used in the operational algorithm. Newly investigated O4 cross section databases for 203 K and 293 K were used for the radiance simulation by interpolating temperature for each atmospheric layer based on the vertical profile of standard atmosphere in the RTM. The effect of the temperature-dependent cross sections was a significant O4 SCD increase of 8.3% with dependence on satellite and solar viewing geometries. Furthermore, the O4 SCD generally increased by an estimated 3.9% based on the observation geometries of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. For the long-term comparison, the O4 SCD estimated from the temperature-dependent cross sections corrects 20% of the total underestimation of O4 SCD between the observation and simulation. Although the surface pressure variation and background aerosol effect also correct the O4 SCD discrepancy, the effect of temperature-dependent cross sections was more important than the effects of surface pressure variation and background aerosols. Therefore, temperature dependence of the cross section in the RTM calculation is essential for the accurate simulation of O4 SCD.
Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Geroldi, Alessandro; Serafini, Mirko
2012-06-01
We have implemented a Finite-Beam Rigorous Coupled-Wave Approach (FB-RCWA) to solve for guided-optics propagation in the presence of holographic slanted Bragg gratings, embedded in the core of slab waveguides and operated in Extreme Asymmetrical Scattering (EAS) configuration. In EAS a resonance condition can be established, as proceeding from the design parameters. Diffraction efficiency can be evaluated as the ratio of the flux of diffracted power P1, on a suitably defined cross-section along the propagation of diffracted beam, and input power P0. By FBRCWA, no limitation in the depth of grating modulation is assumed. The first-order diffracted field in resonant Bragg condition propagates along the waveguide. EAS in thick waveguides operating in highly multimodal regime can be investigated, as well as macroscopic volumes and widely extended illuminated regions up to a few millimeters. In thick slabs, η > 90% is demonstrated, for input illuminated apertures of length L >= Lc, where Lc is the optimum coupling length. The effects of detuning from Bragg condition, both in distribution and amplitude of the diffracted field, are quantified. Diffraction efficiency, i.e. optical coupling, bandwidth is evaluated.
Berthout, P.; Faivre, R.; Bernard, Y.; Bassand, J.P.; Maurat, J.P.; Cardot, J.C.; Baud, M.; Jouan, A.; Verdenet, J.; Bidet, R.
1988-06-01
Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional wall motion abnormalities were determined in 40 patients using equilibrium radionuclide angiography. Scintigraphic acquisitions were collected in random order with 2 different collimators. Results were compared to contrast ventriculography (CV) performed in the 30/sup 0/ right anterior view and in a 60/sup 0/ left anterior oblique view. Radionuclide LVEF in both series was closely correlated with contrast ventriculographic LVEF. Regional wall motion analysis was only performed among the 30 patients suffering from coronary heart disease. Eight contrast angiographic studies were normal and 22 abnormal. Global sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 63% with the VTC and 91% and 87% with the 30/sup 0/ RSHC. Agreement for the localisation of the regional wall motion abnormalities between CV and radionuclide angiography was 70.6% with the VTC and 71.2% with the RSHC (P=ns). Intensity of the regional wall motion abnormalities was assessed with the 30/sup 0/ RSHC as well as with the VTC. We conclude that the use of a rotating slant hole collimator associated with radionuclide ventriculography allows improved determination of left ventricular ejection fraction and more accurate assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with only two projections while the vertical collimator requires three.
J. S. Ojo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As technology advances and more demands are on satellite services, rain-induced attenuation still creates one of the most damaging effects of the atmosphere on the quality of radio communication signals, especially those operating above 10 GHz. System designers therefore require statistical information on rain-induced attenuation over the coverage area in order to determine the appropriate transmitter and receiver characteristics to be adopted. This paper presents results on the time-varying rain characterization and diurnal variation of slant path rain attenuation in the Ka-band frequency simulated with synthetic storm techniques over a subtropical location in South Africa using 10-year rain rate time-series data. The analysis is based on the CDF of one-minute rain rate; time-series seasonal variation of rain rate observed over four time intervals: 00:00–06:00, 06:00–12:00, 12:00–18:00, and 18:00–24:00; diurnal fades margin; and diurnal variation of rain attenuation. Comparison was also made between the synthesized values and measured attenuation data. The predicted statistics are in good agreement with those obtained from the propagation beacon measurement in the area. The overall results will be needed for an acceptable planning that can effectively reduce the fade margin to a very low value for an optimum data communication over this area.
刘小沛; 徐力生; 牛素甫
2013-01-01
The paper introduces the drilling equipment, construction process, borehole structure, bit selection and the ap-plication of flushing fluid for 45°slant-hole construction in Conymecar copper ore district of Peru.The difficulties in the drilling process were analyzed with the treatment measures presenting and the experiences of the high angle slant-hole drill-ing construction were summed up.%介绍了秘鲁Conymecar铜矿区45°斜孔施工采用的钻探机具、施工工艺、钻孔结构、钻头的选择以及冲洗液的使用情况，并分析了钻探过程中的施工难点及其处理措施。总结了本次大斜度深孔钻探施工的经验。
A boundary integral formalism for stochastic ray tracing in billiards
Chappell, David J. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Campus, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Tanner, Gregor [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2014-12-15
Determining the flow of rays or non-interacting particles driven by a force or velocity field is fundamental to modelling many physical processes. These include particle flows arising in fluid mechanics and ray flows arising in the geometrical optics limit of linear wave equations. In many practical applications, the driving field is not known exactly and the dynamics are determined only up to a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a boundary integral framework for propagating flows including uncertainties, which is shown to systematically interpolate between a deterministic and a completely random description of the trajectory propagation. A simple but efficient discretisation approach is applied to model uncertain billiard dynamics in an integrable rectangular domain.
A boundary integral formalism for stochastic ray tracing in billiards
Chappell, David J
2014-01-01
Determining the flow of rays or particles driven by a force or velocity field is fundamental to modelling many physical processes, including weather forecasting and the simulation of molecular dynamics. High frequency wave energy distributions can also be approximated using flow or transport equations. Applications arise in underwater and room acoustics, vibro-acoustics, seismology, electromagnetics, quantum mechanics and in producing computer generated imagery. In many practical applications, the driving field is not known exactly and the dynamics are determined only up to a degree of uncertainty. This paper presents a boundary integral framework for propagating flows including uncertainties, which is shown to systematically interpolate between a deterministic and a completely random description of the trajectory propagation. A simple but efficient discretisation approach is applied to model uncertain billiard dynamics in an integrable rectangular domain.
Global Ray Tracing Simulations of the SABER Gravity Wave Climatology
2009-01-01
for the lower strato - sphere [e.g., Wang et al., 2005; Vaughan and Worthington, 2007] and falling sphere data for the mid and upper stratosphere [e.g...12a and 12b. D08126 PREUSSE ET AL.: GRAVITY WAVES BY SATELLITE AND RAYTRACER 19 of 25 D08126 definitively address the relative role of the different...2006JD008126. Dunkerton, T. J. (1997), The role of gravity waves in the quasi-biennial oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,053–26,076. Eckermann, S
Improved Ray-Tracing for advanced radio propagation channel modeling
2012-01-01
The characterization of the wireless propagation channel has always been an important issue in radio communications. However, in recent years, given the dramatic increase of demand in terms of capabilities of wireless systems, e.g. data rate, quality of service etc., the study of propagation has become of crucial importance. As measurements are generally costly and time consuming, channel models are widely used for this purpose. The modeling of propagation may rely on different types of mo...
A Ray-Tracing Model of the Vela Pulsar
Hirano, C
2001-01-01
In the relativistic plasma surrounding a pulsar, a subluminal ordinary-mode electromagnetic wave will propagate along a magnetic field line. After some distance, it can break free of the field line and escape the magnetosphere to reach an observer. We describe a simple model of pulsar radio emission based on this scenario and find that applying this model to the case of the Vela pulsar reproduces qualitative characteristics of the observed Vela pulse profile.
Tscherning ellipses and ray tracing in ophthalmic lenses.
Malacara, Z; Malacara, D
1985-07-01
In this paper the exact shape of the solutions to the equations for lenses free of oblique astigmatism, as well as those free from curvature of field or peripheral focus error, are presented. These solutions, as expected, resemble the Tscherning ellipses, but strongly deformed.
Horizontal-Gradient Acoustical Ray-Trace Program TRIMAIN
1974-12-16
igs.ostt 3oo,ogct «go.ogci »eo.sgtt •go.Dgeg logo ’iw. wso.igct i’»o.og!t icog,gg;c jcgo.ocet «ggn.igtb im.ogsg UiJ.ogig ttii.egeo ItW.OvOO...099 l> Kfc *(KMCT».4PNEwU)»«T»ZPNE»<K»*R0 ADVAROtO ZNEta(K*l)|l,EJ0O ADVAHO«! 7PNeK(Kil)«i,fe300 ADVA0062 RKE*!(Ä*l)»l,P300 ACVA00*3 RPNEW|K*4;ll
Seascape: ray tracing synthetic marine clutter in the midwave infrared
Constantikes, Kim T.; Osmanagich, Srcan
1996-05-01
Seascape is a distributed application that renders synthetic images using raytracing paradigm. It incorporates a computational model of infrared marine clutter. First principle models of water waves and light transport provide a computationally intensive clutter model implemented as a raytracer. Seascape models include sea, sky, and solar radiance, reflectance, attenuating atmospheres, constructive solid geometry targets, sensor, target, and water wave dynamics, and simple sensor image formation. Our focus is on the 3 - 5 micrometers waveband but Seascape can easily be configured for operation in the visible and longwave infrared. We have implemented an efficient parallel computation of this model on a heterogeneous array of UNIX workstations.
Odyssey: Ray tracing and radiative transfer in Kerr spacetime
Pu, Hung-Yi; Yun, Kiyun; Younsi, Ziri; Yoon, Suk-Jin
2016-01-01
Odyssey is a GPU-based General Relativistic Radiative Transfer (GRRT) code for computing images and/or spectra in Kerr metric describing the spacetime around a rotating black hole. Odyssey is implemented in CUDA C/C++. For flexibility, the namespace structure in C++ is used for different tasks; the two default tasks presented in the source code are the redshift of a Keplerian disk and the image of a Keplerian rotating shell at 340GHz. Odyssey_Edu, an educational software package for visualizing the ray trajectories in the Kerr spacetime that uses Odyssey, is also available.
Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok
2016-01-01
The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(exp 40) sq molecules cm(exp -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nm, the O4 absorption band at 477 nm is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nm is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 m for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80% of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 km compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.
Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok
2016-01-01
The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.
Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok
2016-01-01
The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.
Valev, D.; Werner, R.; Atanassov, A.; Kostadinov, I.; Giovanelli, G.; Ravegnani, F.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Palazzi, E.; Markova, T.
2008-12-01
By means of the GASCOD spectrometer at Stara Zagora station (42.8 N, 26.1 E), data series were obtained of monthly NO2am (at sunrise) and NO2pm (at sunset) slant column densities (SCD), covering the interval from September 1999 to the end of 2006. After removing the seasonal cycle, relationships between the NO2am and F10.7 solar flux and NO2pm and F10.7 were sought. The monthly deseasonalized NO2am show a positive statistical significant correlation with F10.7 having r = 0.41 at level p = 0.01. No statistical significant correlations were found between monthly NO2pm and F10.7 unless the QBO phase was taken into consideration. The original data series of the quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) at the level of 30 h Pa have been used to study the relation between the NO2 and the F10.7 taking into account the QBO phase. The data have been separated into two different groups ? positive (westerly) and negative (easterly) QBO phase. As a result, during the negative QBO phase, the monthly NO2pm show a negative correlation with F10.7 (r = - 0.37 and p = 0.01). During the positive QBO phase, the monthly NO2pm show no correlation with F10.7 (r = 0.02). The separation of NO2am into two groups according to the sign of the QBO phase practically does not change the results - the correlation coefficient remains between 0.40 and 0.43 at level p = 0.01. The statistical significance of the found relationships was determined by means of Student's t-test.
Griffiths, H.; Wandtke, J.
1981-05-01
Classically tibiotalar tilt (TTT) is associated with four conditions: Fairbanks disease, hemophilia, sickle-cell anemia and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. We have found it to be present in at least 20 other conditions including other dysplasias, developmental conditions such as fibrous dysplasia and a variety of other acquired disorders including various metabolic diseases and following previous trauma. The pathogenesis is controversial, but the most probable cause is related to stress and the blood supply of the distal tibial epiphysis. The differentiation of TTT from pseudotibiotalar tilt is also discussed.
Slanting Design: A Pilot Program
1985-10-01
adequate financing and proper planning and forethought. itG’ven the significant number of variables over which FEMA has no control , however, it would...Eskilstuna SWEDEN Ministero dell Interno Direzione Generale della Protezione Civile 00100 Rome ITALY Directeur de la Protection: Civile Ministere de
Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara
2015-11-01
Resolving the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D″ region is key to improving our understanding of the interaction between the Earth's mantle and core. Observations of traveltimes and amplitudes of short-period teleseismic body waves sensitive to lowermost mantle provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratio of the target phases and interference with other mantle phases. In a previous paper (Part I), we introduced the slant-stacklet transform to enhance the signal of the core-reflected (PcP) phase and to isolate it from stronger signals in the coda of the P wave. Then we minimized a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime difference measurements as compared to standard cross-correlation methods. This method significantly increases the quantity and the quality of PcP-P traveltime observations available for the modelling of structure near the CMB. Here we illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D″ using PcP-P observations with unprecedented resolution from high-quality dense arrays located in North America and Japan for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this process, we carefully analyse various sources of errors and show that mantle heterogeneity is the most significant. We find and correct bias due to mantle heterogeneities that is as large as 1 s in traveltime, comparable to the largest lateral PcP-P traveltime variations observed. We illustrate the importance of accurate mantle corrections and the need for higher resolution mantle models for future studies. After optimal mantle corrections, the main signal left is relatively long wavelength in the regions sampled, except at the border of the Pacific large-low shear velocity province (LLSVP). We detect the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP in the western Pacific from array observations in
Stiffness Characteristics Analysis of a Rotor With Slant Crack%斜裂纹转子刚度特性分析
李志农; 夏恒恒; 肖尧先
2016-01-01
The stiffness matrix of the slant crack was obtained based on material mechanics and fracture mechanics theory through the use of strain energy release rate method.While the crack is fully open,the influence of the crack angle,the axial slenderness ratio and the crack depth on the stiffness of the shaft was discussed.At the same time,the opening and closing conditions in the rotating state and the stiffness change law of the corresponding shaft were studied.The results show that,when the crack is in the fully open state,the stiffness of the crack decreases with the increase of the crack an-gle.And the shaft stiffness changes more significantly with the increase of the crack depth;when the crack is in the open-ing and closing state,with the increase of the crack depth,the shaft stiffness is no longer decreases,but there is a certain law of fluctuation,which is time-varying characteristics,in this case,the shaft coupling vibration also increases,the dy-namic characteristics of the rotor becomes increasingly complex.%在材料力学和断裂力学的基础上，运用应变能释放率的方法，得出斜裂纹的刚度矩阵。讨论在裂纹全开的状态时，裂纹倾角、轴细长比和裂纹深度对转轴刚度的影响，并对裂纹处于旋转时的开闭情况及相应轴的刚度变化规律进行研究。结果表明：当裂纹处于全开状态时，随着裂纹倾角的增大，裂纹的刚度随之减小，轴刚度的变化随着裂纹深度的增大更加显著；当裂纹处于开闭状态时，随着裂纹深度的增加，轴的刚度不再一直减小，而是有一定规律的波动，即时变特性，此时，轴的耦合振动随之增强，转子的动力特性变得愈加复杂。
Research of the Internal Micro-Flow Pump in Slanting Shaft Plunger Pump%斜轴式柱塞泵内部微流量泵的研究
赵铁军
2014-01-01
通过对斜轴式柱塞泵的结构的研究，阐述了斜轴式柱塞泵内部微流量泵存在的必要和理论依据，分析了微流量泵排出的油液对斜轴式柱塞泵主轴轴承进行冷却的机理，并推道出热平衡计算方程，导出了其排量计算公式。%By research the structure of the Slanting Shaft Plunger Pump,the paper puts forward the theory of the micro-flow pump in the Slanting Shaft Plunger Pump and points out the expression to calculate the displacement of the micro-flow pump;Analyzing the process which the fluid piped out by the micro-flow pump cools the main shaft bearings,derives the formula of heat exchange.
Valencia, Israel; Tavizon, Gustavo; Barba-Behrens, Norah [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castro, Miguel, E-mail: castro@quetzal.pquim.unam.mx [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2011-11-18
Graphical abstract: Adsorption of benzene molecules on Fe{sub 4} cluster. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the interactions of iron clusters with benzene molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have used density functional theory based methods for Fe{sub 4} and benzene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physicochemical properties were determined for the ground states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ground state structures for the Fe{sub 4}-benzene species were determined. - Abstract: Geometrical rice-ball structures of the Fe{sub 4} cluster with capped adsorbed benzene molecules for neutral, anion, and cation species, Fe{sub 4}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m} (m Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 3), are studied by means of all-electron calculations done with the BPW91 approach of density functional theory jointly with 6-311++G(2d, 2p) basis sets. Electronic properties like ionization energies and electron affinities as well as binding energies are estimated and are in good agreement with recently reported experimental results. The computed IR spectra for these species show vibrational bands near those of the isolated benzene molecule and some forbidden IR modes of this ligand become IR active in Fe{sub 4}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m} (m Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 3). The metal-benzene bonding issue was studied through the contour plots of molecular orbitals, showing signatures of metal-carbon bonding, originated from the 3d electrons of Fe{sub 4} and the 2p{pi} electrons of benzene.
Belam, W., E-mail: WahidBelam@yahoo.fr [Chemistry Department, Bizerta Science Faculty, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerta (Tunisia)
2013-02-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples of Li-NASICON were elaborated by sol-gel chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calcined temperatures of the studied samples were deduced from their thermograms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recorded X-ray powder diffractograms were indexed in the rhombohedral system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized Li-NASICON materials are excellent lithium fast cation conductors. - Abstract: Five selected compounds of Li-NASICON, Li{sub 3}Zr{sub 2-y}Si{sub 2-4y}P{sub 1+4y}O{sub 12} (0 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To y Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.5), were synthesized by sol-gel chemistry in order to obtain pure polycrystalline powder and then analyzed by different physicochemical characterizations such as coupled DTA (differential thermal analysis)-TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction), CIS (complex impedance spectroscopy) and MAS (magic angle spinning)-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). So the calcined temperature of each sample has been deduced from its corresponding DTA-TGA thermogram. However, the recorded X-ray powder diffractograms were indexed in the rhombohedral system with R3{sup Macron }c space group which corresponds to the ideal structure of NASICON. Whereas, the complex impedance spectroscopy study showed that these Li-NASICON materials are excellent lithium fast cation conductors with total electric conductivity maximal value 1.97 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 293 K in the case of Li{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.5}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}. Furthermore, {sup 7}Li, {sup 31}P and {sup 29}Si MAS-NMR spectroscopy study and DFT/B3LYP theoretical calculations of chemical shifts were performed to discuss the ambiguousness that exists between the resonance peak number in the experimental spectrum and the crystallographic site number relative to Li{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}PO{sub 12}.
1991-11-01
ontwikkeld amn geluidniveaus te voorspeilen. Deze metbode berekent bet geluidniveau door het aantal geluidstralen die een bepaald opperviak treffen te...vergelijken met bet aantal wat in bet vrije veld dat opperviak zou treffen . Dit levert voor lage frequenties een middeling op van de ongewenste...die de onivanger (x,z) precies treffen noemen we eigenrays, en worden gekarakteriseerd door hun lanceerhoek. Om de Excess Attenuation te berekenen
Multi-year slant path rain fade statistics at 28.56 and 19.04 GHz for Wallops Island, Virginia
Goldhirsh, J.
1979-01-01
Multiyear rain fade statistics at 28.56 GHz and 19.04 GHz were compiled for the region of Wallops Island, Virginia covering the time periods, 1 April 1977 through 31 March 1978, and 1 September 1978 through 31 August 1979. The 28.56 GHz attenuations were derived by monitoring the beacon signals from the COMSTAR geosynchronous satellite, D sub 2 during the first year, and satellite, D sub 3, during the second year. Although 19.04 GHz beacons exist aboard these satellites, statistics at this frequency were predicted using the 28 GHz fade data, the measured rain rate distribution, and effective path length concepts. The prediction method used was tested against radar derived fade distributions and excellent comparisons were noted. For example, the rms deviations between the predicted and test distributions were less than or equal to 0.2dB or 4% at 19.04 GHz. The average ratio between the 28.56 GHz and 19.04 GHz fades were also derived for equal percentages of time resulting in a factor of 2.1 with a .05 standard deviation.
徐云兰; 钟登杰; 贾金平
2012-01-01
TiO2Ti electrode has been prepared by sol-gel process for carrying on photoelectrocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B tests. The optimum degradation conditions are decided as follows: bias potential +0.8 V circulating flux 7.7 L/h,initial pH=2.5 and supporting salt mass concentration 2.0 g/L. Under these conditions,treating 20 mg/L of RhB solution for 1.5 h,the decolorization rate and TOC removing rate reach 97.3% and 76.2% respectively. The results show that RhB can be effectively degraded by the slant-placed TiO2Ti anode thin-film reactor,because the usability of excitation light sources and mass transfer effectiveness are reinforced at the same time.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了TiO2/Ti电极,进行光电催化降解罗丹明B(RhB)试验.确定了最佳降解条件:外加偏压+0.8 V、废水流量7.7 L/h、初始pH=2.5和电解质质量浓度2.0 g/L.在最佳条件下,处理20 mg/L的RhB溶液1.5 h,脱色率和TOC去除率分别达到97.3％和76.2％.结果表明,由于同时强化了激发光源的利用率和溶液的传质效率,斜板液膜反应器可高效降解RhB.
Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant
David Wästerfors
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.
A new slant on hadron structure
W Detmold; D B Leinweber; W Melnitchouk; A W Thomas; S V Wright
2001-08-01
Rather than regarding the restriction of current lattice QCD simulations to quark masses that are 5–10 times larger than those observed as a problem, we note that this presents a wonderful opportunity to deepen our understanding of QCD. Just as it has been possible to learn a great deal about QCD by treating c as a variable, so the study of hadron properties as a function of quark mass is leading us to a deeper appreciation of hadron structure. As examples we cite progress in using the chiral properties of QCD to connect hadron masses, magnetic moments, charge radii and structure functions calculated at large quark masses within lattice QCD with the values observed physically.
Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant
David Wästerfors
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.
陈希春; 徐卫国; 周德光; 傅杰
2001-01-01
感应电渣离心浇铸H13钢斜轧辊毛坯中夹杂物分布均匀，最大直径不大于7μm，大部分小于2μm。铸件毛坯的二次枝晶间距仅为400 μm，晶粒度为9～10级。结果表明，感应电渣离心浇铸H13钢毛坯制造的斜轧辊，其使用寿命不低于电渣重熔锻材制造的斜轧辊。%The inclusions in the blank of steel H13 for slanting roller produced by centrifugal induction electroslag casting (CIESC) is dispersed uniformly in blank, most of which the diameters are less than 2 μm and maximum diameter of inclusion is 7 μm. The second dendrite space in the blank casting is 400 μm with grain size 9～10. The application results show that the service life of slanting roller made of CIESC steel H13 blank is up to that made of ESR forged steel H13 blank.
曾信; 杜群贵; 谢叶青; 彭魁
2011-01-01
Based on the error analysis principle, a finite element analysis idea with real size and assembly relationship to replace ideal 3D design model was proposed. Taking slanted ejector pin mechanism in injection mould as analysis object, an FEA model concerning fit clearance was established in which the influence relationship between fit clearance controlled by tolerance and equivalent stress and contact stress of the slanted ejector pin was studied.%基于误差分析原理,提出了以实际尺寸和装配关系代替理论设计模型进行有限元分析的思想.以注射模斜推杆机构为分析对象,建立了考虑配合间隙的斜推杆机构有限元分析模型,研究了由公差控制的配合间隙与斜推杆机构的等效应力、接触应力的影响关系,为斜推杆机构设计提供了理论指导.
Arindam Pal
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the MIMO performance of three candidate antenna array designs, each embedded within a PDA footprint, using indoor wideband channel measurements at 5.2 GHz alongside channel simulations. A channel model which employs the plane-wave approximation was used to combine the embedded antenna radiation patterns of the candidate devices obtained from far-field pattern measurements and multipath component parameters from an indoor ray-tracer. The 4-element candidate arrays were each constructed using a different type of antenna element, and despite the diverse element directivities, pattern characteristics, and polarization purities, all three devices were constructed to fully exploit diversity in polarization, space, and angle. Thus, low correlation and high information theoretic capacity was observed in each case. A good match between the model and the measurements is also demonstrated, especially for 2ÃƒÂ—2 MIMO subsets of identically or orthogonally polarized linear slot antennas. The interdependencies between the channel XPD, directional spread and pathloss, and the respective impact on channel capacity are also discussed in this paper.
Pal Arindam
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the MIMO performance of three candidate antenna array designs, each embedded within a PDA footprint, using indoor wideband channel measurements at 5.2 GHz alongside channel simulations. A channel model which employs the plane-wave approximation was used to combine the embedded antenna radiation patterns of the candidate devices obtained from far-field pattern measurements and multipath component parameters from an indoor ray-tracer. The 4-element candidate arrays were each constructed using a different type of antenna element, and despite the diverse element directivities, pattern characteristics, and polarization purities, all three devices were constructed to fully exploit diversity in polarization, space, and angle. Thus, low correlation and high information theoretic capacity was observed in each case. A good match between the model and the measurements is also demonstrated, especially for MIMO subsets of identically or orthogonally polarized linear slot antennas. The interdependencies between the channel XPD, directional spread and pathloss, and the respective impact on channel capacity are also discussed in this paper.
Ray Tracing Results for Elevation Angle Spread of Departure and its Impact on System Performance
Mondal, Bishwarup; Thomas, Timothy; Nguyen, Huan Cong
2014-01-01
Elevation spread of departure angles (ESD) is the key parameter characterizing a 3D fast-fading channel model. 3D channel mod-eling is currently being studied in 3GPP to enable the develop-ment of MIMO techniques exploiting both azimuth and elevation dimensions of the channel. In this paper we us...
Spin dynamics modeling in the AGS based on a stepwise ray-tracing method
Dutheil, Yann [Univ. of Grenoble (France)
2006-08-07
The AGS provides a polarized proton beam to RHIC. The beam is accelerated in the AGS from Gγ= 4.5 to Gγ = 45.5 and the polarization transmission is critical to the RHIC spin program. In the recent years, various systems were implemented to improve the AGS polarization transmission. These upgrades include the double partial snakes configuration and the tune jumps system. However, 100% polarization transmission through the AGS acceleration cycle is not yet reached. The current efficiency of the polarization transmission is estimated to be around 85% in typical running conditions. Understanding the sources of depolarization in the AGS is critical to improve the AGS polarized proton performances. The complexity of beam and spin dynamics, which is in part due to the specialized Siberian snake magnets, drove a strong interest for original methods of simulations. For that, the Zgoubi code, capable of direct particle and spin tracking through field maps, was here used to model the AGS. A model of the AGS using the Zgoubi code was developed and interfaced with the current system through a simple command: the AgsFromSnapRampCmd. Interfacing with the machine control system allows for fast modelization using actual machine parameters. Those developments allowed the model to realistically reproduce the optics of the AGS along the acceleration ramp. Additional developments on the Zgoubi code, as well as on post-processing and pre-processing tools, granted long term multiturn beam tracking capabilities: the tracking of realistic beams along the complete AGS acceleration cycle. Beam multiturn tracking simulations in the AGS, using realistic beam and machine parameters, provided a unique insight into the mechanisms behind the evolution of the beam emittance and polarization during the acceleration cycle. Post-processing softwares were developed to allow the representation of the relevant quantities from the Zgoubi simulations data. The Zgoubi simulations proved particularly useful to better understand the polarization losses through horizontal intrinsic spin resonances The Zgoubi model as well as the tools developed were also used for some direct applications. For instance, some beam experiment simulations allowed an accurate estimation of the expected polarization gains from machine changes. In particular, the simulations that involved involved the tune jumps system provided an accurate estimation of polarization gains and the optimum settings that would improve the performance of the AGS.
SolTrace: A Ray-Tracing Code for Complex Solar Optical Systems
Wendelin, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lewandowski, Allan [Allan Lewandowski Solar Consulting LLC, Evergreen, CO (United States)
2013-10-01
SolTrace is an optical simulation tool designed to model optical systems used in concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The code was first written in early 2003, but has seen significant modifications and changes since its inception, including conversion from a Pascal-based software development platform to C++. SolTrace is unique in that it can model virtually any optical system utilizingthe sun as the source. It has been made available for free and as such is in use worldwide by industry, universities, and research laboratories. The fundamental design of the code is discussed, including enhancements and improvements over the earlier version. Comparisons are made with other optical modeling tools, both non-commercial and commercial in nature. Finally, modeled results are shownfor some typical CSP systems and, in one case, compared to measured optical data.
Algorithms and interface for ocean acoustic ray-tracing (Developed in MATLAB)
Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, M.M.M.; Prakash, S.S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.
elements. We also ignore viscosity since fluid motions are small. Now the equations governing this flow field are the continuity equation (Ramana Murty & Mahadevan, 1994) 0. ????? Vt ?? ( 1 ) and the momentum equation, kg... the liberalized form of the governing equations as 0).( 10 1 ??? ? ? V t ? ? ( 3 ) and 11)( 0 PVt ???? ? ( 4 ) eliminating V1 between these equations, we get 122 12 P t ??? ? ? ( 5 ) 7 The frequency of acoustic oscillations is quite high...
JOSÉ A. COLINA MÁRQUEZ
2010-01-01
Full Text Available El colector parabólico compuesto (CPC es una tecnología ampliamente usada en aplicaciones fotoquímicas, como las reacciones fotocatalíticas. Para propósitos cinéticos en esta clase de reacciones, se debe conocer la distribución de la radiación ya que la velocidad de reacción depende la absorción de fotones. En el presente trabajo desarrolló un modelo matemático que permitió simular el fenómeno de reflexión de la radiación solar directa en un CPC. Las ecuaciones se evaluaron usando geometría analítica y cálculo vectorial, primero para calcular las coordenadas cartesianas de la superficie reflectiva. Luego estos puntos se usaron para calcular las trayectorias de los rayos incidentes y reflejados en cualquier instante. La radiación incidente en el receptor se graficó independientemente, mostrando la distribución de la energía directa que llega directamente al absorbedor. La longitud de la involuta también se calculó a partir de estos datos, los cuales pueden resultar muy útiles para su construcción. Los resultados obtenidos a partir de las simulaciones muestran que la distribución de la energía incidente en la superficie del absorbedor depende de la reflectividad de la superficie del CPC. La energía incidente es mayor en la parte superior que en la inferior del absorbedor, y son más convenientes valores altos de reflectividad para distribuciones de energía más uniformes. Este modelo matemático puede ser una primera aproximación para modelos más complejos de absorción de fotones que incluyan radiación solar directa en aplicaciones fotoquímicas o fototérmicas.
Ray-tracing formulas for refraction and internal reflection in uniaxial crystals.
Beyerle, G; McDermid, I S
1998-12-01
Formulas for the calculation of the direction cosines of refracted and internally reflected rays in anisotropic uniaxial crystals are presented. The method is based on a transformation to a nonorthonormal coordinate system in which the normal surface associated with the extraordinary ray is of spherical shape. A numerical example for the case of refraction and internal reflection in calcite is given.
General polarized ray-tracing method for inhomogeneous uniaxially anisotropic media
Sluijter, M.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Braat, J.J.M.
2008-01-01
Uniaxial optical anisotropy in the geometrical-optics approach is a classical problem, and most of the theory has been known for at least fifty years. Although the subject appears frequently in the literature, wave propagation through inhomogeneous anisotropic media is rarely addressed. The rapid ad
Kimura, I.; Kasahara, Y.; Oya, H.
2001-07-01
It has been necessary requirements to determine the global electron density distribution in the plasmasphere with time resolutions, of less than a day. We have provided solutions to this requirement using the wave normal directions, delay time of Omega signals and the in situ electron density observed on-board the Japanese satellite Akebono (Sawada et al., Journal of Geophysical Research 98(11) (1993) 267, Kimura et al., Advance Space Research 15(2) (1995) 103, Advance Space Research 18(6) (1996) 279, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 59 (1997) 1569). The present paper is intended to review our earlier studies.
Atomic detail visualization of photosynthetic membranes with GPU-accelerated ray tracing
Stone, John E.; Sener, Melih; Vandivort, Kirby L.; Barragan, Angela; Singharoy, Abhishek; Teo, Ivan; Ribeiro, João V.; Isralewitz, Barry; Liu, Bo; Goh, Boon Chong; Phillips, James C.; MacGregor-Chatwin, Craig; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Hunter, C. Neil; Schulten, Klaus
2016-07-01
The cellular process responsible for providing energy for most life on Earth, namely, photosynthetic light-harvesting, requires the cooperation of hundreds of proteins across an organelle, involving length and time scales spanning several orders of magnitude over quantum and classical regimes. Simulation and visualization of this fundamental energy conversion process pose many unique methodological and computational challenges. We present, in two accompanying movies, light-harvesting in the photosynthetic apparatus found in purple bacteria, the so-called chromatophore. The movies are the culmination of three decades of modeling efforts, featuring the collaboration of theoretical, experimental, and computational scientists. We describe the techniques that were used to build, simulate, analyze, and visualize the structures shown in the movies, and we highlight cases where scientific needs spurred the development of new parallel algorithms that efficiently harness GPU accelerators and petascale computers.
Ray-Trace of an Abnormal Radar Echo Using Geographic Information System
Chi-Nan Chen
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Weather radar plays a key role in natural disaster mitigation just as surveillance radar does in detecting objects that threaten homeland security. Both together comprise an instrumental part of radar observation. Therefore, quality control of the data gathered through radar detection is extremely important. However, radar waves propagate in the atmosphere, and an anomalous echo can occur if there are significant discontinuities in temperature and humidity in the lower boundary layer. The refractive curvature of the earth makes some errors in observation inevitable. On the night of July 3, 2003, Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD weather radar detected an abnormal echo. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model was utilized to simulate the atmospheric conditions. Radar propagation was simulated using the Advanced Refractivity Engineering Prediction System (AREPS as well as the GIS. The results show the feasibility of establishing an abnormal propagation early-warning system and extending the application of the GIS in serving as the foundation of a Common Operation Picture (COP. Furthermore, the parameters of the boundary layer near the sea's surface in the numerical weather forecasting model need remodification.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.63-72, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1487
Hamiltonian 3-D Ray Tracing in the Oceanic Waveguide on the Ellipsoidal Earth
1990-12-01
Waves in Layered ation for Computing Machinery, 17, 26-31. Media, Academic Press, New York, NY, 1st Arfken , G. B., 1970: Mathematical Methods for ed...J. Acoustic So. Am., 51 (5). 1705-1716, 1972]; (b) a cross section through the rotational axis (from Fig. 2.12 in Mathematical Methods for...University in 1966, the "high order" exhibit a deterministic chaos. Since this chaos methods as ൚th century mathematics , good for is associated with
JOSÉ A. COLINA MÁRQUEZ; ANDRÉS F. LÓPEZ VÁSQUEZ; FIDERMAN MACHUCA MARTÍNEZ
2010-01-01
El colector parabólico compuesto (CPC) es una tecnología ampliamente usada en aplicaciones fotoquímicas, como las reacciones fotocatalíticas. Para propósitos cinéticos en esta clase de reacciones, se debe conocer la distribución de la radiación ya que la velocidad de reacción depende la absorción de fotones. En el presente trabajo desarrolló un modelo matemático que permitió simular el fenómeno de reflexión de la radiación solar directa en un CPC. Las ecuaciones se evaluaron usando geometría ...
JOSÉ A. COLINA MÁRQUEZ; ANDRÉS F. LÓPEZ VÁSQUEZ; FIDERMAN MACHUCA MARTÍNEZ
2010-01-01
... de la radiación solar directa en un CPC. Las ecuaciones se evaluaron usando geometría analítica y cálculo vectorial, primero para calcular las coordenadas cartesianas de la superficie reflectiva...
Caustics as an Alternate of Ray Tracing to Evaluate Heliostat Mirrors
Georgiou, Marios D.; Bonanos, Aristides M.; Georgiadis, John G.
2013-01-01
Solar thermal power generation is based on the concept of concentrating solar radiation to provide high temperature heat for electricity generation via conventional power cycles. The high relative cost of optical subsystems necessitates a careful study of their components. The capital cost of the heliostat field in central receiver power plants is significant, reaching up to 50% of the capital investment. Therefore, it is essential to maximize the energy yield from a heliostat with a given mi...
New ray-tracing capabilities for the development of silicon pore optics
Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barrière, Nicolas; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Collon, Maximilien; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alexei; Vervest, Mark; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric
2015-09-01
The Geant4 based ray-tracer used to support the development of Silicon Pore Optics is being extended to take into account more subtle effects that affect the performance of the optics, like thermo-mechanical stresses and detailed surface metrology. Its performance has also been increased to make it possible to simulate rapidly and in detail the optics of Athena so that various possible configurations can be explored and characterized providing important feedback to the development and system teams. In this paper we report on the state of the development.
Schredder, J. M.
1988-01-01
A comparative analysis was performed, using both the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) and traditional pathlength error analysis techniques, for predicting RF antenna gain performance and pointing corrections. The NASA/JPL 70 meter antenna with its shaped surface was analyzed for gravity loading over the range of elevation angles. Also analyzed were the effects of lateral and axial displacements of the subreflector. Significant differences were noted between the predictions of the two methods, in the effect of subreflector displacements, and in the optimal subreflector positions to focus a gravity-deformed main reflector. The results are of relevance to future design procedure.
Alternative methods for ray tracing in uniaxial media. Application to negative refraction
Bellver-Cebreros, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Danta, Marcelo
2007-03-01
In previous papers [C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Eikonal equation, alternative expression of Fresnel's equation and Mohr's construction in optical anisotropic media, Opt. Commun. 189 (2001) 193; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Internal conical refraction in biaxial media and graphical plane constructions deduced from Mohr's method, Opt. Commun. 212 (2002) 199; C. Bellver-Cebreros, M. Rodriguez-Danta, Refraccion conica externa en medios biaxicos a partir de la construccion de Mohr, Opt. Pura AppliE 36 (2003) 33], the authors have developed a method based on the local properties of dielectric permittivity tensor and on Mohr's plane graphical construction in order to study the behaviour of locally plane light waves in anisotropic media. In this paper, this alternative methodology is compared with the traditional one, by emphasizing the simplicity of the former when studying ray propagation through uniaxial media (comparison is possible since, in this case, traditional construction becomes also plane). An original and simple graphical method is proposed in order to determine the direction of propagation given by the wave vector from the knowledge of the extraordinary ray direction (given by Poynting vector). Some properties of light rays in these media not described in the literature are obtained. Finally, two applications are considered: a description of optical birefringence under normal incidence and the study of negative refraction in uniaxial media.
Virtual experiments: the ultimate aim of neutron ray-tracing simulations
Lefmann, Kim; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Udby, Linda
2008-01-01
We define a virtual neutron experiment as a complete simulation of an experiment, from source over sample to detector. The virtual experiment (VE) will ideally interface with the instrument control software for the input and with standard data analysis packages for the virtual data output. Virtua...
Fast ray-tracing of human eye optics on Graphics Processing Units.
Wei, Qi; Patkar, Saket; Pai, Dinesh K
2014-05-01
We present a new technique for simulating retinal image formation by tracing a large number of rays from objects in three dimensions as they pass through the optic apparatus of the eye to objects. Simulating human optics is useful for understanding basic questions of vision science and for studying vision defects and their corrections. Because of the complexity of computing such simulations accurately, most previous efforts used simplified analytical models of the normal eye. This makes them less effective in modeling vision disorders associated with abnormal shapes of the ocular structures which are hard to be precisely represented by analytical surfaces. We have developed a computer simulator that can simulate ocular structures of arbitrary shapes, for instance represented by polygon meshes. Topographic and geometric measurements of the cornea, lens, and retina from keratometer or medical imaging data can be integrated for individualized examination. We utilize parallel processing using modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to efficiently compute retinal images by tracing millions of rays. A stable retinal image can be generated within minutes. We simulated depth-of-field, accommodation, chromatic aberrations, as well as astigmatism and correction. We also show application of the technique in patient specific vision correction by incorporating geometric models of the orbit reconstructed from clinical medical images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
IonRayTrace: An HF Propagation Model for Communications and Radar Applications
2014-12-01
this report was performed by the Atmospheric Propagation Branch (Code 55280), Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific), San Diego...the 2- to 7-MHz (red), 7- to 12-MHz (green), and 12- to 17-MHz (blue) bands ..................... 9 1 1. OVERVIEW The Advanced Refractivity ...density of free electrons (102 to 104 cm-3) and has negligible refractive effect on electromagnetic waves in the HF band [5]. However, in general
郑书河; 林述温
2015-01-01
Theresilienceofthedrumofavibrationrollerinhorizontalandverticaldirectionsrevealsahysteresis pattern different from that of the displacement during slant excitation compaction.When the soil compactness is high enough,the jump vibration and slipping of the vibration roller may appear.Considering the two facts mentioned above, kinetic equations under various compaction conditions and at different stages were established in terms of a model with horizontal symmetric hysteretic and vertical asymmetric hysteretic curves according to soil property parameters.According to the first order approximation,the hysteretic resilience was linearlized and its equivalent damping coefficient and equivalent stiffness coefficient were deduced by using the harmonic linearization method. By means of numerical simulation,the hysteresis characteristics under three compaction conditions and correlated coupled properties between horizontal and vertical directions,namely,the contraction vibration,slip-rolling and jump vibration were in turn analyzed, and the traufer between them was revealed.The adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation frequency could availably restrain the jump vibration and slipping of the drum to ensure the compaction quality,efficiency and driving comfort in the compaction process.%据斜向激振模式下振动压实土壤的水平、垂直两方向滞回恢复力与位移间所呈不同滞回形态，考虑土壤密实度较高时振动轮在土壤面层水平方向发生的脱耦打滑、垂直方向发生脱耦跳振现象，采用仅据土壤特性参数的水平对称、垂直不对称滞回模型，分阶段按工况建立系统动力学方程；在一次近似前提下，利用谐波线性法将非线性作用力线性化为等效刚度及等效阻尼。通过数值计算，研究斜向激振下振动轮水平、垂直方向非线性滞回响应及相互耦合特性，分析压实进程中振动轮发生连耦、滑转及跳振工况下响应特性及工
熊毅; 于玲
2012-01-01
The structure characteristics of wine bottle cover was analyzed, and outer side core-pulling was realized by adding a parting surface, controlling mold open order, and using the plastic product to make slanted slide block move.After verification of production, the mold is proved to be reasonable in structure, and reliable in movement.%分析了酒瓶下盖的结构特点,通过增加一个分型面、控制开模顺序,以及利用塑件带动斜滑块的移动实现了该注塑模具的外侧抽芯.经过生产验证,该模具结构合理、动作可靠.
An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses
Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.
Improvement of Photon Buildup Factors for Radiological Assessment
Schirmers, Fritz Gordon [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2006-07-01
Slant-path buildup factors for photons between 1 keV and 10 MeV for nine radiation shielding materials (air, aluminum, concrete, iron, lead, leaded glass, polyethylene, stainless steel, and water) are calculated with the most recent cross-section data available using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods. Discrete ordinates calculations use a 244-group energy structure that is based on previous research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), but extended with the results of this thesis, and its focused studies on low-energy photon transport and the effects of group widths in multigroup calculations. Buildup factor calculations in discrete ordinates benefit from coupled photon/electron cross sections to account for secondary photon effects. Also, ambient dose equivalent (herein referred to as dose) buildup factors were analyzed at lower energies where corresponding response functions do not exist in literature. The results of these studies are directly applicable to radiation safety at LANL, where the dose modeling tool Pandemonium is used to estimate worker dose in plutonium handling facilities. Buildup factors determined in this thesis will be used to enhance the code's modeling capabilities, but should be of interest to the radiation shielding community.
Matsuura, K.; Terasaki, K.; Yamane, K. (Aoyama University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering)
1992-12-25
Behavior of secondary sealing areas has been measured with two displacement sensors and an underseal pressure sensor, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor research engine equipped with a packaged multichannel slip ring. For the experiment, two-piece nonsplit type and three-piece slanted horizontal split type apex seals were used. The two-piece seal was tilted to the leading and trailing sides of a seal slot during its movement along the rotor housing surface and vibrated on the top end of the leading side of the slot as a fulcrum after the shift from the trailing side to the leading side of the slot. On the other hand, for the three-piece seal, its top part was tilted in all operating conditions, but its bottom part maintained effective area contact with the side of the slot under light load conditions up to medium engine speeds. The working chamber pressure was induced in the underseal in the same manner as the case with the two-piece type. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Evaluation of Empirical Ray-Tracing Model for an Urban Outdoor Scenario at 73 GHz E-Band
Nguyen, Huan Cong; R. MacCartney Jr., George; Thomas, Timothy
2014-01-01
In the summer of 2013, a wideband propagation measurement campaign using rotating directional antennas at 73 GHz was conducted at the New York University (NYU) campus, in order to collect extensive field measurements for use in a millimeter wave (mmWave) E-band statistical channel model. While th...
Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy
2013-01-01
Austenitische Schweißnähte und Mischnähte werden aufgrund ihrer hohen Bruchfestigkeit und ihres Widerstands gegen Korrosion und Risswachstum bei hohen Temperaturen bevorzugt in Rohrleitungen und Druckbehältern von Kernkraftwerken, Anlagen der chemischen Industrie und Kohlekraftwerken eingesetzt. Während des Herstellungsprozesses oder durch im Betrieb auftretende mechanische Spannungen können sich jedoch Risse bilden, weshalb die Überwachung des Zustandes dieser Materialien unter Einsatz zuver...
McStas 1.1: A freeware package for neutron Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations
Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.
1999-01-01
The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes...
Alxneit, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
The program RAY was developed to perform Monte-Carlo simulations of the flux distribution in solar reactors in connection with an arbitrary heliostat field. The code accounts for the shading of the incoming rays from the sun due to the reactor supporting tower as well as for full blocking and shading of the heliostats among themselves. A simplified falling particle reactor (FPR) was evaluated. A central receiver field was used with a total area of 311 m{sup 2} composed of 176 round, focusing heliostats. No attempt was undertaken to optimise either the geometry of the heliostat field nor the aiming strategy of the heliostats. The FPR was evaluated at two different geographic latitudes (-8.23W/47.542N; PSI and -8.23W/20.0N) and during the course of a day (May 30{sup th}). The incident power passing through the reactor aperture and the flux density distribution within the FPR was calculated. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.
IGAMI, Hiroe; FUKUYAMA, Atsushi; IDEI, Hiroshi; NAGASAKI, Kazunobu; GOTO, Yuki; KUBO, Shin; SHIMOZUMA, Takashi; YOSHIMURA, Yasuo; TAKAHASHI, Hiromi; TSUJIMURA, Toru I; MAKINO, Ryohei
2016-01-01
With the use of the density scale length and the magnetic field strength around the O-X mode conversion region in the LHD for 77 GHz EC waves, the full wave calculations by the TASK/WF2D code have been per formed...
2013-04-01
surfaces consisting of Bezier curves and Nonuniform Rational B-spline Surfaces ( NURBS ). There are many times however, when both modeling approaches...have allowed the integration of free-form objects in CSG systems. This presentation will discuss the development and integration of NURBS into the...Ballistics Research Laboratory CSG modeling system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NURBS , BSpline, raytracing, CSG, BRL-CAD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17
Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard
2014-01-01
The next generation of cellular network deployment is heterogeneous and temporally changing in order to follow the coverage and capacity needs. Active Antenna Systems allows fast deployment changes by cell shaping and tilt adaptation which has to be controlled in self-organized manner. However, s...
2005-01-18
equations are: 0212 2 = ⎭ ⎬ ⎫ ⎩ ⎨ ⎧ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ + z c d dz x c d dx t c d dt d dt cd td λλλλλ... td , (37) 0 2 2 2 =⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ ∂ ∂ + dx dt z cc dx zd...calculation the sound-speed profile ( )CzKCzc /cosh)( 0= produces a space of constant positive curvature 0KK = . The deviation vector can be solved
New Slant on the EPR-Bell Experiment
Evans, Peter; Wharton, K B
2010-01-01
The best case for thinking that quantum mechanics is nonlocal rests on Bell's Theorem, and later results of the same kind. However, the correlations characteristic of EPR-Bell (EPRB) experiments also arise in familiar cases elsewhere in QM, where the two measurements involved are timelike rather than spacelike separated; and in which the correlations are usually assumed to have a local causal explanation, requiring no action-at-a-distance. It is interesting to ask how this is possible, in the light of Bell's Theorem. We investigate this question, and present two options. Either (i) the new cases are nonlocal, too, in which case action-at-a-distance is more widespread in QM than has previously been appreciated (and does not depend on entanglement, as usually construed); or (ii) the means of avoiding action-at-a-distance in the new cases extends in an obvious way to EPRB, removing action-at-a-distance in these cases, too. There is a third option, viz., to argue that the new cases are strongly disanalogous to EP...
Laser Propagation Research. Volume I. Slant Path Transmission Measurements.
1980-11-01
data set is much longer, due both to its size and to the fact that the operation is done in double precision . Rather than having the capability to...found that the values could be converted to two word real numbers 7 in thc ewlet-Packar& format without loss of precision . The previouslv used tape read...A Carson Astronomical Instruments 6-inch heliostat is available for solar tracking. How- ever, this device required minor modification for proper
Polterovich, Victor
1998-01-01
Among the factors that give rise to corruption, it is suggested that three groups be distinguished: fundamental factors rooted in the imperfection of economic institutions and economic policy, organizational factors ("weakness of the government"), and societal factors that depend on the prehistory and are connected with the mass culture and norms of bureaucratic behavior. A model in which corruption equilibrium is supported by non-optimum tax policy or by slow technical progress is compared w...
Alberto Rosenthal
1988-04-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo presenta, una conceptualización general de lo que es el factoring, el origen del mismo, su evolución y hace una clasificación de los distintos tipos de factoring.
Aanæs, Henrik; Fisker, Rune; Åström, Kalle;
2002-01-01
Factorization algorithms for recovering structure and motion from an image stream have many advantages, but they usually require a set of well-tracked features. Such a set is in generally not available in practical applications. There is thus a need for making factorization algorithms deal...... effectively with errors in the tracked features. We propose a new and computationally efficient algorithm for applying an arbitrary error function in the factorization scheme. This algorithm enables the use of robust statistical techniques and arbitrary noise models for the individual features....... These techniques and models enable the factorization scheme to deal effectively with mismatched features, missing features, and noise on the individual features. The proposed approach further includes a new method for Euclidean reconstruction that significantly improves convergence of the factorization algorithms...
Alberto Rosenthal
2015-04-01
Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presenta la segunda parte del artículo aparecido en el número 6 de la revista EAN. Su contenido es complementario a lo expuesto en dicho número, en está aparecen las ventajas del factoring, conveniencias, limitaciones así como la forma de efectuar un factor en Colombia, su necesidad, incidencia económica, etc.
Zero, D T; Lussi, A
2006-01-01
During and after an erosive challenge, behavioral factors play a role in modifying the extent of erosive tooth wear. The manner that dietary acids are introduced into the mouth (gulping, sipping, use of a straw) will affect how long the teeth are in contact with the erosive challenge. The frequency and duration of exposure to an erosive agent is of paramount importance. Night-time exposure (e.g. baby bottle-feeding) to erosive agents may be particularly destructive because of the absence of salivary flow. Health-conscious individuals tend to ingest acidic drinks and juices more frequently and tend to have higher than average oral hygiene. While good oral hygiene is of proven value in the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries, frequent toothbrushing with abrasive oral hygiene products may enhance erosive tooth wear. Unhealthy lifestyles such as consumption of designer drugs, alcopops and alcohol abuse are other important behavioral factors.
Gorsuch, Richard L
2013-01-01
Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.
A. S. M. Zahid Kausar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Although ray tracing based propagation prediction models are popular for indoor radio wave propagation characterization, most of them do not provide an integrated approach for achieving the goal of optimum coverage, which is a key part in designing wireless network. In this paper, an accelerated technique of three-dimensional ray tracing is presented, where rough surface scattering is included for making a more accurate ray tracing technique. Here, the rough surface scattering is represented by microfacets, for which it becomes possible to compute the scattering field in all possible directions. New optimization techniques, like dual quadrant skipping (DQS and closest object finder (COF, are implemented for fast characterization of wireless communications and making the ray tracing technique more efficient. In conjunction with the ray tracing technique, probability based coverage optimization algorithm is accumulated with the ray tracing technique to make a compact solution for indoor propagation prediction. The proposed technique decreases the ray tracing time by omitting the unnecessary objects for ray tracing using the DQS technique and by decreasing the ray-object intersection time using the COF technique. On the other hand, the coverage optimization algorithm is based on probability theory, which finds out the minimum number of transmitters and their corresponding positions in order to achieve optimal indoor wireless coverage. Both of the space and time complexities of the proposed algorithm surpass the existing algorithms. For the verification of the proposed ray tracing technique and coverage algorithm, detailed simulation results for different scattering factors, different antenna types, and different operating frequencies are presented. Furthermore, the proposed technique is verified by the experimental results.
Global Factor Trade with Differentiated Factor Prices and Factor Intensities
Yun-kwong Kwok
2004-01-01
Relaxing the assumption of internationally identical factor intensity techniques in the HOV model creates two challenges. First, computing actual factor intensity techniques of different countries requires detailed input-output tables and factor usage data, which are not always available. Second, determinants of the factor intensity technique differences across countries need to be identified. This paper explores the role of relative factor price differences in the determination of factor int...
Propagation handbook for wireless communication system design
Crane, Robert K
2003-01-01
PROPAGATION PHENOMENA AFFECTING WIRELESS SYSTEMS Types of SystemsDesign Criteria Antenna Considerations Propagation Effects Propagation Models Model Verification Statistics and RiskList of Symbols ReferencesPROPAGATION FUNDAMENTALSMaxwell's EquationsPlane Waves Spherical Waves Reflection and Refraction Geometrical OpticsRay TracingScalar Diffraction Theory Geometrical Theory of Diffraction List of Symbols ReferencesABSORPTION Molecular Absorption Absorption on a Slant Path ACTS Statistics List of Symbols ReferencesREFRACTION Ray BendingPath Delay ScintillationList of Symbols ReferencesATTENUAT
Ribstein, B.; Achatz, U.
2016-09-01
Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role in atmospheric dynamics. Due to their short wavelengths, they must be parameterized in current weather and forecast models, which cannot resolve them explicitly. We are here the first to report the possibility and the implication of having an online GW parameterization in a linear but global model that incorporates their horizontal propagation, the effects of transients and of horizontal background gradients on GW dynamics. The GW parameterization is based on a ray-tracer model with a spectral formulation that is safe against numerical instabilities due to caustics. The global model integrates the linearized primitive equations to obtain solar tides (STs), with a seasonally dependent reference climatology, forced by a climatological daily cycle of the tropospheric and stratospheric heating, and the (instantaneous) GW momentum and buoyancy flux convergences resulting from the ray tracer. Under a more conventional "single-column" approximation, where GWs only propagate vertically and do not respond to horizontal gradients of the resolved flow, GW impacts are shown to be significantly changed in comparison with "full" experiments, leading to significant differences in ST amplitudes and phases, pointing at a sensitive issue of GW parameterizations in general. In the full experiment, significant semidiurnal STs arise even if the tidal model is only forced by diurnal heating rates. This indicates that an important part of the tidal signal is forced directly by GWs via their momentum and buoyancy deposition. In general, the effect of horizontal GW propagation and the GW response to horizontal large-scale flow gradients is rather observed in nonmigrating than in migrating tidal components.
Hsu, Ming-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Chan, Chia-Yen; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chan, Shenq-Tsong; Huang, Ting-Ming
2012-10-01
The Cassegrain telescope system in this study, is discussion correct lens thermal OPD (Optical Path Difference) effect optical performance. The correct lens assembly are includes several components such as correct lens, lens mount, spacer, mount barrel and retainer. The heat transfer from surrounding to the correct lens barrel will causes optical system aberration. Meanwhile, the off-axis rays path of the OPD must consider lens incidence point and emergence point. The correct lens temperature distribution is calculate the lens barrel heat transfer analysis, the thermal distortion and stress are solve by FEM (Finite Element Method) software. The temperature calculation results can be weighting to each incidence ray path and calculate thermal OPD. The thermal OPD on Z-direction can be fitted by rigid body motion and Zernike polynomial. The fitting results can be used to evaluate the thermal effect on correct lens assembly in telescope system.
射线追踪方法的发展现状%THE SITUATION AND PROGRESS OF RAY TRACING METOD RESAERCH
张钋; 刘洪; 李幼铭
2000-01-01
射线追踪方法作为一种快速有效的波场近似计算方法,不仅对于地震波理论研究具有重要意义,而且也直接应用于地震波反演及偏移成像等过程. 本文在收集、整理国内外有关研究资料的基础上,介绍了近十年中这一领域的研究现状及最新发展趋势,并针对其中具有代表性的几类方法的基本思路、方法特点及实现步骤等进行评述.
McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David
2013-01-01
Fenestration attachments are anticipated to produce significant reductions in building energy use because they can be deployed quickly at low-cost. New software tools enable users to assess the building energy impacts of optically complex fenestration systems (CFS) such as shades, Venetian blinds......, or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data...... for arbitrary fenestration systems could only be produced using either expensive software or with expensive equipment. genBSDF outputs CFS data in the Window 6 XML file format and so can be used with CFS-enabled software tools to model multi-layered window systems composed of glazing and shading layers...
Mohammad Javad Dargahi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available High data rate acoustic transmission is required for diverse underwater operations such as the retrieval of large amounts of data from bottom packages and real time transmission of signals from underwater sensors. The major obstacle to underwater acoustic communication is the interference of multipath signals due to surface and bottom reflections. High speed acoustic transmission over a shallow water channel characterized by small grazing angles presents formidable difficulties. The reflection losses associated with such small angles are low, causing large amplitudes in multi-path signals. In this paper, based on the results obtained from practical measurements in the Persian Gulf and available data about sound speed variations in different depths, we propose a simple but effective model for shallow water short-range multipath acoustic channel. Based on the Ray theory, mathematical modeling of multipath effects is carried out. Also in channel modeling, the attenuation due to the wave scatterings at the surface and its bottom reflections for deferent grazing angles and bottom types is considered. In addition, we consider the attenuations due to the absorption of different materials and ambient noises such as see-state noise, shipping noise, thermal noise and turbulences. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS in a fully prognostic mode to study the circulation and water mass properties of the Persian Gulf - a large inverse estuary. Maximum sound speed occurs during the summer in the Persian Gulf which decreases gradually moving from the Strait of Hormuz to the north western part of the Gulf. A gradual decrease in sound speed profiles with depth was commonly observed in almost all parts of the Gulf. However, an exception occurred in the Strait of Hormuz during the winter. The results of the model are in very good agreement with our observations.
Channel capacity analysis for MIMO system based on ray-tracing%基于射线跟踪的MIMO信道容量分析
杨晋生; 曹敏
2015-01-01
随着无线通信的发展,MIMO已经成为无线通信领域中的研究热点,场强和信道容量的分布预测是通信系统进行网络规划、管理和维护通信网的基础,对无线网络的优化有着十分重要的意义.选用确定性模型射线跟踪模型,采用镜像法来建立室内MIMO信道模型,并使用MATLAB软件对所建立的模型进行仿真.首先建立特定的室内场景,对其路径损耗进行预测,并与实际测量值进行对比,验证了该模型的正确性及有效性;然后,在理论上对MIMO容量进行分析;最后,仿真分析信噪比(SNR)以及天线数目对MIMO信道容量的影响.
Analysis of Indoor MIMO Channel Capacity Using Ray-tracing%射线跟踪法对室内MIMO信道容量的分析
岳海霞
2008-01-01
本文采用确定性传播预测模型--三维射线跟踪法(SBR/Image法)对室内MIMO系统的容量进行了分析,并介绍了多输入多输出基本理论.最后,用MATLAB对SISO,SIMO,MISO和MIMO系统容量进行了仿真性研究.结果表明,MIMO技术能有效提高信道容量.
Ray Tracing Method in Horizontal Layered Medium Based on Matlab%水平层状介质射线追踪方法的Matlab实现
陈连木; 万永革; 陈鑫
2015-01-01
水平层状介质中地震波走时计算在地震定位、地壳速度研究中具有重要地位.总结了水平层状介质中射线自震源追踪到台站的3种算法,采用Matlab软件编程实现了水平层状介质中的2点间射线追踪,为地震定位和平层介质速度确定提供了计算手段.对打靶法、p参数求解法和改进的p参数求解法的计算效率进行比较,发现打靶法和改进的p参数求解法可以对任意复杂的水平层状速度模型进行准确追踪,而p参数求解法只能进行小震中距的射线追踪.对于同样的模型,打靶法的计算效率较改进后的p参数求解法高.
... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor II is one such coagulation factor. Factor II deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...
... if one or more of these factors are missing or are not functioning like they should. Factor VII is one such coagulation factor. Factor VII deficiency runs in families (inherited) and is very rare. Both parents must ...
Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...
... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...
Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor
Anton, M. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Lopez, M.; Banon, M. [Agenica Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain); Costa, M.J.; Silva, A.M. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Evora Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Physics; Serrano, A. [Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Bortoli, D. [Evora Univ. (PT). Goephysics Centre of Evora (CGE); Vilaplana, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Huelva (Spain). Estacion de Sondeos Atmosferico ' ' El Arenosillo' '
2009-07-01
The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75 . In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85 . These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7{+-}1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80 . Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes. (orig.)
Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor
Antón, M.; López, M.; Costa, M. J.; Serrano, A.; Bortoli, D.; Bañón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Silva, A. M.
2009-08-01
The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75°. In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85°. These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7±1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80°. Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes.
Twining, Brian V.
2016-11-29
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained a water-level monitoring program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) since 1949. The purpose of the program is to systematically measure and report water-level data to assess the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and long term changes in groundwater recharge, discharge, movement, and storage. Water-level data are commonly used to generate potentiometric maps and used to infer increases and (or) decreases in the regional groundwater system. Well deviation is one component of water-level data that is often overlooked and is the result of the well construction and the well not being plumb. Depending on measured slant angle, where well deviation generally increases linearly with increasing slant angle, well deviation can suggest artificial anomalies in the water table. To remove the effects of well deviation, the USGS INL Project Office applies a correction factor to water-level data when a well deviation survey indicates a change in the reference elevation of greater than or equal to 0.2 ft.Borehole well deviation survey data were considered for 177 wells completed within the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, but not all wells had deviation survey data available. As of 2016, USGS INL Project Office database includes: 57 wells with gyroscopic survey data; 100 wells with magnetic deviation survey data; 11 wells with erroneous gyroscopic data that were excluded; and, 68 wells with no deviation survey data available. Of the 57 wells with gyroscopic deviation surveys, correction factors for 16 wells ranged from 0.20 to 6.07 ft and inclination angles (SANG) ranged from 1.6 to 16.0 degrees. Of the 100 wells with magnetic deviation surveys, a correction factor for 21 wells ranged from 0.20 to 5.78 ft and SANG ranged from 1.0 to 13.8 degrees, not including the wells that did not meet the correction factor criteria of greater than or equal to 0.20 ft.Forty-seven wells had
... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...
... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...
... When certain blood clotting factors are low or missing, your blood does not clot properly. Factor V deficiency is rare. It may be caused by: A defective Factor V gene passed down through families (inherited) An antibody that interferes with normal Factor ...
Foundations of factor analysis
Mulaik, Stanley A
2009-01-01
Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti
Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan
2016-01-01
The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.
Ionosphere Profile Estimation Using Ionosonde & GPS Data in an Inverse Refraction Calculation
Psiaki, M. L.
2014-12-01
A method has been developed to assimilate ionosonde virtual heights and GPS slant TEC data to estimate the parameters of a local ionosphere model, including estimates of the topside and of latitude and longitude variations. This effort seeks to better assimilate a variety of remote sensing data in order to characterize local (and eventually regional and global) ionosphere electron density profiles. The core calculations involve a forward refractive ray-tracing solution and a nonlinear optimal estimation algorithm that inverts the forward model. The ray-tracing calculations solve a nonlinear two-point boundary value problem for the curved ionosonde or GPS ray path through a parameterized electron density profile. It implements a full 3D solution that can handle the case of a tilted ionosphere. These calculations use Hamiltonian equivalents of the Appleton-Hartree magneto-plasma refraction index model. The current ionosphere parameterization is a modified Booker profile. It has been augmented to include latitude and longitude dependencies. The forward ray-tracing solution yields a given signal's group delay and beat carrier phase observables. An auxiliary set of boundary value problem solutions determine the sensitivities of the ray paths and observables with respect to the parameters of the augmented Booker profile. The nonlinear estimation algorithm compares the measured ionosonde virtual-altitude observables and GPS slant-TEC observables to the corresponding values from the forward refraction model. It uses the parameter sensitivities of the model to iteratively improve its parameter estimates in a way the reduces the residual errors between the measurements and their modeled values. This method has been applied to data from HAARP in Gakona, AK and has produced good TEC and virtual height fits. It has been extended to characterize electron density perturbations caused by HAARP heating experiments through the use of GPS slant TEC data for an LOS through the heated
Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis
Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.;
2014-01-01
This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corr......This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...
包承鑫
2002-01-01
@@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.
Factoring Polynomials and Fibonacci.
Schwartzman, Steven
1986-01-01
Discusses the factoring of polynomials and Fibonacci numbers, offering several challenges teachers can give students. For example, they can give students a polynomial containing large numbers and challenge them to factor it. (JN)
... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Coagulation factor testing is performed to determine if a ...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...
Environmental factors in autism
Andreas Martin Grabrucker
2013-01-01
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...
Environmental Factors in Autism
Andreas M. Grabrucker
2013-01-01
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication and social behavior, and by repetitive behaviors. Although genetic factors might be largely responsible for the occurrence of autism they cannot fully account for all cases and it is likely that in addition to a certain combination of autism-related genes, specific environmental factors might act as risk factors triggering the development of autism. Thus, the role of environmental factors in autism is an im...
Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards
2003-07-22
We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.
Multilevel Mixture Factor Models
Varriale, Roberta; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
2012-01-01
Factor analysis is a statistical method for describing the associations among sets of observed variables in terms of a small number of underlying continuous latent variables. Various authors have proposed multilevel extensions of the factor model for the analysis of data sets with a hierarchical structure. These Multilevel Factor Models (MFMs)…
Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis
Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.
2014-01-01
This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor......, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates...
Multiyear slant-path rain fade statistics at 28.56 GHz for Wallops Island, Va.
Goldhirsh, J.
1980-01-01
The multiyear rain fade statistics collected in the Wallops Island, Va., area at 28.56 GHz during 1977 through 1979 showed that the overall fade distributions for the individual years showed small differences. Exceedance time variations were observed in the monthly and time of day fade data from year to year, but the second year fades relative to the first year had less than 20% rms deviation. These results are useful to designers of earth-satellite communications systems which require reliable fade statistics for establishing link-margin requirements. The Wallops Island fade distribution had an rms decibel deviation of less than 14% when compared with the International Radio Consultative Committee prediction model.
Effect of leaning angle of gecko-inspired slanted polymer nanohairs on dry adhesion
Jeong, Hoon Eui
2010-01-01
We present analysis of adhesion properties of angled polymer nanohairs with a wide range of leaning angles from 0° to 45° and ultraviolet (UV)-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) materials of two different elastic moduli (19.8 and 320 MPa). It is demonstrated that shear adhesion and adhesion hysteresis can be greatly enhanced by increasing the leaning angle of nanohairs both for soft and hard materials due to increased contact area and reduced structural stiffness. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Modification of the Gurney Equation for Explosive Bonding by Slanted Elevation Angle
2014-04-01
microhardness testing , using a 200g load (HV200g) and a Leco microhardness indenter. UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2960 UNCLASSIFIED 5 2.2 Properties of...This was confirmed by hardness testing in the region of the weld. Explosive welded plates represent a potential improvement in armour plate...of all surface contaminants and forces them into direct welding. For this reason, any cleaning preparation of a test coupon is theoretically
Long-term maintenance of fungal cultures on perlite in cryovials - an alternative for agar slants.
Homolka, L; Lisá, L
2008-01-01
Cultures of 33 basidiomycete strains out of 35 tested were viable with unchanged characteristics after four years of maintenance on perlite in cryovials. These cultures can be a good substitute for agar cultures in long-term maintenance of fungi. For comparison, the storage under oil was evaluated but it turned out to be unsuitable for the majority of our cultures.