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Sample records for ray spectra programas

  1. DELIN and DELOG codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra; Programas DELIN y DELOG para la representacion grafica de espectros gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L; Travesi, A

    1983-07-01

    Two Fortran IV Codes has been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge Li detectors and multichannel analyzers. The grafic plotting es carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can ba done in a lineal, semi log, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are feed into the computer through magnetic tape or perfored paper tape. The different out-put options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with T.V. displays. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: - smoothing the spectra - drawing the spectra point by point or continuous - out-put drawing an 1, 2, or 4 sheet with automatic division of the energy scale. - overlapping of selected spectra regions in Y scale ampliation with automatic print-out of the region limits and ampliation factor. - Printing spectra data and identifications of selected photo peaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-Graphics 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with Fortran IV written.

  2. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  3. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Janardan

    1980-01-01

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  4. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  5. Spectra of γ rays feeding superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrum of γrays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding γrays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by ∼30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the γ cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed

  6. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  7. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  8. Applications of Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    A short, convenient computer program based on the Monte Carlo method that was developed to generate simulated gamma-ray spectra has been found to have useful applications in research and teaching. In research, we use it to predict spectra in neutron activation analysis (NAA), particularly in prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA). In teaching, it is used to illustrate the dependence of detector response functions on the nature of gamma-ray interactions, the incident gamma-ray energy, and detector geometry

  9. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.P. [Department of Optometry and Radiography, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China). E-mail: benngkp at netvigator.com; Kwok, C.S.; Ng, K.P.; Tang, F.H. [Department of Optometry and Radiography, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2000-05-01

    A model for generating x-ray spectra in mammography is presented. This model used the ITS version 3 Monte Carlo code for simulating the radiation transport. Various target/filter combinations such as tungsten/aluminium, molybdenum/molybdenum, molybdenum/rhodium and rhodium/rhodium were used in the simulation. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray production were included in the model. The simulated x-ray emission spectra were compared with two sets of spectra, those of Boone et al (1997 Med. Phys. 24 1863-74) and IPEM report 78. The {chi}{sup 2} test was used for the overall goodness of fit of the spectral data. There is good agreement between the simulated x-ray spectra and the comparison spectra as the test yielded a probability value of nearly 1. When the transmitted x-ray spectra for specific target/filter combinations were generated and compared with a measured molybdenum/rhodium spectrum and spectra generated in IPEM report 78, close agreement is also observed. This was demonstrated by the probability value for the {chi}{sup 2} test being almost 1 for all the cases. However, minor differences between the simulated spectra and the 'standard' ones are observed. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    A model for generating x-ray spectra in mammography is presented. This model used the ITS version 3 Monte Carlo code for simulating the radiation transport. Various target/filter combinations such as tungsten/aluminium, molybdenum/molybdenum, molybdenum/rhodium and rhodium/rhodium were used in the simulation. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray production were included in the model. The simulated x-ray emission spectra were compared with two sets of spectra, those of Boone et al (1997 Med. Phys. 24 1863-74) and IPEM report 78. The χ 2 test was used for the overall goodness of fit of the spectral data. There is good agreement between the simulated x-ray spectra and the comparison spectra as the test yielded a probability value of nearly 1. When the transmitted x-ray spectra for specific target/filter combinations were generated and compared with a measured molybdenum/rhodium spectrum and spectra generated in IPEM report 78, close agreement is also observed. This was demonstrated by the probability value for the χ 2 test being almost 1 for all the cases. However, minor differences between the simulated spectra and the 'standard' ones are observed. (author)

  12. Diversity of soft X-ray spectra in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B.J.; Tananbaum, H.

    1985-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra for three quasars obtained with the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter covering the 0.1-4.0 keV band are reported. Power-law fits to these spectra have best-fit energy indices of 1.2 +0.6 or -0.2, for the quasar NAB 0205 + 024, 0.6 +0.3 or -0.2 for the quasar B2 1028 + 313, and 2.2 + or -0.4 for the quasar PG 1211 + 143. None of the quasars shows any evidence for a column density of cold matter in excess of the galactic values. The derived spectra demonstrate that there is no single universal power law slope for quasar X-ray spectra. The implications of these results for the X-ray background, X-ray continuum emission mechanisms, and the production of the optical/UV emission lines are briefly discussed. 46 references

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Ruhter, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum

  14. Gamma-ray spectra deconvolution by maximum-entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A maximum-entropy method which includes the response of detectors and the statistical fluctuations of spectra is described and applied to the deconvolution of γ-ray spectra. Resolution enhancement of 25% can be reached for experimental peaks and up to 50% for simulated ones, while the intensities are conserved within 1-2%. (orig.)

  15. Multi-spectra Cosmic Ray Flux Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochun; Dayananda, Mathes

    2010-02-01

    The Earth's upper atmosphere is constantly bombarded by rain of charged particles known as primary cosmic rays. These primary cosmic rays will collide with the atmospheric molecules and create extensive secondary particles which shower downward to the surface of the Earth. In recent years, a few studies have been done regarding to the applications of the cosmic ray measurements and the correlations between the Earth's climate conditions and the cosmic ray fluxes [1,2,3]. Most of the particles, which reach to the surface of the Earth, are muons together with a small percentage of electrons, gammas, neutrons, etc. At Georgia State University, multiple cosmic ray particle detectors have been constructed to measure the fluxes and energy distributions of the secondary cosmic ray particles. In this presentation, we will briefly describe these prototype detectors and show the preliminary test results. Reference: [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, Nature, Vol.422, 277 (2003). [2] L.V. Egorova, V. Ya Vovk, O.A. Troshichev, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 62, 955-966 (2000). [3] Henrik Svensmark, Phy. Rev. Lett. 81, 5027 (1998). )

  16. Librarian driven analysis of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashov, V.; Petersone, I.

    2002-01-01

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates of their errors to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma ray line(s). The identification of a given radionuclide is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of a database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma ray energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by the ICRP. (author)

  17. Soft x-ray absorption spectra of ilmenite family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, A; Mizumaki, M; Saitoh, Y; Matsushita, T; Nakatani, T; Fukaya, A; Torikai, E

    2001-03-01

    We have carried out soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of ilmenite family, such as MnTiO3, FeTiO3, and CoTiO3 at the soft x-ray beamline, BL23SU, at the SPring-8. The Ti and M L2,3 absorption spectra of MTiO3 (M=Mn, Fe, and Co) show spectra of Ti4+ and M2+ electron configurations, respectively. Except the Fe L2,3 spectrum, those spectra were understood within the O(h) symmetry around the transition metal ions. The Fe L3-edge spectrum clearly shows a doublet peak at the L3 edge, which is attributed to Fe2+ state, moreover the very high-resolution the L-edge spectra of transition metals show fine structures. The spectra of those ilmenites are compared.

  18. Chemical effects in x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, N.G.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical bond influence in X-ray emission spectra of hafnium, iodine, iron, sulphur, aluminium and magnesium is detected. The position of one X-ray emission line is determined by three methods: parabolic profile; Gaussian distribution and extra-heavy maximum. (author)

  19. Efficient algorithms of multidimensional γ-ray spectra compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; Matousek, V.

    2006-01-01

    The efficient algorithms to compress multidimensional γ-ray events are presented. Two alternative kinds of compression algorithms based on both the adaptive orthogonal and randomizing transforms are proposed. In both algorithms we employ the reduction of data volume due to the symmetry of the γ-ray spectra

  20. Analysis of X-Ray (L) spectra of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Coelho, L.F. de.

    1976-08-01

    The general problem of obtaining and analysing spectra is presented, with emphasis in the comparison of methods for the analysis of gamma rays and X rays. The method proposed to obtain a standard and later the intensities of lines of an X-ray (L) spectrum is discussed. The good eesults obtained by the program RAIOXL, when simulated spectra are used, and by the program RAIXL1, when doublets are decomposed, are shown. In annex A, the listings of the programs used are presented, and in annex B a review is made of the analytical formulae used for adjustment of the pulses. (I.C.R.) [pt

  1. A Comparison Of GADRAS Simulated And Measured Gamma Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  2. X ray spectra of X Per. [oso-8 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Robinson-Saba, J.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 observed X Per for twenty days during two observations in Feb. 1976 and Feb. 1977. The spectrum of X Per varies in phase with its 13.9 min period, hardening significantly at X-ray minimum. Unlike other X-ray binary pulsar spectra, X Per's spectra do not exhibit iron line emission or strong absorption features. The data show no evidence for a 22 hour periodicity in the X-ray intensity of X Per. These results indicate that the X-ray emission from X Per may be originating from a neutron star in a low density region far from the optically identified Be star.

  3. X-ray Spectra of Distant Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, E.

    1998-01-01

    The masses of galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter, and a robust determination of their temperatures and masses has the potential of indicating how much dark matter exists on large scales in the universe, and the cosmological parameter Omega. X-ray observations of galaxy clusters provide a direct measure of both the gas mass in the intra-cluster medium, and also the total gravitating mass of the cluster. We used new and archival ASCA and ROSAT observations to measure these quantities for a sample of intermediate redshift clusters which have also been subject to intensive dynamical studies, in order to compare the mass estimates from different methods. We used data from 12 of the CNOC cluster sample at 0.18 less than z less than 0.55 for this study. A direct comparison of dynamical mass estimates from Carlberg, Yee & Ellingson (1997) yielded surprisingly good results. The X-ray/dynamical mass ratios have a mean of 0.96+/- 0.10, indicating that for this sample, both methods are probably yielding very robust mass estimates. Comparison with mass estimates from gravitational lensing studies from the literature showed a small systematic with weak lensing estimates, and large discrepancies with strong lensing estimates. This latter is not surprising, given that these measurements are made close to the central core, where optical and Xray estimates are less certain, and where substructure and the effects of individual galaxies will be more pronounced. These results are presented in Lewis, Ellingson, Morris \\& Carlberg, 1998, submitted to the Astrophysical Journal.

  4. Background elimination methods for multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the paper new methods to separate useful information from background in one, two, three and multidimensional spectra (histograms) measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays are derived. The sensitive nonlinear peak clipping algorithm is the basis of the methods for estimation of the background in multidimensional spectra. The derived procedures are simple and therefore have a very low cost in terms of computing time. (orig.)

  5. Are there nuclear contributions to gamma ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, S.M.; Chupp, E.L.; Forrest, D.J.; Share, G.H.; Nolan, P.L.; Rieger, E.

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the spectra of 38 γ-ray bursts observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite for evidence of a nuclear contribution to the high energy flux. A sum of spectra from the nine bursts with detectable flux >4 MeV suggests but does not require a drop-off above 7 MeV. A cutoff between 7 and 8 MeV is consistent with a high energy spectrum dominated by nuclear lines

  6. LINE FORMATION IN SPECTRA OF X-RAY NOVAE

    OpenAIRE

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Results of X-ray Novae (XN) optical spectra computation are presented. The continuum and Balmer line are calculated. The model of XN as a self-irradiated accretion disk is used. Local (for given radius) disk atmospheres as model stellar atmospheres, heated due to external X-ray radiation are treated. Changes of spectra shape and equivalent widths of the Balmer lines depending from the luminosity and some others accretion disk parameters are investigated. The comparison of GRO JO422+32 observe...

  7. Calculation of {beta}-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1996-05-01

    In order to study {beta}-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider {beta}-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured {beta}-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on {beta}-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of {beta}-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the {beta}-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the {beta} spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  8. Calculation of β-ray spectra. Odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    In order to study β-ray of atomic nucleus, it is natural to consider β-ray data fundamental and important. In a recent experiment, Rudstam measured β-ray spectra from short term nuclear fission product species in 1990. It is an important check point in theoretical study on β-ray to investigate if these experimental data can be reproduced by any theoretical calculation. As there are several spectrum studies of β-ray through decay heat for its various properties due to the general theory of the β-decay, little descriptions can be found. In even such studies, spectra under high excitation state of daughter species difficult to measure and apt to short experimental results were treated with combination spectra composed of experimental and calculated values such as substitution of a part of the general theory with calculated value. In this paper, the β spectra supposed by only the general theory was reported without using such data combination in order to confirm effectiveness of the theory. In particular, this report was described mainly on the results using recent modification of odd-odd nucleus species. (G.K.)

  9. Theory of X-ray absorption and emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical studies on X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy are discussed. Simple expressions for X-ray emission rate and X-ray absorption cross section are presented in the dipole approximation. Various atomic models to obtain realistic wave functions and theoretical calculations for X-ray absorption cross sections and X-ray emission rates are described. In the case of molecules and solids, molecular orbital methods for electronic structures and molecular wave functions are discussed. The emphasis is on the procedures to obtain the excited-state and continuum wave functions for molecules and to calculate the multi-center dipole matrix elements. The examples of the calculated X-ray absorption and emission spectra are shown and compared with the experimental results

  10. Program DEIMOS32 for gamma-ray spectra evalution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frána, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 3 (2003), s. 583-587 ISSN 0236-5731. [International Conference Ko-users Workshop /3./. Bruges, 23.09.2001-28.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : gamma-ray spectra * software Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  11. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.sk; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-03-21

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  12. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, Miroslav; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector γ-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges

  13. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  14. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  15. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  16. Tetrahedral hydrocarbon nanoparticles in space: X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilalbegović, G.; Maksimović, A.; Valencic, L. A.

    2018-06-01

    It has been proposed, or confirmed, that diamond nanoparticles exist in various environments in space: close to active galactic nuclei, in the vicinity of supernovae and pulsars, in the interior of several planets in the Solar system, in carbon planets, and other exoplanets, carbon-rich stars, meteorites, in X-ray active Herbig Ae/Be stars, and in the interstellar medium. Using density functional theory methods, we calculate the carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of two large tetrahedral nanodiamonds: C26H32 and C51H52. We also study and test our methods on the astrophysical molecule CH4, the smallest C-H tetrahedral structure. A possible detection of nanodiamonds from X-ray spectra by future telescopes, such as the project Arcus, is proposed. Simulated spectra of the diffuse interstellar medium using Cyg X-2 as a source show that nanodiamonds studied in this work can be detected by Arcus, a high-resolution X-ray spectrometer mission selected by NASA for a Phase A concept study.

  17. Analysis of coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra using advanced background elimination, unfolding and fitting algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, M. E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.skfyzimiro@flnr.jinr.ru; Matousek, V. E-mail: matousek@savba.sk; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.L.; Jandel, M

    2003-04-21

    The efficient algorithms to analyze multiparameter {gamma}-ray spectra are presented. They allow to search for peaks, to separate peaks from background, to improve the resolution and to fit 1-, 2-, 3-parameter {gamma}-ray spectra.

  18. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  19. Gamma-ray continuum spectra from heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Sarantites, D.G.; Westerberg, L.W.; Geoffroy, K.; Woodward, R.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the yrast continuum was attempted by subtracting the underlying statistical continnuum in a way that makes allowance for ignorance of its detailed shape. This procedure makes it possible to obtain the moment of inertia as a function of spin over a wide range of spins. The results of this continuum spectra shape analysis can be used to calculate the first and second moments of the continuum multiplicity distribution. Continuum spectra were taken during the bombardment of 150 Nd by 115- and 130-MeV beams of 20 Ne, also the first and second moments of the γ-ray multiplicity distribution as a function of the gamma energy. The moment of inertia versus spin and the deduced Yrast continuua are shown. 10 references

  20. Computer code for qualitative analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    Computer code QLN1 provides complete analysis of gamma-ray spectra observed with Ge(Li) detectors and is used at both the National Bureau of Standards and the Environmental Protection Agency. It locates peaks, resolves multiplets, identifies component radioisotopes, and computes quantitative results. The qualitative-analysis (or component identification) algorithms feature thorough, self-correcting steps which provide accurate isotope identification in spite of errors in peak centroids, energy calibration, and other typical problems. The qualitative-analysis algorithm is described in this paper

  1. An automated background estimation procedure for gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, R.J.; Kennett, T.J.; Prestwich, W.V.

    1983-01-01

    An objective and simple method has been developed to estimate the background continuum in Ge gamma ray spectra. Requiring no special procedures, the method is readily automated. Based upon the inherent statistical properties of the experimental data itself, nodes, which reflect background samples are located and used to produce an estimate of the continuum. A simple procedure to interpolate between nodes is reported and a range of rather typical experimental data is presented. All information necessary to implemented this technique is given including the relevant properties of various factors involved in its development. (orig.)

  2. A computer program for automatic gamma-ray spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromura, Kazuyuki

    1975-01-01

    A computer program for automatic analysis of gamma-ray spectra obtained with a Ge(Li) detector is presented. The program includes a method by comparing the successive values of experimental data for the automatic peak finding and method of leastsquares for the peak fitting. The peak shape in the fitting routine is a 'modified Gaussian', which consists of two different Gaussians with the same height joined at the centroid. A quadratic form is chosen as a function representing the background. A maximum of four peaks can be treated in the fitting routine by the program. Some improvements in question are described. (auth.)

  3. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.; Rattan, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152 Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  4. On hard X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of the spectra of X-ray pulsars and gamma bursters is investigated. Interpretation of a hard X-ray spectrum of pulsars containing cyclotron lines is feasible on the basis of an isothermal model of a polar spot heated due to acccretion to a neutron star. It has been ascertained that in the regions responsible for the formation of continuum radiation and lines the mode polarization is determined by a magnetized vacuum rather than by a plasma. Bearing this in mind, the influence of the magnetic field of a star on the wide wings of the cyclotron line and on its depth is discussed. The part played by the accreting column in the case of strong accretion (approx. equal to 10 19 el cm -3 ) needed for long sustaining of the high level of X-rays from a neutron star-pulsar is studied. There occur the gaps in spectrum at frequencies close to the electron gyro-frequency and its harmonics due to the screening of the hot spot by the opaque gyro-resonant layer located within the accreting column. These gaps ensure the formation of cyclotron lines in absorption irrespective of the presence of such lines in the X-ray spectrum of a polar hot spot. (orig./WL)

  5. Quantum chemistry interpretation of x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, D.; Kuzmin, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this study, we present the results of ab initio computer simulations on X-ray absorption spectra of some perovskite-type tungsten oxides. For our calculations, we combine a periodic bulk model with Hartree-Fock method including a posteriori electron correlation corrections, as implemented in CRYSTAL98 computer code [1]. First, we describe the results of calculations performed on some bulk properties of the tungsten oxides (lattice constant and bulk modulus), in order to achieve the necessary level of agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. Our calculations on the densities of oneelectron energy states (DOS) for models of tungsten oxides are verified by experimental X-ray absorption spectra, which allow us to make correct qualitative interpretation of the latter. The main difficulties appearing during our first principles simulations will be discussed. [1] V.R. Saunders, R. Dovesi, C. Roetti, M. Causi, N.M. Harrison, R. Orlando, and C.M. Zicovich-Wilson, CRYSTAL-98 User Manual, University of Turin, 1999

  6. Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of coronal active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catura, R.C.; Acton, L.W.; Joki, E.G.; Rapley, C.G.; Culhane, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray spectra from a number of coronal active regions were obtained during ATM support rocket flights carried out by the Lockheed group on June 11 and December 19, 1973. Multi-grid collimators were used to provide fields of view of 40ins. diameter and 90ins. diameter for a number of scanning crystal spectrometers and a bent crystal spectrometer which employed a position sensitive proportional counter to register the diffracted spectrum. A solar image was produced on film and on a TV camera on board the rocket with the aid of a 1 A Hα filter. A small part of the X-ray collimator was used to generate a multiple spot diffraction pattern which was superimposed on the Hα image and the composite picture was transmitted to the ground. Pre-launch calibrations allowed the spot corresponding to the X-ray collimator axis to be identified and so the collimator pointing direction on the solar disc was controlled from the ground by means of commands sent to the rocket. (Auth.)

  7. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  8. The high energy X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Nugent, J. J.

    The results of fitting an ionization-nonequilibrium (INE) model to the high-energy (above 5-keV) X-ray spectra of the young supernova remnants Cas A and Tycho are presented. As an additional constraint, the models must simultaneously fit lower-energy, higher-resolution data. For Cas A, a single INE component cannot adequately reproduce the features for the entire X-ray spectrum because the ionization structure of iron ions responsible for the K emission is inconsistent with that of the ions responsible for the lower-energy lines, and the flux of the highest-energy X-rays is underestimated. The iron K line and the high-energy continuum could arise from the same INE component, but the identification of this component with either the blast wave or the ejecta in the standard model is difficult. In Tycho, the high-energy data rule out a class of models for the lower-energy data which have too large a continuum contribution.

  9. X-ray spectra of PG quasars. I. The continuum from X-rays to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Green, R.F.; Bechtold, J.; Schmidt, M.; Neugebauer, G.; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Einstein IPC X-ray spectra for a sample of eight optically selected quasars from the Palomar Bright Quasar survey are presented. The quasars have a mean power law energy slope which in five individual cases is inconsistent with the value found in hard X-ray selection criterion rather than luminosity, redshift, or U-B color. New IUE and optical continuum spectra and infrared photometry are presented for these quasars. The data are combined into log vf(v) and log v distributions which support the decomposition of the overall quasar spectrum into a power law plus a superposed optical-UV big bump which may be due to an accretion disk. At least six of the quasars have vf(v)s which are roughly constant between their infrared and X-ray power laws, suggesting a strong link between the two regions. 104 references

  10. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2009-03-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  11. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  12. A model of tungsten anode x-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, G.; Fernández, F., E-mail: fdz@usal.es [Física Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca 37008 (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A semiempirical model for x-ray production in tungsten thick-targets was evaluated using a new characterization of electron fluence. Methods: Electron fluence is modeled taking into account both the energy and angular distributions, each of them adjusted to Monte Carlo simulated data. Distances were scaled by the CSDA range to reduce the energy dependence. Bremsstrahlung production was found by integrating the cross section with the fluence in a 1D penetration model. Characteristic radiation was added using a semiempirical law whose validity was checked. The results were compared the experimental results of Bhat et al., with the SpekCalc numerical tool, and with MCNPX simulation results from the work of Hernandez and Boone. Results: The model described shows better agreement with the experimental results than the SpekCalc predictions in the sense of area between the spectra. A general improvement of the predictions of half-value layers is also found. The results are also in good agreement with the simulation results in the 50–640 keV energy range. Conclusions: A complete model for x-ray production in thick bremsstrahlung targets has been developed, improving the results of previous works and extending the energy range covered to the 50–640 keV interval.

  13. Galactic and extragalactic hydrogen in the X-ray spectra of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, I. I.; Bagoly, Z.; Tóth, L. V.; Balázs, L. G.; Horváth, I.; Pintér, S.

    2017-07-01

    Two types of emission can be observed from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs): the prompt emission from the central engine which can be observed in gamma or X-ray (as a low energy tail) and the afterglow from the environment in X-ray and at shorter frequencies. We examined the Swift XRT spectra with the XSPEC software. The correct estimation of the galactic interstellar medium is very important because we observe the host emission together with the galactic hydrogen absorption. We found that the estimated intrinsic hydrogen column density and the X-ray flux depend heavily on the redshift and the galactic foreground hydrogen. We also found that the initial parameters of the iteration and the cosmological parameters did not have much effect on the fitting result.

  14. Optimization and energy spectra of x-ray to be used for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kanamori, Hitoshi

    1979-01-01

    The relations of the spectra of X-ray used for diagnosis to the absorbed dose of patients and X-ray information are now being investigated by a number of investigators. Here the problems and the trends of the investigations at present are described. Advent of semiconductor detectors has improved the accuracy of measuring X-ray spectra very rapidly. However, since the semiconductor detectors themselves utilize X-ray photon absorption, calibration curves must be prepared for obtaining the true X-ray spectra. Though there are methods of theoretically determining X-ray spectra, no definite theoretical formula is found. Thus, the derivation of an empirical equation based on measured data would be the most fundamental problem. Interactions in an object and the change of X-ray spectra are described on the case of monochromatic and continuous X-ray irradiation. As mentioned above, beam hardening occurs when X-ray enters a matter deep, because the interactions between X-ray and the matter depend upon the photon energy. There are a few methods for correcting the variation of CT (computed tomography) number due to beam hardening. However, prior to this, there are two methods of representing continuous X-ray with single energy, and the unification of the methods or a new way of defining X-ray quality is needed. It has been and is always desirable that monochromatic X-ray source becomes to be useable, and various methods are proposed. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. The Soft X-Ray Spectra of Sulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    1995-01-01

    The sulfur compounds including CdS, ZnS, rm MoS_2, WS_2, NiS, FeS, GaS, SnS, MgS and Alloy rm ZnS_{x }Se_{1-x} were investigated by using photon/e-beam excited soft x-ray spectroscopy through SXA, SXE, SXF and inelastic Resonant Raman scattering and resonant elastic scattering processes. For valence bands, the PDOS of S L_{2,3}, Zn M_{2,3}, Se M _{4,5}, bands locations, band gaps Eg, core level spin splitting, the lifetime broadening of valence band t_{1/2}, branching ratio of rm L_2/L_3 and shallow d level and exciton state were measured in some of these materials respectively. The excitation mechanism or threshold effects were studied for CdS, ZnS, MoS_2, WS_2, FeS, NiS, and alloy. In photon excited S L_ {2,3}^ectra, local core levels with spin splitting were found to charge threshold effects. The threshold effects are also found to be influenced by resonant elastic and inelastic scattering process. A simple model and the second order perturbation theory are used to explain the observed inelastic Raman scattering of Zn M _{2,3} spectra near d threshold. The d participation in the chemical bonding and interactions was studied. Atomiclike d bands were found in FeS and NiS from strong d-d and d-p couplings. Two groups of d bands were observed in Transitional Metal Sulfides (TMS) and the no-bonding group with a few d bands was found to across whole valence bands in TMS. The direct connection between valence bands and conduction bands is built and some conduction bands were studied. A study of alloy was included briefly. These experiments provide a rich information about TMS, and prove that Soft X-ray Spectroscopy is a powerful, precise and reliable tool in the study of fine electronic band structure in solids.

  16. Measurement of spectra for intra-oral X-ray beams using biological materials as attenuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenóbio, Madelon A.F.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.; Zenóbio, Elton G.; Squair, Peterson Lima; Santos, Marcus A.P.; Silva, Teógenes A. da

    2011-01-01

    In diagnostic radiology, the radiation interaction probability in matter is a strong function of the X-ray energy. The knowledge of the X-ray energy spectral distribution allows optimizing the radiographic imaging system in order to obtain high quality images with as low as reasonably achievable patient doses. In this study, transmitted X-ray spectra through dentin and enamel that are existing materials in intra-oral radiology were experimentally determined in an X-ray equipment with 40–70 kV variable range. Dentin and enamel samples with 0.4–3.8 and 0.6–2.6 mm thick were used as attenuators. X-ray transmitted spectra were measured with XR-100T model CdTe detector and half-value layers (HVL) were determined. Characteristics of both dentin and enamel transmitted spectra showed that they have differences in the penetration power in matter and in the spectrum distribution. The results will be useful for phantom developments based on dentin and enamel for image quality control in dental radiology. - Highlights: ► The X-ray energy spectral distribution, optimize the radiographic imaging system. Transmitted X-ray spectra through dentin and enamel were experimentally determined. X-ray transmitted spectra were measured (XR-100T model CdTe detector). The transmitted spectra showed differences in the penetration power and spectrum distribution. Dentin and enamel transmitted spectra will be useful for phantom developments.

  17. MCNP modelling of scintillation-detector gamma-ray spectra from natural radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, P H G M; Maucec, M; de Meijer, R J

    2002-09-01

    gamma-ray spectra of natural radionuclides are simulated for a BGO detector in a borehole geometry using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. All gamma-ray emissions of the decay of 40K and the series of 232Th and 238U are used to describe the source. A procedure is proposed which excludes the time-consuming electron tracking in less relevant areas of the geometry. The simulated gamma-ray spectra are benchmarked against laboratory data.

  18. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M

    1993-11-15

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  19. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    1993-01-01

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on γ-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a γ-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the γ-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A γ-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the γ-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a γ-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all γ-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this 'holistic' approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of γ-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP)

  20. X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray line observations of clusters of galaxies have shown that the X-ray emission in clusters is mainly thermal emission from hot diffuse gas, and that much of this gas has come out of stars, probably having been ejected from galaxies in the cluster. Future high resolution observations should allow us to determine the physical state of the gas. X-ray line measurements and abundance determinations can lead to strong constraints on the origin of the intracluster gas, and on the chemical evolution and history of galaxies. Some of the stronger resonant X-ray lines may be observable as absorption lines against a background quasar. Such X-ray absorption line measurement can be used to directly derive distances to clusters, using a technique similar to (and possibly complementary to) that the well-known method using the Zel'dovich-Syunyaev effect.

  1. Invisible structures in the X-ray absorption spectra of actinides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; De Groot, Frank M F

    The X-ray absorption spectra of actinides are discussed with an emphasis on the fundamental effects that influence their spectral shape, including atomic multiplet theory, charge transfer theory and crystal field theory. Many actinide spectra consist of a single peak and it is shown that the use of

  2. Effect of γ-softness on continuum gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, I.; Onishi, N.

    1985-01-01

    In the case that a nuclear system has a large fluctuation in the direction of triaxiality, we examine the possible feature expected to appear in the continuum gamma-ray spectra, especially a possibility of the filling in the central valley of the two-dimensional gamma-energy coincidence spectra. (orig.)

  3. Standard gamma-ray spectra for the comparison of spectral analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, S.; Hemingway, J.; Bowles, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of standard γ-ray spectra have been produced for use in assessing the performance of spectral analysis software. The origin of and rationale behind the spectra are described. Nine representative analysis systems have been tested both in terms of component performance and in terms of overall performance and the problems encountered in the analysis are discussed. (author)

  4. Standard gamma-ray spectra for the comparison of spectral analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.; Hemingway, J.; Bowles, N. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three sets of standard {gamma}-ray spectra have been produced for use in assessing the performance of spectral analysis software. The origin of and rationale behind the spectra are described. Nine representative analysis systems have been tested both in terms of component performance and in terms of overall performance and the problems encountered in the analysis are discussed. (author)

  5. The analysis of the gamma-ray pulseheight spectra resulting from the NaI detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhengde; Zhang Guishan; Chen Qun; Cao Zhong

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the Gamma-ray pulse-height spectra resulting from NaI detector is described by using weighted least square iteration. The computer program has the function of searching for Gamma-ray peak automatically. It can be used in the analysis of continuous, discrete or their superposition spectra. Besides, there are some function of the spectrum smooth,the correction of the shift in gain and zero energy channel intercept. Some results of the computer program are presented

  6. Quasar X-Ray Spectra At z=1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2001-01-01

    The predicted counts for ASCA observation was much higher than actually observed counts in the quasar. However, there are three weak hard x-ray sources in the GIS field. We are adding them to the source counts in modeling of hard x-ray background. The work is in progress. We have published a paper in Ap.J. on the luminosity function and the quasar evolution. Based on the theory described in this paper we are predicting a number of sources and their contribution to the x-ray background at different redshifts. These model predictions will be compared to the observed data in the final paper.

  7. X-ray measurements on wood - spectra measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Kamp; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Gerward, Leif

    The report concerns simultaneous non-destructive measurements of water content and density of wood. Theoretically, this should be possible using a x-ray equipment newly build at BKM, and this work is an attempt to use the equipment for assessing water content and density of wood samples under...... laboratory conditions. A number of wood samples with different densities are placed at different relative humidities from 0.5 to 97 %RH. When equilibrium is obtained the samples are measured with the x-ray equipment such that 10 points are measured in the sample followed by measurements outside the sample...... (free-scanning). In this way 100 points are measured for each wood sample. This produces information about moisture content and density of the samples as water and wood attenuations of the x-rays are different for the different energy levels contained in the x-rays. The "real" density and moisture...

  8. High-energy X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    X-ray spectra of Cygnus XR-1 were measured with the scintillation spectrometer aboard the OSO 8 satellite during a period of one-and-one-half to three weeks in each of the years from 1975 to 1977. Typical spectra of the source between 15 and 250 keV are presented and the spectra are found to be well represented by a single power-law expression whose photon number spectral index is different for the two intensity states that were considered. The observed pivoting effect is consistent with two-temperature accretion disk models of the X-ray emitting region.

  9. Portable microcomputer unit for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed for the IAEA to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, and a 20-character thermal printer for hardcopy output. Only the positions of the 148-keV Pu-241 and 208-keV U-237 peaks are required for spectral analysis. The unit was tested against gamma-ray spectra taken of NBS plutonium standards and IAEA spectra. Results obtained are presented

  10. The X-ray electronic spectra of TiC-NbC solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashenko, V.M.; Ezhov, A.V.; Nazarova, S.Z.; Kurmaev, Eh.Z.; Nojmann, M.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray photoelectronic spectra of inner levels and valency lands in TiC-NbC solid solutions were studied. Results of combining TiL α -, NbL β2.15 -, CK α - X-ray emission spectra and photoelectronic spectra of valency bands in one energy scale in reference to the Fermi level were analyzed. It is shown that a change in crystal lattice parameters, as well as charge redistribution between titanium and niobium atoms, produce a strong effect on electronic structure formation in the mixed carbides mentioned [ru

  11. Automatic processing of gamma ray spectra employing classical and modified Fourier transform approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, S.S.; Madan, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes methods for automatic processing of gamma ray spectra acquired with HPGe detectors. The processing incorporated both classical and signal processing approach. The classical method was used for smoothing, detecting significant peaks, finding peak envelope limits and a proposed method of finding peak limits, peak significance index, full width at half maximum, detecting doublets for further analysis. To facilitate application of signal processing to nuclear spectra, Madan et al. gave a new classification of signals and identified nuclear spectra as Type II signals, mathematically formalized modified Fourier transform and pioneered its application to process doublet envelopes acquired with modern spectrometers. It was extended to facilitate routine analysis of the spectra. A facility for energy and efficiency calibration was also included. The results obtained by analyzing observed gamma-ray spectra using the above approach compared favourably with those obtained with SAMPO and also those derived from table of radioisotopes. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Gamma-ray emission spectra from spheres with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Kanaoka, Takeshi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito; Sumita, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma-rays emitted from spherical samples were measured using a 14 MeV neutron source. The samples in use were LiF, Teflon:(CF 2 ) n , Si, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Nb, Mo, W and Pb. A diameter of the sphere was either 40 or 60 cm. The gamma-ray energy in the emission spectra covered the range from 500 keV to 10 MeV. Measured spectra were compared with transport calculations using the nuclear data files of JENDL-3T and ENDF/B-IV. The agreements between the measurements and the JENDL-3T calculations were good in the emission spectra for the low energy gamma-rays from inelastic scattering. (author)

  13. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239 PuBe and 241 AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator. The 239 PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity

  14. MCNP modelling of scintillation-detector gamma-ray spectra from natural radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Peter; Maucec, M; de Meijer, RJ

    gamma-ray spectra of natural radionuclides are simulated for a BGO detector in a borehole geometry using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. All gamma-ray emissions of the decay of K-40 and the series of Th-232 and U-238 are used to describe the source. A procedure is proposed which excludes the

  15. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Recent measurements of cosmic ray proton and helium spectra show a hardening above a few hundreds of GeV. This excess is hard to understand in the framework of the conventional models of galactic cosmic ray production and propagation. Here, we propose to explain this anomaly by the presence of ...

  16. Dose Rate Determination from Airborne Gamma-ray Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The standard method for determination of ground level dose rates from airborne gamma-ray is the integral count rate which for a constant flying altitude is assumed proportional to the dose rate. The method gives reasonably results for natural radioactivity which almost always has the same energy...

  17. Gamma-ray spectra from the age of the dinosaurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy has been tested as a technique for assisting in the excavation of paleontological sites in the Morrison Formation of western New Mexico. Excavation of these sites is difficult, owing to remoteness and to environmental concerns that militate against wholesale removal of overburden. Various researchers have used remote-sensing techniques to attempt to locate sub-surface bone near known, exposed fossils, thereby to confine excavation to areas where success in finding bone is most likely. Bones accumulate uranium from surrounding rock during fossilization; accordingly, in-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy might serve to locate bone, by detecting the 609- and 1764-keV gamma rays from uranium daughters. Because of the high uranium content of fossils in the Morrison Formation, calculations suggest the feasibility of locating bone despite the presence of several cm of rock and soil overburden. Investigations at several sites with fossils of large sauropods have revealed increased count rates for the key gamma rays near exposed bone, possibly implying the presence of additional fossils beneath the surface of the ground. However, attempts to use spectroscopy inside shafts drilled into possible fossil-bearing rock have been less successful. Results are presented and prospects for additional work discussed

  18. Spectra of gamma-ray bursts at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1980 February and 1983 August the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) observed 71 gamma-ray bursts. These events form a representative subset of the class of classical gamma-ray bursts. Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts have been detected; however, most observations have been limited to an energy range of roughly 30 keV-1 MeV. The large sensitive area and spectral range of the GRS allow, for the first time, an investigation of the high energy (>1 MeV) behavior of a substantial number of gamma-ray bursts. It is found that high-energy emission is seen in a large fraction of all events and that the data are consistent with all bursts emitting to at least 5 MeV with no cut-offs. Further, no burst spectrum measured by GRS has a clear high-energy cut-off. The high-energy emission can be a significant part of the total burst energy on the average about 30% of the observed energy above 30 keV is contained in the >1 MeV photons. The fact that the observations are consistent with the presence of high-energy emission in all events implies a limit on the preferential beaming of high-energy photons, from any mechanism. Single-photon pair-production in a strong magnetic field produces such beaming; assuming that the low-energy emission is isotropic, the data imply an upper limit of 1 x 10 12 G on the typical magnetic field at burst radiation sites

  19. Time-resolved x-ray spectra of laser irradiated high-Z targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Attwood, D.T.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.C.; Kornblum, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results obtained by using the Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera to record x-ray emission from laser-irradiated high-z targets in the 1-20 keV range are reported. Nine to eleven K-edge filter channels were used for the measurements. In the lower energy channels, a dynamic range of x-ray emission intensity of better than three orders of magnitude have been recorded. Data will be presented which describe temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray spectra of gold disk targets irradiated by laser pulses from the Argus facility, including the temporal evolution of the superthermal x-ray tail

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectra of γ-irradiated perfluorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Sagert, N.H.; Wood, D.D.; Miller, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiolysis on perfluorobenzene (PFB) was investigated using low-temperature X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PFB was irradiated in fluorine-passivated nickel cells using Co 60 γ-rays in an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Gammacell at a dose rate of about 2.6 Gy·s -1 and for a total dose of about 50 kGy. The γ-radiolysis of PFB not only results in cross-linkage but also in the formation of saturated carbon centers in the PFB, as indicated by the presence of CF 2 and CF 3 groups. The relative abundance of CF, CF 2 and CF 3 groups, in the irradiated PFB, was estimated to be about 86, 9 and 5%, respectively

  1. Singularities in x-ray spectra of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    The x-ray spectroscopies discussed are absorption, emission, and photoemission. The singularities show up in each of them in a different manner. In absorption and emission they show up as power law singularities at the thresholds frequencies. This review will emphasize two themes. First a simple model is proposed to describe this phenomena, which is now called the MND model after MAHAN-NOZIERES-DeDOMINICIS. Exact analytical solutions are now available for this model for the three spectroscopies discussed above. These analytical models can be evaluated numerically in a simple way. The second theme of this review is that great care must be used when comparing the theory to experiment. A number of factors influence the edge shapes in x-ray spectroscopy. The edge singularities play an important role, and are observed in many matals. Quantitative fits of the theory to experiment require the consideration of other factors. 51 refs

  2. Plutonium isotopic determination from gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skourikhine, A.N.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-resolution room-temperature detectors for the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials has widespread applications to the safeguarding of nuclear materials. The challenge to using these detectors is the inherent difficulty of the spectral analysis to determine the amount of specific nuclear materials in the measured samples. This is especially true for extracting plutonium isotopic content from low- and medium-resolution spectral lines that are not well resolved. In this paper, neural networks trained by stochastic and singular value decomposition algorithms are applied to retrieve the plutonium isotopic content from a simulated NaI spectra. The simulated sample consists of isotopes 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, and 241 Am. It is demonstrated that the neutral network optimized by singular value decomposition (SVD) and stochastic training algorithms is capable of estimating plutonium content consistently resulting in an average error much smaller than the error previously reported

  3. NEWFIT, a computer program for the analysis of alpha, X-ray and gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, R.B.; Gyger, F.; Jost, D.T.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1988-01-01

    The computer program NEWFIT has been developed for analysis of gamma-ray, X-ray and alpha spectra. The general shape used for the analysis of activity peaks is a Gaussian function. An exponential tail can be added for use in alpha spectra analysis. The algorithms to analyze the peak shapes and the program operation are presented. Special features include the ability to create realistic peak shapes based on the systematic deviations of the real peaks from the theoretical Gaussian shape, as well as the option to constrain the calculated areas of peaks from a given emitting nuclide to their relative branching ratios. The program is available from the authors. (orig.)

  4. The gamma-ray spectra of 5-carbon alkane isomers in the positron annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Yinghao; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectra of pentane (C_5H_1_2) and its two isomers, i.e., 2-Methylbutane (CH_3C(CH_3)HC_2H_5) and 2,2-Dimethylpropane (C(CH_3)_4) have been studied theoretically in the present work. The recent experimental gamma-ray spectra of these three molecules show that they have the same Doppler shifts, although their molecular structures are dramatically different. In order to reveal why the gamma-ray spectra of these molecules are less sensitive to the molecular structures, the one-dimensional gamma-ray spectra and spherically averaged momentum (SAM) distributions, the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR), and the three-dimensional momentum distributions of the positron–electron pair are studied. The one-centered momentum distributions of the electrons are found to play more important role than the multi-centered coordinate distributions. The present theoretical predictions have confirmed the experimental findings for the first time. The dominance of the inner valence electrons in the positron–electron annihilation process has also been suggested in the present work. - Highlights: • The structure effects only play a minor role in the one-dimension gamma-ray spectra. • The present study further confirms the dominance of the inner valence electrons in the positron–electron annihilation process. • The momentum distributions of the electrons play more important role than the coordinate distributions.

  5. Ab initio theory and calculations of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J.J.; Kas, J.J.; Prange, M.P.; Sorini, A.P.; Takimoto, Y.; Vila, F.

    2009-01-01

    There has been dramatic progress in recent years both in the calculation and interpretation of various x-ray spectroscopies. However, current theoretical calculations often use a number of simplified models to account for many-body effects, in lieu of first principles calculations. In an effort to overcome these limitations we describe in this article a number of recent advances in theory and in theoretical codes which offer the prospect of parameter free calculations that include the dominant many-body effects. These advances are based on ab initio calculations of the dielectric and vibrational response of a system. Calculations of the dielectric function over a broad spectrum yield system dependent self-energies and mean-free paths, as well as intrinsic losses due to multielectron excitations. Calculations of the dynamical matrix yield vibrational damping in terms of multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors. Our ab initio methods for determining these many-body effects have led to new, improved, and broadly applicable x-ray and electron spectroscopy codes. (authors)

  6. Envelope method for background elimination from X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, V.V.; Naumenko, P.A.; Chashinskaya, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the background noise caused by Bremsstrahlung on the accuracy of the envelope method at x-ray fluorescence spectra processing is studied. This is carried out by the example of model spectra at different forms of Bremsstrahlung noise as well as at the presence of background noise in spectra. The interpolation by parabolic splines is used for the estimation of the error of the envelope method for the elimination of continuos background noise. It is found out that the error of the proposed method constitutes decimal parts of percent. It is shown that the envelope method is the effective technique for the elimination of the continuous Bremsstrahlung from x-ray fluorescence spectra of the first order [ru

  7. Quasar energy distributions. I. Soft X-ray spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.J.; Elvis, M.

    1987-01-01

    As the initial stage of a study of quasar energy distributions (QEDs), Einstein IPC spectra of 24 quasars are presented. These are combined with previously reported IPC spectra to form a sample of 33 quasars with well-determined soft X-ray slopes. A correlation analysis shows that radio loudness, rather than redshift or luminosity, is fundamentally related to the X-ray slope. This correlation is not followed by higher energy spectra of active galaxies. Two components are required to explain both sets of results. The best-fit column densities are systematically smaller than the Galactic values. The same effect is not present in a sample of BL Lac objects, implying that the effect is intrinsic to the quasars and is caused by a low-energy turnup in the quasar spectra. 74 references

  8. A distribution-free test for anomalous gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Kung-sik; Li, Jinzheng; Eichinger, William; Bai, Er-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra are increasingly acquired in monitoring cross-border traffic, or in an area search for lost or orphan special nuclear material (SNM). The signal in such data is generally weak, resulting in poorly resolved spectra, thereby making it hard to detect the presence of SNM. We develop a new test for detecting anomalous spectra by characterizing the complete shape change in a spectrum from background radiation; the proposed method may serve as a tripwire for routine screening for SNM. We show that, with increasing detection time, the limiting distribution of the test is given by some functional of the Brownian bridge. The efficacy of the proposed method is illustrated by simulations. - Highlights: • We develop a new non-parametric test for detecting anomalous gamma-ray spectra. • The proposed test has good empirical power for detecting weak signals. • It can serve as an effective tripwire for invoking more thorough scrutiny of the source

  9. Simulation of prompt gamma rays spectra: calibration for pollutants determination in voluminous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2006-01-01

    A PGNAA facility using Am-Be source has been developed with the aim of analyzing the major composition of various elements in aqueous samples. A program of simulation for gamma rays spectra was developed to estimate the detection limits of pollutants. The background line under photo peaks of interest was simulated using experimental data. The reliability of the program was checked under real conditions with solutions containing various salt concentrations. Experimental and simulated spectra were found to be in good agreement. (author)

  10. Automated generation and ensemble-learned matching of X-ray absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chen; Mathew, Kiran; Chen, Chi; Chen, Yiming; Tang, Hanmei; Dozier, Alan; Kas, Joshua J.; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Persson, Kristin A.; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2018-03-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used materials characterization technique to determine oxidation states, coordination environment, and other local atomic structure information. Analysis of XAS relies on comparison of measured spectra to reliable reference spectra. However, existing databases of XAS spectra are highly limited both in terms of the number of reference spectra available as well as the breadth of chemistry coverage. In this work, we report the development of XASdb, a large database of computed reference XAS, and an Ensemble-Learned Spectra IdEntification (ELSIE) algorithm for the matching of spectra. XASdb currently hosts more than 800,000 K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) for over 40,000 materials from the open-science Materials Project database. We discuss a high-throughput automation framework for FEFF calculations, built on robust, rigorously benchmarked parameters. FEFF is a computer program uses a real-space Green's function approach to calculate X-ray absorption spectra. We will demonstrate that the ELSIE algorithm, which combines 33 weak "learners" comprising a set of preprocessing steps and a similarity metric, can achieve up to 84.2% accuracy in identifying the correct oxidation state and coordination environment of a test set of 19 K-edge XANES spectra encompassing a diverse range of chemistries and crystal structures. The XASdb with the ELSIE algorithm has been integrated into a web application in the Materials Project, providing an important new public resource for the analysis of XAS to all materials researchers. Finally, the ELSIE algorithm itself has been made available as part of veidt, an open source machine-learning library for materials science.

  11. Measurement and calculation of characteristic prompt gamma ray spectra emitted during proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polf, J C; Peterson, S; Beddar, S [M D Anderson Cancer Center, Univeristy of Texas, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Trache, L [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)], E-mail: jcpolf@mdanderson.org

    2009-11-21

    In this paper, we present results of initial measurements and calculations of prompt gamma ray spectra (produced by proton-nucleus interactions) emitted from tissue equivalent phantoms during irradiations with proton beams. Measurements of prompt gamma ray spectra were made using a high-purity germanium detector shielded either with lead (passive shielding), or a Compton suppression system (active shielding). Calculations of the spectra were performed using a model of both the passive and active shielding experimental setups developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. From the measured spectra it was shown that it is possible to distinguish the characteristic emission lines from the major elemental constituent atoms (C, O, Ca) in the irradiated phantoms during delivery of proton doses similar to those delivered during patient treatment. Also, the Monte Carlo spectra were found to be in very good agreement with the measured spectra providing an initial validation of our model for use in further studies of prompt gamma ray emission during proton therapy. (note)

  12. A simple method for generation of back-ground-free gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawarasaki, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A simple and versatile method of generating background-free γ-ray spectra is presented. This method is equivalent to the generation of a continuous background baseline over the entire energy range of spectra corresponding to the original ones obtained with a Ge(Li) detector. These background curves can not be generally expressed in a single and simple analytic form nor in the form of a power series. These background-free spectra thus obtained make it feasible to assign many tiny peaks at the stage of visual inspection of the spectra, which is difficult to do with the original ones. The automatic peak-finding and peak area calculation procedures are both applicable to these background-free spectra. Examples of the application are illustrated. The effect of the peak-shape distortion is also discussed. (Auth.)

  13. Decomposition of continuum {gamma}-ray spectra using synthesized response matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M.; Morhac, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Matousek, V. E-mail: vladislav.matousek@savba.sk; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V

    2004-01-01

    The efficient methods of decomposition of {gamma}-ray spectra, based on the Gold algorithm, are presented. They use a response matrix of Gammasphere, which was obtained by synthesis of simulated and interpolated response functions using a new developed interpolation algorithm. The decomposition method has been applied to the measured spectra of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 56}Co. The results show a very effective removal of the background counts and their concentration into the corresponding photopeaks. The peak-to-total ratio in the spectra achieved after applying the decomposition method is in the interval 0.95-0.99. In addition, a new advanced algorithm of the 'boosted' decomposition has been proposed. In the spectra obtained after applying the boosted decomposition to the measured spectra, very narrow photopeaks are observed with the counts concentrated to several channels.

  14. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  15. Delin and Delog codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travesi, A.; Romero, L.

    1983-01-01

    Two FORTRAN IV Codes have been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with GeLi detectors and multichannel analyzers. The graphic plotting is carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can be done in a lineal, semilog, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are fed into the computer through magnetic tape or perforated paper tape. The different output options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with TV display. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: 1) smoothing the spectra; 2) drawing the spectra point by point or continuous; 3) output drawing in 1, 2 or 4 sheets with automatic division of the energy scale; 4) overlapping of selected spectra regions in γ-scale ampliation with automatic printout of the region limits and ampliation factor; 5) printing spectra data and identifications of selected photopeaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-GRAPHICS 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with FORTRAN IV written subroutines. (author)

  16. DELIN and DELOG codes for graphic representation of gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Two Fortran IV Codes has been developed for graphic representation of the gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge Li detectors and multichannel analyzers. The grafic plotting es carried out with the H.P. Graphic Plotter Mod HP-7221 A, using the graphic package software GRAPHICS-1000 from Hewlett-Packard. The codes have a great versatility and the representation of gamma spectra can ba done in a lineal, semi log, or log-log scale, as desired. The gamma ray spectra data are feed into the computer through magnetic tape or perfored paper tape. The different out-put options and complementary data are given in a conversational way through a terminal with T.V. displays. Among the options that can be selected by the user are the following: - smoothing the spectra - drawing the spectra point by point or continuous - out-put drawing an 1, 2, or 4 sheet with automatic division of the energy scale. - overlapping of selected spectra regions in Y scale ampliation with automatic print-out of the region limits and ampliation factor. - Printing spectra data and identifications of selected photo peaks. The codes can be employed with any computer using printing devices, HP-Graphics 1000 software compatible, but are easily modified for another printing software since their modular structure with Fortran IV written

  17. Effects of phonon broadening on x-ray near-edge spectra in molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Elam, Tim; Denlinger, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Calculations of near-edge x-ray spectra are often carried out using the average atomic coordinates from x-ray or neutron scattering experiments or from density functional theory (DFT) energy minimization. This neglects disorder from thermal and zero-point vibrations. Here we look at the nitrogen K-edge of ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate, comparing Bethe-Salpeter calculations of absorption and fluorescence to experiment. We find that intra-molecular vibrational effects lead to significant, non-uniform broadening of the spectra, and that for some features zero-point motion is the primary source of the observed shape.

  18. Diagnostic x-ray spectra measurements using a silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Laitano, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A silicon surface barrier detector having a low efficiency for x-ray is used to analyse diagnostic x-ray spectra. This characteristic is advantageous in overcoming experimental problems caused by high fluence rates typical of diagnostic x-ray beams. The pulse height distribution obtained with silicon surface barrier detectors is very different from the true photon spectra because of the presence of escaped Compton photons and the fact that detection efficiency falls abruptly when photon energy increases. A detailed analysis of the spurious effects involved in detection is made by a Monte Carlo method. A stripping procedure is described for implementation on a personal computer. The validity of this method is tested by comparison with experimental results obtained with a Ge detector. The spectra obtained with the Si detector are in fairly good agreement with the analogous spectra measured with a Ge detector. The advantages of using Si as opposed to Ge detectors in x-ray spectrometry are: its simplicity of use, its greater economy for use in routine diagnostic x-ray spectroscopy and the possibility that the stripping procedure can be implemented on a personal computer. (author)

  19. FIER: Software for analytical modeling of delayed gamma-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E. F.; Goldblum, B. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Quiter, B. J.; Brown, J. A.; Younes, W.; Burke, J. T.; Padgett, S. W.; Ressler, J. J.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    A new software package, the Fission Induced Electromagnetic Response (FIER) code, has been developed to analytically predict delayed γ-ray spectra following fission. FIER uses evaluated nuclear data and solutions to the Bateman equations to calculate the time-dependent populations of fission products and their decay daughters resulting from irradiation of a fissionable isotope. These populations are then used in the calculation of γ-ray emission rates to obtain the corresponding delayed γ-ray spectra. FIER output was compared to experimental data obtained by irradiation of a 235U sample in the Godiva critical assembly. This investigation illuminated discrepancies in the input nuclear data libraries, showcasing the usefulness of FIER as a tool to address nuclear data deficiencies through comparison with experimental data. FIER provides traceability between γ-ray emissions and their contributing nuclear species, decay chains, and parent fission fragments, yielding a new capability for the nuclear science community.

  20. Transmission properties of barite mortar using X-ray spectra measured with Cd Te detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J. C.; Mariano, L.; Costa, P. R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Rua do Matao Travessa R. 187, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: josilene@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Instituto de Fisica, Campus Samambaia, 74001-970 Goiania (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Current methods for calculating X-ray shielding barriers do not take into account spectral distribution of the beam transmitted by the protective material. This consideration is important in dose estimations for radiation workers and general public in diagnostic radiology facilities. The aim of the present study was to estimate barite mortar attenuation curves using X-ray spectra weighted by a workload distribution. These curves were described in units of ambient dose equivalent (H (10)), since it is the radiation quantity adopted by IAEA for dose assessment in medical environment. Attenuation curves were determined using the optimized model for shielding evaluation presented by Costa and Caldas (2002). Workload distribution presented by Simpkin (1996), measured primary spectra and mass attenuation coefficients of barite mortar were used as input data in this model. X-ray beams in diagnostic energy range were generated by an industrial X-ray tube with 3 mm of aluminum additional filtration. Primary experimental spectra were measured by a Cd Te detector and corrected by the response function of detector by means of a stripping procedure. Air kerma measurements were performed using an ionization chamber for normalization purpose of the spectra. The corrected spectra presented good agreement with spectra generated by a semi-empirical model. The variation of the ambient dose equivalent as a function of barite mortar thickness was calculated. Using these data, it was estimated the optimized thickness of protective barrier needed for shielding a particular area in an X-ray imaging facility. The results obtained for primary protective barriers exhibit qualitative agreement with those presented in literature. (Author)

  1. Modeling of X-ray images and energy spectra produced by stepping lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Wei; Marshall , Robert A.; Celestin , Sébastien; Pasko , Victor P.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as woul...

  2. On-line compression of symmetrical multidimensional γ-ray spectra using adaptive orthogonal transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morhac, M.; Matousek, V.

    2008-01-01

    The efficient algorithm to compress multidimensional symmetrical γ-ray events is presented. The reduction of data volume can be achieved due to both the symmetry of the γ-ray spectra and compression capabilities of the employed adaptive orthogonal transform. Illustrative examples prove in the favor of the proposed compression algorithm. The algorithm was implemented for on-line compression of events. Acquired compressed data can be later processed in an interactive way

  3. Many-body effects on the x-ray spectra of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satpathy, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of band structure, of a solid surface, of temperature, and of disorder on the many-electron x-ray spectra of metals are evaluated in a change-of-mean-field approximation using a one-dimensional nearest-neighbor tight-binding model of a metal. The x-ray spectral shapes are determined by both the band structure and the final-state interactions. The effect of the band being non-free-electron-like is not felt at the x-ray threshold, but away from it such effects are noticeable. When the core hole is created at the surface, the spectra at the edge exhibit a Nozieres-de Dominicis-type singularity with the appropriate surface phase-shifts. At energies away from the edge, the one-particle effects are prominent with the x-ray emission and absorption spectra closely reflecting the local one-electron density of states. The recoil spectrum of a Fermi sea at a non-zero temperature has less asymmetry than the zero-temperature case. It was found that at ordinary temperatures the reduction of the asymmetry due to the thermal distribution of one-electron states is not very significant. Finally, using a one-dimensional Anderson model, the effect of lattice disorder on the x-ray absorption spectra is studied for the first time. There are two effects: (1) the strong infrared divergence peak is gradually quenched as disorder is increased, and (2) the threshold is broadened because the threshold energies for absorption at different sites in the crystal depend on the varying local lattice environment. It is proposed that the x-ray spectra may be useful as a tool for studying the degree of electron localization in disordered many-electron systems

  4. Dynamical and Radiative Properties of X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns: Phase-averaged Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brent F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Wolfram, Kenneth D. [Naval Research Laboratory (retired), Washington, DC (United States); Becker, Peter A., E-mail: bwest@usna.edu, E-mail: kswolfram@gmail.com, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The availability of the unprecedented spectral resolution provided by modern X-ray observatories is opening up new areas for study involving the coupled formation of the continuum emission and the cyclotron absorption features in accretion-powered X-ray pulsar spectra. Previous research focusing on the dynamics and the associated formation of the observed spectra has largely been confined to the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface, while the dynamical effect of gas pressure is ignored. In a companion paper, we have presented a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the accretion column obtained using a new self-consistent model that includes the effects of both gas and radiation pressures. In this paper, we explore the formation of the associated X-ray spectra using a rigorous photon transport equation that is consistent with the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the column. We use the new model to obtain phase-averaged spectra and partially occulted spectra for Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. We also use the new model to constrain the emission geometry, and compare the resulting parameters with those obtained using previously published models. Our model sheds new light on the structure of the column, the relationship between the ionized gas and the photons, the competition between diffusive and advective transport, and the magnitude of the energy-averaged cyclotron scattering cross-section.

  5. Measurement of X-ray spectra by PIN photodiode: comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.; Furquim, Tania A.C.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    1996-01-01

    Two different approaches for the evaluation of diagnostic X-ray spectra are presented : one based on a semiempirical model and other based on measurements using a silicon PIN photodiode. Measured and calculated values using typical kVp and filter combinations are compared

  6. Vibrational spectra, powder X-ray diffractions and physical properties of cyanide complexes with 1-ethylimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Kiraz, Fulya Çetinkaya; Sayın, Elvan

    2015-10-01

    The heteronuclear tetracyanonickelate(II) complexes of the type [M(etim)Ni(CN)4]n (hereafter, abbreviated as M-Ni-etim, M = Mn(II), Fe(II) or Co(II); etim = 1-ethylimidazole, C5H8N2) were prepared in powder form and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal (TG; DTG and DTA), and elemental analysis techniques. The structures of these complexes were elucidated using vibrational spectra and powder X-ray diffraction patterns with the peak assignment to provide a better understanding of the structures. It is shown that the spectra are consistent with a proposed crystal structure for these compounds derived from powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Vibrational spectra of the complexes were presented and discussed with respect to the internal modes of both the etim and the cyanide ligands. The C, H and N analyses were carried out for all the complexes. Thermal behaviors of these complexes were followed using TG, DTG and DTA curves in the temperature range 30-700 °C in the static air atmosphere. The FT-IR, Raman spectra, thermal and powder X-ray analyses revealed no significant differences between the single crystal and powder forms. Additionally, electrical and magnetic properties of the complexes were investigated. The FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, PXRD, thermal and elemental analyses results propose that these complexes are similar in structure to the Hofmann-type complexes.

  7. Gamma ray spectra recorded from the fallout collected in May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristu, M.I.

    1987-07-01

    An analysis of the gamma ray spectra recorded from the fallout collective in Bucharest and Brasov in May, 1986 was carried out. Relative activities of the assigned radionuclides were computed and the duration of the 235 U fuel irradiation has been deduced. (author)

  8. Least square fitting of low resolution gamma ray spectra with cubic B-spline basis functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Menghua; Liu Lianggang; Qi Dongxu; You Zhong; Xu Aoao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the least square fitting method with the cubic B-spline basis functions is derived to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations in the gamma ray spectra. The derived procedure is simple and automatic. The results show that this method is better than the convolution method with a sufficient reduction of statistical fluctuation. (authors)

  9. Kα X-ray satellite spectra of Ti, V, Cr and Mn induced by photons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K X-ray emission spectra of Ti, V, Cr and Mn generated by photon excitation have been studied with a crystal spectrometer. The measured energy shifts of K satellite relative to the diagram line are compared with values obtained by electron excitation and with different theoretical estimates. The present experimental ...

  10. X-ray spectra from the Cornell Electron-Beam Ion Source (CEBIS I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Janson, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation emitted from the Cornell electron beam ion source (CEBIS I) has been surveyed with a Si(Li) x-ray detector. These spectra can be used to estimate backgrounds from electron bremsstrahlung and to evaluate the feasibility of atomic physics experiments using the CEBIS I source in this configuration. 1 ref., 2 figs

  11. Core-hole effects in the x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEIJS, PJW; CZYZYK, MT; VANACKER, JF; SPEIER, W; GOEDKOOP, JB; VANLEUKEN, H; HENDRIX, HJM; DEGROOT, RA; VANDERLAAN, G; BUSCHOW, KHJ; WIECH, G; FUGGLE, JC

    1990-01-01

    We report systematic differences between the shape of the Si K x-ray-absorption spectra of transition-metal silicides and broadened partial densities of Si p states. We use a variety of calculations to show that the origin of these discrepancies is the core-hole potential appropriate to the final

  12. gamma-ray spectra measurements for long cooled MOX spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kobayashi, Iwao

    1993-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectra of spent fuels have important informations in the estimation of burnup rate, concentration of fission products, cooling time and etc. which are required in the fuel loading control of reactors and special nuclear materials accountancy from the view point of safe guard. Although, some available data are given about uranium dioxide fuels, few data are given about uranium and plutonium dioxide mixtures (MOX fuels). Especially, there is few data about MOX fuels which are irradiated in thermal reactors and cooled more than ten years. Gamma-ray spectra are measured for PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel rods (IFA-159, IFA-160) which are irradiated at HBWR in Norway up to 9,420 and 5,340MWd/t respectively. Gamma-ray spectra had been measured about the two fuels ten years ago at the spent fuel pond of Japan Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The objectives of this measurement is to know how decayed the gamma-ray spectra in these ten years and some fission products are there which are effective to estimate burnup rate of spent MOX fuels. (author)

  13. The structure of quasi-molecular KX-ray spectra from heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaun, K.-N.; Frank, W.; Manfrass, P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with Ge, Nb, Kr and La ions continuum X-ray spectra having a two-component structure have been observed. Both components atr interpreted as quasi-molecular X-radiation caused by transitions to the 2psigma and 1ssigma states in the quasimolecule

  14. ACTIV - a program for automatic processing of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlokazov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    Program ACTIV is intended for precise analysis of γ-rays and X-ray spectra and allows the user to carry out the full cycle of automatic processing of a series of spectra, i.e. calibration, automatic peak search, determination of peak positions and areas, identification of the radioisotopes and the transformation of the areas found into masses of isotopes in the irradiated sample. ACTIV uses a complex mathematical technique and is oriented mainly to large computers, but using overlaid loading, it can be run also on small computers like the PDP 11/70. Compared with other similar programs, ACTIV has some advantages in accuracy of peak shape description and in the reliability of the peak search and its least-square analysis. The program can be used for the purpose of activation analysis. The program can analyze spectra with poor statistics and with broad and narrow peaks. (orig.)

  15. The spectra program library: A PC based system for gamma-ray spectra analysis and INAA data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Grossman, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    A PC based system has been developed for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra and for the complete reduction of data from INAA experiments, including software to average the results from mulitple lines and multiple countings and to produce a final report of analysis. Graphics algorithms may be called for the analysis of complex spectral features, to compare the data from alternate photopeaks and to evaluate detector performance during a given counting cycle. A database of results for control samples can be used to prepare quality control charts to evaluate long term precision and to search for systemic variations in data on reference samples as a function of time. The entire software library can be accessed through a user-friendly menu interface with internal help.

  16. Studies of the X-ray absorption spectra of some methylcyano esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Saito, Ko; Mitani, Masaki; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tahara, Fumitaka; Sunami, Tetsuji; Waki, Keiichiro; Senba, Yasunori; Hiraya, Atsunari; Pettersson, Lars G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been applied to simulate core-excited photoabsorption spectra for some methylcyano esters within a transition potential (TP) framework. Our calculations for methylcyano formate at the N and O K-edges are consistent with previous experimental spectra. For methylcyano acetate the photoabsorption spectra at the N and O K-edges were reinvestigated experimentally. Contrary to the previous experiment, only one main peak was observed at the N K-edge and this peak was assigned to N(1s) ->π* excitation. This result was supported by our theoretical calculations. The general trends in the X-ray absorption spectra and the site-specific bond scission of methylcyano esters at the N and O K-edges are also discussed

  17. Preliminary report on an intercomparison of methods for processing Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Houtermans, H.; Schaerf, K.

    1978-01-01

    An intercomparison has been organized by the IAEA for the purpose of evaluating methods for processing Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra. These spectra cover an energy range of about 1MeV and, with one exception, contain only well separated single peaks; another spectrum contains double peaks with various relative intensities and degrees of overlap. The spectra were prepared in such a way that the areas and positions of all peaks, relative to a standard spectrum which is also provided, are known exactly. The intercomparison enables the user to test the ability of his methods (1) to detect small peaks near the limit of detectability; (2) to determine the position and area of more easily detectable peaks, and (3) to determine the position and area of overlapping double peaks. The method of preparation of the spectra and the organization of the intercomparison are described in this report. (author)

  18. First Principles Calculations for X-ray Resonant Spectra and Elastic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongbin Lee

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss applications of first principles methods to x-ray resonant spectra and elastic properties calculation. We start with brief reviews about theoretical background of first principles methods, such as density functional theory, local density approximation (LDA), LDA+U, and the linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method to solve Kohn-Sham equations. After that we discuss x-ray resonant scattering (XRMS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and the branching problem in the heavy rare earths Ledges. In the last chapter we discuss the elastic properties of the second hardest material AlMgB 14

  19. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified.

  20. Simulation of Neutron-Induced Prompt Gamma-ray Spectra Emitted from Fake Tungsten Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sum, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fake gold bars on the market cannot be identified easily without testing because they have the same appearance as a pure gold bar. A non-destructive monitoring method is needed to avoid the trading of fake gold bars on the market. The ultimate goal of this study is to find a fake gold bar detection method using a PGAA (Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis). Using existing data, the number of neutron capture for gold and tungsten in fake tungsten gold bar was calculated and a Monte Carlo simulation for the prompt neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra was conducted. A simulation for neutron-induced prompt gamma-rays spectra when a neutron beam is irradiated onto pure and fake gold bars was successfully conducted. Through a comparison between the prompt gamma-ray spectra of the pure gold bar and those of the fake gold bar, it was concluded that the observation of prompt high-energy gamma-rays from tungsten or a reduction of prompt gamma-rays from gold can be evidence of a fake gold bar. The possibility for detecting a fake gold bar using a PGAA facility was verified

  1. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra by using fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nagata, Shojiro; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Isamu; Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform devised. The validity of the method was confirmed by a computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. The method uses the fact that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with reduced number of terms. The estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features in the method and a general problem to be solved in a response matrix method are described. (auth.)

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  3. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, K.V.; Dunn, J.; Baldis, H.A.; May, M.J.; Purvis, M.A.; Scott, H.A.; Schneider, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  4. Portable computer to reduce gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Camp, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    In response to Task A.63 of the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO), to upgrade measurement technology used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a portable data-reduction microprocessor was designed and programmed which allows in-field reduction of gamma-ray spectra and interfaces with the IAEA's multichannel analyzers - the 1000 or 2000-channel memory Silena BS27/N. This report describes the components used in assembling the microprocessor unit: hardware, software used to control the unit, and the mathematical formulation used to obtain isotopic ratios from the gamma-ray data. A simple overview is presented of the unit's operation and the results of tests on gamma-ray spectra that sought to verify the unit's operating characteristics and to determine the precision and effectiveness of the software developed for data reduction

  5. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications

  6. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: (1) a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, (2) a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, (3) and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 2 describes the operations of these applications and the installation and maintenance of the software

  7. Utilizing experimentally derived multi-channel gamma-ray spectra for the analysis of airborne data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra derived from measurements on radioactive concrete calibration pads using plywood sheets to simulate the attenuation effect of air have been successfully tested on airbone data. Cesium-137 at 662 keV, from atomic weapons tests was found to contribute significantly to the airborne spectrum. By fitting the experimental spectra, above the cesium energy, to airborne data, significant increases in accuracy were obtained for the measurement of uranium and thorium, compared to the standard 3-window method. By including a cesium spectrum is the analysis of gamma-ray data from a survey carried out in Saskatchewan, it was found that background radiation due to atmospheric bismuth-214 could be measured more reliably than by using a constant over-water background. Similar results were obtained by monitoring low energy lead-214 gamma-rays at 352 keV

  8. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  9. A method to unfold the efficiency of gaseous detectors exposed to broad X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Souza, Maria Ines S. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2000-01-01

    A method to obtain the efficiency of a gaseous detector exposed to broad energy X-ray spectra was developed. It consists in the de-convolution of the integrated detector response using the shapes of those spectra as a tool to unfold the aimed detector efficiency curve. For this purpose, the spectra emitted by a X-ray tube under several anode voltages, were properly characterized through measurements with a NaI(Tl) spectrometer. A Lorentz function was then fitted to each of the spectra, and their parameters expressed as a function of the anode voltage, by using polynomial and gaussian fittings. The integral of the product of each Lorentz function, by another unknown Lorentz function, expressing the detector efficiency curve, represents the response of the detector for each anode tension, e.g., each X-ray spectrum. The symbolical integration of that product, produces a general function containing the unknown parameters of the unknown efficiency curve. A non-linear fitting of this general function, to the detector response points, as experimentally obtained, generates the aimed parameters for the efficiency curve. The final detector efficiency curve is obtained after normalization procedures. (author)

  10. INTEGRAL hard X-ray spectra of the cosmic X-ray background and Galactic ridge emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, M.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Lubiński, P.; Neronov, A.; Produit, N.; Walter, R.

    2010-03-01

    Aims: We derive the spectra of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) in the ~20-200 keV range from the data of the IBIS instrument aboard the INTEGRAL satellite obtained during the four dedicated Earth-occultation observations in early 2006. Methods: We analyze the modulation of the IBIS/ISGRI detector counts induced by the passage of the Earth through the field of view of the instrument. Unlike previous studies, we do not fix the spectral shape of the various contributions, but model instead their spatial distribution and derive for each of them the expected modulation of the detector counts. The spectra of the diffuse emission components are obtained by fitting the normalizations of the model lightcurves to the observed modulation in different energy bins. Because of degeneracy, we guide the fits with a realistic choice of the input parameters and a constraint for spectral smoothness. Results: The obtained CXB spectrum is consistent with the historic HEAO-1 results and falls slightly below the spectrum derived with Swift/BAT. A 10% higher normalization of the CXB cannot be completely excluded, but it would imply an unrealistically high albedo of the Earth. The derived spectrum of the GRXE confirms the presence of a minimum around 80 keV with improved statistics and yields an estimate of ~0.6 M⊙ for the average mass of white dwarfs in the Galaxy. The analysis also provides updated normalizations for the spectra of the Earth's albedo and the cosmic-ray induced atmospheric emission. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of INTEGRAL Earth-occultation observations to derive the hard X-ray spectra of three fundamental components: the CXB, the GRXE and the Earth emission. Further observations would be extremely valuable to confirm our results with improved statistics.

  11. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  12. Simulation of Prompt gamma-rays spectra: Calibration for water tables pollutants determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A PGNAA facility using Am-Be source has been developed with the aim of analyzing the major composition of various elements in aqueous sample. A program of simulation for gamma rays spectra was developed to estimate the detection limits of pollutants. The background line under photo-peaks of interest was simulated by using experimental data. The reliability of the program is checked on real condition with solutions contained various salt concentration. Comparison between experimental and simulated spectra was found in good agreement. (authors)

  13. A nonlinear wavelet method for data smoothing of low-level gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang Xiao; Li Deng; Benai Zhang; Jianshi Zhu

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear wavelet method was designed for smoothing low-level gamma-ray spectra. The spectra of a 60 Co graduated radioactive source and a mixed soil sample were smoothed respectively according to this method and a 5 point smoothing method. The FWHM of 1,332 keV peak of 60 Co source and the absolute activities of 238 U of soil sample were calculated. The results show that the nonlinear wavelet method is better than the traditional method, with less loss of spectral peak and a more complete reduction of statistical fluctuation. (author)

  14. A simple method for conversion of airborne gamma-ray spectra to ground level doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    A new and simple method for conversion of airborne NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectra to dose rates at ground level has been developed. By weighting the channel count rates with the channel numbers a spectrum dose index (SDI) is calculated for each spectrum. Ground level dose rates then are determined...... by multiplying the SDI by an altitude dependent conversion factor. The conversion factors are determined from spectra based on Monte Carlo calculations. The results are compared with measurements in a laboratory calibration set-up. IT-NT-27. June 1996. 27 p....

  15. HIGHER ORDER SPECIATION EFFECTS ON PLUTONIUM L3 X-RAY ABSORPTION NEAR EDGE SPECTRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradson, Steven D.; Abney, Kent D.; Begg, Bruce D.; Brady, Erik D.; Clark, David L.; den Auwer, Christophe; Ding, Mei; Dorhout, Peter K.; Espinosa-Faller, Francisco J.; Gordon, Pamela L.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hess, Ryan F.; Keogh, D. Webster; Lander, Gerard H.; Lupinetti, Anthony J.; Neu, Mary P.; Palmer, Phillip D.; Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Reilly, Sean D.; Runde, Wolfgang H.; Tait, C. Drew; Veirs, D. Kirk

    2003-06-09

    Pu L{sub 3} X-ray Near Edge Absorption Spectra for Pu(0-VII) are reported for more than 50 chalcogenides, chlorides, hydrates, hydroxides, nitrates, carbonates, oxy-hydroxides, and other compounds both as solids and in solution, and substituted in zirconlite, perovksite, and borosilicate glass. This large data base extends the known correlations between the energy and shape of these spectra from the usual association of the XANES with valence and site symmetry to higher order chemical effects. Because of the large number of compounds of these different types a number of novel and unexpected behaviors are observed.

  16. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  17. A self-consistent model for the Galactic cosmic ray, antiproton and positron spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In this talk I will present the escape model of Galactic cosmic rays. This model explains the measured cosmic ray spectra of individual groups of nuclei from TeV to EeV energies. It predicts an early transition to extragalactic cosmic rays, in agreement with recent Auger data. The escape model also explains the soft neutrino spectrum 1/E^2.5 found by IceCube in concordance with Fermi gamma-ray data. I will show that within the same model one can explain the excess of positrons and antiprotons above 20 GeV found by PAMELA and AMS-02, the discrepancy in the slopes of the spectra of cosmic ray protons and heavier nuclei in the TeV-PeV energy range and the plateau in cosmic ray dipole anisotropy in the 2-50 TeV energy range by adding the effects of a 2 million year old nearby supernova.

  18. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  19. Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abare, A.C.; Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D.; Falcone, R.W.

    1993-04-01

    We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra a gas jet target. In obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology and mammography using MCNP4C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ay, M R [Department of Physics and Nuclear Sciences, AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, M [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarkar, S [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adib, M [TPP Co., GE Medical Systems, Iran Authorized Distributor, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaidi, H [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2004-11-07

    The general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP4C) was used for the simulation of x-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology and mammography. The electrons were transported until they slow down and stop in the target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray production were considered in this work. We focus on the simulation of various target/filter combinations to investigate the effect of tube voltage, target material and filter thickness on x-ray spectra in the diagnostic radiology and mammography energy ranges. The simulated x-ray spectra were compared with experimental measurements and spectra calculated by IPEM report number 78. In addition, the anode heel effect and off-axis x-ray spectra were assessed for different anode angles and target materials and the results were compared with EGS4-based Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. Quantitative evaluation of the differences between our Monte Carlo simulated and comparison spectra was performed using student's t-test statistical analysis. Generally, there is a good agreement between the simulated x-ray and comparison spectra, although there are systematic differences between the simulated and reference spectra especially in the K-characteristic x-rays intensity. Nevertheless, no statistically significant differences have been observed between IPEM spectra and the simulated spectra. It has been shown that the difference between MCNP simulated spectra and IPEM spectra in the low energy range is the result of the overestimation of characteristic photons following the normalization procedure. The transmission curves produced by MCNP4C have good agreement with the IPEM report especially for tube voltages of 50 kV and 80 kV. The systematic discrepancy for higher tube voltages is the result of systematic differences between the corresponding spectra.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of x-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology and mammography using MCNP4C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, M. R.; Shahriari, M.; Sarkar, S.; Adib, M.; Zaidi, H.

    2004-11-01

    The general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP4C) was used for the simulation of x-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology and mammography. The electrons were transported until they slow down and stop in the target. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic x-ray production were considered in this work. We focus on the simulation of various target/filter combinations to investigate the effect of tube voltage, target material and filter thickness on x-ray spectra in the diagnostic radiology and mammography energy ranges. The simulated x-ray spectra were compared with experimental measurements and spectra calculated by IPEM report number 78. In addition, the anode heel effect and off-axis x-ray spectra were assessed for different anode angles and target materials and the results were compared with EGS4-based Monte Carlo simulations and measured data. Quantitative evaluation of the differences between our Monte Carlo simulated and comparison spectra was performed using student's t-test statistical analysis. Generally, there is a good agreement between the simulated x-ray and comparison spectra, although there are systematic differences between the simulated and reference spectra especially in the K-characteristic x-rays intensity. Nevertheless, no statistically significant differences have been observed between IPEM spectra and the simulated spectra. It has been shown that the difference between MCNP simulated spectra and IPEM spectra in the low energy range is the result of the overestimation of characteristic photons following the normalization procedure. The transmission curves produced by MCNP4C have good agreement with the IPEM report especially for tube voltages of 50 kV and 80 kV. The systematic discrepancy for higher tube voltages is the result of systematic differences between the corresponding spectra.

  2. SU-F-I-76: Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beam Profiles for Spectra Incorporating Copper Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Godley, A; Shen, Z; Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize and quantify X-ray beam profiles for fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra incorporating spectral (copper) filtration. Methods: A PTW (Freiburg, Germany) type 60016 silicon diode detector and PTW MP3 water tank were used to measure X-ray beam profiles for 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp x-ray beams at five different copper filtration thicknesses ranging from 0–0.9 mm at 22 and 42 cm fields of view and depths of 1, 5, and 10 cm in both the anode-cathode axis (inplane) and cross-plane directions. All measurements were acquired on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis ZeeGo fluoroscope inverted from the typical orientation providing an x-ray beam originating from above the water surface with the water level set at 60 cm from the focal spot. Results: X-ray beam profiles for beam spectra without copper filtration compared well to previously published data by Fetterly et al. [Med Phys, 28, 205 (2001)]. Our data collection benefited from the geometric orientation of the fluoroscope, providing a beam perpendicular to the tank water surface, rather than through a thin side wall as did the previously mentioned study. Profiles for beams with copper filtration were obtained which have not been previously investigated and published. Beam profiles in the anode-cathode axis near the surface and at lower x-ray energy exhibited substantial heel effect, which became less pronounced at greater depth. At higher energy with copper filtration in the beam, the dose falloff out-of-field became less pronounced, as would be anticipated given higher scatter photon energy. Conclusion: The x-ray beam profile data for the fluoroscopic x-ray beams incorporating copper filtration are intended for use as reference data for estimating doses to organs or soft tissue, including fetal dose, involving similar beam qualities or for comparison with mathematical models.

  3. Comparison of background gamma-ray spectra between Los Alamos, New Mexico and Austin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, S.; Jackman, K.R.; Landsberger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background counts in gamma-ray spectrometry are caused by a variety of sources. Among these are naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the environment, interactions from cosmic radiation, and contamination within the laboratory. High-purity germanium detectors were used to acquire long background spectra in Los Alamos, NM (elevation ∼7,300 feet) and Austin, TX (elevation ∼500 feet). This difference in elevation has a sizeable effect on background spectra due to cosmic interactions, such as (n,n') and (n,γ). Los Alamos also has a fairly high NORM concentration in the soil relative to Austin, and this gives way to various spectral interferences. When analyzing nuclear forensics samples, these background sources can have non-trivial effects on detection limits of low-level fission products. By accurately determining the influence that elevation and environment have on background spectra, interferences within various laboratory environments can be more accurately characterized. (author)

  4. Analysis of spectra from portable handheld gamma-ray spectrometry for terrain comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Flávio; Lima, Marco; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, Jorge; Alves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Geological characteristics can have impacts on societal development by, e.g., geotechnical issues and radiological hazard levels. Due to urban sprawl, there is an increasing need for detailed geological assessment. In this work are analysed data from portable handheld gamma-ray spectra (K, eU and eTh) obtained in granitic and Silurian metaclastic outcrops as well as in an profile, roughly N–S, on soil covered terrains transecting a mapped contact between these rock types (the profile's northern extremity is at locations mapped as granite). Estimations from gamma-ray spectra were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. K, eU and eTh values were higher on granite in relation to Silurian metaclastic rocks. The northern extremity of the profile showed clearly higher contents of eTh and this contrast was supported by univariate statistical tools (normality plot and Wilk–Shapiro test; boxplots). A ternary plot with the contribution of the elements to gamma-ray absorbed dose showed the separation of granite from Silurian metaclastic rocks with the former being nearer the eTh vertex. The points in the northern extremity of the profile are nearer the eTh vertex than the other points on the profile. These visual suggestions were supported by hierarchical cluster analysis, which was able to differentiate between granite and metaclastic outcrops and separate portions of the profile located on different terrains. Portable gamma-ray spectrometry showed, hence, the potential to distinguish granite and metaclastic terrains at a scale useful for engineering works. These results can also be useful for a first comparative zoning of radiological hazards (which are higher for granite). - Highlights: • Contents of K, eU and eTh were estimated by portable gamma-ray spectra. • Spectra were acquired on a profile across a soil covered granite/metaclastic contact. • Spectra were also collected on granite and Silurian metaclastic outcrops. • Obtained estimations were

  5. Krypton K-shell X-ray spectra recorded by the HENEX spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington DC 20375 (United States)]. E-mail: john.seely@nrl.navy.mil; Back, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Constantin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Chung, H.-K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Hudson, L.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Szabo, C.I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Holland, G.E. [SFA Inc., 9315 Largo Drive West Suite 200, Largo MD 20774 (United States); Atkin, R. [Tiger Innovations, L.L.C., 3610 Vacation Lane, Arlington VA 22207 (United States); Marlin, L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington DC 20375 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    High-resolution X-ray spectra were recorded by the High-Energy Electronic X-ray (HENEX) spectrometer from a variety of targets irradiated by the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The HENEX spectrometer utilizes four reflection crystals covering the 1-20keV energy range and one quartz(10-11) transmission crystal (Laue geometry) covering the 11-40keV range. The time-integrated spectral images were recorded on five CMOS X-ray detectors. In the spectra recorded from krypton-filled gasbag and hohlraum targets, the helium-like K-shell transitions n=1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 appeared in the 13-17keV energy range. A number of additional spectral features were observed at energies lower than the helium-like n=1-3 and n=1-4 transitions. Based on computational simulations of the spectra using the FLYCHK/FLYSPEC codes, which included opacity effects, these additional features are identified to be inner-shell transitions from the Li-like through N-like krypton charge states. The comparisons of the calculated and observed spectra indicate that these transitions are characteristic of the plasma conditions immediately after the laser pulse when the krypton density is 2x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} and the electron temperature is in the range 2.8-3.2keV. These spectral features represent a new diagnostic for the charge state distribution, the density and electron temperature, and the plasma opacity. Laboratory experiments indicate that it is feasible to record K-shell spectra from gold and higher Z targets in the >60keV energy range using a Ge(220) transmission crystal.

  6. The MeV spectra of gamma-ray bursts measured with COMPTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, A.S.; Kippen, R.M.; McConnell, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    The past decade has produced a wealth of observational data on the energy spectra of prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts. Most of the data cover the energy range from a few to several hundred KeV. One set of higher energy observations comes from the Imaging Compton Telescope COMPTEL on the Compton Observatory, which measured in the energy range from 0.75 to 30 MeV. We analyzed the full 9.2 years COMPTEL data to reveal the significant detection of 44 gamma-ray bursts. We present preliminary results obtained in the process of preparing a final catalog of the spectral analysis of these events. In addiction, we compare the COMPTEL spectra to simultaneous BATSE measurements for purposes of cross-calibration

  7. Changes of soft X-ray emission spectra of oxygen and copper in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Sei; Gohshi, Yohichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Saitoh, Naoki

    1989-01-01

    X-ray induced soft X-ray emission spectroscopy is one of the bulk analysis methods used to characterize high-Tc superconductor. In this report, some observations on the changes in O Kα and Cu L spectra of thin layer LnBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Ln=Er,Gd) samples are presented. From the measurement of O Kα, no discernible difference was found between those of Gd compounds which were composed single phase or not. It may be said that the electronic structure of p state localized on the O is not sensitive to the change of Tc or zero-resistance temperature. From the measurement of Cu L spectra, it was found that Cu Lα of only Gd containing compounds has a low energy shoulder

  8. A multichannel magnetic β-ray spectrometer for rapid measurements of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariya, Komyo; Morikawa, Kaoru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make the magnetic β-ray spectrometer suitable for rapid measurements of electron spectra with short-lived nuclides, twelve small GM counters have been arrayed along the focal plane of a 180deg focusing flat type design. All the signal pulses from each one of these detectors are mixed together onto a single cable. By means of multichannel PHA, each pulse can be traced back to the specific detector which sent it out. In order to avoid time consuming evacuation procedures, the sample source is placed outside a thin window of the preevacuated analyzer chamber. By the use of this multichannel spectrometer a β-ray spectrum with maximum energy up to about 10 MeV can be measured within 1 min or so. Electron spectra measured with 113m In, 119m In and 144 Pr source are shown. (author)

  9. Energy spectra and charge composition of galactic cosmic rays measured in ATIC-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, V.I.; Bat'kov, K.E.; Bashindzhagyan, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) balloon experiment is intended for measuring the energy spectra of the galactic cosmic rays with the individual resolution by the charge from protons to iron within the energy range from 50 GeV up to 100 TeV. The silicon detector matrix, making it possible to solve on the inverse current by means of the detector charge high segmentation, was applied for the first time in the high-energy cosmic rays for the charge measurement. The ATIC completed two successful flights in the Antarctica since 28.12.2000 up to 13.01.2001 (the ATIC-1 test flight) and since 29.12.2002 up to 18.01.2003 (the ATIC-2 scientific flight). The current state of the analysis of the spectra, measured in the ATIC-2 scientific flight, are presented in this work and the obtained results are compared with the model forecasts results [ru

  10. An iterative method for unfolding time-resolved soft x-ray spectra of laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjian; Shen Kexi; Xu Hepin

    1991-01-01

    Dante-recorded temporal waveforms have been unfolded by using Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and the inverted convolution theorem of Fourier analysis. The conversion of the signals to time-dependent soft x-ray spectra is accomplished on the IBM-PC/XT-286 microcomputer system with the code DTSP including SAND II reported by W.N.Mcelory et al.. An amplitude-limited iterative and periodic smoothing technique has been developed in the code DTSP. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra with sixteen time-cell, and time-dependent radiation, [T R (t)], have been obtained for hohlraum targets irradiated with laser beams (λ = 1.06 μm) on LF-12 in 1989

  11. Calculation of neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for fusion reactor shield design: comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Chapman, G.T.

    1980-08-01

    Integral experiments that measure the transport of approx. 14 MeV D-T neutrons through laminated slabs of proposed fusion reactor shield materials have been carried out. Measured and calculated neutron and gamma ray energy spectra are compared as a function of the thickness and composition of stainless steel type 304, borated polyethylene, and Hevimet (a tungsten alloy), and as a function of detector position behind these materials. The measured data were obtained using a NE-213 liquid scintillator using pulse-shape discrimination methods to resolve neutron and gamma ray pulse height data and spectral unfolding methods to convert these data to energy spectra. The calculated data were obtained using two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport methods in a complex calculational network that takes into account the energy-angle dependence of the D-T neutrons and the nonphysical anomalies of the S/sub n/ method

  12. VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlokazov, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    The program VACTIV - Visual ACTIV - has been developed for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra and is a standard graphical dialog based Windows XX application, driven by a menu, mouse and keyboard. On the one hand, it is a conversion of an existing Fortran program ACTIV to the DELPHI-5 language; on the other hand, it is a transformation of the sequential syntax of Fortran programming to a new object-oriented style, based on the organization of event interaction. Since VACTIV is seemingly the first attempt of applying the newest programming languages and styles to systems of spectrum analysis, the goal of its creation was both getting a convenient and efficient technique for data processing, their methods and events. Now the program is widely used for the processing of gamma-ray spectra in experiments on activation analysis

  13. Computer model for calculating gamma-ray pulse-height spectra for logging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A generalized computer model has been devised to simulate the emission, transport, and detection of natural gamma radiation from various logging environments. The model yields high-resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectra that can be used to correct both gross gamma and spectral gamma-ray logs. The technique can help provide corrections to airborne and surface radiometric survey logs for the effects of varying altitude, formation composition, and overburden. Applied to borehole logging, the model can yield estimates of the effects of varying borehole fluid and casing attenuations, as well as varying formation porosity and saturation

  14. An analysis of the MO X-ray spectra in U92+-Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, K.; Anton, J.; Sepp, W.-D.; Fricke, B.

    1999-01-01

    The investigation of quasimolecular X-rays from superheavy collision systems with bare or H-like projectiles seems to be a promising approach to get information about the behaviour of inner shell electrons with energy eigenvalues in the vicinity of the negative continuum. We present calculations of the MO X-ray spectra for the system U 92+ -Pb for varying impact energies. Furthermore we analyse the contributions due to electrons in higher lying states. The results are discussed with respect to the experimental determination of the transition energies in the superheavy quasimolecule. (orig.)

  15. Conversion of Airborne Gamma ray Spectra to Ground Level Air Kerma Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1997-01-01

    A new method for relating airborne gamma-ray spectra to dose rates and kerma rates at ground level is presented. Dependent on flying altitude 50 m to 125 m the method gives correct results for gamma energies above 250 keV respective 350 keV. At lower energies the method underestimate the dose...... or kerma rates; by having a large fraction of the ground level gamma-rays at energies below 350 keV special care should be taken at an interpretation of the results....

  16. On the origin of X-ray spectra in luminous blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, Marek; Janiak, Mateusz; Moderski, Rafał; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray luminosities of some quasar-associated blazars imply jet powers reaching values comparable to the accretion power even if assuming very strong Doppler boosting and very high efficiency of gamma-ray production. With much lower radiative efficiencies of protons than of electrons, and the recent reports of very strong coupling of electrons with shock-heated protons indicated by particle-in-cell simulations, the leptonic models seem to be strongly favored over the hadronic ones. However, the electron-proton coupling combined with the external-radiation-Compton (ERC) models of gamma-ray production in leptonic models predict extremely hard X-ray spectra, with energy indices α x ∼ 0. This is inconsistent with the observed 2-10 keV slopes of blazars, which cluster around α x ∼ 0.6. This problem can be resolved by assuming that electrons can be efficiently cooled down radiatively to non-relativistic energies, or that blazar spectra are entirely dominated by the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) component up to at least 10 keV. Here, we show that the required cooling can be sufficiently efficient only at distances r < 0.03 pc. SSC spectra, on the other hand, can be produced roughly co-spatially with the observed synchrotron and ERC components, which are most likely located roughly at a parsec scale. We show that the dominant SSC component can also be produced much further than the dominant synchrotron and ERC components, at distances of ≳ 10 pc. Hence, depending on the spatial distribution of the energy dissipation along the jet, one may expect to see γ-ray/optical events with either correlated or uncorrelated X-rays. In all cases the number of e + e – pairs per proton is predicted to be very low. The direct verification of the proposed SSC scenario, and particularly the question of the co-spatiality of the SSC component with other spectral components, requires sensitive observations in the hard X-ray band. This is now possible with the deployment of the Nu

  17. A color display device recording X ray spectra, especially intended for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulch, J.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a color display recording device for X ray spectra intended for medical radiography. The video signal of the X ray camera receiving the radiation having passed through the patient is amplified and transformed into a color coding according to the energy spectrum received by the camera. In a first version, the energy spectrum from the camera gives directly an image on the color tube. In a second version the energy spectrum, after having been transformed into digital signals, is first sent into a memory, then into a computer used as a spectrum analyzer, and finally into the color display device [fr

  18. Spectra transmitted by mortar barite in X-Ray qualities applied in diagnostic radiology as shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton T., E-mail: airton.almeida@fundacentro.gov.br [Fundacaoo Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Araujo, F.G.S. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (REDEMAT/UFOP), MG (Brazil); Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, M.A.P. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Concrete which contains water, cement and aggregate, is widely used in building construction such as medical hospitals. The CdZnTe spectrometry system was used to acquire the transmitted spectra in the RQR qualities and the stripping procedure was performed by taking into account both the contributions of efficiency and x-ray escape fraction, experimentally determined. The samples were prepared in rectangular plate format with dimensions of (5 x 5) cm with thicknesses varying from 0.2cm to 2cm and exposed to x-ray beams generated. The HVL and the mean energy in this energy range was determined. (author)

  19. Coronal temperature diagnostics from high-resolution soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Claflin, E. S.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of deriving the temperature of the coronal plasma from soft X-ray spectra is discussed. Spectral atlas scans of the soft X-ray spectrum from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are compared with theoretical predictions of the relative intensities of some of the brighter lines to determine which line intensity ratios give the most reliable temperature diagnostics. The techniques considered include line widths, He-like G ratios, intensity ratios, and ratios of lines formed by different elements. It is found that the best temperature diagnostics come from the ratios of lines formed by successive ionization stages of the same element.

  20. Gamma ray energy loss spectra simulation in NaI detectors with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    With the aim of studying and applying the Monte Carlo method, a computer code was developed to calculate the pulse height spectra and detector efficiencies for gamma rays incident on NaI (Tl) crystals. The basic detector processes in NaI (Tl) detectors are given together with an outline of Monte Carlo methods and a general review of relevant published works. A detailed description of the application of Monte Carlo methods to ν-ray detection in NaI (Tl) detectors is given. Comparisons are made with published, calculated and experimental, data. (Author) [pt

  1. A model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented. (orig.)

  2. Catalogue of response spectra for unfolding in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymke, N.

    1982-01-01

    To unfold in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions by means of a response matrix technique, the matrix must be in keeping with the measurement geometry, detector size, and energy range to be covered by the measurements. A methodology has been described for determination of standard gamma-ray spectra needed in deriving response matrices and a spectrum catalogue compiled containing graphs and data for the 0-3 MeV (4 x 4 in. NaI(Tl)) and 0-8 MeV (1.5 x 1.5 in. NaI(Tl)) ranges. (author)

  3. Influence of smoothing of X-ray spectra on parameters of calibration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniak, W.; Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    1998-01-01

    Parameters of the calibration model before and after smoothing of X-ray spectra have been investigated. The calibration model was calculated using multivariate procedure - namely the partial least square regression (PLS). Investigations have been performed on an example of six sets of various standards used for calibration of some instruments based on X-ray fluorescence principle. The smoothing methods were compared: regression splines, Savitzky-Golay and Discrete Fourier Transform. The calculations were performed using a software package MATLAB and some home-made programs. (author)

  4. OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. II - Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. W.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    An observational description of X-ray clusters of galaxies is given based on OSO 8 X-ray results for spatially integrated spectra of 20 such clusters and various correlations obtained from these results. It is found from a correlation between temperature and velocity dispersion that the X-ray core radius should be less than the galaxy core radius or, alternatively, that the polytropic index is about 1.1 for most of the 20 clusters. Analysis of a correlation between temperature and emission integral yields evidence that more massive clusters accumulate a larger fraction of their mass as intracluster gas. Galaxy densities and optical morphology, as they correlate with X-ray properties, are reexamined for indications as to how mass injection by galaxies affects the density structure of the gas. The physical arguments used to derive iron abundances from observed equivalent widths of iron line features in X-ray spectra are critically evaluated, and the associated uncertainties in abundances derived in this manner are estimated to be quite large.

  5. The X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies and their relationship to other cluster properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Dickens, R.J.; Burnell, S.J.B.; Culhane, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    New observations with the MSSL proportional counter spectrometer on the Ariel V satellite of the X-ray spectra of 20 candidate clusters of galaxies are reported. The data are compared with the results from the OSO-8 satellite and the combined sample of some 30 cluster X-ray spectra are analysed. The present study finds generally larger values of Lsub(X) than do Uhuru or the SSI, which, because of the larger field of view, may indicate significant amounts of hot gas away from the cluster centres. The validity of all X-ray cluster identifications has been examined, and sources have been classified according to certainty of identification. The incidence of X-ray line emission from the clusters has been investigated and temperatures, kTsub(X), have been derived on the basis of an isothermal model. Relationships between X-ray, optical and radio properties of the clusters have been studied. The more massive, centrally condensed clusters generally contain higher temperature gas and have a greater luminosity than the less massive, more irregular clusters. (author)

  6. Determination of x-ray spectra incident on and transmitted through whole excised breast for improved mammographic exposing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haus, A.G.; Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.; Bernstein, J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements were made of x-ray spectra incident on and transmitted through whole excised fresh breast tissue. The spectra and corresponding radiographs show that hardening of the x-ray beam from a molybdenum anode x-ray tube by a 0.5 mm Al filter instead of the conventional 0.03 mm Mo filter allows shorter exposure times and reduces patient radiation exposure. With the Al filter, acceptable image contrast is preserved in mammography of thick or dense breasts

  7. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the SINBAD code on complex HPGe gamma-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohee, E.; Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.; Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation, Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Jammes, C. [CEA/DEN/SPEx/LDCI, Centre de Cadarache, F-13109 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radionuclides identification and quantification is a serious concern for many applications as safety or security of nuclear power plant or fuel cycle facility, CBRN risk identification, environmental radioprotection and waste measurements. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detectors is a performing solution for all these topics. During last decades, a great number of software has been developed to improve gamma spectra analysis. However, some difficulties remain in the analysis when photoelectric peaks are folded together with a high ratio between theirs amplitudes, when the Compton background is much larger compared to the signal of a single peak and when spectra are composed of a great number of peaks. This study deals with the comparison between conventional methods in radionuclides identification and quantification and the code called SINBAD ('Spectrometrie par Inference Non parametrique Bayesienne Deconvolutive'). For many years, SINBAD has been developed by CEA LIST for unfolding complex spectra from HPGe detectors. Contrary to conventional methods using fitting procedures, SINBAD uses a probabilistic approach with Bayesian inference to describe spectrum data. This conventional fitting method founded for example in Genie 2000 is compared with the nonparametric SINBAD approach regarding some key figures of merit as the peak centroid evaluation (identification) and peak surface evaluation (quantification). Unfriendly cases are studied for nuclides detection with closed gamma-rays energies and high photoelectric peak intensity differences. Tests are performed with spectra from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for gamma spectra analysis software benchmark and with spectra acquired at the laboratory. Results show that SINBAD and Genie 2000 performances are quite similar with sometimes best results for SINBAD with the important difference that to achieve same performances the nonparametric method is user-friendly compared

  8. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  9. The influence of magnetic field geometry on magnetars X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viganò, D; Pons, J A; Miralles, J A; Parkins, N; Zane, S; Turolla, R

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of the X-ray spectra of magnetically powered neutron stars or magnetars is one of the most valuable tools to gain insight into the physical processes occurring in their interiors and magnetospheres. In particular, the magnetospheric plasma leaves a strong imprint on the observed X-ray spectrum by means of Compton up-scattering of the thermal radiation coming from the star surface. Motivated by the increased quality of the observational data, much theoretical work has been devoted to develop Monte Carlo (MC) codes that incorporate the effects of resonant Compton scattering (RCS) in the modeling of radiative transfer of photons through the magnetosphere. The two key ingredients in this simulations are the kinetic plasma properties and the magnetic field (MF) configuration. The MF geometry is expected to be complex, but up to now only mathematically simple solutions (self-similar solutions) have been employed. In this work, we discuss the effects of new, more realistic, MF geometries on synthetic spectra. We use new force-free solutions [14] in a previously developed MC code [9] to assess the influence of MF geometry on the emerging spectra. Our main result is that the shape of the final spectrum is mostly sensitive to uncertain parameters of the magnetospheric plasma, but the MF geometry plays an important role on the angle-dependence of the spectra.

  10. Changes in X-ray photoelectron spectra of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal by ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Eiko; Yoshinari, Masao [Tokyo Dental College, Oral Health Science Center, Tokyo, Chiyoda-ku (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    This paper reports changes in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) brought about by Ar ion sputtering. The changes in the core-level spectra of Y-TZP suggest that preferential sputtering of oxygen occurred. A new peak was observed near 0 eV binding energy accompanied with changes in the core-level spectra by the sputtering. After 18 h in a high vacuum following the sputtering, the spectra changed by the sputtering were returned to their original shapes. In contrast, the color of Y-TZP was changed from white to pale brown by X-ray irradiation and was changed from pale brown to dark gray by ion sputtering. However, when the new peak near 0 eV decreased after 18 h, no color change was observed. Therefore, it is thought that the new peak was mainly derived from electrons trapped in various kinds of oxygen vacancies created by the sputtering in other than color centers. (orig.)

  11. Optimization of tungsten x-ray spectra for digital mammography: a comparison of model to experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Michael P.; Spivey, Brett A.

    1997-05-01

    Tungsten (W) target x-rays tubes are being studied for use in digital mammography to improve x-ray flux, reduce noise and increase tube heat capacity. A parametric model was developed for digital mammography to evaluate optimization of x-ray spectra for a particular sensor. The model computes spectra and mean glandular doses (MGD) for combinations of W target, beam filters, kVp, breast type and thickness. Two figures of merit were defined: (signal/noise)2/MGD and spectral quantum efficiency; these were computed as a means to approach optimization of object contrast. The model is derived from a combination of classic equations, XCOM from NBS, and published data. X-ray spectra were calculated and measured for filters of Al, Sn, Rh, Mo and Ag on a Eureka tube. (Signal/noise)2/MGD was measured for a filtered W target tube and a digital camera employing CsI scintillator optically coupled to a CCD for which the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was known. A 3-mm thick acrylic disk was imaged on thickness of 3-8 cm of acrylic and the results were compared to the predictions of the model. The relative error between predicted and measured spectra was +/- 2 percent from 24 to 34 kVp. Calculated MGD as a function of breast thickness, half-value layer and beam filter compares very well to published data. Best performance was found for the following combinations: Mo filter with 30 mm breast, Ag filter with 45 mm, Sn filter for 60 mm, and Al filter for 75 mm thick breast. The parametric model agrees well with measurement and provides a means to explore optimum combinations of kVp and beam filter. For a particular detector, this data may be used with the DQE to estimate total system signal-to-noise ratio for a particular imaging task.

  12. Electron-electron correlation, resonant photoemission and X-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlebas, J.C.; Kotani, Akio; Tanaka, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In this short review paper we essentially focus on the high energy spectroscopies which involve second order quantum processes, i.e., resonance photoemission, Auger and X-ray emission spectroscopies, denoted respectively by RXPS, AES and XES. First, we summarize the main 3p-RXPS and AES results obtained in Cu and Ni metals; especially we recall that the satellite near the 3p-threshold in the spectra, which arises from a d-hole pair bound state, needs a careful treatment of the electron-electron correlation. Then we analyze the RXPS spectra in a few Ce compounds (CeO 2 , Ce 2 O 3 and CeF 3 ) involving 3d or 4d core levels and we interpret the spectra consistently with the other spectroscopies, such as core XPS and XAS which are first order quantum processes. Finally within the same one-impurity model and basically with the same sets of parameters, we review a theory for the Ce 5p→3d XES, as well as for the corresponding RXES, where (1) the incident X-ray is tuned to resonate with the 3d→4f transition and (2) the X-ray emission due to the 5p→3d transition is actually observed. The paper ends with a general discussion. (author) 77 refs

  13. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated spectra of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marziani, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Di Domenico, G.; Taibi, A.; Cardarelli, P.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype x-ray system based on a liquid-metal-jet anode was evaluated within the framework of the LABSYNC project. The generated spectrum was measured using a CZT-based spectrometer and was compared with spectra simulated by three Monte Carlo codes: MCNPX, PENELOPE and EGS5. Notable differences in the simulated spectra were found. These are mainly attributable to differences in the models adopted for the electron-impact ionization cross section. The simulation that more closely reproduces the experimentally measured spectrum was provided by PENELOPE. - Highlights: • The x-ray spectrum of a liquid-jet x-ray anode was measured with a CZT spectrometer. • Results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations using MCNPX, PENELOPE, EGS5. • Notable differences were found among the Monte Carlo simulated spectra. • The key role was played by the electron-impact ionization cross-section model used. • The experimentally measured spectrum was closely reproduced by the PENELOPE code

  14. Energy Spectra of Abundant Cosmic-ray Nuclei in Sources, According to the ATIC Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A. D.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Zatsepin, V. I., E-mail: panov@dec1.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    One of the main results of the ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) experiment is a collection of energy spectra of abundant cosmic-ray nuclei: protons, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe measured in terms of energy per particle in the energy range from 50 GeV to tens of teraelectronvolts. In this paper, the ATIC energy spectra of abundant primary nuclei are back-propagated to the spectra in sources in terms of magnetic rigidity using a leaky-box approximation of three different GALPROP-based diffusion models of propagation that fit the latest B/C data of the AMS-02 experiment. It is shown that the results of a comparison of the slopes of the spectra in sources are weakly model dependent; therefore the differences of spectral indices are reliable data. A regular growth of the steepness of spectra in sources in the range of magnetic rigidity of 50–1350 GV is found for a charge range from helium to iron. This conclusion is statistically reliable with significance better than 3.2 standard deviations. The results are discussed and compared to the data of other modern experiments.

  15. Modeling of X-ray Images and Energy Spectra Produced by Stepping Lightning Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Marshall, Robert A.; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2017-11-01

    Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders. Modeling results also suggest that measurements of X-ray bursts can be used to estimate the approximate range of potential drop of lightning leaders. Moreover, the X-ray images produced during the leader stepping process in natural negative CG discharges, including both the evolution and morphological features, are theoretically quantified. We show that the compact emission pattern as recently observed in X-ray images is likely produced by X-rays originating from the source region, and the diffuse emission pattern can be explained by the Compton scattering effects.

  16. Measurement of keV-neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra of Er isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun-Ar-Rashid, A.K.M.; Igashira, Masayuki; Ohsaki, Toshiro

    2000-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 166,167, 168 Er were measured in the energy region of 10 to 550 keV. The measurements were performed with a pulsed 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be neutron source and a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. A pulse-height weighting technique and the standard capture cross sections of gold were used to derive the capture cross sections. The errors of the derived cross sections were about 5%. The present results were compared with other measurements and evaluations. The observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra were unfolded to obtain the corresponding γ-ray spectra. An anomalous shoulder was observed around 3 MeV in each of the capture γ-ray spectra. (author)

  17. Lα1 satellites in X-ray emission spectra of higher - Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The X-ray satellite spectra arising due to 2p 3/2 -1 3x -1 - 3x -1 3d -1 (x ≡ s, p, d) transition array, in elements with Z 74 to 92, have been calculated. While the energies of various transitions of the array have been determined by using available Hartree-Fock-Slater data on 1s -1 - 2p -1 3x -1 and 2p 3/2 -1 - 3x -1 , 3x' -1 Auger transition energies and their relative intensities have been estimated by considering cross - sections of singly ionized 2x -1 (x ≡ s, p) states and then of subsequent Coster-Kronig and shake off processes. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in Lα1 spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The one to one correspondence between the peaks in calculated spectra and the satellites in measured spectra has been established on the basis of the agreement between the separations in the peak energies and those in the measured satellite energies. It has been established that three satellites observed in the Lα 1 region of the X-ray spectra of various elements and named α', α ix and α x in order of increasing energy are mainly emitted by 2p 3/2 -1 3d -1 - 3d -2 transitions. It is observed that the satellite α' in all these spectra can be assigned to the superposition of 3 F 4 - 3 F 4 transition and that this must be most intense one out of all these satellites, contributing in order of decreasing intensity. The line α ix , has been assigned to mainly the 1 F 3 - 1 G 4 , 1 P 1 - 1 D 2 and 1 F 3 - 1 D 2 transitions. Finally, the satellite α x , reported in the spectra of elements with Z = 74-92, has been associated with the transition 3 D 3 - 3 F 4 . The possible contributions of other transitions of the 2p 3/2 -1 3x -1 - 3x -1 3d -1 (x ≡ s, p, d) array having appreciable intensities, have also been discussed

  18. Modeling X-ray Spectra of Astrophysical Plasmas: Current Status and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall

    Existing high-resolution astrophysical X-ray spectra has exposed the need for high-quality atomic data of all stripes: wavelengths, collisional and absorption cross sections, and radiative rates. The Astro-H soft X-ray spectrometer (2015 launch) will vastly increase the number and type of high-resolution X-ray spectra available and likely expose a number of shortcomings in our models. I will describe recent advances in theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements, as well as a number of existing needs in the field. These include accurate soft X-ray wavelengths for L-shell ions, diagnostic emission line ratios with estimated error bars, and high-resolution absorption cross sections for abundant ions and molecules. Finally, new models of emission from non-equilibrium ionization plasmas and astrophysical charge exchange will be discussed. This latter emission arises due to the interaction of highly charged ions with neutral atoms, forming a diffuse background in the case of solar wind ions and possibly also arising in more distant environments.

  19. X ray spectra and qualities for use in diagnostic radiology and equipment calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Karla Cristina de

    1996-12-01

    The goal of this work was the standardization of radiation qualities of diagnostic X ray equipment of the Assay Laboratory of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy, Brazil. X ray spectra were determined from pulse height distribution measured directly on the primary beam using a high pure planar Ge detector. A program was developed to convert pulse height distribution into radiation spectra in the range from 20 to 150 keV. X ray qualities based on those used by the 'Physikalish-Technish Bundesantalt' (PTB) primary laboratory were implanted in three radiological equipment of the Assay Laboratory. These qualities simulate radiation beams on patients submitted to typical radiological examinations. Besides the spectrometric system, a reference measurement system based on an ionization chamber calibrated in air kerma was used to establish parameters such as kilovoltage, first and second half-value layer, mean energy, effective energy and inherent filtration. Our data have shown that the implantation of these radiation qualities in the Assay Laboratory results on a metrological basis for calibration of dose measurement assemblies and kV-meters, like those used by IRD to evaluate the parameters of X ray equipment around the country. A catalogue of spectral data resulting from this work is a data bank that allows various applications like dose calculation using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. (author)

  20. High resolution krypton M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Hettrick, M.C.; Lindle, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    High resolution M/sub 4,5/ (3d → 4p) x-ray emission spectra from a krypton plasma were measured using a recently developed grazing-incidence reflection-grating monochromator/spectrometer with very high flux rates at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wave lengths. The nominal resolving power of the instrument, E/ΔE, is about 300 in this energy range (∼80 eV). Three dipole-allowed 3d → 4p emission lines were observed at 80.98 eV, 80.35 eV and 79.73 eV. A broad peak at about 82.3 eV is tentatively assigned to transitions resulting from Kr 2+ , and effects of excitation energy on M/sub 4,5/ x-ray emission were observed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Theory of pump–probe ultrafast photoemission and X-ray absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Takashi, E-mail: tfujikawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Niki, Kaori

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Pump–probe ultrafast XAFS and XPS spectra are theoretically studied. • Keldysh Green's function theory is applied. • Important many-body effects are explicitly included. - Abstract: Keldysh Green's function approach is extensively used in order to derive practical formulas to analyze pump–probe ultrafast photoemission and X-ray absorption spectra. Here the pump pulse is strong enough whereas the probe X-ray pulse can be treated by use of a perturbation theory. We expand full Green's function in terms of renormalized Green's function without the interaction between electrons and probe pulse. The present theoretical formulas allow us to handle the intrinsic and extrinsic losses, and furthermore resonant effects in X-ray Absorption Fine Structures (XAFS). To understand the radiation field screening in XPS spectra, we have to use more sophisticated theoretical approach. In the ultrafast XPS and XAFS analyses the intrinsic and extrinsic loss effects can interfere as well. In the XAFS studies careful analyses are necessary to handle extrinsic losses in terms of damped photoelectron propagation. The nonequilibrium dynamics after the pump pulse irradiation is well described by use of the time-dependent Dyson orbitals. Well above the edge threshold, ultrafast photoelectron diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) provide us with transient structural change after the laser pump excitations. In addition to these slow processes, the rapid oscillation in time plays an important role related to pump electronic excitations. Near threshold detailed information could be obtained for the combined electronic and structural dynamics. In particular high-energy photoemission and EXAFS are not so influenced by the details of excited states by pump pulse. Random-Phase Approximation (RPA)-boson approach is introduced to derive some practical formulas for time-dependent intrinsic amplitudes.

  2. Electron shell contributions to gamma-ray spectra of positron annihilation in noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Selvam, Lalitha [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Gribakin, Gleb F [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Surko, Clifford M, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.a [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2010-08-28

    Gamma-ray positron annihilation spectra of the noble gases are simulated using computational chemistry tools for the bound electron wavefunctions and plane-wave approximation for the low-energy positron. The present annihilation line shapes, i.e. the full width at half maximum, {Delta}{epsilon}, of the {gamma}-ray annihilation spectra for He and Ar (valence) agree well with available independent atomic calculations using a different algorithm. For other noble gases they achieve moderate agreement with the experimental measurements. It is found that the contributions of various atomic electron shells to the spectra depend significantly on their principal quantum number n and orbital angular momentum quantum number l. The present study further reveals that the outermost ns electrons of the noble gases exhibit spectral line shapes in close agreement with those measured, indicating (as expected) that the measurements are not due to a simple sum over the momentum densities for all atomic electrons. The robust nature of the present approach makes it possible for us to proceed to more complex molecular systems using the tools of modern computational chemistry.

  3. Reconstruction of X-rays spectra of clinical linear accelerators using the generalized simulated annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, John Peter O.; Costa, Alessandro M.

    2016-01-01

    The spectral distribution of megavoltage X-rays used in radiotherapy departments is a fundamental quantity from which, in principle, all relevant information required for radiotherapy treatments can be determined. To calculate the dose delivered to the patient who make radiation therapy, are used treatment planning systems (TPS), which make use of convolution and superposition algorithms and which requires prior knowledge of the photon fluence spectrum to perform the calculation of three-dimensional doses and thus ensure better accuracy in the tumor control probabilities preserving the normal tissue complication probabilities low. In this work we have obtained the photon fluence spectrum of X-ray of the SIEMENS ONCOR linear accelerator of 6 MV, using an character-inverse method to the reconstruction of the spectra of photons from transmission curves measured for different thicknesses of aluminum; the method used for reconstruction of the spectra is a stochastic technique known as generalized simulated annealing (GSA), based on the work of quasi-equilibrium statistic of Tsallis. For the validation of the reconstructed spectra we calculated the curve of percentage depth dose (PDD) for energy of 6 MV, using Monte Carlo simulation with Penelope code, and from the PDD then calculate the beam quality index TPR_2_0_/_1_0. (author)

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Local interstellar spectra of cosmic-ray species (Boschini+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschini, M. J.; Torre, S. D.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Johannesson, G.; Kachelriess, M.; La Vacca, G.; Masi, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Orlando, E.; Ostapchenko, S. S.; Pensotti, S.; Porter, T. A.; Quadrani, L.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

    2017-11-01

    Local interstellar spectra (LIS) for protons, helium, and antiprotons are built using the most recent experimental results combined with state-of-the-art models for propagation in the Galaxy and heliosphere. Two propagation packages, GALPROP and HelMod, are combined to provide a single framework that is run to reproduce direct measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species at different modulation levels and at both polarities of the solar magnetic field. To do so in a self-consistent way, an iterative procedure was developed, where the GALPROP LIS output is fed into HelMod, providing modulated spectra for specific time periods of selected experiments to compare with the data; the HelMod parameter optimization is performed at this stage and looped back to adjust the LIS using the new GALPROP run. The parameters were tuned with the maximum likelihood procedure using an extensive data set of proton spectra from 1997 to 2015. The proposed LIS accommodate both the low-energy interstellar CR spectra measured by Voyager 1 and the high-energy observations by BESS, Pamela, AMS-01, and AMS-02 made from the balloons and near-Earth payloads; it also accounts for Ulysses counting rate features measured out of the ecliptic plane. The found solution is in a good agreement with proton, helium, and antiproton data by AMS-02, BESS, and PAMELA in the whole energy range. (3 data files).

  5. Solution of Heliospheric Propagation: Unveiling the Local Interstellar Spectra of Cosmic-ray Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, M. J.; Torre, S. Della; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Vacca, G. La; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M. [INFN, Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Jóhannesson, G. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Kachelriess, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Masi, N.; Quadrani, L. [INFN, Bologna (Italy); Moskalenko, I. V.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ostapchenko, S. S. [Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-10

    Local interstellar spectra (LIS) for protons, helium, and antiprotons are built using the most recent experimental results combined with state-of-the-art models for propagation in the Galaxy and heliosphere. Two propagation packages, GALPROP and HelMod, are combined to provide a single framework that is run to reproduce direct measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species at different modulation levels and at both polarities of the solar magnetic field. To do so in a self-consistent way, an iterative procedure was developed, where the GALPROP LIS output is fed into HelMod, providing modulated spectra for specific time periods of selected experiments to compare with the data; the HelMod parameter optimization is performed at this stage and looped back to adjust the LIS using the new GALPROP run. The parameters were tuned with the maximum likelihood procedure using an extensive data set of proton spectra from 1997 to 2015. The proposed LIS accommodate both the low-energy interstellar CR spectra measured by Voyager 1 and the high-energy observations by BESS, Pamela, AMS-01, and AMS-02 made from the balloons and near-Earth payloads; it also accounts for Ulysses counting rate features measured out of the ecliptic plane. The found solution is in a good agreement with proton, helium, and antiproton data by AMS-02, BESS, and PAMELA in the whole energy range.

  6. Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and gamm-ray energy spectra for fusion-reactor shield design: comparison with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.

    1983-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra resulting from the interactions of approx. 14-MeV neutrons in laminated slabs of stainless steel type-304 and borated polyethylene have been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The calculated spectra are compared with measured data as a function of slab thickness and material composition and as a function of detector location behind the slabs. Comparisons of the differential energy spectra are made for neutrons with energies above 850 keV and for gamma rays with energies above 750 keV. The measured neutron spectra and those calculated using Monte Carlo methods agree within 5% to 50% depending on the slab thickness and composition and neutron energy. The agreement between the measured and calculated gamma-ray energy spectra is also within this range. The MCNP data are also in favorable agreement with attenuated data calculated previously by discrete ordinates transport methods and the Monte Carlo code SAM-CE

  7. Spatial power-spectra from Yohkoh soft X-ray images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C. H.; Gomez, Daniel O.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze three sequences of images from active regions, and a full disk image obtained by Yohkoh's Soft X-ray Telescope. Two sequences are from a region at center disk observed through different filters, and one sequence is from the limb. After Fourier-transforming the X-ray intensity of the images we find nearly isotropic power-spectra with an azimuthally integrated slope of -2.1 for the center disk, and -2.8 for the limb images. The full-disk picture yields a spectrum of -2.4. These results are different from the active region spectra obtained with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope which have a slope of the order of -3.0, and we ascribe this to the difference in temperature response between the instruments. However, both the SXT and NIXT results are consistent with coronal heating as the end result of a downward quasistatic cascade (in lengthscales) of free magnetic energy in the corona, driven by footpoint motions in the photosphere.

  8. Systematics of gamma-ray energy spectra for classification of workplaces around a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Tsujimoto, Tadashi; Katsurayama, Kousuke

    1988-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry in workplaces has been carried out both for assurance of the doses complying with the acceptable values and for improvement of protection methods to minimise detriments of the exposed population. This means that it is very important not only to determine dosimetric quantities in workplaces but also to know features of radiation levels because information for radiation protection can often be derived from the radiometric quantities. Classification of workplaces based on the feature of gamma-ray energy spectra is one of the practical ways to realise radiation protection being taken into consideration of the radiometric quantities. Furthermore, demarcation of workplaces based on these radiometric quantities may be effective for improvement of radiation protection practice such as estimation of radiation doses, designing of radiation shields and other activities. From these points of view, gamma-ray energy spectra have been determined in various workplaces in nuclear facilities, and systematics of gamma-ray fields were tried for classification of workplaces on the basis of the feature appeared in health physical quantities such as effective dose equivalents and responses of dosemeters

  9. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectra and Composition during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, K. A.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H..; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than approx. 7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than approx. 4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2sigma, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  10. Construction of a catalog of X-ray spectra for mammography simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.C.S.; Vieira, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Computational Exposure Models (MCEs) allow the simulation of the interaction of radiation with matter by means of Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. Generally, MCEs are composed of phantom, simulator algorithms of radioactive sources and an MC code to simulate the transport, interaction of the radiation with matter and to evaluate the energy deposited in regions of interest. To compose an MCE for simulations in mammography, the construction of a catalog of X-ray spectra was started, based on the catalog model constructed and using until then in MCEs by the Group of Research in Numerical Dosimetry and by the Group of Research in Computational Dosimetry & Embedded Systems (both referenced in this work as GDN). Potential of 25 kV and 35 kV and used target / filter were applied to the tube: Mo / Mo. The file containing the spectra was read correctly by EGSnrc

  11. Studies of cluster X-ray sources. Energy spectra for the Perseus, Virgo, and Coma clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, E.; Baldwin, J.R.; Koch, D.

    1975-01-01

    We present the final Uhuru X-ray differential-energy spectra for the Perseus, Virgo, and Coma clusters of galaxies. The power-law and isothermal bremsstrahlung model forms, both with a low-energy cutoff, are given. For bremsstrahlung, the energy-dependent Gaunt factor is calculated by an improved method. The spectra, best fits to the Uhuru 2-10 keV data, are also compared with other observations of these sources in the energy range 0.1-100 keV. For Perseus, the data above 20 keV favor the bremsstrahlung fit marginally. For Virgo, the data of Catura et al. between 0.25 and 1.0 keV clearly favor the bremsstrahlung curve. For Coma, the weakest of the three sources, the data are less precise, but there is some evidence for a low-energy turnover or cutoff. The implications of such a cutoff are discussed briefly

  12. Equivalent half-value thickness and mean energies of filtered X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelentag, W.W.; Panzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray beam qualities are often conveniently described by half-value thicknesses (in connection with tube voltage and filtration). Aluminium and copper are commonly used as half-value thickness materials, and either material may be used in a large intermediate energy range. Data comparisons frequently require conversions from values in Al to values in Cu. Equivalent half-value thicknesses for polychromatic radiations depend on the shapes of the spectra, but spectrometry is too expensive for routine application. Half-value thicknesses in both Al and Cu have been determined for some 250 spectra (tube potentials 10 to 300 kV). The results are tabulated, and these results together with a nomogram enable conversion with an accuracy of better than +- 5% in most cases. (UK)

  13. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1980-01-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented. (orig.)

  14. Peak-by-peak correction of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutshall, N H; Larsen, I L [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Background photopeaks can interfere with accurate measurement of low levels of radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. A flowchart for peak-by-peak correction of sample spectra to produce accurate results is presented.

  15. Parallel of semi-empirical results simulated by MCNP of X-ray spectra with a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A.; Navarro, M.V.T.; Santos, W.S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the MCNPX radiation transport code to simulate X-ray spectra generated by a constant voltage system in a CdTe semiconductor detector. As part of the validation process, we obtained a series of experimental spectra. Comparatively, in all cases there is a good correlation between the two spectra. There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental results with the simulated. (author)

  16. Measurement of prompt fission gamma-ray spectra in fast neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laborie, J.M.; Belier, G.; Taieb, J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of prompt fission gamma-ray emission has been of major interest in reactor physics for a few years. Since very few experimental spectra were ever published until now, new measurements would be also valuable to improve our understanding of the fission process. An experimental method is currently being developed to measure the prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum from some tens keV up to 10 MeV at least. The mean multiplicity and total energy could be deduced. In this method, the gamma-rays are measured with a bismuth germanate (BGO) detector which has the advantage to present a high P/T ratio and a high efficiency compared to other gamma-ray detectors. The prompt fission neutrons are rejected by the time of flight technique between the BGO detector and a fission trigger given by a fission chamber or a scintillating active target. Energy and efficiency calibration of the BGO detector were carried out up to 10.76 MeV by means of the Al-27(p, gamma) reaction. First prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum measurements performed for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 and for 1.7 and 15.6 MeV neutron-induced fission of U-238 at the CEA, DAM, DIF Van de Graaff accelerator, will be presented. (authors)

  17. Determining misorientation of graphite grains from the angular dependence of X-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, V. V.; Okotrub, A. V.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Kotosonov, A. S.; Vyalykh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    Angular-resolved X-ray absorption spectra were measured for pyrolytic graphite samples of various quality. A new approach to determining the misorientation of graphite grains in polycrystalline samples is proposed, which is based on calculations of the angular dependence of the relative intensity of a peak corresponding to the π* state for a normal distribution of grains. The experimental values are used to construct theoretical angular dependences using partial densities of the π* and σ* states determined from the nonempirical calculations for graphite

  18. Analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra by small portable computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.; Gunnink, R.; Camp, D.; DeCarolis, M.

    1985-01-01

    A sophisticated program for isotopic analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra using small computers has been developed. It is implemented on a DEC LSI-11/2 configured in a portable unit without a mass storage device for use by IAEA inspectors in the field. Only the positions of the 148-keV 241 Pu and 208-keV 237 U peaks are needed as input. Analysis is completed in 90 seconds by fitting isotopic component response functions to peak multiplets. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. CASTHY, Statistical Model for Neutron Cross-Sections and Gamma-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarasi, Sin-iti; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-01-01

    Description of program or function: CASTHY calculates neutron cross sections of total, shape elastic scattering and compound nucleus formation with the optical model, and compound elastic, inelastic and capture cross sections by the statistical model. The other cross sections, such as (n,2n), (n,p), (n,f) reactions are treated as cross sections of competing processes, and their sum is given through input data. Capture gamma-ray spectra can also be calculated. The branching ratio for primary transition can be treated in a particular way, if required

  20. Application of direct peak analysis to energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.

    1977-07-01

    A modified Covell method for direct peak analysis has been applied to energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra. The method is background independent and is well-suited to computerized data reduction. It provides acceptable precision, minimizes errors from instrumental gain shift, and permits peak overlap correction. Peak overlap errors exhibit both positive and negative nodes as a function of peak separation distance, and are corrected using concentration ratios determined from thin, single-element standards. Peak precisions and overlaps are evaluated as a function of window width to aid in width selection. Least-square polynomial smoothing prior to peak analysis significantly improves peak area precisions without significantly affecting their accuracies

  1. Baseline distortion effect on gamma-ray pulse-height spectra in neutron capture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, A.; Harada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hori, J.; Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohgama, K.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline distortion effect due to gamma-flash at neutron time-of-flight measurement using a pulse neutron source has been investigated. Pulses from C 6 D 6 detectors accumulated by flash-ADC were processed with both standard analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and flash-ADC operational modes. A correction factor of gamma-ray yields, due to baseline shift, was quantitatively obtained by comparing the pulse height spectra of the two data-taking modes. The magnitude of the correction factor depends on the time after gamma-flash and has complex time dependence with a changing sign

  2. Study of gamma ray multiplicity spectra for radiative capture of neutrons in 113,115In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.P.; Fajkov-Stanchik, Kh.; Grigor'ev, Yu.V.; Muradyan, G.V.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1997-08-01

    Neutron radiative capture measurements were performed for the enriched isotopes 113 In and 115 In on the neutron spectrometer at the Neutron Physics Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research employing the gamma ray multiplicity technique and using a ''Romashka'' multi-sectional 4p detector on the 500 m time base of the IBR-30 booster. The gamma multiplicity spectra of resolved resonances were obtained for the 20-500 eV energy range. The mean gamma ray multiplicity was determined for each resonance. The dependence of the ratio S of the low-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum to the high-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum on resonance energy exhibits a non-statistical structure. This structure was found to correlate with the local neutron strength function. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  3. The Imprint of the Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Schady, P.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL isimportant to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are limited by galactic and other foreground emissions. Here, we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z approx. 1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to ultraviolet frequencies and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  4. Determination of half value layer and applied voltage from emitted spectra by an X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzales, Alejandro H.L.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a method for assessment of half value layer (HVL) and peak tube voltage (kVp) applied in an X-ray tube by means of experimental X-ray spectra measured using a CdTe detector. It was assessed some parameters that can affect the evaluation of these quantities such as dead time, count rate and tube current (mA). For this study, two sets of X-ray spectra were measured: Set A), spectra measurements using Cu filters with different thicknesses (1.8 - 5.4 mm) and fixed tube current; Set B), spectra measurements keeping a fixed Cu filtration and varying tube current (0.5 - 3.0 mA). The experimental setup for the Set A spectra measurements allowed the assessment of the HVL and kVp for different count rates and dead time in the detection system, while the Set B setup allowed to assess the dependence of these quantities with the tube current. The spectrometer was energy calibrated using standard X/γ rays radioactive sources. The tube voltage values were estimated by means of experimental measured X-ray spectra, using linear regression in order to search the end point of each spectrum. The spectra correction was performed using the stripping procedure developed for the Matlab® software and the HVL values were derived from these corrected spectra. For comparison, HVL was also determined using a 30 cm"3 ion chamber and high purity Al filters. The results show that it is possible to determine the kVp with accuracy and reproducibility using spectra with dead time of up to 10%. In spite of this, the values obtained showed a deviation of up to 7 kV, for spectra measured using the same nominal tube voltage different tube current values, indicating dependence between these two parameters. (author)

  5. Laboratory Studies of X-ray Spectra Formed by Charge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Ali, R.; Brown, G. V.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Porter, F.

    2013-04-01

    Charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms or molecules has been accepted at an important soft producing process in our solar system. By extension, charge exchange may contribute to the X-ray emission of circumstellar material. It may also produce X-ray emission at the boundaries of supernova ejecta and star burst galaxies, or whenever hot plasma collides with neutral matter. X-ray spectra of K-shell and L-shell ions formed by charge exchange have now been studied in a variety of laboratory settings. These experiments have shown several characteristic features of line formation by charge exchange when compared to the X-ray emission produced by electron-impact excitation, e.g., enhancement emission of forbidden lines and of lines from levels with high principal quantum number. They have also shown a dependence on the interaction gas and on the energy of the ion-neutral collision. Moreover, the transfer of multiple electrons is typically preferred, provided the donor molecules or atoms have multiple valence-shell electrons. The laboratory measurements are in qualitative agreement with theory. However, the details of the observed X-ray spectra, especially those recorded with high spectral resolution, can differ substantially from predictions, especially for spectra produced at collision velocities equal to or lower than those found in thermal plasmas or produced with neutral gases other than atomic hydrogen. Puzzling discrepancies can be noted, such as enhanced emission from an upper level with the 'wrong' principal quantum number. Even more puzzling is a recent experiment in which two, co-mixed bare ion species of similar atomic number produce very different Lyman series emission upon charge exchange with a given neutral gas, defying both theoretical predictions and empirical scaling. Laboratory measurements have also shown that some of the characteristic features of charge exchange can be reproduced by radiative electron capture, i.e., by capture of a continuum

  6. Absorption spectra response of XRQA radiochromic film to x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnawaf, Hani; Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Gafchromic XRQA, radiochromic film is a high sensitivity auto developing x-ray analysis films designed and available for kilovoltage x-ray, dose and QA assessment applications. The film is designed for reflective analysis with a yellow transparent top filter and white opaque backing materials. This allows the film to be visually inspected for colour changes with a higher level of contrast than clear coated radiochromic films such as Gafchromic EBT version 1. The spectral absorption properties in the visible wavelengths have been investigated and results show two main peaks in absorption located at 636 nm and 585 nm. These peaks are located in the same position as EBT Gafchromic film highlighting a similar chemical monomer/polymer for radiation sensitivity. A much higher sensitivity however is found at kilovoltage energies with an average 1.55 OD units per 20 cGy irradiation variation measured at 636 nm using 150 kVp x-rays. This is compared to approximately 0.12 OD units per 20 cGy measured at 636 nm for EBT film at 6 MV x-ray energy. That is, the XRQA film is more than 10 times more sensitive than EBT1 film. The visual colour change is enhanced by the yellow polyester coating. However this does not affect the absorption spectra properties in the red region of analysis which is the main area for use using desktop scanners in reflection mode.

  7. SpekCalc: a program to calculate photon spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poludniowski, G; Evans, P M; Landry, G; DeBlois, F; Verhaegen, F

    2009-01-01

    A software program, SpekCalc, is presented for the calculation of x-ray spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes. SpekCalc was designed primarily for use in a medical physics context, for both research and education purposes, but may also be of interest to those working with x-ray tubes in industry. Noteworthy is the particularly wide range of tube potentials (40-300 kVp) and anode angles (recommended: 6-30 deg.) that can be modelled: the program is therefore potentially of use to those working in superficial/orthovoltage radiotherapy, as well as diagnostic radiology. The utility is free to download and is based on a deterministic model of x-ray spectrum generation (Poludniowski 2007 Med. Phys. 34 2175). Filtration can be applied for seven materials (air, water, Be, Al, Cu, Sn and W). In this note SpekCalc is described and illustrative examples are shown. Predictions are compared to those of a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo code (BEAMnrc) and, where possible, to an alternative, widely-used, spectrum calculation program (IPEM78). (note)

  8. Study of soft X-ray energy spectra from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Zhang Guixin; Han Min; Luo Chengmu

    2006-01-01

    A ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer in the spectral range of 0.28 keV-1.56 keV was developed to study the soft X-ray radiation emitted from gas-puff Z-pinch plasma. It is composed of five channels covering the energy interval of interest without gaps. Soft X-ray spectral energy cuts were determined by the L absorption edges of selected filter elements (K absorption edges being used for light filter elements), and the optimum thickness of filter material was designed using computer code. To minimize the residual sensitivity outside the sensitivity range of each channel, element of the first filter was added into the second filter of all the Ross pair. To diminish the area of each filter, PIN detector with small sensitive area of 1 mm 2 was adopted for the spectrometer. A filter with small area is easy to fabricate and would be helpful to withstand the Z-pinch discharge shock wave. With this ROSS-FILTER-PIN spectrometer, the energy spectra of soft X-ray from a small gas-puff Z-pinch were investigated, and the correlation between the soft X-ray yield and the plasma implosion state was also studied. (authors)

  9. Cosmic ray LET spectra and doses on board Cosmos-2044 biosatellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Potapov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the experiments on board Cosmos-2044 (Biosatellite 9) are presented. Various nuclear track detectors (NTD) (dielectric, AgCl-based, nuclear emulsions) were used to obtain the LET spectra inside and outside the satellite. The spectra from the different NTDs have proved to be in general agreement. The results of LET spectra calculations using two different models are also presented. The resultant LET distributions are used to calculate the absorbed and equivalent doses and the orbit-averaged quality factors (QF) of the cosmic rays (CR). Absorbed dose rates inside (∼ 20 g cm -2 shielding) and outside (1 g cm -2 ) the spacecraft, omitting electrons, were found to be 4.8 and 8.6 mrad d -1 , respectively, while the corresponding equivalent doses were 8.8 and 19.7 mrem d -1 . The effects of the flight parameters on the total fluence of, and on the dose from, the CR particles are analyzed. Integral dose distributions of the detected particles are also determined. The LET values which separate absorbed and equivalent doses into 50% intervals are estimated. The CR-39 dielectric NTD is shown to detect 20-30% of the absorbed dose and 60-70% of the equivalent dose in the Cosmos-2044 orbit. The influence of solar activity phase on the magnitude of the CR flux is discussed. (author)

  10. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectra of the Symbiotic Star SS73 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of "hard X-ray emitting symbiotics." Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe K(alpha) fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si xiv and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe xxv lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin.With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  11. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE SYMBIOTIC STAR SS73 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, R. N. C.; Luna, G. J. M.; Smith, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    SS73 17 was an innocuous Mira-type symbiotic star until the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory and Swift discovered its bright hard X-ray emission, adding it to the small class of 'hard X-ray emitting symbiotics'. Suzaku observations in 2006 then showed it emits three bright iron lines as well, with little to no emission in the 0.3-2.0 keV bandpass. We present here follow-up observations with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating and Suzaku that confirm the earlier detection of strong emission lines of Fe Kα fluorescence, Fe XXV and Fe XXVI but also show significantly more soft X-ray emission. The high-resolution spectrum also shows emission lines of other highly ionized ions as Si XIV and possibly S XVI. In addition, a re-analysis of the 2006 Suzaku data using the latest calibration shows that the hard (15-50 keV) X-ray emission is brighter than previously thought and remains constant in both the 2006 and 2008 data. The G ratio calculated from the Fe XXV lines shows that these lines are thermal, not photoionized, in origin. With the exception of the hard X-ray emission, the spectra from both epochs can be fit using thermal radiation assuming a differential emission measure based on a cooling-flow model combined with a full and partial absorber. We show that acceptable fits can be obtained for all the data in the 1-10 keV band varying only the partial absorber. Based on the temperature and accretion rate, the thermal emission appears to be arising from the boundary layer between the accreting white dwarf and the accretion disk.

  12. X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, nonrotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way the X-ray spectra observed from stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak, Compton reflection hump, power-law tail, and broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce the low/hard, steep power-law, and thermal-dominant states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T(sub e) 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T(sub e) greater than or approximately 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to approximately equal to 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe Ka line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.

  13. EMISSION LINES BETWEEN 1 AND 2 keV IN COMETARY X-RAY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Ian; Christian, Damian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Bodewits, Dennis [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dennerl, Konrad [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching Germany (Germany); Lisse, Carey M. [Planetary Exploration Group, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Rd, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wolk, Scott J., E-mail: ian.ewing.794@my.csun.edu, E-mail: daman.christian@csun.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    We present the detection of new cometary X-ray emission lines in the 1.0-2.0 keV range using a sample of comets observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and ACIS spectrometer. We have selected five comets from the Chandra sample with good signal-to-noise spectra. The surveyed comets are C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), 153P/2002 (Ikeya-Zhang), 2P/2003 (Encke), and C/2008 8P (Tuttle). We modeled the spectra with an extended version of our solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission model. Above 1 keV, we find Ikeya-Zhang to have strong emission lines at 1340 and 1850 eV which we identify as being created by SWCX lines of Mg XI and Si XIII, respectively, and weaker emission lines at 1470, 1600, and 1950 eV formed by SWCX of Mg XII, Mg XI, and Si XIV, respectively. The Mg XI and XII and Si XIII and XIV lines are detected at a significant level for the other comets in our sample (LS4, MH, Encke, 8P), and these lines promise additional diagnostics to be included in SWCX models. The silicon lines in the 1700-2000 eV range are detected for all comets, but with the rising background and decreasing cometary emission, we caution that these detections need further confirmation with higher resolution instruments.

  14. Calculations of magnetic x-ray dichroism in the 3d absorption spectra of rare-earth compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOEDKOOP, JB; THOLE, BT; VANDERLAAN, G; SAWATZKY, GA; DEGROOT, FMF; FUGGLE, JC; de Groot, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    1988-01-01

    We present atomic calculations for the recently discovered magnetic x-ray dichroism (MXD) displayed by the 3d x-ray-absorption spectra of rare-earth compounds. The spectral shapes expected at T=0 K for linear polarization parallel and normal to the local magnetic field is given, together with the

  15. Simulation of pulse height analysis soft X-ray spectra expected from W7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, S.; Czarnecka, A.; Kubkowska, M.; Ryć, L.; Weller, A.; Biedermann, C.; König, R.; W7-X Team

    2015-10-01

    A computer code named RayX has been developed for checking the performance of a spectroscopy system and optimizing individual parts, like detectors and filters for the pulse height analysis (PHA) diagnostic system designed for the stellarator W7-X. Using the code, the intensity and shape of the X-ray spectra are simulated for different plasma scenarios characterized by varying the temperature and density profiles as well as the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power over a wide range. In the simulations of the recorded spectra, the influence of geometrical configuration changes of the diagnostic system (pinhole size, detector size, location of each diagnostic component), of the timing of data collection, as well as of the type and thickness of filters are being investigated. The atomic processes of free-free (bremsstrahlung), free-bound (recombination radiation), and bound-bound emission (line radiation) are considered. For the impurities fractional abundancies of 3% carbon (C), 0.5% oxygen (O) and 0.002% iron (Fe) are taken into account. Information about the number of photons which reach the detector and the current generated inside the detector is given. It is shown that the distance between pinhole and detector has a larger impact on the registered spectra (intensity and total number of photons) than the distance between plasma and pinhole. Based on the results of the simulations, the expected optimal positions of the individual components (pinholes, detectors) were defined for the PHA W7-X diagnostic system. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  16. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  17. Gamma-ray spectra and doses from the Little Boy replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Most radiation safety guidelines in the nuclear industry are based on the data concerning the survivors of the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Crucial to determining these guidelines is the radiation from the explosions. We have measured gamma-ray pulse-height distributions from an accurate replica of the Little Boy device used at Hiroshima, operated at low power levels near critical. The device was placed outdoors on a stand 4 m from the ground to minimize environmental effects. The power levels were based on a monitor detector calibrated very carefully in independent experiments. High-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with a germanium detector to identify the lines and to obtain line intensities. The 7631 to 7645 keV doublet from neutron capture in the heavy steel case was dominant. Low-resolution pulse-height distributions were acquired with bismuth-germanate detectors. We calculated flux spectra from these distributions using accurately measured detector response functions and efficiency curves. We then calculated dose-rate spectra from the flux spectra using a flux-to-dose-rate conversion procedure. The integral of each dose-rate spectrum gave an integral dose rate. The integral doses at 2 m ranged from 0.46 to 1.03 mrem per 10 13 fissions. The output of the Little Boy replica can be calculated with Monte Carlo codes. Comparison of our experimental spectra, line intensities, and integral doses can be used to verify these calculations at low power levels and give increased confidence to the calculated values from the explosion at Hiroshima. These calculations then can be used to establish better radiation safety guidelines. 7 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  18. Study on keV-neutron capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, J.; Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Kim, G.N.; Chung, W.C.; Ro, T.I.

    2006-01-01

    The capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were measured in an incident neutron energy region from 10 to 100 keV and at 570 keV, using a 1.5-ns pulsed neutron source by the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction and a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. A pulse-height weighting technique was applied to observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra to derive capture yields. The capture cross sections of 117,119 Sn were obtained with the error of about 5% by using the standard capture cross sections of 197 Au. The present cross sections were compared with previous experimental data and the evaluated values in JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI. The capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were derived by unfolding the observed capture γ-ray pulse-height spectra. The calculations of capture cross sections and capture γ-ray spectra of 117,119 Sn were performed with the EMPIRE-II code. The calculated results were compared with the present experimental ones. (author)

  19. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  20. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushotzky, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales

  1. A method for interpolating asymmetric peak shapes in multiplet γ-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Siguang; Mao Yajun; Zhu Bo; Liang Yutie; Tang Peijia

    2009-01-01

    The peak shapes of γ-rays at various energies must be known before unfolding the multiplet spectra obtained by using semiconductor or scintillation detectors. Traditional methods describe isolated peaks with multi-parameter fitting functions, and assume that most of these parameters do not vary with energy because it is rare to find a spectrum with enough isolated peaks to constrain their dependence. We present an algorithm for interpolating the γ-ray profile at any intermediate energy given a pair of isolated γ-ray peaks from the spectrum under consideration. The algorithm is tested on experimental data and leads to a good agreement between the interpolated profile and the fitting function. This method is more accurate than the traditional approach, since all aspects of the peak shape are allowed to vary with energy. New definitions of Left-Half Width at Half Maximum, and Right-Half Width at Half Maximum for peak shape description are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  2. Interpretation of magnetic circular dichroism of X-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Satoshi; Sasaki, Naoya; Ishii, Hiroyoshi; Miyahara, Tsuneaki

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the dependence of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of the X-ray emission spectra (XES) on the temperature and incident angle for a Gd thin film. The energy of the incident photon for the XES was 138.25eV, which corresponded to the resonant excitation to the 8 D 9/2 intermediate state. The dependence of the observed MCD on the temperature and incident angle was quite different from that of the magnetic moment estimated with a SQUID magnetometer. By considering the reflection, saturation effect, self-absorption effect and magnetic anisotropy of the thin film, the agreement of the two behaviors was considerably improved. This result shows that the revisions of the MCD of the XES are extremely important for the quantitative estimation of the magnetic moment from the MCD of the XES. (author)

  3. Comparison of alternative methods for multiplet deconvolution in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, Menno; Keyser, Ronald M.; Fazekas, Bela

    1999-01-01

    Three methods for multiplet deconvolution were tested using the 1995 IAEA reference spectra: Total area determination, iterative fitting and the library-oriented approach. It is concluded that, if statistical control (i.e. the ability to report results that agree with the known, true values to within the reported uncertainties) is required, the total area determination method performs the best. If high deconvolution power is required and a good, internally consistent library is available, the library oriented method yields the best results. Neither Erdtmann and Soyka's gamma-ray catalogue nor Browne and Firestone's Table of Radioactive Isotopes were found to be internally consistent enough in this respect. In the absence of a good library, iterative fitting with restricted peak width variation performs the best. The ultimate approach as yet to be implemented might be library-oriented fitting with allowed peak position variation according to the peak energy uncertainty specified in the library. (author)

  4. Electronic Structures of Purple Bronze KMo6O17 Studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaokui; Wei, Junyin; Shi, Jing; Tian, Mingliang; Chen, Hong; Tian, Decheng

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study has been performed for the purple bronze KMo6O17. The structures of conduction band and valence band are analogous to the results of ultraviolet photoemission spectra and are also consistent with the model of Travaglini et al., but the gap between conduction and valence band is insignificant. The shape of asymmetric and broadening line of O-1s is due to unresolved contributions from the many inequivalent oxygen sites in this crystal structure. Mo 3d core-level spectrum reveals that there are two kinds of valence states of Molybdenum (Mo+5 and Mo+6). The calculated average valence state is about +5.6, which is consistent with the expectation value from the composition of this material. The tail of Mo-3d spectrum toward higher binding energy is the consequence of the excitation of electron-hole pairs with singularity index of 0.21.

  5. Fundamental quantification procedure for total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis and elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.; Holynska, B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for the determination of the concentrations of elements in particulate-like samples measured in total reflection geometry is proposed. In the proposed method the fundamental parameters are utilized for calculating the sensitivities of elements and an internal standard is used to account for the unknown mass per unit area of a sample and geometrical constant of the spectrometer. The modification of the primary excitation spectrum on its way to a sample has been taken into consideration. The concentrations of the elements to be determined are calculated simultaneously with the spectra deconvolution procedure. In the process of quantitative analysis the intensities of all X-ray peaks corresponding to K and L-series lines present in the analyzed spectrum are taken into account. (Author)

  6. The supersoft X-ray source in V5116 Sagittarii. I. The high resolution spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, G.; Ness, J. U.; Hernanz, M.; Greiner, J.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Classical nova explosions occur on the surface of an accreting white dwarf in a binary system. After ejection of a fraction of the envelope and when the expanding shell becomes optically thin to X-rays, a bright source of supersoft X-rays arises, powered by residual H burning on the surface of the white dwarf. While the general picture of the nova event is well established, the details and balance of accretion and ejection processes in classical novae are still full of unknowns. The long-term balance of accreted matter is of special interest for massive accreting white dwarfs, which may be promising supernova Ia progenitor candidates. Nova V5116 Sgr 2005b was observed as a bright and variable supersoft X-ray source by XMM-Newton in March 2007, 610 days after outburst. The light curve showed a periodicity consistent with the orbital period. During one third of the orbit the luminosity was a factor of seven brighter than during the other two thirds of the orbital period. Aims: In the present work we aim to disentangle the X-ray spectral components of V5116 Sgr and their variability. Methods: We present the high resolution spectra obtained with XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra LETGS/HRC-S in March and August 2007. Results: The grating spectrum during the periods of high-flux shows a typical hot white dwarf atmosphere dominated by absorption lines of N VI and N VII. During the low-flux periods, the spectrum is dominated by an atmosphere with the same temperature as during the high-flux period, but with several emission features superimposed. Some of the emission lines are well modeled with an optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium, rich in C and N, which also explains some excess in the spectra of the high-flux period. No velocity shifts are observed in the absorption lines, with an upper limit set by the spectral resolution of 500 km s-1, consistent with the expectation of a non-expanding atmosphere so late in the evolution of the post-nova. Based on

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation of Complete X-Ray Spectra for Use in Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roet, David; Van Espen, Piet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text: The interactions of keV electrons and photons with matter can be simulated accurately with the aid of the Monte Carlo (MC) technique. In scanning electron microscopy x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) such simulations can be used to perform quantitative analysis using a Reverse Monte Carlo method even if the samples have irregular geometry. Alternatively the MC technique can generate spectra of standards for use in quantization with partial least squares regression. The feasibility of these alternatives to the more classical ZAF or phi-rho-Z quantification methods has been proven already. In order to be applicable for these purposes the MC-code needs to generate accurately only the characteristic K and L x-ray lines, but also the Bremsstrahlung continuum, i.e. the complete x-ray spectrum need to be simulated. Currently two types of MC simulation codes are available. Programs like Electron Flight Simulator and CASINO simulate characteristic x-rays due to electron interaction in a fast and efficient way but lack provision for the simulation of the continuum. On the other hand, programs like EGS4, MCNP4 and PENELOPE, originally developed for high energy (MeV- GeV) applications, are more complete but difficult to use and still slow, even on todays fastest computers. We therefore started the development of a dedicated MC simulation code for use in quantitative SEM-EDX work. The selection of the most appropriate cross section for the different interactions will be discussed and the results obtained will be compared with those obtained with existing MC programs. Examples of the application of MC simulations for quantitative analysis of samples with various composition will be given

  8. Origins of extreme broadening mechanisms in near-edge x-ray spectra of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Elam, W. T.; Denlinger, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate the observation of many-body lifetime effects in valence-band x-ray emission. A comparison of the N K α emission of crystalline ammonium nitrate to molecular-orbital calculations revealed an unexpected, extreme broadening of the NO σ recombination—so extensively as to virtually disappear. GW calculations establish that this disappearance is due to a large imaginary component of the self-energy associated with the NO σ orbitals. Building upon density-functional theory, we have calculated radiative transitions from the nitrogen 1 s level of ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride using a Bethe-Salpeter method to include electron-hole interactions. The absorption and emission spectra of both crystals evince large, orbital-dependent sensitivity to molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that many-body effects as well as thermal and zero-point motion are vital for understanding observed spectra. A computational approach using average atomic positions and uniform broadening to account for lifetime and phonon effects is unsatisfactory.

  9. Analysis of fine structure of X-ray spectra from laser-irradiated gold dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guohong; Zhang Jiyan; Zhang Baohan; Zhou Yuqing; Li Jun

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray emission spectra from highly stripped plasma of gold has been observed by focusing a Nd-glass frequency tripled laser beam onto the surface of the gold dot at the XINGGUANG II laser facilities. The spectra of gold ions in the range of 0.0003 nm-0.0004 nm was recorded using the plate PET (2d = 0.8742 nm) crystal spectrometer. The code of average energy of relativistic sub-arrays was built on the basis of the code MCDF (Multi-Configuration-Dirac-Fock). Using the spin-orbit-split-arrays (SOSA) formalism, mean wavelengths and full widths at half height of isolated peaks of sub-arrays of lower charged gold ions, isoelectronic with Cu, Zn, Ga and Ge, was calculated. Twenty-six lines are interpreted, they pertain mainly to transitions of 3d-nf (n = 5,6,7) of gold ions from Ni-like to As-like. These results of experiment and calculation have important application in plasma diagnostics and examination of high Z elemental atomic structure calculation

  10. Temperature effect on X-ray photoelectron spectra of 3d transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochur, A.G.; Kozakov, A.T.; Yavna, V.A.; Daniel, Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 2p XPS of 3d metal ions are calculated in an isolated ion approximation. • 2p XPS of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe ions are temperature dependent even at room temperature. • Temperature effect on 3p XPS is slight. • No temperature effect on 3s XPS is discovered. - Abstract: Temperature effect on 2p- 3s- and 3p X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of various ions of Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Fe is studied theoretically within an isolated ion approximation. It is shown that the 2p XPS of those ions are temperature dependent even at room temperature due to a very slight energy splitting between the ground-state-term total-momentum J-components which can be thermally populated. Most significant temperature effect is expected in the 2p-spectra of Ti 2+ (3d 2 ), V 2+ (3d 3 ), Cr 2+ (3d 4 ), Mn 3+ (3d 4 ), and Mn 3+ (3d 4 ) ions. The temperature effect on 3p XPS is slight. No temperature effect on 3s XPS is expected

  11. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Amorphous Ices from GW Quasiparticle Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Car, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    We use a GW approach[2] to compute the x-ray absorption spectra of model low- and high-density amorphous ice structures(LDA and HDA)[3]. We include the structural effects of quantum zero point motion using colored-noise Langevin molecular dynamics[4]. The calculated spectra differences in the main and post edge region between LDA and HDA agree well with experimental observations. We attribute these differences to the presence of interstitial molecules within the first coordination shell range in HDA. This assignment is further supported by a calculation of the spectrum of ice VIII, a high-pressure structure that maximizes the number of interstitial molecules and, accordingly, shows a much weaker post-edge feature. We further rationalize the spectral similarity between HDA and liquid water, and between LDA and ice Ih in terms of the respective similarities in the H-bond network topology and bond angle distributions. Supported by grants DOE-DE-SC0005180, DOE DE-SC0008626 and NSF-CHE-0956500.

  12. Deciphering the Local Interstellar Spectra of Primary Cosmic-Ray Species with HELMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschini, M. J.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; La Vacca, G.; Masi, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Pensotti, S.; Porter, T. A.; Quadrani, L.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

    2018-05-01

    Local interstellar spectra (LIS) of primary cosmic ray (CR) nuclei, such as helium, oxygen, and mostly primary carbon are derived for the rigidity range from 10 MV to ∼200 TV using the most recent experimental results combined with the state-of-the-art models for CR propagation in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. Two propagation packages, GALPROP and HELMOD, are combined into a single framework that is used to reproduce direct measurements of CR species at different modulation levels, and at both polarities of the solar magnetic field. The developed iterative maximum-likelihood method uses GALPROP-predicted LIS as input to HELMOD, which provides the modulated spectra for specific time periods of the selected experiments for model–data comparison. The interstellar and heliospheric propagation parameters derived in this study are consistent with our prior analyses using the same methodology for propagation of CR protons, helium, antiprotons, and electrons. The resulting LIS accommodate a variety of measurements made in the local interstellar space (Voyager 1) and deep inside the heliosphere at low (ACE/CRIS, HEAO-3) and high energies (PAMELA, AMS-02).

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectra structure and chemical bonding in AmO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis was done of the X-ray photoelectron spectra structure in the binding energy range of 0 eV to ~35 eV for americium dioxide (AmO2 valence electrons. The binding energies and structure of the core electronic shells (~35 eV-1250 eV, as well as the relativistic discrete variation calculation results for the Am63O216 and AmO8 (D4h cluster reflecting Am close environment in AmO2 were taken into account. The experimental data show that the many-body effects and the multiplet splitting contribute to the spectral structure much less than the effects of formation of the outer (0-~15 eV binding energy and the inner (~15 eV-~35 eV binding energy valence molecular orbitals. The filled Am 5f electronic states were shown to form in the AmO2 valence band. The Am 6p electrons participate in formation of both the inner and the outer valence molecular orbitals (bands. The filled Am 6p3/2 and the O 2s electronic shells were found to make the largest contributions to the formation of the inner valence molecular orbitals. Contributions of electrons from different molecular orbitals to the chemical bond in the AmO8 cluster were evaluated. Composition and sequence order of molecular orbitals in the binding energy range 0-~35 eV in AmO2 were established. The experimental and theoretical data allowed a quantitative scheme of molecular orbitals for AmO2, which is fundamental for both understanding the chemical bond nature in americium dioxide and the interpretation of other X-ray spectra of AmO2.

  14. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Lucas; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Viloria, Carolina; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL) of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography. PMID:26811553

  15. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Paixão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Derive filtered tungsten X-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and Methods: Filtered spectra for rhodium filter were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer (HVL of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F & MAM Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w mAs in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a direct radiography mode. Results: Calculated HVL values showed good agreement as compared with those obtained experimentally. The greatest relative difference between the Monte Carlo calculated HVL values and experimental HVL values was 4%. Conclusion: The results show that the filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code can be used for mean glandular dose determination in mammography.

  16. Program LEP to addition of gamma spectra from germanium detectors; Programa LEPS para suma de espectros gammas de detectores de germanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L

    1986-07-01

    The LEP program, written in FORTRAN IV, performs the addition of two spectra, collected with different detectors, from the same sample. This application, adds the two gamma spectra obtained from two opposite LEPS Germanium Detectors (Low Energy Photon Spectrometer), correcting the differences (channel/energy) between both two spectra, and fitting them before adding. The total-spectrum is recorded at the computer memory as a single spectrum. The necessary equipment, to run this program is: - Two opposite germanium detectors, with their associate electronics. - Multichannel analyzer (2048 memory channel minimum) - Computer on-line interfacing to multichannel analyzer. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Automatic storing of single gamma spectra on magnetic tape. Programs LONGO, DIRE; Automatizacion del almacenamiento en cinta magnetica de espectros gamma directos. Programas LONGO, DIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos Merino, J M

    1978-07-01

    The program LONGO provides the block size and the block number in a binary file on magnetic tape. It has been applied to analyse the structure of the nine-track magnetic tapes storing single or coincidence gamma spectra files, recorded in octet form by a MULTI-8 minicomputer in the Nuclear Spectrometry Laboratory of J.E.N. Then the program DIRE has been written to transform the single gamma spectra into a new FASTRAND disk file, storing the information in-36 bit words. A copy of this file is obtained on magnetic tape and the single gamma spectra are then available by standard FORTRAN V reading sentences. (Author) 3 refs.

  18. Determination of altitude-dependence of standard spectra and stripping ratios for the GR820 Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heincke, Bjoern H.; Watson, Robin J.; Moeller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NGUs Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer system is used both for geological mapping, and for monitoring radioactive materials in the event of nuclear emergencies. Traditional methods of processing spectrometer data use channel windows around the radionuclides of interest; more advanced methods make use of the full spectra information. Such advanced methods require prior knowledge of the dependence of standard spectra with height. Height-dependent measurements have been made using concrete calibration pads, and polythene sheets to simulate the effects of altitude. The height-dependent standard spectra were determined using singular value decomposition and a global inversion scheme. Using the first two eigenimages, together with suitable scaling factors, we were able to recreate the measured height-dependent standard spectra. The height dependence of standard Th, U and K stripping ratios were also calculated from these standard spectra.(Au)

  19. Dose and absorption spectra response of EBT2 Gafchromic film to high energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Alnawaf, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: With new advancements in radiochromic film designs and sensitivity to suit different niche applications, EBT2 is the latest offering for the megavoltage radiotherapy market. New construction specifications including different physical construction and the use of a yellow coloured dye has provided the next generation radiochromic film for therapy applications. The film utilises the same active chemical for radiation measurement as its predecessor, EBT Gafchromic. Measurements have been performed using photo spectrometers to analyse the absorption spectra properties of this new EBT2 Gafchromic, radiochromic film. Results have shown that whilst the physical coloration or absorption spectra of the film, which turns yellow to green as compared to EBT film, (clear to blue) is significantly different due to the added yellow dye, the net change in absorption spectra properties for EBT2 are similar to the original EBT film. Absorption peaks are still located at 636 n m and 585 n m positions. A net optical density change of 0.590 ± 0.020 (2SD) for a 1 Gy radiation absorbed dose using 6 MV x-rays when measured at the 636 n m absorption peak was found. This is compared to 0.602 ± 0.025 (2SD) for the original EBT film (2005 Batch) and 0.557 ± 0.027 (2009 Batch) at the same absorption peak. The yellow dye and the new coating material produce a significantly different visible absorption spectra results for the EBT2 film compared to EBT at wavelengths especially below approximately 550 n m. At wavelengths above 550 n m differences in absolute OD are seen however, when dose analysis is performed at wavelengths above 550 n m using net optical density changes, no significant variations are seen. If comparing results of the late production EBT to new production EBT2 film, net optical density variations of approximately 10 % to 15 % are seen. As all new film batches should be calibrated for sensitivity upon arrival this should not be of concern.

  20. Use of MCNP + GADRAS in Generating More Realistic Gamma-Ray Spectra for Plutonium and HEU Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Mattingly, John; Mitchell, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ability to accurately simulate high-resolution gamma spectra from materials that emit both neutrons and gammas is very important to the analysis of special nuclear materials (SNM), e.g., uranium and plutonium. One approach under consideration has been to combine MCNP and GADRAS. This approach is expected to generate more accurate gamma ray spectra for complex three-dimensional geometries than can be obtained from one-dimensional deterministic transport simulations (e.g., ONEDANT). This presentation describes application of combining MCNP and GADRAS in simulating plutonium and uranium spectra.

  1. Soft X-ray absorption spectra of aqueous salt solutions with highly charged cations in liquid microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2010-03-11

    X-ray absorption spectra of 1M aqueous solutions of indium (III) chloride, yttrium (III) bromide, lanthanum (III) chloride, tin (IV) chloride and chromium (III) chloride have been measured at the oxygen K-edge. Relatively minor changes are observed in the spectra compared to that of pure water. SnCl{sub 4} and CrCl{sub 3} exhibit a new onset feature which is attributed to formation of hydroxide or other complex molecules in the solution. At higher energy, only relatively minor, but salt-specific changes in the spectra occur. The small magnitude of the observed spectral changes is ascribed to offsetting perturbations by the cations and anions.

  2. Cosmic ray H and He spectra from 2 to 800 TeV/nucleon from the JACEE experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, B. S.; Cherry, M. L.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, J. P.; Asakimori, K.; Burnett, T. H.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.; Olson, E. D.; Strausz, S. C.; Wilkes, R. J.; Zager, E.; Chevli, K.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Shiina, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    Results for the cosmic ray hydrogen and helium spectra up to 800 TeV, near the 'knee' region, are presented. There is no sign of a break in either the hydrogen or helium spectra. The differential power law slopes are 2.80±0.04 for hydrogen and 2.68±0.06 for helium. With these new H and He measurements, together with earlier reported results for the heavier elements, the sum of the spectra give an all-particle spectrum that is in good agreement with the all-particle spectrum measured using extensive air showers

  3. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. On the origin of cyclotron lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtukov A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclotron resonance scattering features are observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars and show significant changes in the line energy with the pulsar luminosity. In a case of bright sources, the line centroid energy is anti-correlated with the luminosity. Such a behaviour is often associated with the onset and growth of the accretion column, which is believed to be the origin of the observed emission and the cyclotron lines. However, this scenario inevitably implies large gradient of the magnetic field strength within the line-forming region, and it makes the formation of the observed line-like features problematic. Moreover, the observed variation of the cyclotron line energy is much smaller than could be anticipated for the corresponding luminosity changes. We argue that a more physically realistic situation is that the cyclotron line forms when the radiation emitted by the accretion column is reflected from the neutron star surface. The idea is based on the facts that a substantial part of column luminosity is intercepted by the neutron star surface and the reflected radiation should contain absorption features. The reflection model is developed and applied to explain the observed variations of the cyclotron line energy in a bright X-ray pulsar V 0332+53 over a wide range of luminosities.

  5. Quality-assurance techniques used with automated analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, E.W.; Koeppen, L.D.; Femec, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of developing gamma-ray spectrum analysis algorithms for use by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several techniques have been developed that enhance and verify the quality of the analytical results. The use of these quality-assurance techniques is critical when gamma-ray analysis results from low-level environmental samples are used in risk assessment or site restoration and cleanup decisions. This paper describes four of the quality-assurance techniques that are in routine use at the laboratory. They are used for all types of samples, from reactor effluents to environmental samples. The techniques include: (1) the use of precision pulsers (with subsequent removal) to validate the correct operation of the spectrometer electronics for each and every spectrum acquired, (2) the use of naturally occurring and cosmically induced radionuclides in samples to help verify that the data acquisition and analysis were performed properly, (3) the use of an ambient background correction technique that involves superimposing (open-quotes mappingclose quotes) sample photopeak fitting parameters onto multiple background spectra for accurate and more consistent quantification of the background activities, (4) the use of interactive, computer-driven graphics to review the automated locating and fitting of photopeaks and to allow for manual fitting of photopeaks

  6. Extracting ion emission lines from femtosecond-laser plasma x-ray spectra heavily contaminated by spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasilov, S. V.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; Stagira, S.; Calegari, F.; Vozzi, C.; Nisoli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors are widely used for the registration of multicharged ions x-ray spectra. These spectra are generated in a plasma during interaction of ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulses with solid targets. Strong parasitic radiation from the plasma affects CCD detectors and contaminates resulting spectra, so that spectral features can be completely covered by noise even during measurements with a very short accumulation time. In this work we propose a ''mean to median'' (M2M) algorithm for noise suppression in femtosecond laser plasma x-ray spectra. Series of spectra is necessary for the identification of corrupted data points by the developed method. The algorithm was tested with model spectra which reflect main features of experimental data. In practice we used it for extracting information about spectral lines of Ne-like Fe ions and He-like Al ions which allowed us to calculate plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that M2M method is able to clean spectra with more than 10% of corrupted pixels. Fluctuations in intensity of spectral lines induced by laser instability do not affect validity of the proposed method

  7. Comparisons of experimental beta-ray spectra important to decay heat predictions with ENSDF [Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File] evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1990-03-01

    Graphical comparisons of recently obtained experimental beta-ray spectra with predicted beta-ray spectra based on the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File are exhibited for 77 fission products having masses 79--99 and 130--146 and lifetimes between 0.17 and 23650 sec. The comparisons range from very poor to excellent. For beta decay of 47 nuclides, estimates are made of ground-state transition intensities. For 14 cases the value in ENSDF gives results in very good agreement with the experimental data. 12 refs., 77 figs., 1 tab

  8. 1012 - 1015 eV interaction deduced from energy spectra of gamma-ray and hadrons at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    The present paper deals with the latest results of the spectral measurements of high energy cosmic ray performed on an airplane with an emulsion chamber. The hadronic component together with the gamma-ray component were observed in the region of gamma energy not smaller than 30 GeV and gamma energy sum not larger than 40 TeV. It was observed that the integral spectra of hadronic showers showed less steep power than those obtained at mountain stations. On the other hand, the integral spectra of gamma-ray in the energy region from 40 GeV to 40 TeV showed steeper power than those of hadronic component. The zenith angle distributions of hadrons and gamma-ray were inspected, and it was confirmed that the observed distributions were well reproduced by the theoretical curves with the appropriate attenuation length. (Yoshimori, M.)

  9. Comparison of hard X-ray spectra obtained by spectrometers on Hinotori and SMM and detection of 'superhot' component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra in solar flares obtained by the broadband spectrometers aboard Hinotori and SMM are compared. Within the uncertainty brought about by assuming the typical energy of the background X-rays, spectra by the Hinotori spectrometer are usually consistent with those by the SMM spectrometer for flares in 1981. On the contrary, flares in 1982 persistently show 20-50-percent higher flux by Hinotori than by SMM. If this discrepancy is entirely attributable to errors in the calibration of energy ranges, the errors would be about 10 percent. Despite such a discrepancy in absolute flux, in the the decay phase of one flare, spectra revealed a hard X-ray component (probably a 'superhot' component) that could be explained neither by emission from a plasma at about 2 x 10 to the 7th K nor by a nonthermal power-law component. Imaging observations during this period show hard X-ray emission nearly cospatial with soft X-ray emission, in contrast with earlier times at which hard and soft X-rays come from different places.

  10. TEMPERATURE SPECTRA OF INTERSTELLAR DUST GRAINS HEATED BY COSMIC RAYS. I. TRANSLUCENT CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvāns, Juris, E-mail: juris.kalvans@venta.lv [Engineering Research Institute “Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Center” of Ventspils University College, Inzenieru 101, Ventspils, LV-3601 (Latvia)

    2016-06-01

    Heating of whole interstellar dust grains by cosmic-ray (CR) particles affects the gas–grain chemistry in molecular clouds by promoting molecule desorption, diffusion, and chemical reactions on grain surfaces. The frequency of such heating, f{sub T}, s{sup −1}, determines how often a certain temperature T{sub CR}, K, is reached for grains hit by CR particles. This study aims to provide astrochemists with a comprehensive and updated data set on CR-induced whole-grain heating. We present calculations of f{sub T} and T{sub CR} spectra for bare olivine grains with radius a of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μ m and such grains covered with ice mantles of thickness 0.1 a and 0.3 a . Grain shape and structure effects are considered, as well as 30 CR elemental constituents with an updated energy spectrum corresponding to a translucent cloud with A{sub V} = 2 mag. Energy deposition by CRs in grain material was calculated with the srim program. We report full T{sub CR} spectra for all nine grain types and consider initial grain temperatures of 10 K and 20 K. We also provide frequencies for a range of minimum T{sub CR} values. The calculated data set can be simply and flexibly implemented in astrochemical models. The results show that, in the case of translucent clouds, the currently adopted rate for heating of whole grains to temperatures in excess of 70 K is underestimated by approximately two orders of magnitude in astrochemical numerical simulations. Additionally, grains are heated by CRs to modest temperatures (20–30 K) with intervals of a few years, which reduces the possibility of ice chemical explosions.

  11. The Intrinsically X-Ray-weak Quasar PHL 1811. II. Optical and UV Spectra and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Casebeer, Darrin

    2007-11-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the unusually bright (mb=14.4), luminous (MB=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line quasar PHL 1811. The first paper reported that PHL 1811 is intrinsically X-ray-weak and presented a spectral energy distribution (SED). Here we present HST STIS optical and UV spectra, and ground-based optical spectra. The optical and UV line emission is very unusual. There is no evidence for forbidden or semiforbidden lines. The near-UV spectrum is dominated by very strong Fe II and Fe III, and unusual low-ionization lines such as Na I D and Ca II H and K are observed. High-ionization lines are very weak; C IV has an equivalent width of 6.6 Å, a factor of ~5 smaller than measured from quasar composite spectra. An unusual feature near 1200 Å can be deblended in terms of Lyα, N V, Si II, and C III* using the blueshifted C IV profile as a template. Photoionization modeling shows that the unusual line emission can be explained qualitatively by the unusually soft SED. Principally, a low gas temperature results in inefficient emission of collisionally excited lines, including the semiforbidden lines generally used as density diagnostics. The emission resembles that of high-density gas; in both cases this is a consequence of inefficient cooling. PHL 1811 is very unusual, but we note that quasar surveys may be biased against finding similar objects. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal 9181. Based on observations obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  12. An accurate method for computer-generating tungsten anode x-ray spectra from 30 to 140 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, J M; Seibert, J A

    1997-11-01

    A tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) was used to compute x-ray spectra at 1 keV intervals over the range from 30 kV to 140 kV. The TASMIP is not semi-empirical and uses no physical assumptions regarding x-ray production, but rather interpolates measured constant potential x-ray spectra published by Fewell et al. [Handbook of Computed Tomography X-ray Spectra (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1981)]. X-ray output measurements (mR/mAs measured at 1 m) were made on a calibrated constant potential generator in our laboratory from 50 kV to 124 kV, and with 0-5 mm added aluminum filtration. The Fewell spectra were slightly modified (numerically hardened) and normalized based on the attenuation and output characteristics of a constant potential generator and metal-insert x-ray tube in our laboratory. Then, using the modified Fewell spectra of different kVs, the photon fluence phi at each 1 keV energy bin (E) over energies from 10 keV to 140 keV was characterized using polynomial functions of the form phi (E) = a0[E] + a1[E] kV + a2[E] kV2 + ... + a(n)[E] kVn. A total of 131 polynomial functions were used to calculate accurate x-ray spectra, each function requiring between two and four terms. The resulting TASMIP algorithm produced x-ray spectra that match both the quality and quantity characteristics of the x-ray system in our laboratory. For photon fluences above 10% of the peak fluence in the spectrum, the average percent difference (and standard deviation) between the modified Fewell spectra and the TASMIP photon fluence was -1.43% (3.8%) for the 50 kV spectrum, -0.89% (1.37%) for the 70 kV spectrum, and for the 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 kV spectra, the mean differences between spectra were all less than 0.20% and the standard deviations were less than approximately 1.1%. The model was also extended to include the effects of generator-induced kV ripple. Finally, the x-ray photon fluence in the units of

  13. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  14. CHARGE-TRANSFER SATELLITES AND MULTIPLET SPLITTING IN X-RAY PHOTOEMISSION SPECTRA OF LATE TRANSITION-METAL HALIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKADA, K; KOTANI, A; THOLE, BT

    1992-01-01

    Core-level X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) are calculated for Ni and Co dihalides with an MX6 cluster model (M = Ni, Co; X = F, Cl, Br), where intra-atomic multiplet coupling as well as covalency mixing is taken into account. The effects of the intra-atomic configuration interaction between

  15. BGSUB and BGFIX: FORTRAN programs to correct Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra for photopeaks from radionuclides in background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutshall, N.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1980-03-01

    Two FORTRAN programs which provide correction and error analysis for background photopeak contributions to low-level gamma-ray spectra are discussed. A peak-by-peak background subtraction approach is used instead of channel-by-channel correction. The accuracy of corrected results near background levels is substantially improved over uncorrected values

  16. Determination of semi-reducing layer and applied stress through spectra emitted by an X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Josilene C.; Gonzalez, Alejandro H.L.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Costa, Paulo R.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a method for assessment of half value layer (HVL) and peak tube voltage (kVp) by means of experimental x-ray spectra measured using a CdTe detector. The work also evaluated spectrometry parameters such as dead time and count rate, and x-ray tube characteristics that can affect the assessment of these quantities. Two sets of x-ray spectra were measured: A) using Cu filters with different thicknesses and fixed tube current, and B) keeping a fixed Cu filtration and different tube current and, so, ranging the count rates. The spectrometer was energy calibrated using standard radioactive sources. kVp value was estimated by means of experimental measured x-ray spectra, using linear regression in order to search the end point of each spectrum. HVL was estimated after the correction of the measured spectra, using an analytical method implemented using Matlab® software. For comparison, HVL was also determined using a 30 cm"3 ion chamber and high purity Al filters. (author)

  17. Theoretically predicted soft x-ray emission and absorption spectra of graphitic-structured BC2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    Theoretical B K, C K and N K x-ray emission/absorption spectra of three possible graphitic-structured BC2N clusters are predicted based on the B2p-, C2p-, and N2p- density-of-states (DOS) calculated by discrete variational (DV)-X[alpha] molecular orbital calculations. Several prominent differences in DOS spectral features among BC2Ns, h-BN, and graphite are confirmed from comparison of calculated B2p-, C2p-, and N2p-DOS spectra. These variations in the spectra allow BC2N structures to be positively identified by high-resolution x-ray emission/absorption spectroscopy in the B K, C K, and N K regions.

  18. Quantifying the effect of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehranian, A.; Ay, M. R.; Alam, N. Riyahi; Zaidi, H. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14185-615, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14185-615, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6447, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) and Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The accurate prediction of x-ray spectra under typical conditions encountered in clinical x-ray examination procedures and the assessment of factors influencing them has been a long-standing goal of the diagnostic radiology and medical physics communities. In this work, the influence of anode surface roughness on diagnostic x-ray spectra is evaluated using MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: An image-based modeling method was used to create realistic models from surface-cracked anodes. An in-house computer program was written to model the geometric pattern of cracks and irregularities from digital images of focal track surface in order to define the modeled anodes into MCNP input file. To consider average roughness and mean crack depth into the models, the surface of anodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and surface profilometry. It was found that the average roughness (R{sub a}) in the most aged tube studied is about 50 {mu}m. The correctness of MCNP4C in simulating diagnostic x-ray spectra was thoroughly verified by calling its Gaussian energy broadening card and comparing the simulated spectra with experimentally measured ones. The assessment of anode roughness involved the comparison of simulated spectra in deteriorated anodes with those simulated in perfectly plain anodes considered as reference. From these comparisons, the variations in output intensity, half value layer (HVL), heel effect, and patient dose were studied. Results: An intensity loss of 4.5% and 16.8% was predicted for anodes aged by 5 and 50 {mu}m deep cracks (50 kVp, 6 deg. target angle, and 2.5 mm Al total filtration). The variations in HVL were not significant as the spectra were not hardened by more than 2.5%; however, the trend for this variation was to increase with roughness. By deploying several point detector tallies along the anode-cathode direction and averaging exposure over them, it was found that for a 6 deg. anode, roughened by 50 {mu}m deep

  19. Examination of X-ray spectra from the antiprotonic helium isotopes 3He and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1987-05-01

    Using the high intensity antiprotonic LEAR beam at CERN (Geneva), several measurements were done to investigate the X-ray spectra of the antiprotonic Helium isotopes 3 He and 4 He. For the first time antiprotons were stopped in gases at low pressures (600, 375, 72 and 36 mbar), which permitted observations on nearly isolated atoms. A newly developed method for stopping the antiprotons in gases by means of a focusing cyclotron field surrounding the target gas was used. The field was supplied by a superconducting magnet ('cyclotron trap'). The antiprotons were tangentially injected into the cyclotron field, where they slowed down by ionising the target gas. The inhomogeneous magnetic field guided the antiprotons in spiral orbits to the magnetic center. Thus, even at low pressures a very small stopping volume could be achieved. To detect the X-rays different Si(Li)- and Ge-semiconductor detectors were used, some of which were furnished with 'guard-rings'. They were used to investigate the effects of the strong interaction between the antiproton and the nucleus in the (3d → 2p) transition in both isotopes. The analyzis of this transition permitted directly the determination of the shift and width of the 2p-level. The width of the 3d-level could be determined only indirectly using an intensity balance. The utilization of gases with different pressures permitted investigations of the pressure dependence of the antiprotonic deexcitation process. The results for the widths and shifts were compared with earlier measurements and theoretical predictions. The theory agrees only partly with the measurements. The evaluation of a complex scattering length using an optical model contradicts some of the results of calculations. (orig.) [de

  20. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra; Mediciones indirectas de espectros de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  1. Correction of diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Kanamori, H; Toragaito, T; Taniguchi, A

    1996-07-01

    We modified the formula of stripping procedure presented by E. Di. Castor et al. We added the Compton scattering and separated K{sub {alpha}} radiation of Cd and Te (23 and 27keV, respectively). Using the new stripping procedure diagnostic x-ray spectra (object 4mm-Al) of tube voltage 50kV to 100kV for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors are corrected with comparison of those spectra for the Ge detector. The corrected spectra for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors coincide with those for Ge detector at lower tube voltage than 70kV. But the corrected spectra at higher tube voltage than 70kV do not coincide with those for Ge detector. The reason is incomplete correction for full energy peak efficiencies of real CdTe and CdZnTe detectors. (J.P.N.)

  2. ROLE OF LINE-OF-SIGHT COSMIC-RAY INTERACTIONS IN FORMING THE SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS IN TeV GAMMA RAYS AND HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander; Kalashev, Oleg; Beacom, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

  3. Calibration of TLD cards to beta ray spectra of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shachar, B.; German, U.; Naim, E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the evaluation of TLD chips are received in nC, and we need to transform these values to mGy, in order to obtain the penetrating and the non-penetrating dose. The calibration factors were determined experimentally by irradiation the TLD chips with an uranium source. Beta rays having other spectra can cause incorrect values when estimating the non-penetrating dose. If the spectrum of the beta source is known, a specific evaluation of the calibration factor can be performed. In this report, the estimation of the calibration factor for a 32 P source is presented. LiF:Ti,Mg TLD cards were irradiated calibrated source of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 204 Tl and non-calibrated source of 32 P, in order to find the beta correction factor for the spectrum of 32 P. Calculations of the beta correction factor were performed too, by applying the Loevinger equations to the geometry of the TLD chips used in our routine measurements. The calculated values of the beta correction factors are lower than the experimental ones. When comparing the ratios, between the beta factors of 32 P and 90 Sr/ 90 Y received from the experiments and from the calculation, we found them to be constant up to ±5%. (authors) 15 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Simulation of X-ray absorption spectra with orthogonality constrained density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2015-06-14

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) [F. A. Evangelista, P. Shushkov and J. C. Tully, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2013, 117, 7378] is a variational time-independent approach for the computation of electronic excited states. In this work we extend OCDFT to compute core-excited states and generalize the original formalism to determine multiple excited states. Benchmark computations on a set of 13 small molecules and 40 excited states show that unshifted OCDFT/B3LYP excitation energies have a mean absolute error of 1.0 eV. Contrary to time-dependent DFT, OCDFT excitation energies for first- and second-row elements are computed with near-uniform accuracy. OCDFT core excitation energies are insensitive to the choice of the functional and the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange. We show that OCDFT is a powerful tool for the assignment of X-ray absorption spectra of large molecules by simulating the gas-phase near-edge spectrum of adenine and thymine.

  5. Peak fitting and identification software library for high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uher, Josef; Roach, Greg; Tickner, James

    2010-01-01

    A new gamma-ray spectral analysis software package is under development in our laboratory. It can be operated as a stand-alone program or called as a software library from Java, C, C++ and MATLAB TM environments. It provides an advanced graphical user interface for data acquisition, spectral analysis and radioisotope identification. The code uses a peak-fitting function that includes peak asymmetry, Compton continuum and flexible background terms. Peak fitting function parameters can be calibrated as functions of energy. Each parameter can be constrained to improve fitting of overlapping peaks. All of these features can be adjusted by the user. To assist with peak identification, the code can automatically measure half-lives of single or multiple overlapping peaks from a time series of spectra. It implements library-based peak identification, with options for restricting the search based on radioisotope half-lives and reaction types. The software also improves the reliability of isotope identification by utilizing Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  6. APPLE-2: an improved version of APPLE code for plotting neutron and gamma ray spectra and reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Hiromitsu; Seki, Yasushi.

    1982-07-01

    A computer code APPLE-2 which plots the spatial distribution of energy spectra of multi-group neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes, and reaction rates has been developed. This code is an improved version of the previously developed APPLE code and has the following features: (1) It plots energy spectra of neutron and/or gamma ray fluxes calculated by ANISN, DOT and MORSE. (2) It calculates and plots the spatial distribution of neutron and gamma ray fluxes and various types of reaction rates such as nuclear heating rates, operational dose rates, displacement damage rates. (3) Input data specification is greatly simplified by the use of standard, response libraries and by close coupling with radiation transport calculation codes. (4) Plotting outputs are given in camera ready form. (author)

  7. THE XMM-NEWTON X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE MOST X-RAY LUMINOUS RADIO-QUIET ROSAT BRIGHT SURVEY-QSOs: A REFERENCE SAMPLE FOR THE INTERPRETATION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QSO SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumpe, M.; Markowitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Corral, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray properties of four of the most X-ray luminous (L X ≥ 10 45 erg s -1 in the 0.5-2 keV band) radio-quiet QSOs found in the ROSAT Bright Survey. This uniform sample class, which explores the extreme end of the QSO luminosity function, exhibits surprisingly homogenous X-ray spectral properties: a soft excess with an extremely smooth shape containing no obvious discrete features, a hard power law above 2 keV, and a weak narrow/barely resolved Fe Kα fluorescence line for the three high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) spectra. The soft excess can be well fitted with only a soft power law. No signatures of warm or cold intrinsic absorbers are found. The Fe Kα centroids and the line widths indicate emission from neutral Fe (E = 6.4 keV) originating from cold material from distances of only a few light days or further out. The well-constrained equivalent widths (EW) of the neutral Fe lines are higher than expected from the X-ray Baldwin effect which has been only poorly constrained at very high luminosities. Taking into account our individual EW measurements, we show that the X-ray Baldwin effect flattens above L X ∼ 10 44 erg s -1 (2-10 keV band) where an almost constant (EW) of ∼100 eV is found. We confirm the assumption of having very similar X-ray active galactic nucleus properties when interpreting stacked X-ray spectra. Our stacked spectrum serves as a superb reference for the interpretation of low S/N spectra of radio-quiet QSOs with similar luminosities at higher redshifts routinely detected by XMM-Newton and Chandra surveys.

  8. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R. E-mail: rvega@cantera.reduaz.mx; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator. The {sup 239}PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity.

  9. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  10. Analysis of the X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas produced at the Phelix laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, M.; Pain, J.-C.; Gilleron, F.; Piron, R.; Denis-Petit, D.; Méot, V.; Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.; Hannachi, F.; Gobet, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of X-ray emission spectra of copper, germanium and rubidium plasmas measured at the Phelix laser facility. The laser intensity was around 6×1014 W.cm-2. The analysis is based on the hypothesis of an homogeneous plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium using an effective temperature. This temperature is deduced from hydrodynamic simulations and collisional-radiative computations. Spectra are then calculated using the LTE opacity codes OPAMCDF and SCO-RCG and compared to experimental data.

  11. The Zone of Avoidance as an X-ray absorber - the role of the galactic foreground modelling Swift XRT spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, I. I.; Bagoly, Z.; Tóth, L. V.; Balázs, L. G.; Horvath, I.; Zahorecz, S.

    2018-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most powerful explosive events in the Universe. The prompt gamma emission is followed by an X-ray afterglow that is also detected for over nine hundred GRBs by the Swift BAT and XRT detectors. The X-ray afterglow spectrum bears essential information about the burst, and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). Since the radiation travels through the line of sight intergalactic medium and the ISM in the Milky Way, the observed emission is influenced by extragalactic and galactic components. The column density of the Galactic foreground ranges several orders of magnitudes, due to both the large scale distribution of ISM and its small scale structures. We examined the effect of local HI column density on the penetrating X-ray emission, as the first step towards a precise modeling of the measured X-ray spectra. We fitted the X-ray spectra using the Xspec software, and checked how the shape of the initially power low spectrum changes with varying input Galactic HI column density. The total absorbing HI column is a sum of the intrinsic and Galactic component. We also investigated the model results for the intrinsic component varying the Galactic foreground. We found that such variations may alter the intrinsic hydrogen column density up to twenty-five percent. We will briefly discuss its consequences.

  12. OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. I - Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Smith, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    OSO 8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV have been analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. For 20 clusters temperatures, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low-energy absorption measurements are presented. The data give, in general, better fits to thermal bremsstrahlung than to power-law models. Eight clusters have positive iron emission-line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all 20 cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H = 0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Thus it is confirmed that X-ray emission in this energy band is predominantly thermal radiation from hot intracluster gas rather than inverse Compton radiation. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central-galaxy density than with richness; and (4) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  13. Fieldable computer system for determining gamma-ray pulse-height distributions, flux spectra, and dose rates from Little Boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Our system consists of a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system with a built-in CAMAC crate and eight bismuth-germanate detectors 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm long. Gamma-ray pulse-height distributions are acquired simultaneously for up to eight positions. The system was very carefully calibrated and characterized from 0.1 to 8.3 MeV using gamma-ray spectra from a variety of radioactive sources. By fitting the pulse-height distributions from the sources with a function containing 17 parameters, we determined theoretical repsonse functions. We use these response functions to unfold the distributions to obtain flux spectra. A flux-to-dose-rate conversion curve based on the work of Dimbylow and Francis is then used to obtain dose rates. Direct use of measured spectra and flux-to-dose-rate curves to obtain dose rates avoids the errors that can arise from spectrum dependence in simple gamma-ray dosimeter instruments. We present some gamma-ray doses for the Little Boy assembly operated at low power. These results can be used to determine the exposures of the Hiroshima survivors and thus aid in the establishment of radation exposure limits for the nuclear industry

  14. Dynamics of hot spots in the DPF-78 plasma focus from x-ray spectra and REB emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Wang, X.X.

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray emission from hot spots in the plasma focus DPF-78 was investigated with the help of two X-ray quartz crystal spectrometers of the Johann type and a 4 fold magnifying X-ray pinhole camera. In the experiments the working gas was chosen to be 300 Pa deuterium with 20 Pa argon admixture. X-ray spectra in the wavelength range from 3.55 angstrom to 4.0 angstrom, including H-like and He-like Argon lines, were recorded on Kodak DEF-2 film. From the spatially resolved spectra recorded side-on, a relative spectral shift between different hot spots of the same shot was often observed. The shift could be attributed to the Doppler shift. From spectral characteristics such as intensities and FWHM of Ar resonant and intercombination lines electron densities of up to 3 x 10 27 m -3 were determined. Radial dimensions of the hot spots ranging from about 140 microm to 300 microm were found from pinhole pictures applying the penumbra method. Usually two pulses of relativistic electron beams were observed using Cherenkov detectors in a magnetic spectrometer. The energy of the first pulse, which was emitted at the time of maximum compression, was higher than that of the second pulse. The measured FWHM of the REB pulses ranges from 3 ns to about 10 ns. The characteristics of the time-integrated X-ray spectra and the time resolved REB spectra and their dependence on the composition of the filling gas are discussed

  15. ROSAT Energy Spectra of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 0.1-2.4 keV bandpass of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) offers an opportunity to study the very soft X-ray continuum of bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In 46 pointed observations, 23 LMXBs were observed with count rates between 0.4 and 165.4 counts s-1. The survey identified a total of 29 different luminosity levels, which are compared with observations and identified spectral states from other missions. The atoll source 4U 1705-44 was observed near Eddington luminosities in an unusually high intensity state. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the interstellar column density for all 49 observations. The sensitivity of spectral fits depends strongly on column density. Fits to highly absorbed spectra are merely insensitive toward any particular spectral model. Sources with column densities well below 1022 cm-2 are best fitted by power laws, while the blackbody model gives clearly worse fits to the data. Most single-component fits from sources with low column densities, however, are not acceptable at all. The inclusion of a blackbody component in eight sources can improve the fits significantly. The obtained emission radii of less than 5 km suggest emission from the neutron star surface. In 10 sources acceptable fits can only be achieved by including soft-line components. With a spectral resolution of the PSPC of 320-450 eV, between 0.6 and 1.2 keV unresolved broad-line features were detected around 0.65, 0.85, and 1.0 keV. The line fluxes range within 10-11 and 10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, with equivalent widths between 24 and 210 eV. In LMC X-2, 2S 0918-549, and 4U 1254-690, line emission is indicated for the first time. The soft emission observed in 4U 0614+091 compares with recent ASCA results, with a new feature indicated at 1.31 keV. The deduced line fluxes in 4U 1820-30 and Cyg X-2 showed variability of a factor of 2 within timescales of 1-2 days. Average fluxes of line components in 4U 1820-30 varied by the same factor over a

  16. Radiative electron rearrangement and polarization in target K x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two topics in the atomic physics of ion-atom collisions are studied. The first is an investigation of a free-atom decay process that is shown to be a two-electron one-photon decay. This two-electron decay requires an initial state with multiple inner-shell vacancies that has a high probability of creation in ion-atom collisions. Because this decay promotes one electron to a higher shell while allowing the other to fall to a lower shell, it is referred to as radiative electron rearrangement (RER). The investigation of this process includes the experimental study of the x-ray spectra region approx. 150 eV below the characteristic Kα 1 2 target radiation in third period elements when bombarded by various ion beams in the energy range 1 to 2 MeV/amu. Theoretical calculations of the transition energies, line strengths, and line widths are performed to verify the origin of the RER lines. The second topic of consideration is the study of the polarization of Kα satellite radiation from targets of Al and Si. It is shown that the polarization, which is observed experimentally with a curved-crystal polarimeter, is due to the nonstatistical population of the magnetic substates created in specific ion-atom collisions. Further, the polarization of the RER lines is studied. The connection between the polarization of the normal Kα satellite radiation and the polarization of the RER lines adds final proof to their origin as two-electron one-photon transitions

  17. Interpretation of the peak areas in gamma-ray spectra that have a large relative uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Maver Modec, P.; Vodenik, B.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence is provided that the areas of peaks having a relative uncertainty in excess of 30% are overestimated. This systematic influence is of a statistical nature and originates in way the peak-analyzing routine recognizes the small peaks. It is not easy to detect this influence since it is smaller than the peak-area uncertainty. However, the systematic influence can be revealed in repeated measurements under the same experimental conditions, e.g., in background measurements. To evaluate the systematic influence, background measurements were analyzed with the peak-analyzing procedure described by Korun et al. (2008). The magnitude of the influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the peak area and may amount, in the conditions used in the peak analysis, to a factor of 5 at relative uncertainties exceeding 60%. From the measurements, the probability for type-II errors, as a function of the relative uncertainty of the peak area, was extracted. This probability is near zero below an uncertainty of 30% and rises to 90% at uncertainties exceeding 50%. - Highlights: ► A systematic influence affecting small peak areas in gamma-ray spectra is described. ► The influence originates in the peak locating procedure, using a pre-determined sensitivity. ► The predetermined sensitivity makes peak areas with large uncertainties to be overestimated. ► The influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the number of counts in the peak. ► Corrections exceeding a factor of 3 are attained at peak area uncertainties exceeding 60%.

  18. Optimization of x-ray spectra in digital mammography through Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, D M; Tomal, A; Poletti, M E

    2012-04-07

    In this work, a Monte Carlo code was used to investigate the performance of different x-ray spectra in digital mammography, through a figure of merit (FOM), defined as FOM = CNR²/(¯)D(g), with CNR being the contrast-to-noise ratio in image and [Formula: see text] being the average glandular dose. The FOM was studied for breasts with different thicknesses t (2 cm ≤ t ≤ 8 cm) and glandular contents (25%, 50% and 75% glandularity). The anode/filter combinations evaluated were those traditionally employed in mammography (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), and a W anode combined with Al or K-edge filters (Zr, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn), for tube potentials between 22 and 34 kVp. Results show that the W anode combined with K-edge filters provides higher values of FOM for all breast thicknesses investigated. Nevertheless, the most suitable filter and tube potential depend on the breast thickness, and for t ≥ 6 cm, they also depend on breast glandularity. Particularly for thick and dense breasts, a W anode combined with K-edge filters can greatly improve the digital technique, with the values of FOM up to 200% greater than that obtained with the anode/filter combinations and tube potentials traditionally employed in mammography. For breasts with t < 4 cm, a general good performance was obtained with the W anode combined with 60 μm of the Mo filter at 24-25 kVp, while 60 μm of the Pd filter provided a general good performance at 24-26 kVp for t = 4 cm, and at 28-30 and 29-31 kVp for t = 6 and 8 cm, respectively.

  19. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Science and Technology of Radiations, Minerals and Materials, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Viloria, C. [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Post-graduation in Nuclear Sciences and Techniques, Pte. Antonio Carlos 6.627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Alves de O, M. [UFMG, Department of Anatomy and Imaging, Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Araujo T, M. H., E-mail: lpr@cdtn.br [Dr Maria Helena Araujo Teixeira Clinic, Guajajaras 40, 30180-100 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D{sub G}) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D{sub G}, for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K{sub i}) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D{sub G} computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D{sub G} determination in mammography. (Author)

  20. Monte Carlo derivation of filtered tungsten anode X-ray spectra for dose computation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, L.; Oliveira, B. B.; Nogueira, M. do S.; Viloria, C.; Alves de O, M.; Araujo T, M. H.

    2014-08-01

    It is widely accepted that the mean glandular dose (D G ) for the glandular tissue is the more useful magnitude for characterizing the breast cancer risk. The procedure to estimate the D G , for being difficult to measure it directly in the breast, it is to make the use of conversion factors that relate incident air kerma (K i ) at this dose. Generally, the conversion factors vary with the x-ray spectrum half-value layer and the breast composition and thickness. Several authors through computer simulations have calculated such factors by the Monte Carlo (Mc) method. Many spectral models for D G computer simulations purposes are available in the diagnostic range. One of the models available generates unfiltered spectra. In this work, the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code package with the C++ class library (eg spp) was employed to derive filtered tungsten x-ray spectra used in digital mammography systems. Filtered spectra for rhodium and aluminium filters were obtained for tube potentials between 26 and 32 kV. The half-value layer of simulated filtered spectra were compared with those obtained experimentally with a solid state detector Unfors model 8202031-H Xi R/F and Mam Detector Platinum and 8201023-C Xi Base unit Platinum Plus w m As in a Hologic Selenia Dimensions system using a Direct Radiography mode. Calculated half-value layer values showed good agreement compared to those obtained experimentally. These results show that the filtered tungsten anode x-ray spectra and the EGSnrc Mc code can be used for D G determination in mammography. (Author)

  1. Qualitative Analysis of Chang'e-1 γ-ray Spectrometer Spectra Using Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jia; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2010-01-01

    From the features of spectra shape of Chang'e-1 γ-ray spectrometer(CE1-GRS) data, it is difficult to determine elemental compositions on the lunar surface. Aimed at this problem, this paper proposes using noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) method to extract orthogonal spectral components from CE1-GRS data. Then the peak signals in the spectra of lower-order layers corresponding to the observed spectrum of each lunar region are respectively analyzed. Elemental compositions of each lunar region can be determined based upon whether the energy corresponding to each peak signal equals to the energy corresponding to the characteristic gamma-ray line emissions of specific elements. The result shows that a number of elements such as U, Th, K, Fe, Ti, Si, O, Al, Mg, Ca and Na are qualitatively determined by this method. (authors)

  2. Solar modulation of hydrogen and helium cosmic ray nuclei spectra above 400 MeV/Nucleon, from 1976 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ.Trieste (Italy); Golden, R.L.; Paradis, P.J.; Stochaj, S.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Laboratory; Mauger, B.G.; Horan, S. [Physical Science laboratory, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Badwhar, G.D.; Daniel, R.R. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen and helium cosmic ray nuclei spectra gathered from 1976 to 1993 have been corrected to the top of the atmosphere and normalized at high rigidities. The variation of these primary cosmic ray fluxes above 400 MeV/nucleon has been examined as a function of the phase of the solar cycle with the force-field approximation model. The intensity of the normalized fluxes between solar maximum and minimum conditions varies by a factor of 6 for hydrogen and a factor of 4.3 for helium at the lowest rigidities considered.

  3. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  4. Applying a physical continuum model to describe the broadband X-ray spectra of accreting pulsars at high luminosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Hemphill, Paul B.; Wolff, Michael T.; Cheatham, Diana M.; Iwakiri, Wataru; Gottlieb, Amy M.; Falkner, Sebastian; Ballhausen, Ralf; Fuerst, Felix; Kuehnel, Matthias; Ferrigno, Carlo; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern

    2018-01-01

    A new window for better understanding the accretion onto strongly magnetized neutron stars in X-ray binaries is opening. In these systems the accreted material follows the magnetic field lines as it approaches the neutron star, forming accretion columns above the magnetic poles. The plasma falls toward the neutron star surface at near-relativistic speeds, losing energy by emitting X-rays. The X-ray spectral continua are commonly described using phenomenological models, i.e., power laws with different types of curved cut-offs at higher energies. Here we consider high luminosity pulsars. In these systems the mass transfer rate is high enough that the accreting plasma is thought to be decelerated in a radiation-dominated radiative shock in the accretion columns. While the theory of the emission from such shocks had already been developed by 2007, a model for direct comparison with X-ray continuum spectra in xspec or isis has only recently become available. Characteristic parameters of this model are the accretion column radius and the plasma temperature, among others. Here we analyze the broadband X-ray spectra of the accreting pulsars Centaurus X-3 and 4U 1626-67 obtained with NuSTAR. We present results from traditional empirical modeling as well as successfully apply the radiation-dominated radiative shock model. We also take the opportunity to compare to similar recent analyses of both sources using these and other observations.

  5. Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

  6. Measurement of the Multi-TeV Gamma-Ray Flare Spectra of Markarian 421 and Markarian 501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krennrich, F.; Biller, S.D.; Bond, I.H.; Boyle, P.J.; Bradbury, S.M.; Breslin, A.C.; Buckley, J.H.; Burdett, A.M.; Gordo, J.B.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Catanese, M.; Cawley, M.F.; Fegan, D.J.; Finley, J.P.; Gaidos, J.A.; Hall, T.; Hillas, A.M.; Lamb, R.C.; Lessard, R.W.; Masterson, C.; McEnery, J.E.; Mohanty, G.; Moriarty, P.

    1999-01-01

    The energy spectrum of Markarian 421 in flaring states has been measured from 0.3 to 10 TeV using both small and large zenith angle observations with the Whipple Observatory 10 m imaging telescope. The large zenith angle technique is useful for extending spectra to high energies, and the extraction of spectra with this technique is discussed. The resulting spectrum of Markarian 421 is fitted reasonably well by a simple power law: J(E)=E -2.54±0.03±0.10 photons m -1 s -1 TeV -1 , where the first set of errors is statistical and the second set is systematic. This is in contrast to our recently reported spectrum of Markarian 501, which over a similar energy range has substantial curvature. The differences in TeV energy spectra of gamma-ray blazars reflect both the physics of the gamma-ray production mechanism and possibly differential absorption effects at the source or in the intergalactic medium. Since Markarian 421 and Markarian 501 have almost the same redshift (0.031 and 0.033, respectively), the difference in their energy spectra must be intrinsic to the sources and not due to intergalactic absorption, assuming the intergalactic infrared background is uniform. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  7. GOSPEG-1 a program for routine analysis of γ-ray spectra by an in line IBM S/7 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godio, G.P.; Gozzellino, F.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper a program for routine analysis of γ-ray spectra of samples coming from irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is described. An IBM S/7 computer (SK words of memory) which is installed at the CNEN-EUREX reprocessing plant and which is in-line connected with a multichannel analyzer and Ge(Li) detector, has been utilized for this work. The program has been written in Assembler S/7 language

  8. Peculiar time dependence of unexpected lines in delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of V, Fe and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Nissar; Karn, Ranjeet K.; Marketos, Pan; Nandi, T.

    2005-01-01

    Delayed beam-foil X-ray spectra of highly charged ions of V, Fe and Ni show a few lines at energies higher than the H-like Lyman α-line of the respective projectile ions. These can only be attributed to heavier ions. Further the time dependence of such unexpected lines display a peculiar behavior. This work presents the experimental observations systematically

  9. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra measurements with a NE-213 spectrometer in the FNG Copper Benchmark Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klix, Axel; Angelone, Maurizio; Fischer, Ulrich; Pillon, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra were measured in a copper assembly irradiated with DT neutrons. • The results were compared with MCNP calculations. • Primary aim was to provide experimental data for checking and validation of nuclear data evaluations of copper. - Abstract: A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper assembly was performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator. The work aimed at testing of recent nuclear data libraries. This paper focuses on the measurement of fast neutron and gamma-ray flux spectra in the Copper assembly under DT neutron irradiation in two selected positions with a spectrometer based on the organic liquid scintillator NE-213. The measurement results were compared with Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNP and nuclear data from the JEFF-3.1.1 library. Calculations have been done with Cu data from JEFF-3.1.1, JEFF-3.2, FENDL-3 and ENDF/B-7.0. Discrepancies appear in the intermediate neutron energy range between experiment and calculation. Large discrepancies were observed in the gamma-ray spectra calculated with JEFF-3.2.

  10. Influence of changes in the valence electronic configuration on the structure of L-X-ray spectra of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polasik, M; Koziol, K; Slabkowska, K; Czarnota, M; Pajek, M

    2009-01-01

    Extensive multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations with the inclusion of the transverse (Breit) interaction and QED corrections have been carried out on molybdenum to explain the dependence of the structure of Lα 1,2 and Lβ 1 lines on the changes in configurations of the valence electrons belonging to two different configuration types: three open-shell 4d 6-r 5s r (r = 2,1,0) configurations and one closed-shell 4d 4 3/2 5s 2 configuration. It has been found that the MCDF predictions for open-shell valence configurations (4d 4 5s 2 , 4d 5 5s 1 , 4d 6 5s 0 ) much better reproduce observed structure of Lα 1,2 lines in X-ray spectra of molybdenum than closed-shell 4d 4 3/2 5s 2 valence configuration. The influence of changes in the valence electronic configuration on the structure of L-X-ray spectra of molybdenum is noticeable. Moreover, the observation of the shapes of L-X-ray spectra seems to be very good method to investigate the changes of the valence electronic configuration caused by the chemical environment.

  11. Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra measurements with a NE-213 spectrometer in the FNG Copper Benchmark Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klix, Axel, E-mail: axel.klix@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA Dipartimento Fusione e Tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pillon, Mario [ENEA Dipartimento Fusione e Tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Fast neutron and gamma-ray spectra were measured in a copper assembly irradiated with DT neutrons. • The results were compared with MCNP calculations. • Primary aim was to provide experimental data for checking and validation of nuclear data evaluations of copper. - Abstract: A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper assembly was performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator. The work aimed at testing of recent nuclear data libraries. This paper focuses on the measurement of fast neutron and gamma-ray flux spectra in the Copper assembly under DT neutron irradiation in two selected positions with a spectrometer based on the organic liquid scintillator NE-213. The measurement results were compared with Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using MCNP and nuclear data from the JEFF-3.1.1 library. Calculations have been done with Cu data from JEFF-3.1.1, JEFF-3.2, FENDL-3 and ENDF/B-7.0. Discrepancies appear in the intermediate neutron energy range between experiment and calculation. Large discrepancies were observed in the gamma-ray spectra calculated with JEFF-3.2.

  12. New Spectral Model for Constraining Torus Covering Factors from Broadband X-Ray Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Comastri, A.; Ricci, C.; Buchner, J.; Gandhi, P.; Farrah, D.; Stern, D.

    2018-02-01

    The basic unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invokes an anisotropic obscuring structure, usually referred to as a torus, to explain AGN obscuration as an angle-dependent effect. We present a new grid of X-ray spectral templates based on radiative transfer calculations in neutral gas in an approximately toroidal geometry, appropriate for CCD-resolution X-ray spectra (FWHM ≥ 130 eV). Fitting the templates to broadband X-ray spectra of AGNs provides constraints on two important geometrical parameters of the gas distribution around the supermassive black hole: the average column density and the covering factor. Compared to the currently available spectral templates, our model is more flexible, and capable of providing constraints on the main torus parameters in a wider range of AGNs. We demonstrate the application of this model using hard X-ray spectra from NuSTAR (3–79 keV) for four AGNs covering a variety of classifications: 3C 390.3, NGC 2110, IC 5063, and NGC 7582. This small set of examples was chosen to illustrate the range of possible torus configurations, from disk-like to sphere-like geometries with column densities below, as well as above, the Compton-thick threshold. This diversity of torus properties challenges the simple assumption of a standard geometrically and optically thick toroidal structure commonly invoked in the basic form of the unified model of AGNs. Finding broad consistency between our constraints and those from infrared modeling, we discuss how the approach from the X-ray band complements similar measurements of AGN structures at other wavelengths.

  13. Order statistics and energy-ordered histograms: an analytical approach to continuum gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego, J.P.; Cristancho, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Fusion-evaporation heavy ion collisions have enable us to explore new regions of phase space E - I, particularly high spin and excitation energy regions, where level densities are so high that modern detectors are unable to resolve individual gamma-ray transitions and consequently the resulting spectrum is continuous and undoubtedly contains a lot of new physics. In spite of that, very few experiments have been designed to extract conclusions about behavior of nuclei in continuum, thus in order to obtain a continuum spectroscopy it is necessary to apply to numerical simulations. In this sense GAMBLE a Monte Carlo based code- is a powerful tool that with some modifications allows us to test a new method to analyze the outcome of experiments focused on the properties of phase space regions in nuclear continuum: The use of Energy-Ordered Spectra (EOS) . Let's suppose that in a experiment is collected all gamma radiation emitted by a specific nucleus in a fixed intrinsic excitation energy range and that the different EOS are constructed. Although it has been shown that comparisons between such EOS and Monte Carlo simulations give information about the level density and the strength function their interpretation is not too clear because the large number of input values needed in a code like GAMBLE. On the other hand, if we could have an analytical description of EOS, the understanding of the underlying physics would be more simple because one could control exactly the involved variables and eventually simulation would be unnecessary. Promissory advances in that direction come from mathematical theory of Order Statistics (OS) In this work it is described the modified code GAMBLE and some simulated EOS for 170 Hf are shown. The simulations are made with different formulations for both level density (Fermi Gas at constant and variable temperature) and gamma strength function (GDR, single particle). Further it is described in detail how OS are employed in the

  14. Signatures of SUSY dark matter at the LHC and in the spectra of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olzem, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis discusses the search for supersymmetry at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the ongoing construction of one of the four large LHC experiments, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), and focuses on the detection of signals from the annihilation of supersymmetric dark matter in the spectra of cosmic rays. The final steps of assembly of 1061 silicon microstrip detector modules for the CMS tracker endcaps are performed at the 1. Physikalisches Institut B at the RWTH Aachen. A laser test facility for these modules was developed and is described in this thesis. In contrast to test procedures based only on the evaluation of pedestal and noise data, the test facility relies on the generation of signals in the silicon sensors by infrared laser illumination. The fully automatic test facility provides high throughput and easy operation for the series production of the modules. Its performance is validated by investigating a reference module with artificially prepared defects of three types: open wirebonds, short-circuited strips and pinholes. It is shown that all defects are clearly detected. In addition to defect detection, an indication for the type of defect is provided. In a further validation step, nine modules from a prototype series are investigated with the laser test facility. Confirming the earlier results on the reference module, defective strips are reliably identified. This thesis describes a novel approach of positron identification with the space-borne AMS-01 experiment, namely through the detection of bremsstrahlung conversion in a silicon microstrip detector. In order to obtain the highest positron selection efficiency possible, novel combinatorial track finding algorithms were developed, particularly optimized for the signature of converted bremsstrahlung. By applying restrictions on the invariant mass of particles the background to the positron sample is largely eliminated. The remaining background contamination is determined from large

  15. Signatures of SUSY dark matter at the LHC and in the spectra of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olzem, J.

    2007-02-27

    This thesis discusses the search for supersymmetry at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the ongoing construction of one of the four large LHC experiments, the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), and focuses on the detection of signals from the annihilation of supersymmetric dark matter in the spectra of cosmic rays. The final steps of assembly of 1061 silicon microstrip detector modules for the CMS tracker endcaps are performed at the 1. Physikalisches Institut B at the RWTH Aachen. A laser test facility for these modules was developed and is described in this thesis. In contrast to test procedures based only on the evaluation of pedestal and noise data, the test facility relies on the generation of signals in the silicon sensors by infrared laser illumination. The fully automatic test facility provides high throughput and easy operation for the series production of the modules. Its performance is validated by investigating a reference module with artificially prepared defects of three types: open wirebonds, short-circuited strips and pinholes. It is shown that all defects are clearly detected. In addition to defect detection, an indication for the type of defect is provided. In a further validation step, nine modules from a prototype series are investigated with the laser test facility. Confirming the earlier results on the reference module, defective strips are reliably identified. This thesis describes a novel approach of positron identification with the space-borne AMS-01 experiment, namely through the detection of bremsstrahlung conversion in a silicon microstrip detector. In order to obtain the highest positron selection efficiency possible, novel combinatorial track finding algorithms were developed, particularly optimized for the signature of converted bremsstrahlung. By applying restrictions on the invariant mass of particles the background to the positron sample is largely eliminated. The remaining background contamination is determined from large

  16. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ˜6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ˜10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  17. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Florido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application

  18. Understanding reliability and some limitations of the images and spectra reconstructed from a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T; Mancini, R C; Mayes, D; Tommasini, R; Florido, R

    2015-11-01

    Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI) is an attractive diagnostic for this purpose. The MMI records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2-D space resolution, and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2-D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain temperature and density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and spectra depends not only on the quality of the MMI data but also on the reliability of the post-processing tools. Here, we synthetically quantify the accuracy of images and spectra reconstructed from MMI data. Errors in the reconstructed images are less than a few percent when the space-resolution effect is applied to the modeled images. The errors in the reconstructed 2-D space-resolved spectra are also less than a few percent except those for the peripheral regions. Spectra reconstructed for the peripheral regions have slightly but systematically lower intensities by ∼6% due to the instrumental spatial-resolution effects. However, this does not alter the relative line ratios and widths and thus does not affect the temperature and density diagnostics. We also investigate the impact of the pinhole size variation on the extracted images and spectra. A 10% pinhole size variation could introduce spatial bias to the images and spectra of ∼10%. A correction algorithm is developed, and it successfully reduces the errors to a few percent. It is desirable to perform similar synthetic investigations to fully understand the reliability and limitations of each MMI application.

  19. The spectra of the standard x-ray qualities used in STUK's Radiation Metrology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapiovaara, T.; Tapiovaara, M.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.

    2008-02-01

    This report presents the fluence spectra of the standard x-radiation qualities used in the Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The spectra were measured in August 2007. The radiation qualities characterised in the report are the ISO Narrow spectrum series (ISO N10-N200, ISO 4037-1:1996) and both of the RQR-spectrum series specified by the IEC (IEC 1267:1994 and IEC 61267:2005). The measurements were made using a high purity Ge-detector and the measured pulse height spectra were corrected to fluence spectra. Spectral characteristics were computed from the spectral data and compared to the requirements in the standards and to the values given in the quality manual of the laboratory. (orig.)

  20. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra: Contributions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been proposed some time ago by Stanev et al [13] and Zatsepin and Sokolskaya .... as a stochastic variable whose probability distribution function p( ) has been studied in ... are independently adjusted to the proton and helium spectra.

  1. High-Quality Medium-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectra from Certified Reference Uranium and Plutonium Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsigrai, J.; Muehleisen, A.; ); Weber, A.-L.; Funk, P.; Berlizov, A.; Mintcheva, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) has made an effort to record a collection of medium resolution gamma-ray spectra from well-characterized U and Pu certified reference materials CRM-171 (also known as SRM-969), CBNM-271, and Harwell PIDIE standards. The goal of this exercise was twofold: (i) to complement the international database of reference gamma-ray spectra with high-quality data for medium resolution spectrometers, and (ii) to feed Phase I of the U/Pu isotopic inter-comparison exercise that is being jointly organized by the ESARDA NDA Working Group and IAEA. Phase II of the exercise will be fed by similar spectra recorded by Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). These activities are supported through a joint Member State Support Programmes (MSSP) task and aimed at delivering reliable methodologies for the determination of U/Pu isotopic composition using medium resolution gamma-spectrometers. The latter have obvious benefits for in-field applications, amongst which are better usability, portability and maintainability. As the spectra will be made available online for software developers and end users, ultimately this will also contribute to sustainability as well as the improved and validated performance of existing U/Pu isotopic codes. The spectra were recorded using the IAEA's standard Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3(Ce)) (2.0'' x 0.5'') and Cadmium Zink Telluride (CdZnTe) (500 mm''3) detectors and acquisition electronics. Aiming to acquire the highest quality reference data, the spectra were measured for long acquisition times, ensuring very good counting statistics across potentially useful spectral intervals — up to 1 MeV for the CdZnTe and up to 2.6 MeV for the LaBr3(Ce) detectors. Great attention was also paid to ensure that the measurement geometry was stable and reproducible, and the spectra had minimum influence from background radiation and pile-up effects. The paper will briefly

  2. Non-universal spectra of ultra-high energy cosmic ray primaries and secondaries in a structured universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigl, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    Analytical calculations of extra-galactic cosmic ray spectra above ∼ 10 17 eV are often performed assuming continuous source distributions, giving rise to spectra that depend little on the propagation mode, be it rectilinear or diffusive. We perform trajectory simulations for proton primaries in the probably more realistic case of discrete sources with a density of ∼ 10 -5 Mpc -3 . We find two considerable non-universal effects that depend on source distributions and magnetic fields: First, the primary extra-galactic cosmic ray flux can become strongly suppressed below a few 10 18 eV due to partial confinement in magnetic fields surrounding sources. Second, the secondary photon to primary cosmic ray flux ratio between ≅ 3 x 10 18 eV and ≅ 10 20 eV decreases with decreasing source density and increasing magnetization. As a consequence, in acceleration scenarios for the origin of highest energy cosmic rays the fraction of secondary photons may be difficult to detect even for experiments such as Pierre Auger. The cosmogenic neutrino flux does not significantly depend on source density and magnetization. (author)

  3. Kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD): An automated method for cosmic ray artifact removal in Raman spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Boyan; Calvet, Amandine; Casamayou-Boucau, Yannick; Ryder, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    A new, fully automated, rapid method, referred to as kernel principal component analysis residual diagnosis (KPCARD), is proposed for removing cosmic ray artifacts (CRAs) in Raman spectra, and in particular for large Raman imaging datasets. KPCARD identifies CRAs via a statistical analysis of the residuals obtained at each wavenumber in the spectra. The method utilizes the stochastic nature of CRAs; therefore, the most significant components in principal component analysis (PCA) of large numbers of Raman spectra should not contain any CRAs. The process worked by first implementing kernel PCA (kPCA) on all the Raman mapping data and second accurately estimating the inter- and intra-spectrum noise to generate two threshold values. CRA identification was then achieved by using the threshold values to evaluate the residuals for each spectrum and assess if a CRA was present. CRA correction was achieved by spectral replacement where, the nearest neighbor (NN) spectrum, most spectroscopically similar to the CRA contaminated spectrum and principal components (PCs) obtained by kPCA were both used to generate a robust, best curve fit to the CRA contaminated spectrum. This best fit spectrum then replaced the CRA contaminated spectrum in the dataset. KPCARD efficacy was demonstrated by using simulated data and real Raman spectra collected from solid-state materials. The results showed that KPCARD was fast ( 1 million) Raman datasets. - Highlights: • New rapid, automatable method for cosmic ray artifact correction of Raman spectra. • Uses combination of kernel PCA and noise estimation for artifact identification. • Implements a best fit spectrum replacement correction approach.

  4. On the cosmic-ray spectra of three-body lepton-flavor-violating dark matter decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Cukierman, Ari; Primulando, Reinard

    2011-01-01

    We consider possible leptonic three-body decays of spin-1/2, charge-asymmetric dark matter. Assuming a general Dirac structure for the four-fermion contact interactions of interest, we study the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectra and show that good fits to the current data can be obtained for both charged-lepton-flavor-conserving and flavor-violating decay channels. We find that different choices for the Dirac structure of the underlying decay operator can be significantly compensated by different choices for the dark matter mass and lifetime. The decay modes we consider provide differing predictions for the cosmic-ray positron fraction at energies higher than those currently probed at the PAMELA experiment; these predictions might be tested at cosmic-ray detectors like AMS-02.

  5. Simultaneous acquisition of X-ray spectra using a multi-wire, position-sensitive gas flow detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaven, Peter A.; Marmotti, Mauro; Kampmann, Reinhard; Knoth, Joachim; Schwenke, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    A multi-wire, gas-filled position-sensitive detector has been developed for the simultaneous recording of wavelength-dispersed X-ray signals that enables X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with a limited multi-element capability in the low Z element range. Details of the modular construction of the detector are given. The detector performance was characterized using Al-Kα radiation and a variable slit system. The detector has been applied in a laboratory spectrometer equipped with an electron source and a double multilayer mirror device as the wavelength-dispersing element. Spectra from Al and Si obtained in the simultaneous acquisition mode show good agreement with calculations performed using a ray-tracing model

  6. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. IX. Photoionized emission features in the soft X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Junjie; Kaastra, J. S.; Mehdipour, M.; Gu, Liyi; Costantini, E.; Kriss, G. A.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Behar, E.; Di Gesu, L.; Ponti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Ebrero, J.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray narrow emission line region (NELR) of the archetypal Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 has been interpreted as a single-phase photoionized plasma that is absorbed by some of the warm absorber components. This scenario requires those overlaying warm absorber components to have larger distance (to the central engine) than the X-ray NELR, which is not fully consistent with the distance estimates found in the literature. Therefore, we reanalyze the high-resolution spectra obtained in 2013-2014 with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Newton to provide an alternative interpretation of the X-ray narrow emission features. We find that the X-ray narrow emission features in NGC 5548 can be described by a two-phase photoionized plasma with different ionization parameters (logξ = 1.3 and 0.1) and kinematics (vout = -50 and -400 km s-1), and no further absorption by the warm absorber components. The X-ray and optical NELR might be the same multi-phase photoionized plasma. Both X-ray and optical NELR have comparable distances, asymmetric line profiles, and the underlying photoionized plasma is turbulent and compact in size. The X-ray NELR is not the counterpart of the UV/X-ray absorber outside the line of sight because their distances and kinematics are not consistent. In addition, X-ray broad emission features that we find in the spectrum can be accounted for by a third photoionized emission component. The RGS spectrum obtained in 2016 is analyzed as well, where the luminosity of most prominent emission lines (the O VII forbidden line and O VIII Lyα line) are the same (at a 1σ confidence level) as in 2013-2014.

  7. Observation of soft X-ray spectra from a Seyfert 1 and a narrow emission-line galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Garmire, G.P.; Nousek, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 0.2-40 keV X-ray spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509 and the narrow emission-line galaxy NGC 2992 are analyzed. The results suggest the presence of a steep soft X-ray component in Mrk 509 in addition to the well-known Gamma = 1.7 component found in other active galactic nuclei in the 2-40 keV energy range. The soft X-ray component is interpreted as due to thermal emission from a hot gas, probably associated with the highly ionized gas observed to be outflowing from the galaxy. The X-ray spectrum of NGC 2992 does not show any steepening in the soft X-ray band and is consistent with a single power law (Gamma = 1.78) with very low absorbing column density of 4 x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. A model with partial covering of the nuclear X-ray source is preferred, however, to a simple model with a single power law and absorption. 34 references

  8. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Stella, L.; Israel, G. L.; Wolter, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M ⊙ black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  9. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zampieri, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Stella, L.; Israel, G. L. [INAF—Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 44, I-00078, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Wolter, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M {sub ⊙} black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  10. Dynamical correlation effects in a weakly correlated material: Inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidu, Azimatu; Marini, Andrea; Gatti, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Beryllium is a weakly correlated simple metal. Still we find that dynamical correlation effects, beyond the independent-particle picture, are necessary to successfully interpret the electronic spectra measured by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) and photoemission spectroscopies (PES). By combining ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body Green's function theory in the G W approximation (G W A ), we calculate the dynamic structure factor, the quasiparticle (QP) properties and PES spectra of bulk Be. We show that band-structure effects (i.e., due to interaction with the crystal potential) and QP lifetimes (LT) are both needed in order to explain the origin of the measured double-peak features in the IXS spectra. A quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained only when LT are supplemented to the adiabatic local-density approximation (ALDA) of TDDFT. Besides the valence band, PES spectra display a satellite, a signature of dynamical correlation due to the coupling of QPs and plasmons, which we are able to reproduce thanks to the combination of the G W A for the self-energy with the cumulant expansion of the Green's function.

  11. A two-dimensionally coincident second difference cosmic ray spike removal method for the fully automated processing of Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H Georg; Turner, Robin F B

    2014-01-01

    Charge-coupled device detectors are vulnerable to cosmic rays that can contaminate Raman spectra with positive going spikes. Because spikes can adversely affect spectral processing and data analyses, they must be removed. Although both hardware-based and software-based spike removal methods exist, they typically require parameter and threshold specification dependent on well-considered user input. Here, we present a fully automated spike removal algorithm that proceeds without requiring user input. It is minimally dependent on sample attributes, and those that are required (e.g., standard deviation of spectral noise) can be determined with other fully automated procedures. At the core of the method is the identification and location of spikes with coincident second derivatives along both the spectral and spatiotemporal dimensions of two-dimensional datasets. The method can be applied to spectra that are relatively inhomogeneous because it provides fairly effective and selective targeting of spikes resulting in minimal distortion of spectra. Relatively effective spike removal obtained with full automation could provide substantial benefits to users where large numbers of spectra must be processed.

  12. A Monte Carlo study of the energy spectra and transmission characteristics of scattered radiation from x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platten, David John

    2014-06-01

    Existing data used to calculate the barrier transmission of scattered radiation from computed tomography (CT) are based on primary beam CT energy spectra. This study uses the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system and Epp user code to determine the energy spectra of CT scatter from four different primary CT beams passing through an ICRP 110 male reference phantom. Each scatter spectrum was used as a broad-beam x-ray source in transmission simulations through seventeen thicknesses of lead (0.00-3.50 mm). A fit of transmission data to lead thickness was performed to obtain α, β and γ parameters for each spectrum. The mean energy of the scatter spectra were up to 12.3 keV lower than that of the primary spectrum. For 120 kVp scatter beams the transmission through lead was at least 50% less than predicted by existing data for thicknesses of 1.5 mm and greater; at least 30% less transmission was seen for 140 kVp scatter beams. This work has shown that the mean energy and half-value layer of CT scatter spectra are lower than those of the corresponding primary beam. The transmission of CT scatter radiation through lead is lower than that calculated with currently available data. Using the data from this work will result in less lead shielding being required for CT scanner installations.

  13. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Measurement of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and the alpha value for {sup 235}U resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor` ev, Yu V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Georgiev, G P; Stanchik, Kh [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    Gamma spectra from 1 to 12 multiplicity were measured on th 500 m flight path of the IBR-30 reactor using a 16-section 32 L NaI(Tl) crystal scintillation detector able to hold 2 metallic samples of 90% {sup 235}U and 10% {sup 238}U 0.00137 atoms/b and 0.00411 atoms/b thick. Multiplicity spectra were obtained for resolved resonances in the E = 1-150 eV energy region. They were used to determine the value of {alpha} = {sigma}{sub {gamma}}/{sigma}{sub f} for 165 resonances of {sup 235}U. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab.

  15. DMSO-Water Clustering in Solution Observed in Soft X-ray Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nicholas; Atak, Kaan; Lange, Kathrin M; Gotz, Malte; Soldatov, Mikhail; Golnak, Ronny; Suljoti, Edlira; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Aziz, Emad F

    2012-12-20

    The significant deviation from the ideality of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/water mixtures can be addressed based on the change of the local molecular orbitals of each solvent upon mixing. Oxygen K-edge absorption and emission spectra of DMSO/water solutions were measured using the liquid microjet technique. The spectra demonstrate that the hydrogen bond network in liquid water is already influenced at small DMSO concentrations, and at the molar fraction xDMSO = 0.43 we find strong evidence of DMSO-water clustering reflected by the influence on the occupied molecular orbitals.

  16. Least-squares resolution of gamma-ray spectra in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, L.G.; Seale, S.K.; Liggett, W.S.

    1977-08-01

    The use of ALPHA-M, a least squares computer program for analyzing NaI (Tl) gamma spectra of environmental samples, is evaluated. Included is a comprehensive set of program instructions, listings, and flowcharts. Two other programs, GEN4 and SIMSPEC, are also described. GEN4 is used to create standard libraries for ALPHA-M, and SIMSPEC is used to simulate spectra for ALPHA-M analysis. Tests to evaluate the standard libraries selected for use in analyzing environmental samples are provided. An evaluation of the results of sample analyses is discussed

  17. Fast spectral fitting of hard X-ray bremsstrahlung from truncated power-law electron spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brown, J. C.; Kašparová, Jana; Massone, A.M.; Piana, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 486, č. 3 (2008), s. 1023-1029 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/06/P135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sun flares * X-rays * gamma rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectra structure of actinide compounds stipulated by electrons of the inner valence molecular orbitals (IVMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu. A.; Ivanov, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    Development of precise X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using X-ray radiation hν< 1.5 KeV allowed to carry out immediate investigations of fine spectra structure of both weakly bond and deep electrons. Based on the experiments and the obtained results it may be concluded: 1. Under favourable conditions the inner valence molecular orbitals (IVMO) may form in all actinide compounds. 2. The XPS spectra fine structure stipulated by IVMO electrons allows to judge upon the degree of participation of the filled AO electrons in the chemical bond, on the structure o considered atom close environment and the bond lengths in compounds. For amorphous compounds the obtaining of such data based on X-ray structure analysis is restricted. 3. The summary contribution of IVMO electrons to the absolute value of the chemical bonding is comparable with the corresponding value of OMO electrons contribution to the atomic bonding. This fact is very important and new in chemistry. (author)

  19. Comparative Analysis and Variability of the Jovian X-Ray Spectra Detected by the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Yawei [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Kharchenko, Vasili A [ORNL; Bhardwaj, Anil [Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, India; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella [University College, London; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University; Dalgarno, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

    2010-01-01

    Expanding upon recent work, a more comprehensive spectral model based on charge exchange induced X-ray emission by ions precipitating into the Jovian atmosphere is used to provide new understanding of the polar auroras. In conjunction with the Xspec spectral fitting software, the model is applied to analyze observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton by systematically varying the initial precipitating ion parameters to obtain the best fit model for the observed spectra. In addition to the oxygen and sulfur ions considered previously, carbon is included to discriminate between solar wind and Jovian magnetospheric ion origins, enabled by the use of extensive databases of both atomic collision cross sections and radiative transitions. On the basis of fits to all the Chandra observations, we find that carbon contributes negligibly to the observed polar X-ray emission suggesting that the highly accelerated precipitating ions are of magnetospheric origin. Most of the XMM-Newton fits also favor this conclusion with one exception that implies a possible carbon contribution. Comparison among all the spectra from these two observatories in light of the inferred initial energies and relative abundances of precipitating ions from the modeling show that they are significantly variable in time (observation date) and space (north and south polar X-ray auroras).

  20. Use of an iterative convolution approach for qualitative and quantitative peak analysis in low resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Ai Xianyun; Peeples, Cody R.; Wang, Jiaxin; Lee, Kyoung; Peeples, Johanna L.; Calderon, Adan

    2011-01-01

    In many applications, low resolution gamma-ray spectrometers, such as sodium iodide scintillation detectors, are widely used primarily due to their relatively low cost and high detection efficiency. There is widespread interest in improved methods for analyzing spectral data acquired with such devices, using inverse analysis. Peak means and peak areas in gamma- and X-ray spectra are needed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper introduces the PEAKSI code package that was developed at the Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR). The basic approach described here is to use accurate forward models and iterative convolution instead of direct deconvolution. Rather than smoothing and differentiation a combination of linear regression and non-linear searching is used to minimize the reduced chi-square, since this approach retains the capability of establishing uncertainties in the estimated peak parameters. The PEAKSI package uses a Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) non-linear search method combined with multiple linear regression (MLR) to minimize the reduced chi-square value for fitting single or multiple overlapping peaks to determine peak parameters, including peak means, peak standard deviations or full width at half maximum (FWHM), net peak counts, and background counts of peaks in experimental gamma-ray spectra. This approach maintains the natural error structure so that parameter uncertainties can be estimated. The plan is to release this code to the public in the near future.

  1. Determination of Al concentration in Al doped ZnO using Auger spectra excited by Mo X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.; Koever, L.; Cserny, I.; Varga, D.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A good conductor with excellent transparency is of crucial importance for the window layer of CIGS solar cells. Al doped ZnO is a good candidate for this purpose, its conductivity depends on the concentration and chemical state of the Al dopant atoms. It was demonstrated that the non-conventional XPS using Mo X-rays for excitation is a very sensitive tool for the detection of Al, P, Si [1, 2, 3]. The present paper compares the experimental ratios for Zn/Al photoinduced peak intensity ratios obtained using both Al and Mo X-ray excitations. The Mo excited Zn/Al intensity ratios can be determined with higher selectivity and sensitivity than the Zn/Al intensity ratios excited by Al X-rays. The experiments were performed with a hemispherical deflector electron spectrometer [4]. The chemical state of the Al was identified to be close to that in Al 2 O 3 . The atomic concentrations were determined using a calibration curve based on ZnO/Al samples with known composition of Al. The energy dependent efficiency of the electron spectrometer was determined comparing REELS spectra of Cu specimen to standard spectra measured by K. Goto (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan). For evaluation of the Al atomic concentrations from the measured photoelectron intensities the photoionisation cross-sections of Band et al [5] and the IMFP data of S. Tanuma et al [6] and C.J. Powell and A. Jablonski [7] were used. (author)

  2. Analysis of X-ray Spectra of High-Z Elements obtained on Nike with high spectral and spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Yefim; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2014-10-01

    The spectra of multi-charged ions of Hf, Ta, W, Pt, Au and Bi have been studied on Nike krypton-fluoride laser facility with the help of two kinds of X-ray spectrometers. First, survey instrument covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms which allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of above mentioned elements with high spectral resolution. Second, an imaging spectrometer with interchangeable spherically bent Quartz crystals that added higher efficiency, higher spectral resolution and high spatial resolution to the qualities of the former one. Multiple spectral lines with X-ray energies as high as 4 keV that belong to the isoelectronic sequences of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were identified with the help of NOMAD package developed by Dr. Yu. Ralchenko and colleagues. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, this campaign covered a wide range of plasma conditions that result in production of relatively energetic X-rays. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA.

  3. Cyclotron resonant scattering in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, D.Q.; Wang, J.C.L.; Loredo, T.J.; Wasserman, I.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data on the GB880205 gamma-ray bursts are presented that have implications for the nature of gamma-ray burst sources. It is shown that cyclotron resonant scattering and Raman scattering account well for the positions, strengths, and shapes of the relative strengths of the first and second harmonics and their narrow widths. These results imply the existence of a superstrong (B of about 2 x 10 to the 12th G) magnetic field in the vicinity of the X-ray emission region of GB880205. Such a superstrong magnetic field points to a strongly magnetic neutron star as the origin of gamma-ray bursts, and to the fact that the gamma-ray sources belong to the Galaxy. 59 refs

  4. Soft X-Ray Spectra from High Current Nitrogen Z-Pinch Discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Nevrkla, M.; Jančárek, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2016), s. 48 ISSN 2336-2626. [SPPT 2016 - 27th Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/27./. Prague, 20.06.2016-23.06.2016] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Capillary discharge * recombination pumping * pinch dynamics * evolution of spectra emission * computer modelling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers www.plasmaconference.cz

  5. Study of X-Ray and $\\gamma$-Ray Spectra from Antiprotonic Atoms at the Slowly Extracted Antiproton Beam of LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will study the X-ray spectra of antiprotonic atoms and the $\\gamma$ spectra of residual nuclei after the antiproton absorption. We intend to begin with measurements on selected isotopically pure targets. Strong interaction effects, the antiproton absorption and the atomic cascade are analysed through the measurement of energies, lineshapes, relative and absolute intensities of all observable lines. The experiments are continued to determine st in resolved fine structure levels and in different isotopes of the same element. Coincidence techniques may be applied. All components of the experimental set-up are already existing from previous experiments and we could begin the measurements with any slowly extracted beam of low energy at LEAR.

  6. Correcting X-ray spectra obtained from the AXAF VETA-I mirror calibration for pileup, continuum, background and deadtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, G.; Flanagan, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Nguyen, D.; Zombek, M.; Joy, M.; Kolodziejezak, J.

    1993-01-01

    The VETA-I mirror was calibrated with the use of a collimated soft X-ray source produced by electron bombardment of various anode materials. The FWHM, effective area and encircled energy were measured with the use of proportional counters that were scanned with a set of circular apertures. The pulsers from the proportional counters were sent through a multichannel analyzer that produced a pulse height spectrum. In order to characterize the properties of the mirror at different discrete photon energies one desires to extract from the pulse height distribution only those photons that originated from the characteristic line emission of the X-ray target source. We have developed a code that fits a modeled spectrum to the observed X-ray data, extracts the counts that originated from the line emission, and estimates the error in these counts. The function that is fitted to the X-ray spectra includes a Prescott function for the resolution of the detector a second Prescott function for a pileup peak and a X-ray continuum function. The continuum component is determined by calculating the absorption of the target Bremsstrahlung through various filters, correcting for the reflectivity of the mirror and convolving with the detector response.

  7. Structure of the X-ray photoelectron spectra of fluorides and oxides of lanthanides connected with the dynamic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu.A.; Teterin, A.Yu.; Lebedev, A.M.; Utkin, I.O.; Nikitin, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Impact of dynamic effect on the fine structure of the X-ray electron spectra of the lanthanide oxides and fluorides is considered. Significant complication of the Ln4p-electrons occurs due to interaction of configurations of the basic single-hole and additional two-hole finite states of the 4p 5 4d 10 4f n ↔ 4p 6 4d 8 4f n+1 type. Impact of the atoms nature of the nearest surrounding of the lanthanides ions on the parameters of such fine structure is evaluated [ru

  8. X-ray electron spectra of chalcogenide glasses and polycrystalline alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panus, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Comparative investigation into structures of crystals and glasses in Ge-Te and As-Te two-component systems was conducted. Analysis of x-ray electron spectra of Ge-Te and As-Te systems indicates, that processes of dissociation-association resulting in formation of new structure units occur in telluride melts at synthesis temperatures. Structural chemical composition of binary glass-like alloys of Ge-Te and As-Te systems differs essentially from the one that corresponds to fusibility equilibrium curve. Oxygen doping into tellurium-base glasses results mainly in occurence of structures forecasted due to thermochemical calculation

  9. PROBING WOLF–RAYET WINDS: CHANDRA/HETG X-RAY SPECTRA OF WR 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, N. S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gayley, K. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L.; Shenar, T. [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Nichols, J. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 34, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pollock, A. M. T., E-mail: dph@space.mit.edu, E-mail: ken.gayley@gmail.com, E-mail: wrh@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: lida@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: shtomer@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de, E-mail: ignace@mail.etsu.edu, E-mail: jnichols@cfa.harvard.edu [European Space Agency, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain)

    2015-12-10

    With a deep Chandra/HETGS exposure of WR 6, we have resolved emission lines whose profiles show that the X-rays originate from a uniformly expanding spherical wind of high X-ray-continuum optical depth. The presence of strong helium-like forbidden lines places the source of X-ray emission at tens to hundreds of stellar radii from the photosphere. Variability was present in X-rays and simultaneous optical photometry, but neither were correlated with the known period of the system or with each other. An enhanced abundance of sodium revealed nuclear-processed material, a quantity related to the evolutionary state of the star. The characterization of the extent and nature of the hot plasma in WR 6 will help to pave the way to a more fundamental theoretical understanding of the winds and evolution of massive stars.

  10. Sub-keV, subnanosecond measurements of x-ray spectra from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, H.N.; Koppel, L.N.; Slivinsky, V.W.; Glaros, S.S.; Ahlstrom, H.G.; Larsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the effort to extend our x-ray diagnostic capabilities, we have made x-ray spectral measurements of laser-produced plasmas for photon energies down to 100 eV with a time response of 0.5 nsec. Fast, windowless x-ray diodes were used in conjunction with critical angle reflecting mirrors and thin filters for energy definition for two channels, 300 to 600 eV and 800 to 1300 eV. A third channel, using only an x-ray diode and filter, provided spectral information in the 100 to 300 eV region. Results from exploding pusher targets will be presented and compared with those of other diagnostic techniques and Lasnex calculations. Future expansion and modifications of the present system will be discussed

  11. A new method for the reconstruction of very-high-energy gamma-ray spectra and application to galatic cosmic-ray accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Milton Virgilio

    2014-09-15

    In this thesis, high-energy (HE; E>0.1 GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE; E>0.1 TeV) γ-ray data were investigated to probe Galactic stellar clusters (SCs) and star-forming regions (SFRs) as sites of hadronic Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) acceleration. In principle, massive SCs and SFRs could accelerate GCRs at the shock front of the collective SC wind fed by the individual high-mass stars. The subsequently produced VHE γ rays would be measured with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). A couple of the Galactic VHE γ-ray sources, including those potentially produced by SCs, fill a large fraction of the field-of-view (FoV) and require additional observations of source-free regions to determine the dominant background for a spectral reconstruction. A new method of reconstructing spectra for such extended sources without the need of further observations is developed: the Template Background Spectrum (TBS). This methods is based on a method to generate skymaps, which determines background in parameter space. The idea is the creation of a look-up of the background normalisation in energy, zenith angle, and angular separation and to account for possible systematics. The results obtained with TBS and state-of-the-art background-estimation methods on H.E.S.S. data are in good agreement. With TBS even those sources could be reconstructed that normally would need further observations. Therefore, TBS is the third method to reconstruct VHE γ-ray spectra, but the first one to not need additional observations in the analysis of extended sources. The discovery of the largest VHE γ-ray source HESSJ1646-458 (2.2 in size) towards the SC Westerlund 1 (Wd1) can be plausibly explained by the SC-wind scenario. But owing to its size, other alternative counterparts to the TeV emission (pulsar, binary system, magnetar) were found in the FoV. Therefore, an association of HESSJ1646-458 with the SC is favoured, but cannot be confirmed. The SC Pismis 22 is located in the centre of the

  12. A new method for the reconstruction of very-high-energy gamma-ray spectra and application to galatic cosmic-ray accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Milton Virgilio

    2014-09-01

    In this thesis, high-energy (HE; E>0.1 GeV) and very-high-energy (VHE; E>0.1 TeV) γ-ray data were investigated to probe Galactic stellar clusters (SCs) and star-forming regions (SFRs) as sites of hadronic Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) acceleration. In principle, massive SCs and SFRs could accelerate GCRs at the shock front of the collective SC wind fed by the individual high-mass stars. The subsequently produced VHE γ rays would be measured with imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). A couple of the Galactic VHE γ-ray sources, including those potentially produced by SCs, fill a large fraction of the field-of-view (FoV) and require additional observations of source-free regions to determine the dominant background for a spectral reconstruction. A new method of reconstructing spectra for such extended sources without the need of further observations is developed: the Template Background Spectrum (TBS). This methods is based on a method to generate skymaps, which determines background in parameter space. The idea is the creation of a look-up of the background normalisation in energy, zenith angle, and angular separation and to account for possible systematics. The results obtained with TBS and state-of-the-art background-estimation methods on H.E.S.S. data are in good agreement. With TBS even those sources could be reconstructed that normally would need further observations. Therefore, TBS is the third method to reconstruct VHE γ-ray spectra, but the first one to not need additional observations in the analysis of extended sources. The discovery of the largest VHE γ-ray source HESSJ1646-458 (2.2 in size) towards the SC Westerlund 1 (Wd1) can be plausibly explained by the SC-wind scenario. But owing to its size, other alternative counterparts to the TeV emission (pulsar, binary system, magnetar) were found in the FoV. Therefore, an association of HESSJ1646-458 with the SC is favoured, but cannot be confirmed. The SC Pismis 22 is located in the centre of the

  13. An optimal ross filter system for soft X-ray spectra measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tianxuan; Zheng Zhijian; Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen

    2000-01-01

    A broadband Ross filter spectrometer is described for measuring soft X-ray radiation (0.1∼1.5 keV) emitted from laser plasma. It consists of a number of channels, each representing a Ross filter pair in conjunction with Al cathode X-ray diodes. An optimal channel has flat response within the sensitivity band, and minimal response outside it. The effect of some uncertainties on the accuracy of measurements is calculated

  14. Implications for gravitational lensing and the dark matter content in clusters of galaxies from spatially resolved x-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method for deriving well-behaved temperature solutions to the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for intracluster media with X-ray imaging observations is presented and applied to a series of generalized models as well as to observations of the Perseus cluster and Abell 2256. In these applications the allowed range in the ratio of nonbaryons to baryons as a function of radius is derived, taking into account the uncertainties and crude spatial resolution of the X-ray spectra and considering a range of physically reasonable mass models with various scale heights. Particular attention is paid to the central regions of the cluster, and it is found that the dark matter can be sufficiently concentrated to be consistent with the high central mass surface densities for moderate-redshift clusters from their gravitational lensing properties.

  15. A method for unfolding high-energy scintillation gamma-ray spectra up to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymke, N.; Hofmann, B.

    1982-01-01

    In unfolding a high-energy scintillation gamma-ray spectrum up to 8 MeV with the help of a response matrix, the means of linear algebra fail if the matrix is ill conditioned. In such cases, unfolding could be accomplished by means of a mathematical method based on a priori knowledge of the photon spectrum to be expected. The method which belongs to the class of regularization techniques was tested on in-situ gamma-ray spectra of 16 N recorded in a nuclear power plant near the primary circuit, using an 1.5 x 1.5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. For one regularized unfolding the results were presented in the form of an energy and a dose-rate spectrum. (author)

  16. X-ray spectra and electronic structure of the Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, I. D.; Kostyk, L. V.; Noga, H.; Bekenov, L. V.; Uskokovich, D.; Jatsyk, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    The band structure of Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 with the garnet structure has been determined for the first time by X-ray emission and photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been established that the bottom of the valence band is formed by Ge d states, which are not dominant in the chemical bonding. Strong hybridization of oxygen 2s states with 4p states of Ga and Ge revealed by the presence of an extra structure in the X-ray emission spectra has been found. The middle of the valence band has been demonstrated to be occupied by d states of Ga, while Ga and Ge 4рstates with a considerable admixture of oxygen 2p states form the top of the valence band.

  17. A measurement of cosmic-ray LET-spectra using a microprocessor supported microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.; Heinrich, W.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor supported semi-automatic system for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors is presented. It consists of a microscope and a stepping motor driven stage. A Motorola microprocessor MC 6800 controls the measurement. It accepts the co-ordinates of the stage as well as the position of the focus and computes cone length and dip angle from the three-dimensional co-ordinates. LET-spectra were measured from two cellulose nitrate foils of the Biostack III experiment flown with the Apollo-Soyus-Test-Project in 1975. One of these foils was shielded by 3 g/cm 2 and the other one by 15 g/cm 2 . The two spectra show no statistically significant decrease of intensity. (author)

  18. On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Petrosian, Vahe; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-08-19

    Recent observations of cosmic ray electrons from several instruments have revealed various degrees of deviation in the measured electron energy distribution from a simple power-law, in a form of an excess around 0.1 to 1 TeV energies. An even more prominent deviation and excess has been observed in the fraction of cosmic ray positrons around 10 and 100 GeV energies. These observations have received considerable attention and many theoretical models have been proposed to explain them. The models rely on either dark matter annihilation/decay or specific nearby astrophysical sources, and involve several additional assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution or particle acceleration. In this paper we show that the observed excesses in the electron spectrum may be easily reproduced without invoking any unusual sources other than the general diffuse Galactic components of cosmic rays. The model presented here assumes a power-law injection of electrons (and protons) by supernova remnants, and evaluates their expected energy spectrum based on a simple kinetic equation describing the propagation of charged particles in the interstellar medium. The primary physical effect involved is the Klein-Nishina suppression of the electron cooling rate around TeV energies. With a very reasonable choice of the model parameters characterizing the local interstellar medium, we can reproduce the most recent observations by Fermi and HESS experiments. Interestingly, in our model the injection spectral index of cosmic ray electrons becomes comparable to, or even equal to that of cosmic ray protons. The Klein-Nishina effect may also affect the propagation of the secondary e{sup {+-}} pairs, and therefore modify the cosmic ray positron-to-electron ratio. We have explored this possibility by considering two mechanisms for production of e{sup {+-}} pairs within the Galaxy. The first is due to the decay of {pi}{sup {+-}}'s produced by interaction of cosmic ray nuclei with ambient

  19. X-ray spectra of PG quasars. II - the X-ray-ultraviolet excess of PG 1211 + 143

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, J.; Czerny, B.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Green, R.F.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    Observations of the quasar PG 1211 + 143 are presented and its continuum is modelled in terms of an accretion disk and an underlying power law. The X-ray spectrum in the Einstein imaging proportional counter band is well described by a power law with the very steep spectral index 2.2 + or - 0.4. The overall continuum spectral energy distribution can be described as a power law with alpha roughly 1.2 from the infrared to about 1 keV, with the optical, ultraviolet, and soft X-rays forming a large excess above this power law. If the soft X-ray excess is attributed to emission from a physically thin, optically thick accretion disk, then the implied accretion rate is super-Eddington, from which it is concluded that the application of this simple model is not valid. The observed broad-line ratios in PG 1211 + 143 imply broad-line cloud densities that are somewhat higher than those usually derived for quasars. 82 references

  20. Conformation and orientation effects in the x-ray photoelectron spectra of organic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamson, G.

    2001-01-01

    Conformation and orientation effects in the XPS spectra of organic polymers are small but can be observed with modem high performance equipment. This paper discusses some of the experimental factors that should be considered when attempting to detect such effects, and describes several recent studies which illustrate the subtle phenomena that can now be observed. Conformation effects, revealed by melting semicrystalline polymer samples in the analysis chamber of an XPS spectrometer, are reported for the valence band and C 1s spectra of nylon 12 and poly(ethylene adipate), and for the valence band spectrum of poly(ethylene succinate). For nylon 12 the changes in the C 2s region of the valence band spectrum are interpreted in terms of disordering of the planar zig-zag conformation of the (CH 2 ) 11 segments of the polymer chain. Pendant group surface orientation effects, detected by angle resolved XPS (with emission angles as low as 5 deg. relative to the sample surface), are reported for poly(2-chloroethyl methacrylate) (PCEMA), poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). For PCEMA and PLMA the uppermost surfaces are enriched with -CH 2 CH 2 Cl and -(CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 pendant groups respectively, whereas for PHEMA the data suggest relatively few -CH 2 CH 2 OH pendant groups at the surface. The C 1s and Cl 2p spectra of PCEMA reveal surface core level binding energy shifts of - +0.2 eV, and the Cl L 23 M 23 M 23 spectrum a surface Auger kinetic energy shift of ∼ -0.6. The C 1s spectra of PLMA and PHEMA also reveal surface core level shifts and for PLMA this is interpreted in terms of a disordered and open arrangement of the -(CH 2 ) 11 CH 3 pendant groups at the polymer surface. (author)

  1. Quantum many-body effects in x-ray spectra efficiently computed using a basic graph algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yufeng; Prendergast, David

    2018-05-01

    The growing interest in using x-ray spectroscopy for refined materials characterization calls for an accurate electronic-structure theory to interpret the x-ray near-edge fine structure. In this work, we propose an efficient and unified framework to describe all the many-electron processes in a Fermi liquid after a sudden perturbation (such as a core hole). This problem has been visited by the Mahan-Noziéres-De Dominicis (MND) theory, but it is intractable to implement various Feynman diagrams within first-principles calculations. Here, we adopt a nondiagrammatic approach and treat all the many-electron processes in the MND theory on an equal footing. Starting from a recently introduced determinant formalism [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 096402 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.096402], we exploit the linear dependence of determinants describing different final states involved in the spectral calculations. An elementary graph algorithm, breadth-first search, can be used to quickly identify the important determinants for shaping the spectrum, which avoids the need to evaluate a great number of vanishingly small terms. This search algorithm is performed over the tree-structure of the many-body expansion, which mimics a path-finding process. We demonstrate that the determinantal approach is computationally inexpensive even for obtaining x-ray spectra of extended systems. Using Kohn-Sham orbitals from two self-consistent fields (ground and core-excited state) as input for constructing the determinants, the calculated x-ray spectra for a number of transition metal oxides are in good agreement with experiments. Many-electron aspects beyond the Bethe-Salpeter equation, as captured by this approach, are also discussed, such as shakeup excitations and many-body wave function overlap considered in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe.

  2. GAUSS VIII: a computer program for the nuclide activity analysis of γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, M.H.; Helmer, R.G.; McCullagh, C.M.

    1985-12-01

    A description is given of a computer program, GAUSS VII, which has been written to determine nuclide or isotopic activities from γ-ray spectra from GE semiconductor spectrometers. The preliminary portion of the program can determine the energy- and width-calibration equations, locate individual peaks and define ''peak regions'' that are significantly above the local spectral background. The user may edit these lists of peaks and regions. Each peak region is fitted with one or more components in which the peaks are represented by a Gaussian function or a Gaussian with one or two additive exponential tails on the low-energy side and one on the high-energy side. A step-like background function can be used with each component. The program will automatically recycle to add one or more components to a region if needed to improve the fit. The γ-ray energies and intensities are computed from the resulting Gaussian positions and peak areas. From a comparison of these peak energies and the γ-ray energies for various nuclides in a nuclide library, the nuclides that may be present are identified. The user may edit this nuclide list. The program identifies secondary γ rays that should be present for these nuclides and obtains peak areas for them, if the areas are not already available. All of the peak areas are then analyzed to obtain the best nuclidic activities. The peak areas for any one nuclide and those for nuclides that have interfering lines are analyzed in one least-squares ft. Nuclides whose activities are essentially 0, and peaks which cannot be accounted for are removed from the analysis. Besides the nuclidic activities, a peak-by-peak summary is provided. This program is intended to analyze large groups of spectra as well as an individual spectrum

  3. ERX: a software for editing files containing X-ray spectra to be used in exposure computational models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Manuela O.M.; Vieira, Jose W.; Silva, Alysson G.; Leal Neto, Viriato; Oliveira, Alex C.H.; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure Computational Models (ECMs) are utilities that simulate situations in which occurs irradiation in a given environment. An ECM is composed primarily by an anthropomorphic model (phantom), and a Monte Carlo code (MC). This paper presents a tutorial of the software Espectro de Raios-X (ERX). This software performs reading and numerical and graphical analysis of text files containing diagnostic X-ray spectra for use in algorithms of radioactive sources in the ECMs of a Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica. The ERX allows the user to select one among several X-ray spectrums in the energy range Diagnostic radiology X-Ray most commonly used in radiology clinics. In the current version of the ERX there are two types of input files: the contained in mspectra.dat file and the resulting of MC simulations in Geant4. The software allows the construction of charts of the Probability Density Function (PDF) and Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of a selected spectrum as well as the table with the values of these functions and the spectrum. In addition, the ERX allows the user to make comparative analysis between the PDF graphics of the two catalogs of spectra available, besides being can perform dosimetric evaluations with the selected spectrum. A software of this kind is an important computational tool for researchers in numerical dosimetry because of the diversity of Diagnostic radiology X-Ray machines, which implies in a mass of input data highly diverse. And because of this, the ERX provides independence to the group related to the data origin that is contained in the catalogs created, not being necessary to resort to others. (author)

  4. Evaluation of transmitted spectra of megavoltage X rays through concrete using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, Thaiana de Paula Vieira; Silva, Ademir Xavier da

    2010-01-01

    With the improvement of technology in radiotherapic centers, medical linear accelerators are largely replacing Cobalt-60 teletherapy units. In most of the cases, the same room that, before, was used to place a 60 Co teletherapy unit is reused to install, in replacement, a linear accelerator. When the room physical space can not be changed, high - density concrete is employed to provide shielding against the primary, scatter and leakage radiation. This work presents a study based on Monte Carlo simulations of transmission of some clinical photon spectra (of 10, 15 and 25 MV accelerators) through concrete of two different densities. Concrete walls of thickness 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m were irradiated with 30 cm x 30 cm primary beam spectra. The results show that the thickness of the barrier decreases up to approximately 35%, when barite (high - density concrete) is used instead of ordinary concrete. The average energies of primary and transmitted beam spectra were also calculated. (author)

  5. Evaluation of transmitted spectra of megavoltage X rays through concrete using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, Thaiana de Paula Vieira; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: tcordeiro@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2010-07-01

    With the improvement of technology in radiotherapic centers, medical linear accelerators are largely replacing Cobalt-60 teletherapy units. In most of the cases, the same room that, before, was used to place a {sup 60}Co teletherapy unit is reused to install, in replacement, a linear accelerator. When the room physical space can not be changed, high - density concrete is employed to provide shielding against the primary, scatter and leakage radiation. This work presents a study based on Monte Carlo simulations of transmission of some clinical photon spectra (of 10, 15 and 25 MV accelerators) through concrete of two different densities. Concrete walls of thickness 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m were irradiated with 30 cm x 30 cm primary beam spectra. The results show that the thickness of the barrier decreases up to approximately 35%, when barite (high - density concrete) is used instead of ordinary concrete. The average energies of primary and transmitted beam spectra were also calculated. (author)

  6. Formation properties from high resolution neutron activation gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, D.W.; Underwood, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A neutron activation logging tool has been developed comprising a Five Curie /sup 241/ Am-Be neutron source and a large n-type hyper-pure germanium gamma-ray detector. The tool maintains a constant temperature cryogenic environment for periods in excess of twenty hours. No liquid nitrogen or other consumable material is used in the operating or recharging stages. A large calibration tank in simulated well-bore geometry has been constructed with sand bodies saturated with oil and low salinity water (14,000 ppm NaCl). In the water zone prompt neutron capture gamma-rays from silicon, hydrogen and chlorine were prominent; gamma-rays from inelastic scattering on oxygen and silicon were detected. No gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering on carbon were detected. These data have been interpreted to yield the porosity, fluid saturations, salinity and matrix composition. In the oil zone, gamma-rays arising from inelastic scattering on oxygen, silicon and carbon were detected. The intensity of the carbon line was very poor, and inadequate for quantitative purposes

  7. Analysis of kiwi fruit (Accented deliciosa) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Oliveira, Marcia L. de; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Almeida, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to eat fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, however, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi has at least eight nutrients beneficial to health: calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium and has also high vitamin C, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDX) is the analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It is a variant of fluorescence spectroscopy X-ray based on the sample through an investigation of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter, analyzing X-rays emitted by matter in response to being struck by charged particles. The aim of this study were to determine potassium, calcium, iron and bromine (K, Ca, Fe and Br, respectively) present in kiwifruit using the technique of fluorescence X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF). Kiwifruit were peeled, washed and cut into slices and freeze-dried. After drying the sample was held digestion and subsequent reading of the same equipment in the X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF). The results indicated that the contents of potassium, calcium, iron and bromine are present in kiwifruit as expected when compared to Brazilian Table of Food Composition. (author)

  8. On the non-existence of a sharp cooling break in gamma-ray burst afterglow spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Although the widely used analytical afterglow model of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predicts a sharp cooling break ν c in its afterglow spectrum, the GRB observations so far rarely show clear evidence for a cooling break in their spectra or a corresponding temporal break in their light curves. Employing a Lagrangian description of the blast wave, we conduct a sophisticated calculation of the afterglow emission. We precisely follow the cooling history of non-thermal electrons accelerated into each Lagrangian shell. We show that a detailed calculation of afterglow spectra does not in fact give rise to a sharp cooling break at ν c . Instead, it displays a very mild and smooth transition, which occurs gradually over a few orders of magnitude in energy or frequency. The main source of this slow transition is that different mini shells have different evolutionary histories of the comoving magnetic field strength B, so that deriving the current value of ν c of each mini shell requires an integration of its cooling rate over the time elapsed since its creation. We present the time evolution of optical and X-ray spectral indices to demonstrate the slow transition of spectral regimes and discuss the implications of our result in interpreting GRB afterglow data.

  9. Calculation of the correlation coefficients between the numbers of counts (peak areas and backgrounds) obtained from gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Vodenik, B.; Zorko, B.

    2016-01-01

    Two simple methods for calculating the correlations between peaks appearing in gamma-ray spectra are described. We show how the areas are correlated when the peaks do not overlap, but the spectral regions used for the calculation of the background below the peaks do. When the peaks overlap, the correlation can be stronger than in the case of the non-overlapping peaks. The methods presented are simplified to the extent of allowing their implementation with manual calculations. They are intended for practitioners as additional tools to be used when the correlations between the areas of the peaks in the gamma-ray spectra are to be calculated. Also, the correlation coefficient between the number of counts in the peak and the number of counts in the continuous background below the peak is derived. - Highlights: • The correlation coefficients between areas of closely spaced peaks are assessed. • For isolated peaks the correlation arises from the common continuous background. • If peaks overlap the correlation coefficient depends on how much they overlap. • If peaks overlap also the background height affects the correlation coefficient. • The correlation coefficient between the peak area and its background is −1.

  10. Jupiter's X-ray Auroral Pulsations and Spectra During Juno Perijove 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ray, L. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Yao, Z.; Rae, J.; Gray, R.; Elsner, R.; Grodent, D. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ford, P. G.; Ness, J. U.; Kammer, J.; Rodriguez, P.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter's X-ray aurora is concentrated into a bright and dynamic hot spot that is produced by precipitating 10 MeV ions [Gladstone et al. 2002; Elsner et al. 2005; Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2007]. These highly energetic emissions exhibit pulsations over timescales of 10s of minutes and change morphology, intensity and precipitating particle populations from observation to observation and pole to pole [e.g. Dunn et al. 2016; in-press]. The acceleration process/es that allow Jupiter to produce these high-energy ion charge exchange emissions are not well understood, but are concentrated in the most poleward regions of the aurora, where field lines map to the outer magnetosphere and possibly beyond [Vogt et al. 2015; Kimura et al. 2016]. On July 11th 2017, NASA's Juno spacecraft conducted its 7th perijove flyby of Jupiter and is predicted to have flown directly through field lines that map to the Northern and Southern X-ray hot spots. During this unique flight, the XMM-Newton observatory conducted 40 hours of continuous time-tagged X-ray observations. We present the results from these X-ray observations, showing that Jupiter's X-ray aurora varies significantly from one planetary rotation to the next and that the spectral signatures, indicative of the precipitating ion and electron populations producing the emission, also vary. We measure the Doppler broadening of the spectral lines to calculate the ion energies at the point when they impact the ionosphere, in order that these might be compared with in-situ data to constrain Jovian auroral acceleration processes. Finally, we compare X-ray signatures from the last decade of observations with UV polar emissions at similar times to further enrich multi-wavelength connections and deepen our understanding of how Jupiter is able to generate its highly energetic polar auroral precipitations.

  11. Studies of momentum transfer and X-ray spectra in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Pierre

    Studies of momentum transfer from a ballistic pendulum appear to give satisfactory results for absorbed laser energies in excess of 200 mJ i.e. for fluxes in the 3.10 10 to 3.10 12 W.cm -2 range. A hard X-ray component attributed to fast electrons was revealed by an X-ray spectrometer with a PM system of greater sensitivity than PIN diodes. The laser energy is however too weak to enable studies to be conducted as a function of laser flux or measurements to be performed on targets of low Z [fr

  12. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  13. X-ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. III. A Complete Grid of Ionized Reflection Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Dauser, T.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; McClintock, J. E.; Wilms, J.; Ekmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new and complete library of synthetic spectra for modeling the component of emission that is reflected from an illuminated accretion disk. The spectra were computed using an updated version of our code xillver that incorporates new routines and a richer atomic data base. We offer in the form of a table model an extensive grid of reflection models that cover a wide range of parameters. Each individual model is characterized by the photon index Gamma of the illuminating radiation, the ionization parameter zeta at the surface of the disk (i.e., the ratio of the X-ray flux to the gas density), and the iron abundance A(sub Fe) relative to the solar value. The ranges of the parameters covered are: 1.2 <= Gamma <= 3.4, 1 <= zeta <= 104, and 0.5 <= A(sub Fe) <= 10. These ranges capture the physical conditions typically inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei, and also stellar-mass black holes in the hard state. This library is intended for use when the thermal disk flux is faint compared to the incident power-law flux. The models are expected to provide an accurate description of the Fe K emission line, which is the crucial spectral feature used to measure black hole spin. A total of 720 reflection spectra are provided in a single FITS file suitable for the analysis of X-ray observations via the atable model in xspec. Detailed comparisons with previous reflection models illustrate the improvements incorporated in this version of xillver.

  14. Phase-dependent absorption features in X-ray spectra of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, A.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Turolla, R.; Tiengo, A.; Zane, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed phase-resolved spectroscopy of archival XMM-Newton observations of X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINSs) led to the discovery of narrow and strongly phase-dependent absorption features in two of these sources. The first was discovered in the X-ray spectrum of RX J0720.4-3125, followed by a new possible candidate in RX J1308.6+2127. Both spectral lines have similar properties: they are detected for only ˜ 20% of the rotational cycle and appear to be stable over the timespan covered by the observations. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of these phase-variable features and in both cases the outcome has confirmed the detection with a confidence level > 4.6σ. Because of the narrow width and the strong dependence on the pulsar rotational phase, the most likely interpretation for these spectral features is in terms of resonant proton cyclotron absorption scattering in a confined high-B structure close to the stellar surface. Within the framework of this interpretation, our results provide evidence for deviations from a pure dipole magnetic field on small scales for highly magnetized neutron stars and support the proposed scenario of XDINSs being aged magnetars, with a strong non-dipolar crustal B-field component.

  15. DXRaySMCS. First user friendly interface developed for prediction of diagnostic radiology X-ray spectra produced by Monte Carlo (MCNP-4C) simulation in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Zare, H.; Moradi Faradanbe, H.

    2008-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the output energy spectra of an x-ray tube is essential in many areas of radiological studies. It forms the basis of almost all image quality simulations and enable system designers to predict patient dose more accurately. Many radiological physics problems that can be solved by Monte Carlo simulation methods require an x-ray spectra as input data. Computer simulation of x-ray spectra is one of the most important tools for investigation of patient dose and image quality in diagnostic radiology systems. In this work the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP-4C) was used for the simulation of x-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology, Electron's path in the target was followed until it's energy was reduced to 10 keV. A user friendly interface named 'Diagnostic X-ray Spectra by Monte Carlo Simulation (DXRaySMCS)' was developed to facilitate the application of MCNP-4C code for diagnostic radiology spectrum prediction. The program provides a user friendly interface for modifying the MCNP input file, launching the MCNP program to simulate electron and photon transport and processing the MCNP output file to yield a summary of the results (Relative Photon Number per Energy Bin). In this article the development and characteristics of DXRaySMCS are outlined. As part of the validation process, out put spectra for 46 diagnostic radiology system settings produced by DXRaySMCS were compared with the corresponding IPEM78. Generally, there is a good agreement between the two sets of spectra. No statistically significant differences have been observed between IPEM78 reported spectra and the simulated spectra generated in this study. (author)

  16. [Raman spectra study on radiation damage in EC9706 cells by 60Cogamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jian; Guo, Zheng-Yuan; Zhang, Guang-Shui; Wu, Dian-Yong; Tang, Wei-Yue

    2009-07-01

    Raman spectrum was used to study the structure and content of protein, nucleic acid and fat, while EC9706 cells irradiated by 60Co gamma-ray were cultivated for 24 h. The results showed that for spectrum intensity and frequency deviation, there were big differences between each exposure group and control group. For the 1 244 cm(-1) peak of amide III, beta folder changed to disordered conformations in the middle dose (4, 5Gy) groups. The 1 341 cm(-1) peak of v (the indole ring of Trp) was red-shifted in every dose group. There was a 2-3 cm(-1) red shift at the 782 cm(-1) peak in the big dose groups (7, 8Gy). It was showed that the non-hydrogenation of v(s)(PO2-) was strengthened due to big dose gamma-rays radiation. There was a 4 cm(-1) blue shift at the 1 446 cm(-1) peak of delta (CH2, CH3). It maybe resulted from 60Co gamma-rays' damage to the film of EC9706 cells. The preferable dose of 60Co gamma-rays may be found by analyzing the variety of the above-mentioned peaks in some dose groups.

  17. Rapid, autonomous analysis of HPGe gamma-ray spectra II: Uranium identification and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Thomas B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, Jamess L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-02-11

    RadID is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program originally written to assist in the detection of the illicit movement of nuclear material. In this second of the three-document series we discuss how RadID detects the presence of uranium isotopes and determines a number of its characteristics, most notably or processed material and enriched estimates.

  18. Multiplet splitting of x-ray photoemission spectra core levels in magnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, S.P.; McFeely, F.R.; Ley, L.; Shirley, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of high resolution x-ray photoemission studies of the multiplet splitting of the 3s core levels in the 3d transition metals and the 4s, 5s and 4d core levels in the lanthanide metals are reported

  19. High resolution γ spectra of 40-44 MeV γ photon activation products: Part 3 - a summary of γ rays, radionuclides and nuclear interferences observed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.R.; Hislop, J.S.

    1980-09-01

    A table of γ rays observed in the high resolution γ ray spectra of 40 to 44 MeV γ photon activation products is presented. This table is arranged in order of increasing γ ray energy and the parent isotopes, their half-lives and their inactive precursors are identified. Nuclear interferences caused by production of an active isotope from different parent elements have been identified and evaluated quantitatively. These are also tabulated. (author)

  20. X-ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the γ-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N H ) and radio (N HI ) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  1. X-RAY REFLECTED SPECTRA FROM ACCRETION DISK MODELS. I. CONSTANT DENSITY ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.; Kallman, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present new models for illuminated accretion disks, their structure, and reprocessed emission. We consider the effects of incident X-rays on the surface of an accretion disk by simultaneously solving the equations of radiative transfer, energy balance, and ionization equilibrium over a large range of column densities. We assume plane-parallel geometry and azimuthal symmetry, such that each calculation corresponds to a ring at a given distance from the central object. Our models include recent and complete atomic data for K-shell processes of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We examine the effect on the spectrum of fluorescent Kα line emission and absorption in the emitted spectrum. We also explore the dependence of the spectrum on the strength of the incident X-rays and other input parameters, and discuss the importance of Comptonization on the emitted spectrum.

  2. Overview of gamma-ray energy deposition and spectra in fast reactor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts to define gamma-ray heating in Breeder Reactor (BR) environments are reviewed. This critique is restricted to programmatic activities in the United States, as best exemplified by current practice for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Future needs are also addressed in terms of requirements for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Experimental efforts and theoretical analyses are surveyed for both high and low power environments. Special emphasis is placed on experimental techniques for calorimetry, temperature measurement, dosimetry and spectrometry. The relation between neutron and gamma-ray calculations is stressed with particular attention given to contrasting analytical techniques and basic nuclear data requirements. Wherever possible comparisons between theory and experiment are cited

  3. High-resolution X-ray spectra from low-temperature, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1996-09-01

    The electron beam ion traps (EBIT) at Livermore were designed for studying the x-ray emission of highly charged ions produced and excited by a monoenergetic electron beam. The precision with which the x-ray emission can be analyzed has recently been increased markedly when it became possible to decouple the temperature of the ions from the energy of the electron beam by several orders of magnitude. By adjusting the trap parameters, ion temperatures as low as 15.8±4.4 eV for Ti 20+ and 59.4±9.9 eV for Cs 45+ were achieved. These temperatures were more than two orders of magnitude lower than the energy of the multi-keV electron beam used for the production and excitation of the ions. A discussion of the techniques used to produce and study low-temperature highly charged ions is presented in this progress report. The low ion temperatures enabled measurements heretofore impossible. As an example, a direct observation of the natural line width of fast electric dipole allowed x-ray transitions is described. From the observed natural line width and b making use of the time-energy relations of the uncertainty principle we were able to determine a radiative transition rate of 1.65 fs for the 2p-3d resonance transition in neonlike Cs 45+ . A brief discussion of other high-precision measurements enabled by our new technique is also given

  4. Secondary electronic processes and the structure of X-ray photoelectron spectra of lanthanides in oxygen-containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu.A.; Teterin, A.Yu.; Lebedev, A.M.; Ivanov, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra of lanthanide compounds in the binding energy range 0-1250 eV beside the spin-orbitally split doublets exhibit fine structure. In particular, in the low-energy spectral range 0-50 eV such structure appears most likely due to the formation of the inner (IVMO) and outer (OVMO) valence molecular orbitals. The many-body perturbation shows up in the spectra of all the studied electronic shells but with different probabilities, while the multiplet splitting and dynamic effect in the spectra of just some inner shells. The present work studies the X-ray photoelectron spectral structure of lanthanide (La-Lu except for Pm) oxides and orthoniobates due to the secondary electronic processes accompanying the photoemission from the inner shells: many-body perturbation and dynamic effect. As a result, for example, the relative intensity of the line due to the many-body perturbation (shake-up process) with ΔE sat ∼4 eV for LaNbO 4 was found to decrease with decreasing of the binding energy of the inner electrons from 0.72 (E b for La 3d 5/2 =834.8 eV) to 0.28 (E b for La 4d 5/2 =102.9 eV). The full-width at half-maximum of the Ln 3d 5/2 line of lanthanide oxides and orthoniobates decreases as the atomic number Z of lanthanide grows in the range 58≤Z≤67 to the middle of the lanthanide row, and then increases. This agrees with the fact that for the beginning of the lanthanide row the Ln 3d 5/2 photoemission is accompanied by the shake-up process, while for the second half of the row--by the shake-down. It is important to note that it is connected with the Ln 4f binding energy change relative to the OVMO in compounds. The present work also confirms experimentally that the dynamic effect due to the gigantic Coster-Kronig transitions observed in the Ln 4p spectra takes place within the inner Ln 4p, 4d and outer Ln 4f shells with formation of the additional two-hole final state Ln 4p 6 4d 8 4f n+1 . The influence of the chemical environment on the Ln 4

  5. Accounting for nanometer-thick adventitious carbon contamination in X-ray absorption spectra of carbon-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangolini, Filippo; McClimon, J Brandon; Rose, Franck; Carpick, Robert W

    2014-12-16

    Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for characterizing the composition and bonding state of nanoscale materials and the top few nanometers of bulk and thin film specimens. When coupled with imaging methods like photoemission electron microscopy, it enables chemical imaging of materials with nanometer-scale lateral spatial resolution. However, analysis of NEXAFS spectra is often performed under the assumption of structural and compositional homogeneity within the nanometer-scale depth probed by this technique. This assumption can introduce large errors when analyzing the vast majority of solid surfaces due to the presence of complex surface and near-surface structures such as oxides and contamination layers. An analytical methodology is presented for removing the contribution of these nanoscale overlayers from NEXAFS spectra of two-layered systems to provide a corrected photoabsorption spectrum of the substrate. This method relies on the subtraction of the NEXAFS spectrum of the overlayer adsorbed on a reference surface from the spectrum of the two-layer system under investigation, where the thickness of the overlayer is independently determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This approach is applied to NEXAFS data acquired for one of the most challenging cases: air-exposed hard carbon-based materials with adventitious carbon contamination from ambient exposure. The contribution of the adventitious carbon was removed from the as-acquired spectra of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) to determine the intrinsic photoabsorption NEXAFS spectra of these materials. The method alters the calculated fraction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon from 5 to 20% and reveals that the adventitious contamination can be described as a layer containing carbon and oxygen ([O]/[C] = 0.11 ± 0.02) with a thickness of 0.6 ± 0.2 nm and a fraction of sp(2)-bonded carbon of 0.19 ± 0.03. This

  6. PC based analysis of gamma ray spectra generated by semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.; Madan, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a spectrum analysis method and computer program for analysis of gamma spectra obtained by using semiconductor detectors and multichannel analysers. The analysis steps incorporated are smoothing, peak location using signal processing method of convolution, selectable background subtraction viz linear, polynomial and step like, peak fitting both for singlets and doublets using Mukoyama's method for evaluation of full width at half maximum and area evaluation including errors in its evaluation. The program also provides a facility for energy calibration. Typical results of analysis for singlets and doublets are included. This report is based on Wilson's report which has been modified and extended. The program is written in BASIC and its listing is included in the appendices. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs; Medicion indirecta de espectros de rayos X utilizando TLDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Av. Haya de la Torre y Av. Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, X5016LEA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  8. Measurement of characteristic to total spectrum ratio of tungsten X-ray spectra for the validation of the modified Tbc model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A. H.; Costa, P. R.; Tomal, A.

    2014-08-01

    Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80 to 150 kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model for X-ray spectra evaluation(tbc and mod). The ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum was considered for comparing the simulated results and experimental data. The raw spectra measured by the Cd Te detector were corrected by the detector efficiency, Compton effects and characteristic Cd and Te X-rays escape peaks, using a software specifically developed. The software Origin 8.5.1 was used to calculate the spectra and characteristic peaks areas. The obtained result shows that the experimental spectra have higher effective energy than the simulated spectra computed with tbc and mod software. The behavior of the ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum for simulated data presents discrepancy with the experimental result. Computed results are in good agreement with theoretical data published by Green, for spectra obtained with 3.04 mm of additional aluminum filtration. The difference of characteristic to total spectrum ratio between experimental and simulated data increases with the tube voltage. (Author)

  9. Measurement of characteristic to total spectrum ratio of tungsten X-ray spectra for the validation of the modified Tbc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A. H.; Costa, P. R. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Laboratory of Radiation Dosimetry and Medical Physics, Matao Street, alley R, 187, 66318 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: ahlopezg@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Physics Institute, Campus Samambaia, 131 Goiania, Goias (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80 to 150 kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model for X-ray spectra evaluation(tbc and mod). The ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum was considered for comparing the simulated results and experimental data. The raw spectra measured by the Cd Te detector were corrected by the detector efficiency, Compton effects and characteristic Cd and Te X-rays escape peaks, using a software specifically developed. The software Origin 8.5.1 was used to calculate the spectra and characteristic peaks areas. The obtained result shows that the experimental spectra have higher effective energy than the simulated spectra computed with tbc and mod software. The behavior of the ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum for simulated data presents discrepancy with the experimental result. Computed results are in good agreement with theoretical data published by Green, for spectra obtained with 3.04 mm of additional aluminum filtration. The difference of characteristic to total spectrum ratio between experimental and simulated data increases with the tube voltage. (Author)

  10. Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra from the BESS-Polar Long-Duration Balloon Flights Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in December 2004 and December 2007, at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei 0.15-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.1-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 GV to 160 GV and compare to ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC-RAY PROTON AND HELIUM SPECTRA FROM THE BESS-POLAR LONG-DURATION BALLOON FLIGHTS OVER ANTARCTICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Itazaki, A.; Kusumoto, A.; Matsukawa, Y.; Orito, R. [Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kumazawa, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Nozaki, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hams, T.; Mitchell, J. W. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Myers, Z. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nishimura, J., E-mail: Kenichi.Sakai@nasa.gov [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2016-05-10

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in 2004 December and 2007 December at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2–160 GeV and helium nuclei in the range 0.15–80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic-rigidity ranges are 0.6–160 GV for protons and 1.1–160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 to 160 GV and compare this to the ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  12. Processing and quantification of x-ray energy dispersive spectra in the Analytical Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1988-08-01

    Spectral processing in x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy deals with the extraction of characteristic signals from experimental data. In this text, the four basic procedures for this methodology are reviewed and their limitations outlined. Quantification, on the other hand, deals with the interpretation of the information obtained from spectral processing. Here the limitations are for the most part instrumental in nature. The prospects of higher voltage operation does not, in theory, present any new problems and may in fact prove to be more desirable assuming that electron damage effects do not preclude analysis. 28 refs., 6 figs

  13. X-Ray Absorption Spectra of Water from First Principles Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, David; Galli, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    We present a series of ab initio calculations of the x-ray absorption cross section (XAS) of ice and liquid water at ambient conditions. Our results show that all available experimental data and theoretical results are consistent with the standard model of the liquid as comprising molecules with approximately four hydrogen bonds. Our simulations of ice XAS including the lowest lying excitonic state are in excellent agreement with experiment and those of a quasitetrahedral model of water are in reasonable agreement with recent measurements. Hence we propose that the standard, quasitetrahedral model of water, although approximate, represents a reasonably accurate description of the local structure of the liquid

  14. The effect of SNR structure on non-equilibrium X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, A.J.S.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for characterizing the ionization structure and consequent thermal X-ray emission of a SNR when non-equilibrium ionization effects are important. The technique allows different theoretical SNR models to be compared and contrasted rapidly in advance of detailed numerical computations. In particular it is shown that the spectrum of a Sedov remnant can probably be applied satisfactorily in a variety of SNR structures, including the reverse shock model advocated by Chevalier (1982) for Type I SN, the isothermal similarity solution of Solinger, Rappaport and Buff (1975), and various inhomogenous or 'messy' structures. (Auth.)

  15. The rotation of accretion-disks and the power spectra of X-rays 'flickering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaohe; Bao Gang

    1990-07-01

    The X-ray producing, inner region of the accretion disk in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is likely to be non-stationary and non-axisymmetric. This non-stationarity and non-axisymmetry in disk surface brightness may be modeled by considering the pre-sense of many 'hot spots' on a steady, axisymmetric disk. As long as a 'spot' can survive for a few orbital periods, its orbital frequency can be introduced into the light curve either by relativistic orbital motion or by eclipsing of the spot by the disk. These rotational effects vary with the local properties of the spot population. Depending on the radial variation of spot brightness, lifetime and number density, the observed variability power spectrum may differ from that due to the intrinsic variability of spots alone, within the orbital frequency range in which these spots occur. In this paper, we explore the relation between properties assumed for the spot population and the resulting predictions for the observed variability. The implications of our results for the 'flickering' of X-ray sources powered by accretion disks (both AGN and galactic sources) are also discussed. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs

  16. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical

  17. Compton scattering artifacts in electron excited X-ray spectra measured with a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P

    2011-12-01

    Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present.

  18. Utilization of concurrently gathered pulser data for complete spectral validation of gamma-ray spectra from germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Killian, E.W.; Helmer, R.G.; Coates, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the capabilities and limitations of using concurrently gathered pulser data for energy calibration, dead time correction, and pile-up loss correction of gamma ray spectra from germanium detectors have been investigated. This report deals with the pulser, charge injection into the charge sensitive preamplifier, hardware separation of gamma and pulser events, and analysis techniques to improve the accuracy of gamma peak area corrections from pulser data. Data are presented indicating achievable short and long term energy calibration stability of better than .01% and accuracy and rate dependent peak area loss corrections of +-1% up to 50,000 pulses per second (pps) and +-2.5% up to 100,000 pps, energy independent

  19. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Austin, R. W.; Selig, W. J.; Gregory, J. C.

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV/nucl was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of about 5 g/sq cm. Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper midwest region between 84 and 97 deg west longitude while remaining between 43.5 and 45 deg north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV/nucl.

  20. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrickson, J.H.; Parnell, T.A.; Austin, R.W.; Selig, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV nucl -1 was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of ∼5 g cm -2 . Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper mid-west region between 84 o and 97 o west longitude while remaining between 43.5 o and 45 o north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV nucl -1 . (author)

  1. The x-ray emission spectra of multicharged xenon ions in a gas puff laser-produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skobelev, I.Yu.; Dyakin, V.M.; Faenov, A.Ya. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Biemont, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Experimentale, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium); Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Quinet, P. [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Mons (Belgium); Nilsen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Behar, E.; Doron, R.; Mandelbaum, P.; Schwob, J.L. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1999-01-14

    Emission spectra of multicharged xenon ions produced by a laser gas puff are observed with high spectral resolution in the 8.5-9.5 and 17-19 A wavelength ranges. Three different theoretical methods are employed to obtain 3l-n'l'(n' = 4 to 10) wavelengths and Einstein coefficients for Ni-like Xe{sup 26+}. For the 3d-4p transitions, very good agreement is found between the experimental wavelengths and the various theoretical wavelengths. These accurate energy level measurements can be useful for studying the Ni-like xenon x-ray laser scheme. On the other hand, several intense spectral lines could not be identified as 3l-n'l' lines of Ni-like xenon, despite the very good agreement between the wavelengths and Einstein coefficients calculated for these transitions using the three different methods. (author)

  2. Comparisons of peak-search and photopeak-integration methods in the computer analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baedecker, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    Myriad methods have been devised for extracting quantitative information from gamma-ray spectra by means of a computer, and a critical evaluation of the relative merits of the various programs that have been written would represent a Herculean, if not an impossible, task. The results from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) intercomparison, which may represent the most straightforward approach to making such an evaluation, showed a wide range in the quality of the results - even among laboratories where similar methods were used. The most clear-cut way of differentiating between programs is by the method used to evaluate peak areas: by the iterative fitting of the spectral features to an often complex model, or by a simple summation procedure. Previous comparisons have shown that relatively simple algorithms can compete favorably with fitting procedures, although fitting holds the greatest promise for the detection and measurement of complex peaks. However, fitting algorithms, which are generally complex and time consuming, are often ruled out by practical limitations based on the type of computing equipment available, cost limitations, the number of spectra to be processed in a given time period, and the ultimate goal of the analysis. Comparisons of methods can be useful, however, in helping to illustrate the limitations of the various algorithms that have been devised. This paper presents a limited review of some of the more common peak-search and peak-integration methods, along with Peak-search procedures

  3. Natural widths and Coster-Kronig transitions of L X-ray spectra in elements between Pd and Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakura, Shusuke; Oohashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Yoshiaki; Tochio, Tatsunori; Vlaicu, Aurel M.; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Ikenaga, Eiji; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2006-01-01

    The Lα and Lβ X-ray emission spectra in the elements between Pd (Z=46) and Sb (Z=51) were measured using a high-resolution double-crystal vacuum spectrometer. The relative intensities of satellite structures, which originate in L 1 L 3 M 4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions, were estimated to that of each diagram line, and compared with calculated values. According to the work of Chen et al. [1977a. Theoretical L-shell Coster-Kronig energies 11≤Z≤103. At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 19, 97-151], Salgueiro et al. [1987. J. Phys. (Paris) 48 Colloq. C9, 609] and Vlaicu et al. [1998. Investigation of the 74W L emission spectra and satellites. Phys. Rev. A 58, 3544] L 1 L 3 M 4 Coster-Kronig transition is forbidden for 50≤Z≤77, and L 1 L 3 M 5 Coster-Kronig transition is forbidden for 50≤Z≤73. The results suggest that L 1 L 3 M 4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions may be allowed even for Sn (Z=50) and Sb (Z=51)

  4. Peak center and area estimation in gamma-ray energy spectra using a Mexican-hat wavelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan [School of Information Science & Technology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Wu, Qi-fan [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-21

    Wavelet analysis is commonly used to detect and localize peaks within a signal, such as in Gamma-ray energy spectra. This paper presents a peak area estimation method based on a new wavelet analysis. Another Mexican Hat Wavelet Signal (MHWS) named after the new MHWS is obtained with the convolution of a Gaussian signal and a MHWS. During the transform, the overlapping background on the Gaussian signal caused by Compton scattering can be subtracted because the impulse response function MHWS is a second-order smooth function, and the amplitude of the maximum within the new MHWS is the net height corresponding to the Gaussian signal height, which can be used to estimate the Gaussian peak area. Moreover, the zero-crossing points within the new MHWS contain the information of the Gaussian variance whose valve should be obtained when the Gaussian peak area is estimated. Further, the new MHWS center is also the Gaussian peak center. With that distinguishing feature, the channel address of a characteristic peak center can be accurately obtained which is very useful in the stabilization of airborne Gamma energy spectra. In particular, a method for determining the correction coefficient k is given, where the peak area is calculated inaccurately because the value of the scale factor in wavelet transform is too small. The simulation and practical applications show the feasibility of the proposed peak center and area estimation method.

  5. Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectra as a ``Fingerprint'' of the Local Environment in Complex Chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branci, C.; Womes, M.; Lippens, P. E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    The local environment of tin, titanium, iron, and sulfur in spinel compounds Cu2FeSn3S8 and Cu2FeTi3S8 was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the titanium, iron, sulfur K edges, and the tin LI-edge. As detailed calculations of the electronic structure of these compounds are difficult to carry out due to the large number of atoms contained in the unit cell, the XAS spectra of the spinels are compared to those of relatively simple binary sulfides like SnS2, TiS2, and FeS. Indeed, the metal environments in these binary compounds are very similar to those in the spinels, and they can be considered good model compounds allowing the interpretation of electronic transitions observed in the spectra of quaternary phases. In the latter, the bottom of the conduction band is mainly formed by Sn 5s-S 3p, Sn 5p-S 3p antibonding states for the tin-based compounds and by Ti 3dt2g-S 3p, Ti 3deg-S 3p antibonding states for the titanium-based compounds. It it shown that the local environment of iron atoms remains unchanged when substituting tin with titanium atoms, according to a topotactic substitution.

  6. Stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. Application to the construction of a stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detourne, G.

    1967-06-01

    This research is concerned with the stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. It is required to hold the calibration straight line of the spectrometer in a position which is fixed initially to better than 5x10 -5 channel. A prototype numerical stabilizer has been constructed : the SPECTROSTAB; it is made up of two independent control loops; one of these makes the spectrometer gain depend on the derivatives of a reference peak at high energies; the other makes the origin of the energy scale depend on the derivatives of a second reference peak at low energies A theoretical study of the behaviour of a control loop shows that a direct action stabilizer gives the most accurate stabilization; the loss in resolving power on the theoretical peaks of the spectra attains about 1 % with a scintillation detector, and 10 % with a semi-conductor detector. Various tests show that the expected results are obtained and that the displacement of the spectral peaks produced by the derivatives are hidden by errors in the calculation of the peak abscissae. (author) [fr

  7. Investigation of the antiprotonic X-ray spectra of the isotopes 6Li, 7Li and 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, H.

    1987-04-01

    With the commissioning of the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN in Geneva a high intensity, high purity antiproton beam became available, enabling precision measurements of antiprotonic X-ray spectra to be carried out. Besides informations about properties of the elementary particle antiproton itself, as for example its mass and its magnetic moment, such measurements provide informations about the strong-interaction potential between antiproton and nucleus at very low energies, which, in turn, can be derived from the elementary antinucleon-nucleon interaction by using microscopic models. This work investigates the antiprotonic X-ray spectra of the isotopes 6 Li, 7 Li and 40 Ca. The data were taken during the experiment PS176 at LEAR. The strong interaction between antiproton and nucleus leads to an energy shift ε and an absorption width Γ of the lower level of the last observable transition and also to intensity reductions, which can be converted to an absorption width for the upper level. For the isotopes 6 Li, 7 Li and 40 Ca the following results were obtained: 6 Li: ε(2p)=(-215±25) eV, Γ(2p)=(660±170) eV and Γ(3d)=(135±16) meV, 7 Li ε(2p)=(-265±20) eV, Γ(2p)=(690±170) eV and Γ(3d)=(129±13) meV, 40 Ca: ε(4f)=(-1060±130) eV, Γ(4f)=(3670±600) eV and Γ(5g)=(34.9±3.3) eV. The results are in fair agreement with theoretical calculations, at the same time showing up the limits of present understanding of antiproton-nucleus interaction. Particularly the spin-orbit part of the strong interaction seems to play a nonnegligible role. (orig.) [de

  8. Soft x-ray absorption and emission spectra and the electronic structure of some exotic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, D.L.; Canfield, L.R.; Callcott, T.A.; Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXE) is complimentary to that of photoemission spectroscopy (PES). SXE probes the local partial density of states (PDOS), selects dipole allowed symmetries, and is not necessarily surface sensitive. PES on the other hand, averages over the DOS and can be used to measure the dispersion of the energy bands. PES is also very surface sensitive. We present measurements on the high T/sub c/ superconductors, the quasicrystalline phase of AlMn, and the LiAl intermetallic alloy. These measurements provide insight for theoretical modeling. In the case of the high T/sub c/ compound and the intermetallic compound the measurements are in good agreement with the theory. However, for the quasicrystals the measurements provide new insights to challenge theory. 13 refs., 3 figs

  9. A hydrodynamical model of Kepler's supernova remnant constrained by x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J.; Arnaud, M.; Rothinfluo, R.; Chieze, J.P.; Magne, B.

    1988-01-01

    The remnant of the historical supernova observed by Kepler in 1604 was recently observed in x-rays by the EXOSAT satellite up to 10 keV. A strong Fe K emission line around 6.5 keV is readily apparent in the spectrum. From an analysis of the light curve of the SN, reconstructed from historical descriptions, a previous study proposed to classify it as type I. Standard models of SN I based on carbon deflagration of white dwarf predict the synthesis of about 0.5 M circle of iron in the ejecta. Observing the iron line is a crucial check for such models. It has been argued that the light curve of Sn II-L is very similar to that of SN I and that the original observations are compatible with either type. In view of this uncertainty the authors have run a hydrodynamics-ionization code for both SN II and SN I remnants

  10. Resonance spin memory in low-energy gamma-ray spectra from Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta odd-odd compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejniczak, U.; Gundorin, N.A.; Pikelner, L.B.; Serov, D.G.; Przytula, M.

    2002-01-01

    The low-energy gamma-ray spectra from neutron resonance capture with natural samples of Sb, Tb, Ho and Ta were measured using a HPGe detector at the IBR-30 pulsed reactor (JINR, Dubna). The resonance spin memory effect in the spectra from the odd-odd compound nuclei of 122 Sb, 160 Tb and 166 Ho was found to be quite distinct. For the 182 Ta compound nucleus it proved to be rather weak

  11. IAEA intercomparison of methods for processing Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Houtermans, H.; Schaerf, K.

    1979-01-01

    Nine spectra were provided, each covering an energy range of about 1 MeV and, with one exception, containing only well-separated single peaks; the exception was a spectrum containing double peaks. The intercomparison enables the user to test the ability of his methods: (1) to detect small peaks near the limit of detectability, (2) to determine the positions and areas of more easily detectable peaks, and (3) to determine the positions and areas of overlapping double peaks. A total of 212 sets of results was finally received for evaluation from 163 laboratories in 34 member states of the IAEA. For all the different types of tests involved, the methods reported covered a wide range of performance. Classification of these methods did not reveal any group offering a significantly restricted range of performance, though some groups of methods did appear, in the best hands, to be capable of producing better results than others: (1) for peak detection: visual methods and the use of the second derivative, (2) for peak-position (single peaks) determination: the fitting of a parabola or modified Gaussian function, and (3) for peak-area (single peaks) and peak-position and area (double peaks) determination: the fitting of a modified Gaussian function. Many methods reported gave either no estimates or poor estimates of error. With the exception of manual methods, the operating environment (e.g., large or small computer) did not appear to have any significant influence on the results. A comparison of four commonly used computer programs showed that the best results were obtained by SAMPO

  12. ULX spectra revisited: Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars as the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Godet, Olivier; Bachetti, Matteo; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Aims: In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and recently introduced theoretical schemes that propose neutron stars (NSs) as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of eighteen well known ULXs, in search of indications that favour this newly emerging hypothesis. Methods: We examine the spectra from high-quality XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We use a combination of elementary black body and multicolour disk black body (MCD) models, to diagnose the predictions of classic and novel theoretical models of accretion onto NSs. We re-interpret the well established spectral characteristics of ULXs in terms of accretion onto lowly or highly magnetised NSs, and explore the resulting parameter space for consistency. Results: We confirm the previously noted presence of the low-energy (≲6 keV) spectral rollover and argue that it could be interpreted as due to thermal emission. The spectra are well described by a double thermal model consisting of a "hot" (≳1 keV) and a "cool" (≲0.7 keV) multicolour black body (MCB). Under the assumption that the "cool" MCD emission originates in a disk truncated at the neutron star magnetosphere, we find that all ULXs in our sample are consistent with accretion onto a highly magnetised (B ≳ 1012 G) neutron star. We note a strong correlation between the strength of the magnetic field, the temperature of the "hot" thermal component and the total unabsorbed luminosity. Examination of the NuSTAR data supports this interpretation and also confirms the presence of a weak, high-energy (≳15 keV) tail, most likely the result of modification of the MCB emission by inverse Compton scattering. We also note that the apparent high-energy tail, may simply be the result of mismodelling of MCB emission with an atypical temperature (T) versus radius (r) gradient, using a standard MCD model with a fixed gradient of T r-0.75. Conclusions: We have offered a new and robust physical interpretation for

  13. Utilization of the statistics techniques for the analysis of the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Auger electronic spectra's deconvolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puentes, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    For the analysis of the XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Auger spectra, it is important to performe the peaks' separation and estimate its intensity. For this purpose, a methodology was implemented, including: a spectrum's filter; b) substraction of the base line (or inelastic background); c) deconvolution (separation of the distribution that integrates the spectrum) and d) error of calculation of the mean estimation, comprising adjustment quality tests. A software (FORTRAN IV plus) that permits to use the methodology proposed from the experimental spectra was implemented. The quality of the methodology was tested with simulated spectra. (Author) [es

  14. X-ray, MP2 and DFT studies of the structure and vibrational spectra of trigonellinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafran, M.; Koput, J.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Pankowski, M.; Stobiecka, K.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen bonding, inter- and intramolecular electrostatic interactions on the conformation of trigonellinium chloride, TRGH...Cl, in the crystal and on that of a single molecule have been studied by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopies, and by MP2 and DFT calculations. In the crystal, the Cl - anion is connected with protonated trigonelline via hydrogen bond, O-H...Cl - =2.915(3) Angst, and three N + ...Cl - intermolecular electrostatic interactions. In a single molecule, the Cl - anion is also engaged in a slightly longer hydrogen bond, O-H...Cl - =2.948-3.019 Angst, but only in one type of intramolecular electrostatic interaction. The optimized bond lengths and bond angles at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory are in good agreement with the X-ray data, except conformation of the COOH group, which is cis (syn) in the crystal and trans (anti) in the single molecule. The probable assignments for the experimental solid state vibrational spectra of TRGH.Cl and TRGD.Cl based on the calculated MP2/cc-pVDZ frequencies and intensities were made. The effect of quaternization of nicotinic acid, its salt and amide on chemical shifts of the ring protons and carbons is analyzed

  15. Quantitative comparison between experimental and simulated gamma-ray spectra induced by 14 MeV tagged neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perot, B., E-mail: bertrand.perot@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); El Kanawati, W.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Valkovic, V. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sannie, G. [CEA, LIST, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-07-15

    Fast neutron interrogation with the associated particle technique can be used to identify explosives in cargo containers (EURITRACK FP6 project) and unexploded ordnance on the seabed (UNCOSS FP7 project), by detecting gamma radiations induced by 14 MeV neutrons produced in the {sup 2}H({sup 3}H,{alpha})n reaction. The origin of the gamma rays can be determined in 3D by the detection of the alpha particle, which provides the direction of the opposite neutron and its time-of-flight. Gamma spectroscopy provides the relative counts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are converted to chemical fractions to differentiate explosives from other organic substances. To this aim, Monte Carlo calculations are used to take into account neutron moderation and gamma attenuation in cargo materials or seawater. This paper presents an experimental verification that C, N, and O counts are correctly reproduced by numerical simulation. A quantitative comparison is also reported for silicon, iron, lead, and aluminium. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gamma-ray spectra produced by 14 MeV neutrons in C, N, O, Si, Al, Fe, and Pb elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative comparison with MCNPX simulations using the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C, N, and O counts correctly reproduced and chemical proportions recovered using calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application to the detection of explosives or illicit drugs in cargo containers.

  16. Calculation of Absorbed Glandular Dose using a FORTRAN Program Based on Monte Carlo X-ray Spectra in Mammography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Mowlavi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Average glandular dose calculation in mammography with Mo-Rh target-filter and dose calculation for different situations is accurate and fast. Material and Methods: In this research, first of all, x-ray spectra of a Mo target bombarded by a 28 keV electron beam with and without a Rh filter were calculated using the MCNP code. Then, we used the Sobol-Wu parameters to write a FORTRAN code to calculate average glandular dose. Results: Average glandular dose variation was calculated against the voltage of the mammographic x-ray tube for d = 5 cm, HVL= 0.35 mm Al, and different value of g. Also, the results related to average glandular absorbed dose variation per unit roentgen radiation against the glandular fraction of breast tissue for kV = 28 and HVL = 0.400 mmAl and different values of d are presented. Finally, average glandular dose against d for g = 60% and three values of kV (23, 27, 35 kV with corresponding HVLs have been calculated. Discussion and Conclusion: The absorbed dose computational program is accurate, complete, fast and user friendly. This program can be used for optimization of exposure dose in mammography. Also, the results of this research are in good agreement with the computational results of others.

  17. GAUSS VII: a computer program for the analysis of #betta#-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullagh, C.M.; Helmer, R.G.

    1982-10-01

    A description is given of a computer program, GAUSS VII, which has been written to determine #betta#-ray spectra from Ge semiconductor spectrometers. The preliminary portions of the program can determine the energy and width calibration equations, loacte individual peaks and define peak regions that are significantly above the local spectral background. The user may edit these lists of peaks and regions. Each peak region is fitted with one or more components in which the peaks are represented by a Gaussian function or a Gaussian with one or two additive exponential tails on the low-energy side and one on the high-energy side. A step-like background function can be used with each component. The program will automatically recycle to add one or more components to a region if needed to improve the fit. The #betta#-ray energies and intensities are computed from resulting Gaussian positions and peak areas. To allow the user to determine the best results, the results from the analyses for each region with different numbers of components can be printed and line-printer plots of the fits to the data can be made. The quality of the results depends primarily on the ability of the program to define a good spectral region for each analysis and the ability to recycle to determine the proper number of components

  18. The reference peak areas of the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrum analysis programs are absolute and traceable

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauw, M

    1999-01-01

    A previously validated algorithm for absolute peak area determination was used to verify the reference peak areas supplied with the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrometry. These reference peak areas turn out to be absolute and traceable to a precision of 0.9%: The reference peak areas are possibly too low by a factor 0.992+-0.009. It is proposed to employ the test spectra and reference areas to validate the peak areas obtained with any algorithm in gamma-ray spectrometry. (author)

  19. Spatially resolved x-ray laser spectra and demonstration of gain in nickel-like systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, D.A.; Keane, C.J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.; Eckart, M.J.

    1987-09-25

    A recent series of experiments have provided spatially resolved near field images of several candidate x-ray lasing transition in neon-like, nickel-like, and hydrogen-like ions from laser-produced plasmas. From these time-gated, spatially, and spectrally resolved measurements the source size for the J = 0 - 1 and the J = 2 - 1 transitions in Ne-like selenium have been determined. Source regions as small as 50 ..mu..m have been observed on transitions with gain-length products >9. In addition, we have obtained the first experimental evidence for the amplification of spontaneous emission in the nickel-like ions of europium and ytterbium. Gains of order 1 cm/sup -1/ and gain-length products of up to 3.8 are observed on the J = 0 - 1, 4d-4p transitions in Eu + 35 at 65.26 and 71.00 A. Analogous transitions in Yb = +42 have been identified and some evidence for ASE has been observed. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Spatially resolved X-ray laser spectra and demonstration of gain in nickel-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, D.A.; Keane, C.J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.; Eckart, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A recent series of experiments have provided spatially resolved near field images of several candidate x-ray lasing transition in neon-like, nickel-like, and hydrogen-like ions from laser-produced plasmas. From these time-gated, spatially, and spectrally resolved measurements the source size for the J=0-1 and the J=2-1 transitions in Ne-like selenium have been determined. Source regions as small as 50 μm have been observed on transitions with gain-length products >9. In addition, the authors have obtained the first experimental evidence for the amplification of spontaneous emission in the nickel-like ions of europium and ytterbium. Gains of order 1 cm/sup -1/ and gain-length products of up to 3.8 are observed on the J=0-1,4d-4p transitions in Eu/sup +35/ at 65.83 and 71.00A. Analogous transitions in Yb/sup +42/ have been identified and some evidence for ASE has been observed

  1. Local moments and electronic correlations in Fe-based Heusler alloys: Kα x-ray emission spectra measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svyazhin, Artem; Kurmaev, Ernst; Shreder, Elena; Shamin, Sergey; Sahle, Christoph J.

    2016-01-01

    Heusler alloys are a property-rich class of materials, intensively investigated today from both theoretical and real-world application points of view. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the role of electronic correlations in the Fe_2MeAl group (where Me represents all 3d elements from Ti to Ni) of Heusler alloys. For this purpose, we have investigated the local moments of iron by means of the x-ray emission spectroscopy technique. To obtain numerical values of local moments, the Kα-FWHM method has been employed for the first time. In every compound of the group, the presence of a local moment on the Fe atom was detected. As has been revealed, the values of these moments are temperature-independent, pointing to an insufficiency of a pure itinerant approach to magnetism in these alloys. We also comprehensively compare the usage of Kβ main lines and Kα spectra as tools for the probing of local moments and point out the significant advantages of the latter. - Highlights: • Local spin moments of iron in Fe_2MeAl (Me = Ti … Ni) Heusler alloys were investigated by means of x-ray emission spectroscopy. • Independence of the local moments from temperature confirms their localized nature. • A local moment value of iron in Fe_2MeAl raises with the atomic number of element Me. • The applicability of the Kα x-ray emission line for extracting local moment values of 3d elements was established.

  2. Observations of galactic cosmic-ray energy spectra between 1 and 9 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, F.B.; Lal, N.; Trainor, J.H.; Van Hollebeke, M.A.I.; Webber, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    The variation of the 5--500 MeV per nucleon cosmic-ray helium component has been studied between 1 and 9 AU with essentially identical detector systems on Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Helios I. Between 100 and 200 MeV per nucleon, a radial gradient of 3.3% +- 1.3% per AU is found. At 15 MeV per nucleon, this value increases to 20% +- 4% per AU. Between 4 and 9 AU a well-defined intensity maximum is observed at approx.17 MeV per nucleon. The average adiabatic energy loss between 1 and 9 AU is approx.4 MeV per nucleon per AU. In the inner solar system between 1 and 4 AU this value increases to 7 MeV per nucleon. The observed radial variation between 1 and 9 AU is well described by the Gleeson-Axford force-field solution of the modulation equations over an enrgy range extending from 15 to 500 MeV per nucleon and is in good agreement with the results reported by other Pioneer experiments. These values are much smaller than had been theoretically predicted. The data can be interpreted either in terms of large residual modulation with phi (1 AU) approx. =320 MV and with a modulation region which extends to 50--100 AU or with a significantly reduced modulation parameter of approx.150 MV. These values appear to represent reasonable upper and lower limits on the residual modulation for this period. For the lower limit of phi (1 AU) =150 MV, the low-energy helium component can originate outside the heliosphere, while for phi (1 AU) =320 MV, an interplanetary origin appears most probable

  3. Accurate quasiparticle calculation of x-ray photoelectron spectra of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-05-31

    It has been highly desired to provide an accurate and reliable method to calculate core electron binding energies (CEBEs) of crystals and to understand the final state screening effect on a core hole in high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), because the ΔSCF method cannot be simply used for bulk systems. We propose to use the quasiparticle calculation based on many-body perturbation theory for this problem. In this study, CEBEs of band-gapped crystals, silicon, diamond, β-SiC, BN, and AlP, are investigated by means of the GW approximation (GWA) using the full ω integration and compared with the preexisting XPS data. The screening effect on a deep core hole is also investigated in detail by evaluating the relaxation energy (RE) from the core and valence contributions separately. Calculated results show that not only the valence electrons but also the core electrons have an important contribution to the RE, and the GWA have a tendency to underestimate CEBEs due to the excess RE. This underestimation can be improved by introducing the self-screening correction to the GWA. The resulting C1s, B1s, N1s, Si2p, and Al2p CEBEs are in excellent agreement with the experiments within 1 eV absolute error range. The present self-screening corrected GW approach has the capability to achieve the highly accurate prediction of CEBEs without any empirical parameter for band-gapped crystals, and provide a more reliable theoretical approach than the conventional ΔSCF-DFT method.

  4. Accurate quasiparticle calculation of x-ray photoelectron spectra of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-05-01

    It has been highly desired to provide an accurate and reliable method to calculate core electron binding energies (CEBEs) of crystals and to understand the final state screening effect on a core hole in high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), because the ΔSCF method cannot be simply used for bulk systems. We propose to use the quasiparticle calculation based on many-body perturbation theory for this problem. In this study, CEBEs of band-gapped crystals, silicon, diamond, β-SiC, BN, and AlP, are investigated by means of the GW approximation (GWA) using the full ω integration and compared with the preexisting XPS data. The screening effect on a deep core hole is also investigated in detail by evaluating the relaxation energy (RE) from the core and valence contributions separately. Calculated results show that not only the valence electrons but also the core electrons have an important contribution to the RE, and the GWA have a tendency to underestimate CEBEs due to the excess RE. This underestimation can be improved by introducing the self-screening correction to the GWA. The resulting C1s, B1s, N1s, Si2p, and Al2p CEBEs are in excellent agreement with the experiments within 1 eV absolute error range. The present self-screening corrected GW approach has the capability to achieve the highly accurate prediction of CEBEs without any empirical parameter for band-gapped crystals, and provide a more reliable theoretical approach than the conventional ΔSCF-DFT method.

  5. Advance of the National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-rays; Avance del Programa Nacional de Proteccion y Seguridad Radiologica para diagnostico medico con rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo S, M. [Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos, Direccion General de Salud Ambiental (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-ray (Programa Nacional de Proteccion y Seguridad Radiologica para diagnostico medico con rayos X) was initiated in the General Direction of Environmental Health (Direccion General de Salud Ambiental) in 1995. Task coordinated with different dependences of the Public Sector in collaboration between the Secretary of Health (Secretaria de Salud), the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias) and, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares). The surveillance to the fulfilment of the standardization in matter of Radiological Protection and Safety in the medical diagnostic with X-rays has been obtained for an important advance in the Public sector and it has been arousing interest in the Private sector. (Author)

  6. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  7. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jong Ho, E-mail: jhjeon07@ibs.re.kr; Nakajima, Kazuhisa, E-mail: naka115@dia-net.ne.jp; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Choi, Il Woo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Cho, Byoung Ick; Nam, Chang Hee [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1–10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  8. Charge exchange recombination in X-ray spectra of He-like argon measured at the tokamak TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlummer, Tobias

    2014-06-16

    Charge exchange recombination between ions and atomic hydrogen is an important atomic process in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Besides radiative cooling of the plasma edge, charge exchange causes modifications of the ionization balance and the population densities of excited ion states. The central goal of this work is to investigate the influence of charge exchange on X-ray spectra measured at the tokamak TEXTOR. A new 2D X-ray spectrometer developed for future use at the stellarator W7-X was recently installed at TEXTOR. The spectrometer is optimized for measuring the K{sub α}-spectrum of He-like argon (1s2l - 1s{sup 2}) at wavelengths close to 4 Aa. K{sub α}-spectroscopy on He-like impurity ions is an established diagnostic for electron and ion temperature measurements in fusion plasmas. Still, up to now the observed intensity ratios of the K{sub α}-lines and their associated satellites are not fully understood. They show significant deviations from the predictions made by basic corona models. In the past charge exchange with the neutral particle background and radial impurity transport have been discussed as likely explanations. Yet a detailed description of the experimental spectra still has not been achieved. To reconstruct the 2D K{sub α}-spectra measured at TEXTOR the radial argon ion distribution is modeled using an impurity transport code. The model accounts for charge exchange and transport on basis of given radial profiles of the neutral particle density n{sub 0}(r) and the diffusion coefficient D {sub perpendicular} {sub to} (r). The theoretical spectrum is then constructed based on the processes relevant for line emission. Within an iterative procedure n{sub 0}(r) and D {sub perpendicular} {sub to} (r) are varied until consistency between the theoretical and the experimental spectra is achieved. It is shown that the 2D K{sub α}-spectra allow a clear distinction of charge exchange and transport effects, ensuring unique solutions for n

  9. Estimation of identification limit for a small-type OSL dosimeter on the medical images by measurement of X-ray spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-07-01

    Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative identification method. We performed experiments for which we used diagnostic X-ray equipment, a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom (1-20 cm), and a CdTe X-ray spectrometer assuming one pixel of the X-ray imaging detector. Then, with the following two experimental settings, corresponding X-ray spectra were measured with 40-120 kVp and 0.5-1000 mAs at a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm: (1) X-rays penetrating a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom with the OSL dosimeter attached directly on the phantom, and (2) X-rays penetrating only the soft-tissue-equivalent phantom. Next, the energy fluence and errors in the fluence were calculated from the spectra. When the energy fluence with errors concerning these two experimental conditions was estimated to be indistinctive, we defined the condition as the OSL dosimeter not being identified on the X-ray image. Based on our analysis, we determined the identification limit of the dosimeter. We then compared our results with those for the general irradiation conditions used in clinics. We found that the OSL dosimeter could not be identified under the irradiation conditions of abdominal and chest radiography, namely, one can apply the OSL dosimeter to measurement of the exposure dose in the irradiation field of X-rays without disturbing medical images.

  10. Application- and patient size-dependent optimization of x-ray spectra for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, Willi A.; Deak, Paul; Kellermeier, Markus; Straten, Marcel van; Vollmar, Sabrina V.

    2009-01-01

    Although x-ray computed tomography (CT) has been in clinical use for over 3 decades, spectral optimization has not been a topic of great concern; high voltages around 120 kV have been in use since the beginning of CT. It is the purpose of this study to analyze, in a rigorous manner, the energies at which the patient dose necessary to provide a given contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for various diagnostic tasks can be minimized. The authors used cylindrical water phantoms and quasianthropomorphic phantoms of the thorax and the abdomen with inserts of 13 mm diameter mimicking soft tissue, bone, and iodine for simulations and measurements. To provide clearly defined contrasts, these inserts were made of solid water with a 1% difference in density (DD) to represent an energy-independent soft-tissue contrast of 10 Hounsfield units (HU), calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca) representing bone, and iodine (I) representing the typical contrast medium. To evaluate CT of the thorax, an adult thorax phantom (300x200 mm 2 ) plus extension rings up to a size of 460x300 mm 2 to mimic different patient cross sections were used. For CT of the abdomen, we used a phantom of 360x200 mm 2 and an extension ring of 460x300 mm 2 . The CT scanner that the authors used was a SOMATOM Definition (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Further voltage settings of 60, 75, 90, and 105 kV were available in an experimental mode. The authors determined contrast for the density difference, calcium, and iodine, and noise and 3D dose distributions for the available voltages by measurements. Additional voltage values and monoenergetic sources were evaluated by simulations. The dose-weighted contrast-to-noise ratio (CNRD) was used as the parameter for optimization. Simulations and measurements were in good agreement with respect to absolute values and trends regarding the dependence on energy for the parameters investigated. For soft-tissue imaging, the standard settings of 120-140 k

  11. Understanding Breaks in Flare X-Ray Spectra: Evaluation of a Cospatial Collisional Return-current Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.

    2017-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) spectral breaks are explained in terms of a one-dimensional model with a cospatial return current. We study 19 flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager with strong spectral breaks at energies around a few deka-keV, which cannot be explained by isotropic albedo or non-uniform ionization alone. We identify these breaks at the HXR peak time, but we obtain 8 s cadence spectra of the entire impulsive phase. Electrons with an initially power-law distribution and a sharp low-energy cutoff lose energy through return-current losses until they reach the thick target, where they lose their remaining energy through collisions. Our main results are as follows. (1) The return-current collisional thick-target model provides acceptable fits for spectra with strong breaks. (2) Limits on the plasma resistivity are derived from the fitted potential drop and deduced electron-beam flux density, assuming the return current is a drift current in the ambient plasma. These resistivities are typically 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than the Spitzer resistivity at the fitted temperature, and provide a test for the adequacy of classical resistivity and the stability of the return current. (3) Using the upper limit of the low-energy cutoff, the return current is always stable to the generation of ion-acoustic and electrostatic ion-cyclotron instabilities when the electron temperature is nine times lower than the ion temperature. (4) In most cases, the return current is most likely primarily carried by runaway electrons from the tail of the thermal distribution rather than by the bulk drifting thermal electrons. For these cases, anomalous resistivity is not required.

  12. Simulations of iron K pre-edge X-ray absorption spectra using the restricted active space method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiyuan; Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-01-28

    The intensities and relative energies of metal K pre-edge features are sensitive to both geometric and electronic structures. With the possibility to collect high-resolution spectral data it is important to find theoretical methods that include all important spectral effects: ligand-field splitting, multiplet structures, 3d-4p orbital hybridization, and charge-transfer excitations. Here the restricted active space (RAS) method is used for the first time to calculate metal K pre-edge spectra of open-shell systems, and its performance is tested against on six iron complexes: [FeCl6](n-), [FeCl4](n-), and [Fe(CN)6](n-) in ferrous and ferric oxidation states. The method gives good descriptions of the spectral shapes for all six systems. The mean absolute deviation for the relative energies of different peaks is only 0.1 eV. For the two systems that lack centrosymmetry [FeCl4](2-/1-), the ratios between dipole and quadrupole intensity contributions are reproduced with an error of 10%, which leads to good descriptions of the integrated pre-edge intensities. To gain further chemical insight, the origins of the pre-edge features have been analyzed with a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture that serves as a bridge between the spectra and the electronic structures. The pre-edges contain information about both ligand-field strengths and orbital covalencies, which can be understood by analyzing the RAS wavefunction. The RAS method can thus be used to predict and rationalize the effects of changes in both the oxidation state and ligand environment in a number of hard X-ray studies of small and medium-sized molecular systems.

  13. DXRaySMCS: a user-friendly interface developed for prediction of diagnostic radiology X-ray spectra produced by Monte Carlo (MCNP-4C) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Moradi, H; Zare, H

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the general purpose Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP-4C) was used for the simulation of X-ray spectra in diagnostic radiology. The electron's path in the target was followed until its energy was reduced to 10 keV. A user-friendly interface named 'diagnostic X-ray spectra by Monte Carlo simulation (DXRaySMCS)' was developed to facilitate the application of MCNP-4C code for diagnostic radiology spectrum prediction. The program provides a user-friendly interface for: (i) modifying the MCNP input file, (ii) launching the MCNP program to simulate electron and photon transport and (iii) processing the MCNP output file to yield a summary of the results (relative photon number per energy bin). In this article, the development and characteristics of DXRaySMCS are outlined. As part of the validation process, output spectra for 46 diagnostic radiology system settings produced by DXRaySMCS were compared with the corresponding IPEM78. Generally, there is a good agreement between the two sets of spectra. No statistically significant differences have been observed between IPEM78 reported spectra and the simulated spectra generated in this study.

  14. Galactic cosmic ray spectra during solar cycle 23 and 24. Measurement capabilities of the electron proton helium telescope on board SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Patrick; Dresing, Nina; Gieseler, Jan; Heber, Bernd; Klassen, Andreas [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can be studied in detail by long term variations of the GCR energy spectrum (e.g. on the scales of a solar cycle). With almost 20 years of data, the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) aboard SOHO is well suited for these kind of investigations. Although the design of the instrument is optimized to measure proton and helium isotope spectra up to 50 MeV/nucleon the capability exist that allow to determine energy spectra above 1.5 GeV/nucleon. Therefore we developed a sophisticated inversion method to calculate such proton spectra. The method relies on a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument and a simplified spacecraft model that calculates the energy response function of EPHIN for electrons, protons and heavier ions. As a result we present galactic cosmic ray spectra from 1995 to 2015. For validation, the derived spectra are compared to AMS, BESS and PAMELA data. Furthermore we discuss the spectra with respect to the solar modulation.

  15. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn C. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  16. Estimation of identification limit for a small-type OSL dosimeter on the medical images by measurement of X-ray spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Takegami, Kazuki ; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi ; Maehata, Itsumi ; Kanazawa, Yuki ; Okazaki, Tohru ; Hashizume, Takuya ; Kobayashi, Ikuo 

    2016-01-01

    Our aim in this study is to derive an identification limit on a dosimeter for not disturbing a medical image when patients wear a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter on their bodies during X-ray diagnostic imaging. For evaluation of the detection limit based on an analysis of X-ray spectra, we propose a new quantitative identification method. We performed experiments for which we used diagnostic X-ray equipment, a soft-tissue-equivalent phantom (1–20 cm), and a CdTe X...

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectra and electronic structure of quasi-one-dimensional SbSeI crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Grigas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS of the valence band (VB and of the principal core levels from the (110 and (001 crystal surfaces for the quasi-one-dimensional high permittivity SbSeI single crystal isostructural to ferroelectric SbSI. The XPS were measured with monochromatized Al Ka radiation in the energy range of 0-1400 eV at room temperature. The VB is located from 1.6 to 20 eV below the Fermi level. Experimental energies of the VB and core levels are compared with the results of theoretical ab initio calculations of the molecular model of the SbSeI crystal. The electronic structure of the VB is revealed. Shifts in the core-level binding energies of surface atoms relative to bulk ones, which show a dependency on surface crystallography, have been observed. The chemical shifts of the core levels (CL in the SbSeI crystal for the Sb, I and Se states are obtained.

  18. Programme in Basic-Applesoft language for microcomputer to analyse pulse spectra from a high-resolution gamma ray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Marques, D.A.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Nadai, E.A. de; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    A programme in BASIC-Applesoft language has been developed for low cost microcomputer to analyze spectra from a high-resolution gamma-ray system (high-purity germanium and 4096 channels analyzer). Data is received by the microcomputer directly from analyzer (4 min) or keyboard and shown on video (4 min) or printed (9,7 min). Graphics of parts of the spectrum can be either shown on video (a cursor is used to identify peaks) or printed. The peak search, centroid, energy, net photopeak area, standard deviation and relative standard deviation are included in the programme (5 min), besides filing of data in flexible disk (1,3 min). The programme was used on a 12 h real-time detection in Marinelli beaker of 1265 g sandy soil sample (Ref-Yellow Latosol, 0-3 cm layer). Thirty-one peaks from U-238 and Th-232 daughters were analyzed (rsd less than 20%), besides natural K-40 and artificial Cs-137, from fallout. (author) [pt

  19. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV 241 Pu and 208-keV 237 U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings

  20. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma produced by an ultrashort laser pulse in cluster targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenz, C; Bagnoud, V; Blasco, F; Roche, J R; Salin, F; Faenov, A Ya; Skobelev, I Yu; Magunov, A I; Pikuz, T A

    2000-01-01

    The first observation of x-ray emission spectra of multiply charged ions in the plasma produced by a 35-fs laser pulse with an intensity up to 10 17 W cm -2 in CO 2 and Kr gas jet targets is reported. The emission in the wavelength ranges of the 1snp-1s 2 (n=3-6) transitions of O VII ions and the Ly α line of O VIII ions, as well as of the (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 3/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 and (2s 1/2 2p 6 3p 1/2 ) 1 -2s 2 2p 6 1 S 0 lines of Ne-like KrXXVII ions testifies that the highly ionised plasma is formed by collision processes in clusters. Modelling the shape of the spectral lines of oxygen ions by including the principal mechanisms of broadening and absorption in optically dense plasmas reveals that the main contribution to the time-integrated intensity is made by the plasma with the parameters N e =(2-20)x10 20 cm -3 and T e =100 - 115 eV. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  1. A measurement of the absolute energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays during the 1976-77 solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrickson, J H; Parnell, T A; Austin, R W; Selig, W J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center; Gregory, J C [Alabama Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    An instrument designed to measure elemental cosmic ray abundances from boron to nickel in the energy region 0.5-2.0 GeV nucl[sup -1] was flown on a high altitude balloon from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, on 30 September through 1 October 1976 at an average atmospheric depth of [approx]5 g cm[sup -2]. Differential energy spectra of B, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe, extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere, were measured. The float altitude exposure of 17 h ended near Alpena, Michigan. The flight trajectory maintained a north easterly heading out of Sioux Falls traversing the upper mid-west region between 84[sup o] and 97[sup o] west longitude while remaining between 43.5[sup o] and 45[sup o] north latitude. The maximum vertical cut-off for this flight path was 1.77 GV or 0.35 GeV nucl[sup -1]. (author).

  2. Application of an expectation maximization method to the reconstruction of X-ray-tube spectra from transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrizzi, M.; Delogu, P.; Oliva, P.

    2014-01-01

    An expectation maximization method is applied to the reconstruction of X-ray tube spectra from transmission measurements in the energy range 7–40 keV. A semiconductor single-photon counting detector, ionization chambers and a scintillator-based detector are used for the experimental measurement of the transmission. The number of iterations required to reach an approximate solution is estimated on the basis of the measurement error, according to the discrepancy principle. The effectiveness of the stopping rule is studied on simulated data and validated with experiments. The quality of the reconstruction depends on the information available on the source itself and the possibility to add this knowledge to the solution process is investigated. The method can produce good approximations provided that the amount of noise in the data can be estimated. - Highlights: • An expectation maximization method was used together with the discrepancy principle. • The discrepancy principle is a suitable criterion for stopping the iteration. • The method can be applied to a variety of detectors/experimental conditions. • The minimum information required is the amount of noise that affects the data. • Improved results are achieved by inserting more information when available

  3. Precise material identification method based on a photon counting technique with correction of the beam hardening effect in X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Natsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Asahara, Takashi; Mihara, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Yuki; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Yamasaki, Masashi; Okada, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to develop a novel material identification method based on a photon counting technique, in which the incident and penetrating X-ray spectra are analyzed. Dividing a 40 kV X-ray spectra into two energy regions, the corresponding linear attenuation coefficients are derived. We can identify the materials precisely using the relationship between atomic number and linear attenuation coefficient through the correction of the beam hardening effect of the X-ray spectra. - Highlights: • We propose a precise material identification method to be used as a photon counting system. • Beam hardening correction is important, even when the analysis is applied to the short energy regions in the X-ray spectrum. • Experiments using a single probe-type CdTe detector were performed, and Monte Carlo simulation was also carried out. • We described the applicability of our method for clinical diagnostic X-ray imaging in the near future.

  4. Assignment of near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of metalloporphyrins by means of time-dependent density-functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Norman; Fink, Rainer; Hieringer, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The C 1s and N 1s near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of three prototype tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) molecules are discussed in the framework of a combined experimental and theoretical study. We employ time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) to compute the NEXAFS spectra of the open- and closed-shell metalloporphyrins CoTPP and ZnTPP as well as the free-base 2HTPP in realistic nonplanar conformations. Using Becke's well-known half-and-half hybrid functional, the computed core excitation spectra are mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in the low-energy region below the appropriate ionization threshold. To make these calculations feasible, we apply a new, simple scheme based on TDDFT using a modified single-particle input spectrum. This scheme is very easy to implement in standard codes and allows one to compute core excitation spectra at a similar cost as ordinary UV/vis spectra even for larger molecules. We employ these calculations for a detailed assignment of the NEXAFS spectra including subtle shifts in certain peaks of the N 1s spectra, which depend on the central coordination of the TPP ligand. We furthermore assign the observed NEXAFS resonances to the individual molecular subunits of the investigated TPP molecules.

  5. Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G., E-mail: grzgr@ifm.liu.se; Hultman, L.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We present first self-consistent model of TiN core level spectra with a cross-peak qualitative and quantitative agreement. • Model is tested for a series of TiN thin films oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature. • Conventional deconvolution process relies on reference binding energies that typically show large spread introducing ambiguity. • By imposing requirement of quantitative cross-peak self-consistency reliability of extracted chemical information is enhanced. • We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling. - Abstract: We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N 1s, O 1s, and C 1s core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature T{sub v} of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show

  6. Influence of Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Absorption and Fluorescent Spectra of Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG Laser Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dun-Lu; ZHANG Qing-Li; XIAO Jing-Zhong; LUO Jian-Qiao; JIANG Hai-He; YIN Shao-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the absorption and fluorescent spectra of Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and Yb3+ :Y3Al5O12 (Yb:YAG) crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Two additional absorption (AA) bands induced by gamma-ray irradiation appear at 255nm and 340nm. The former is eontributed due to Fe3+ impurity, the latter is due to Fe2+ ions and F-type colour centres. The intensity of the excitation and emission spectra as well as the fluorescent lifetime of Nd:YAG crystal decrease after the irradiation of 100 Mrad gamma-ray. In contrast, the same dose irradiation does not impair the fluorescent properties of Yb: YA G crystal. These results indicate that Yb: YA G crystal possesses the advantage over Nd: YA G crystal that has better reliability for applications in harsh radiant environment.

  7. On the Weak-Wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in mu Columbae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    Mu Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"--identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra--is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  8. Calculation of x-ray spectra emerging from an x-ray tube. Part I. Electron penetration characteristics in x-ray targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poludniowski, Gavin G.; Evans, Philip M.

    2007-01-01

    The penetration characteristics of electron beams into x-ray targets are investigated for incident electron kinetic energies in the range 50-150 keV. The frequency densities of electrons penetrating to a depth x in a target, with a fraction of initial kinetic energy, u, are calculated using Monte Carlo methods for beam energies of 50, 80, 100, 120 and 150 keV in a tungsten target. The frequency densities for 100 keV electrons in Al, Mo and Re targets are also calculated. A mixture of simple modeling with equations and interpolation from data is used to generalize the calculations in tungsten. Where possible, parameters derived from the Monte Carlo data are compared to experimental measurements. Previous electron transport approximations in the semiempirical models of other authors are discussed and related to this work. In particular, the crudity of the use of the Thomson-Whiddington law to describe electron penetration and energy loss is highlighted. The results presented here may be used towards calculating the target self-attenuation correction for bremsstrahlung photons emitted within a tungsten target

  9. Measurement of the neutron and gamma-ray spectra originating from a 14-MeV neutron source in liquid nitrogen and liquid air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecker, B.; Clausen, K.; Schneider-Kuehnle, P.; Weinert, M.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to measure the radiation transport originating from a 14-MeV neutron source in liquid nitrogen and liquid air is presented. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra were measured with a proton-recoil NE 213 scintillator and with four spherical proportional counters in a tank filled with liquid nitrogen or liquid air. The neutron spectra cover the energy range of 20 keV to 18 MeV. The source-detector separation varies in the liquid medium between 60 and 240 cm. The experimental setup is briefly described and the errors are estimated. (2 tables, 9 figures) (auth)

  10. Spectra of soft X-ray excitation potentials of titanium and vanadium compounds with carbon and nitrogen of a variable composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brytov, I.A.; Bleher, B. Eh.; Neshpor, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Lsub(3,2) spectra of excitation potentials (SEP) of a soft X-ray radiation of titanium and vanadium carbides and titanium nitrides in their homogeneity range, as well as solid solutions of nitrogen in α-titanium, are studied. The binding energies of electrons of the exciting levels relatively to the Fermi level are determined, adequacy of different quantomechanical calculations is experimentally proved. The observed changes in SEP at the variation of the metalloid concentration are explained by a quantitative transformation model of valent state energetic spectra when metalloid vacancies and connected with them local levels form

  11. A comparative study on experimental and theoretical ESR spectra of lactic acid polymers irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Oe.; Oezbey, T.; Gueven, O.

    1998-01-01

    Homo polymers of L-Lactic acid (LLA) and D,L-Lactic acid (DLLA), being biocompatible and absorbable in body iluids have recently found wide applications in the preparation of surgical sutures, controlled drug delivery systems, burn wound coverings etc. For sometime these polymers have also been prepared in the form of plates and screws for mandibular fracture fixation, tissue implants. Their chemical sensitivities against relatively high temperatures and hydrolysis with water make them unsuitable for conventional sterilization techniques like hot water vapor and ethylene oxide. Sterilization of the devices made of these polymers is therefore possible by gamma ray irradiation. This has initiated a number of research works in order to better understand the effects of ionizing radiation on this polymer. The aim of this study is to determine the possible radical types, their location on macromolecular structure and the reasons for peak shifts in the experimental and theoretical ESR spectra. Polymer samples were irradiated in air and in vacuum (10□□ torr) to 25 kGy sterilization dose at the dose rate 0.59 kGy/h and at room temperature by 60 Co γ-irradiator. Despite being chemically the same radical type, some differences were observed in the splitting of peaks of PLLA and PDLLA samples. These differences were determined and compared by means of fitting studies. Firstly, PLLA was characterized and its g and hyperfine splitting values were found as 2.0032±0.0002 and 20.37±0.2. In the characterization study of PDLLA, it was found that one of the nearest two radicals was on the upper and the other one was on the lower plane of PDLLA chain. (author)

  12. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra at the Ir L-edge in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Jun-ichi, E-mail: junichi.igarashi.kiryu@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Nagao, Tatsuya, E-mail: nagao@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A theoretical framework of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) on the basis of the itinerant electron scheme has been developed. • The RIXS theory is applied to iridate Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}. • The origins of the multi-peak structure of the excitation spectra found in the RIXS experiment have been assigned to the magnetic and excitonic excitations. - Abstract: We analyze resonant X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra in Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} on the basis of the itinerant electron picture. Employing a multi-orbital tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice, we find that the zigzag magnetic order is the most stable with sizable energy gap in the one-electron band within the Hartree–Fock approximation. We derive the RIXS spectra, which are connected to the generalized density–density correlation function. We calculate the spectra as a function of excitation energy ω, within the random phase approximation. The spectra consist of the peaks with ω < 20 meV, and of the peaks with 0.4 < ω < 0.8 eV. The former peaks are composed of four bound states in the density–density correlation function, and may be identified as the magnetic excitations, while the latter peaks are composed of 16 bound states below the energy continuum of individual electron–hole pair excitations, and may be identified as the excitonic excitations. The calculated spectra agree qualitatively with the recent RIXS experiment.

  13. Vibrational, X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Alpers, Charles N.; Bender Koch, Christian; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Myneni, Satish B.C.; Neil, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund site in California is a prime example of an acid mine drainage (AMD) system with well developed assemblages of sulfate minerals typical for such settings. Here we present and discuss the vibrational (infrared), X-ray absorption, and Mössbauer spectra of a number of these phases, augmented by spectra of a few synthetic sulfates related to the AMD phases. The minerals and related phases studied in this work are (in order of increasing Fe2O3/FeO): szomolnokite, rozenite, siderotil, halotrichite, römerite, voltaite, copiapite, monoclinic Fe2(SO4)3, Fe2(SO4)3·5H2O, kornelite, coquimbite, Fe(SO4)(OH), jarosite and rhomboclase. Fourier transform infrared spectra in the region 750–4000 cm−1 are presented for all studied phases. Position of the FTIR bands is discussed in terms of the vibrations of sulfate ions, hydroxyl groups, and water molecules. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were collected for selected samples. The feature of greatest interest is a series of weak pre-edge peaks whose position is determined by the number of bridging oxygen atoms between Fe3+ octahedra and sulfate tetrahedra. Mössbauer spectra of selected samples were obtained at room temperature and 80 K for ferric minerals jarosite and rhomboclase and mixed ferric–ferrous minerals römerite, voltaite, and copiapite. Values of Fe2+/[Fe2+ + Fe3+] determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy agree well with those determined by wet chemical analysis. The data presented here can be used as standards in spectroscopic work where spectra of well-characterized compounds are required to identify complex mixtures of minerals and related phases.

  14. Measurements of 14 MeV neutron radiative capture γ-ray spectra and integrated cross sections in Sc, Y, Pr and Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, M.; Cvelbar, F.; Likar, A.; Martincic, R.; Potokar, M.; Ivkovic, V.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray spectra and integrated cross sections for radiative capture in 45 Sc, 89 Y, 141 Pr and 165 Ho have been measured. Obtained integrated cross sections (800+-110)μb, (1490+-210)μb, (980+-160)μb and (940+-150)μb are in accordance with measurements at other elements showing smooth mass dependence. Measuring procedure and experimental data evaluation is described in details. (author)

  15. Gamma-Ray Emission Spectra as a Constraint on Calculations of 234,236,238U Neutron-Capture Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baramsai, Bayarbadrakh [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haight, Robert Cameron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jandel, Marian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Donnell, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vieira, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Becker, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Ching-Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Krticka, Milan [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-28

    Neutron capture cross sections in the “continuum” region (>≈1 keV) and gamma-emission spectra are of importance to basic science and many applied fields. Careful measurements have been made on most common stable nuclides, but physicists must rely on calculations (or “surrogate” reactions) for rare or unstable nuclides. Calculations must be benchmarked against measurements (cross sections, gamma-ray spectra, and <Γγ>). Gamma-ray spectrum measurements from resolved resonances were made with 1 - 2 mg/cm2 thick targets; cross sections at >1 keV were measured using thicker targets. The results show that the shape of capture cross section vs neutron energy is not sensitive to the form of the strength function (although the magnitude is); the generalized Lorentzian E1 strength function is not sufficient to describe the shape of observed gamma-ray spectra; MGLO + “Oslo M1” parameters produces quantitative agreement with the measured 238U(n,γ) cross section; additional strength at low energies (~ 3 MeV) -- likely M1-- is required; and careful study of complementary results on low-lying giant resonance strength is needed to consistently describe observations.

  16. Nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of purine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Taishi; Minami, Hirotake; Ukai, Masatoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo-gun, Hyougo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-08-07

    The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to π* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution. The pH dependence is explained by the core-level shift of N atoms at specific sites caused by protonation and deprotonation. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical spectra calculated by using density functional theory for GMP and the other purine-containing nucleotides, adenosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate, and adenosine 5{sup ′}-triphosphate. The N K-edge XANES spectra for all of these nucleotides are classified by the numbers of N atoms with particular chemical bonding characteristics in the purine moiety.

  17. Spectra of γ-rays from capture of 2 eV to 9 x 104 eV neutrons by 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelts, M.L.

    Using new experimental techniques, the spectra of γ-rays from the capture of neutrons by 181 Ta were measured at the Livermore 100-MeV linac for neutrons from 2 eV to 9 x 10 4 eV with a (Ge(Li)-NaI) three-crystal spectrometer. Individual primary γ-ray lines were resolved to 1778-keV excitation in 182 Ta. Neutron resonances were resolved to 200-eV neutron energy. Data analysis techniques and codes were developed to extract positions and intensities of resolved transitions from the large data matrices accumulated in this experiment. Techniques were developed to unfold the unresolved γ-ray spectra using the simple response of the three-crystal spectrometer. The resolved transition data were used to place 110 states with spin and parity assignments in the 182 Ta level diagram below 1780-keV excitation. A set of 1240 E1 transition strengths were analyzed to extract 1.38 +- 0.11 degrees of freedom for the most likely chisquared fit to the distribution of widths. The E1 strength function was extracted for E/sub gamma/ = 4 to 6 MeV and compared with previous results. The γ-ray spectra for E/sub gamma/ = 1.5 to 6.1 MeV were unfolded for neutron energy groups between 20 and 9 x 10 4 eV. Below 5-MeV γ-ray energy no dependence of the spectral shape on neu []ron energy was observed. (30 figures, 4 tables) (auth)

  18. Comparison of theoretically predicted and observed Solar Maximum Mission X-ray spectra for the 1980 April 13 and May 9 flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.; Orwig, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method for predicting the hard X-ray spectrum in the 10--100 keV range for compact flares during their initial rise is developed on the basis of a thermal model. Observations of the flares of 1980 April 13, 4:05 U.T., and 1980 May 9, 7:12 U.T. are given and their combined spectra from the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer and Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission are deduced. Constraints on the cross sectional area of the supposed emitting arch are obtained from data from the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer. A power-law spectrum is predicted for the rise of the flare of April 13 for initial arch densities less than 10 10 cm -3 and also for the flare of May 9 for initial arch densities less than 5.4 x 10 10 cm -3 . In both cases power-law spectra are observed. Limitations and implications of these results are discussed

  19. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-15

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover’s alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  20. SU-F-I-75: Half-Value Layer Thicknesses and Homogeneity Coefficients for Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beam Spectra Incorporating Spectral Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Godley, A; Shen, Z; Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to quantify various first half-value-layers (HVLs), second HVLs and homogeneity coefficients (HCs) for a state-of-the-art fluoroscope utilizing spectral (copper) filtration. Methods: A Radcal (Monrovia, Ca) AccuPro dosimeter with a 10×6-6 calibrated ionization chamber was used to measure air kerma for radiographic x-ray exposures made on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis ZeeGo fluoroscope operated in the service mode. The ionization chamber was centered in the x-ray beam at 72 cm from the focal spot with a source-to-image-distance of 120 cm. The collimators were introduced to limit the x-ray field to approximately 5 cm × 5 cm at the ionization chamber plane. Type-1100 aluminum filters, in 0.5 mm increments, were used to determine the HVL. Two HVL calculation methods were used, log-linear interpolation and Lambert-W interpolation as described by Mathieu [Med Phys, 38(8), 4546 (2011)]. Multiple measurements were made at 60, 80, 100, 120 kVp at spectral filtration thicknesses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mm. Results: First HVL, second HVL, and HCs are presented for the fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra indicated above, with nearly identical results from the two interpolation methods. Accuracy of the set kVp was also determined and deviated less than 2%. First HVLs for fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra without spectral filtration determined in our study were 7%–16% greater than previously published data by Fetterly et al. [Med Phys, 28, 205 (2001)]. However, the FDA minimum HVL requirements changed since that publication, requiring larger HVLs as of 2006. Additionally, x-ray tube and generator architecture have substantially changed over the last 15 years providing different beam spectra. Conclusion: X-ray beam quality characteristics for state-of-the-art fluoroscopes with spectral filtration have not been published. This study provides reference data which will be useful for defining beam qualities encountered on

  1. Benchmark of the non-parametric Bayesian deconvolution method implemented in the SINBAD code for X/γ rays spectra processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohée, E. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coulon, R., E-mail: romain.coulon@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.; Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation des Systèmes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Normand, S. [CEA, DAM, Le Ponant, DPN/STXN, F-75015 Paris (France); Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, DER/SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-11

    Radionuclide identification and quantification are a serious concern for many applications as for in situ monitoring at nuclear facilities, laboratory analysis, special nuclear materials detection, environmental monitoring, and waste measurements. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium diode detectors is the best solution available for isotopic identification. Over the last decades, methods have been developed to improve gamma spectra analysis. However, some difficulties remain in the analysis when full energy peaks are folded together with high ratio between their amplitudes, and when the Compton background is much larger compared to the signal of a single peak. In this context, this study deals with the comparison between a conventional analysis based on “iterative peak fitting deconvolution” method and a “nonparametric Bayesian deconvolution” approach developed by the CEA LIST and implemented into the SINBAD code. The iterative peak fit deconvolution is used in this study as a reference method largely validated by industrial standards to unfold complex spectra from HPGe detectors. Complex cases of spectra are studied from IAEA benchmark protocol tests and with measured spectra. The SINBAD code shows promising deconvolution capabilities compared to the conventional method without any expert parameter fine tuning.

  2. Measurement of salinity of fluids in earth formations by comparison of inelastic and capture gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A method of borehole logging by detecting and counting gamma rays from inelastic scattering of fast neutrons by carbon, oxygen, silicon and calcium, gamma rays from capture of thermal neutrons by calcium, chlorine and silicon and comparing the former with the latter thereby deriving an estimate of the salinity of the fluids in the borehole, is given (UK)

  3. Calibration of gamma-ray detectors using Gaussian photopeak fitting in the multichannel spectra with a LabVIEW-based digital system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlattauer, Leo; Parali, Levent; Pechousek, Jiri; Sabikoglu, Israfil; Celiktas, Cuneyt; Tektas, Gozde; Novak, Petr; Jancar, Ales; Prochazka, Vit

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the development of a gamma-ray spectroscopic system for the (i) recording and (ii) processing of spectra. The utilized data read-out unit consists of a PCI digital oscilloscope, personal computer and LabVIEW™ programming environment. A pulse-height spectra of various sources were recorded with two NaI(Tl) detectors and analyzed, demonstrating the proper usage of the detectors. A multichannel analyzer implements the Gaussian photopeak fitting. The presented method provides results which are in compliance to the ones taken from commercial spectroscopy systems. Each individual hardware or software unit can be further utilized in different spectrometric user-systems. An application of the developed system for research and teaching purposes regarding the design of digital spectrometric systems has been successfully tested at the laboratories of the Department of Experimental Physics.

  4. Parallel of semi-empirical results simulated by MCNP of X-ray spectra with a semiconductor; Paralelo de resultado semi- empiricos simulados por MCNPX de espectros de raios-X com um semicondutor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Potiens, M.P.A., E-mail: dossantos.lucasrodrigues@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Navarro, M.V.T.; Santos, W.S. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use the MCNPX radiation transport code to simulate X-ray spectra generated by a constant voltage system in a CdTe semiconductor detector. As part of the validation process, we obtained a series of experimental spectra. Comparatively, in all cases there is a good correlation between the two spectra. There were no statistically significant differences between the experimental results with the simulated. (author)

  5. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  6. Find - a computer program for peak search in gamma-ray spectra measured with Ge (Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, L.

    1988-01-01

    The program FIND is a FORTRAN IV computer code for peak search in spectra measured with Ge(Li) detectors. The program gives the position and estimates energy and relative significance for every peak found in the spectrum. The search in done by calculating a negative smoothed second difference of the experimental spectrum, as suggested by Phillips and Marlow (1). (author) [pt

  7. Measurement and Analysis of the Neutron and Gamma-Ray Flux Spectra in a Neutronics Mock-Up of the HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, K.; Freiesleben, H.; Poenitz, E.; Klix, A.; Unholzer, S.; Batistoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Leichtle, D.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear parameters of a breeding blanket, such as tritium production rate, nuclear heating, activation and dose rate, are calculated by integral folding of an energy dependent cross section (or coefficient) with the neutron (or gamma-ray) flux energy spectra. The uncertainties of the designed parameters are determined by the uncertainties of both the cross section data and the flux spectra obtained by transport calculations. Also the analysis of possible discrepancies between measured and calculated integral nuclear parameter represents a two-step procedure. First, the energy region and the amount of flux discrepancies has to be found out and second, the cross section data have to be checked. To this end, neutron and gamma-ray flux spectra in a mock-up of the EU Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeder Test Blanket Module (TBM), irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons, were measured and analysed by means of Monte Carlo transport calculations. The flux spectra were determined for the energy ranges that are relevant for the most important nuclear parameters of the TBM, which are the tritium production rate and the shielding capability. The fast neutron flux which determines the tritium production on 7 Li and dominates the shield design was measured by the pulse-height distribution obtained from an organic liquid scintillation detector. Simultaneously, the gamma-ray flux spectra were measured. The neutron flux at lower energies, down to thermal, which determines the tritium production on 6 Li, was measured with time-of-arrival spectroscopy. For this purpose, the TUD neutron generator was operated in pulsed mode (pulse width 10 μs, frequency 1 kHz) and the neutrons arriving at a 3 He proportional counter in the mock-up were recorded as a function of time after the source neutron pulse. The spectral distributions for the two positions in the mock-up, where measurements were carried out, were calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, version 5, and nuclear data from the

  8. First-principles calculations of K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zi; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectrum is a powerful tool for atomic structure detection on warm dense matter. Here, we perform first-principles molecular dynamics and X-ray absorption spectrum calculations on warm dense nitrogen along a Hugoniot curve. From the molecular dynamics trajectory, the detailed atomic structures are examined for each thermodynamical condition. The K-shell X-ray absorption spectrum is calculated, and its changes with temperature and pressure along the Hugoniot curve are discussed. The warm dense nitrogen systems may contain isolated nitrogen atoms, N 2 molecules, and nitrogen clusters, which show quite different contributions to the total X-ray spectrum due to their different electron density of states. The changes of X-ray spectrum along the Hugoniot curve are caused by the different nitrogen structures induced by the temperature and the pressure. Some clear signatures on X-ray spectrum for different thermodynamical conditions are pointed out, which may provide useful data for future X-ray experiments.

  9. Formation and evaluation of convex-curved crystals of lithium fluoride for use in analyzing x-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellick, B.O.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium fluoride as received from the vendor in boule form is 38 x 38 x 13 mm thick. This block is cleaved to wafers of the desired thickness, x-ray-evaluated for ''d'' spacing and greatest intensity, bent to the required radius, and then acid-etched to remove foreign material. The diffraction and dispersion characteristics of a wafer are analyzed using well-collimated tungsten x rays that strike the crystal and are diffracted onto no-screen x-ray film. If the crystal is satisfactory, it is mounted in a spectrogoniometer and rotated through an x-ray beam while a detector is set at the optimized angle for the diffracted x rays. The average intensity across the length of the crystal is recorded by multichannel scaling. Any imperfections appear as peaks or dips compared to the average intensity. The crystal next goes to a 10-channel, filter-fluorescer x-ray unit that compares zero-order intensity to diffracted Kα and Kβ intensity. Counts for 100-s intervals are taken in groups of three and averaged. Correction factors for instrument geometry, air, pinhole diameter at zero order, Kα-Kβ, barometric pressure, temperature, etc., are added to the efficiency calculations to obtain the crystal efficiency (epsilon) vs keV data. The crystal is mounted in the spectrograph or spectrometer and calibrated to either the detector or film plane by using direct radiation with proper x-ray filters or absorbers. The crystal is then ready for use

  10. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra measurement on the model of the KS-150 reactor radial shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, M.; Hogel, J.; Marik, J.; Kovarik, K.; Franc, L.; Vespalec, R.

    1977-01-01

    A shortened model of the peripheral region of the KS-150 reactor core consisting of two rows of fuel elements and a reflector was constructed from the peripheral fuel elements of the KS-150 reactor core in an experiment on the TR-0 reactor. The mockup of the thermal shield (10 cm of steel), the pressure vessel (15 cm of steel) and the inner wall of the water biological shielding (2 cm of steel) of the KS-150 reactor were erected outside the TR-0 vessel. Fast neutron and gamma spectra were measured with a stilbene crystal scintillation spectrometer. The resonance neutron spectra were measured with 197 Au, 63 Cu and 23 Na resonance activation detectors. Fast neutron spectra inside the reactor were measured with a 10 mm diameter by 10 mm thick stilbene crystal spectrometer, outside the reactor with a 10 mm diameter by 10 mm thick and a 20 mm diameter by 20 mm thick stilbene crystal spectrometer. Neutron spectra in the energy regions of 1 eV to 3 keV and 0.6 MeV to 0.8 MeV were obtained on the core periphery, on the reflector half-thickness and in front of and behind the reactor thermal shield. Gamma spectra were obtained in front of and behind the thermal shield. It was found that the attenuation of neutron fluxes by the reflector and the thermal shield increased with increasing energy while gamma radiation attenuation decreased with increasing energy. It was not possible to obtain the neutron spectrum in the 10 to 600 keV energy range because suitable detection instrumentation was not available. (J.P.)

  11. Programa De Educacion Interamericana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station.

    PROGRAMA DE EDUCACION INTERAMERICANA is a project of Texas A&M University in liaison with the Bryan Independent School District. The objectives of the program are to improve the knowledge and understanding of Texas teachers and students about other American cultures. Study teams of educators research and, in midsummer, travel to selected…

  12. Electronic Raman scattering with excitation between localized states observed in the zinc M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray spectra of ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.; Callcott, T.A.; Jia, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Zn M{sub 2,3} soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectra of ZnS and ZnS{sub .5}Se{sub .5} excited near threshold show strong inelastic scattering effects that can be explained using a simple model and an inelastic scattering theory based on second order perturbation theory. This scattering is often called electronic resonance Raman scattering. Tulkki and Aberg have developed this theory in detail for atomic systems, but their treatment can be applied to solid systems by utilizing electronic states characteristic of solids rather than of atomic systems.

  13. Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted from highly ionized atoms in the vacuum spark and laser-produced high power plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, P.

    1987-05-01

    The interest in atomic spectroscopy has greatly been reinforced in the last ten years. This gain of interest is directly related to the developments in different fields of research where hot plasmas are created. These fields include in particular controlled thermonuclear fusion research by means of inertial or magnetic confinement approaches and also the most recent efforts to achieve lasers in the XUV region. The present work is based on the specific contribution of the atomic spectroscopy group at the Hebrew University. The recent development of both theoretical and experimental tools allowed us to progress in the understanding of the highly ionized states of heavy elements. In this work the low-inductance vacuum-spark developed at the Hebrew University was used as the hot plasma source. The spectra were recorded in the 7-300 A range by means of a high-resolution extreme-grazing-incidence spectrometer developed at the Racah Institute by Profs. J.L. Schwob and B.S. Fraenkel. To the extend the spectroscopic studies to higher-Z atoms, the laser-produced plasma facility at Soreq Nuclear Center was used. In this work the spectra of the sixth row elements were recorded in the x-rays by means of a crystal spectrometer. All these experimental systems are briefly described in chapter one. Chapter two deals with the theoretical methods used in the present work for the atomic calculations. Chapter three deals with the spectra of elements of the fifth row emitted from the vacuum-spark in the 30-150 A range. These spectra as experimental data were used in order to test ab-initio computations along the NiI sequence 3d-nl transitions. The results of this work are presented in chapter four. Chapter five is devoted to the measurement and analysis of spectra emitted from the vacuum-spark by rare-earth elements. (author)

  14. A Simple Parameterization of the Cosmic-Ray Muon Momentum Spectra at the Surface as a Function of Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, D.

    2006-01-01

    The designs of many neutrino experiments rely on calculations of the background rates arising from cosmic-ray muons at shallow depths. Understanding the angular dependence of low momentum cosmic-ray muons at the surface is necessary for these calculations. Heuristically, from examination of the data, a simple parameterization is proposed, based on a straighforward scaling variable. This in turn, allows a universal calculation of the differential muon intensity at the surface for all zenith an...

  15. Self-consistent method for quantifying indium content from X-ray spectra of thick compound semiconductor specimens in a transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T; Wang, X

    2016-05-01

    Based on Monte Carlo simulations of X-ray generation by fast electrons we calculate curves of effective sensitivity factors for analytical transmission electron microscopy based energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy including absorption and fluorescence effects, as a function of Ga K/L ratio for different indium and gallium containing compound semiconductors. For the case of InGaN alloy thin films we show that experimental spectra can thus be quantified without the need to measure specimen thickness or density, yielding self-consistent values for quantification with Ga K and Ga L lines. The effect of uncertainties in the detector efficiency are also shown to be reduced. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Particle spectra and mass composition in the ultra-high energy region in the framework of the Galactic origin of cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for a self-consistent description of all the basic features of the observed cosmic ray spectra and primary composition variations in the energy range of 1015 ÷ 1020 eV within the Galactic origin scenario is examined. We assume the existence of Galactic sources that accelerate particles up to ∼ 3 · 1018Z eV and take into account a highly inhomogeneous (fractal-like distribution of matter and magnetic fields in the Galaxy that leads to extremely large free paths of particles (“Lévy flights”, along with an overwhelming contribution to the cosmic ray fluxes observed above ∼1018 eV from particles reaching the Solar System without scattering. Our scenario was refined on the basis of recent experimental results on primary mass composition. Model predictions, which could be verified with the improved high-precision measurements in the nearest future are discussed.

  17. Reconstruction of energetic electron spectra in the upper atmosphere: balloon observations of auroral X-rays coordinated with measurements from the EISCAT radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olafsson, K.J.

    1990-08-01

    Energetic electron precipitation in the auroral zone has been studied using coordinated auroral X-ray measurements from balloons, altitude profiles of the ionospheric electron density measured by the EISCAT radar above the balloons, and cosmic noise absorption data from the Scandinavian riometer network. The data were obtained during the Coordinated EISCAT and Balloon Observations (CEBO) campaign in August 1984. The energy spectral variations of both the X-ray fluxes and the primary precipitating electrons were examined for two precipitation events in the morning sector. As far as reasonably can be concluded from observations of magnetic activity in the auroral zone, and from the temporal development of the energy spectra, the two precipitation events can be interpreted in the frame of present models of energetic electron precipitation on the mordning side of the auroral zone. 96 refs., 70 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Einstein Observatory SSS and MPC observations of the complex X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies. [Solid State Spectrometer and Monitor Proportional Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. J.; Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Holt, S. S.; Madejski, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of 25 Seyfert galaxies measured with the Solid State Spectrometer on the Einstein Observatory have been investigated. This new investigation utilizes simultaneous data from the Monitor Proportional Counter, and automatic correction for systematic effects in the Solid State Spectrometer which were previously handled subjectively. It is found that the best-fit single-power-law indices generally agree with those previously reported, but that soft excesses of some form are inferred for about 48 percent of the sources. One possible explanation of the soft excess emission is a blend of soft X-ray lines, centered around 0.8 keV. The implications of these results for accretion disk models are discussed.

  19. The Spectrum Prize: A simple algorithm to evaluate the relative sensitivity of γ-ray spectra, representative of detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spolaore, P.

    2016-03-11

    A simple analysis of gamma spectra selected to represent the performance of different detection systems, or, for one same system, different operation modes or states of progress of the system development, allows to compare the relative average-sensitivities of the represented systems themselves, as operated in the selected cases. The obtained SP figure-of-merit takes into account and correlates the main parameters commonly used to estimate the performance of a system. An example of application is given.

  20. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J., E-mail: bartlett@qtp.ufl.edu [Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  1. Increasing the applicability of density functional theory. V. X-ray absorption spectra with ionization potential corrected exchange and correlation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prakash; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-07-21

    Core excitation energies are computed with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the ionization energy corrected exchange and correlation potential QTP(0,0). QTP(0,0) provides C, N, and O K-edge spectra to about an electron volt. A mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.77 and a maximum error of 2.6 eV is observed for QTP(0,0) for many small molecules. TD-DFT based on QTP (0,0) is then used to describe the core-excitation spectra of the 22 amino acids. TD-DFT with conventional functionals greatly underestimates core excitation energies, largely due to the significant error in the Kohn-Sham occupied eigenvalues. To the contrary, the ionization energy corrected potential, QTP(0,0), provides excellent approximations (MAE of 0.53 eV) for core ionization energies as eigenvalues of the Kohn-Sham equations. As a consequence, core excitation energies are accurately described with QTP(0,0), as are the core ionization energies important in X-ray photoionization spectra or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  2. Spectra of molecular changes induced in DNA of Drosophila spermatozoa by 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, M.A.; Fossett, N.G.; Lee, W.R.; Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge; Tedeschi, B.; Tucker, A.; Kilroy, G.; Arbour, P.

    1988-01-01

    Mutations induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase Adh locus by 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) were compared to X-ray-induced mutations using genetic tests for complementation, southern blotting, western blotting and northern blotting. 8 of 10 ENU-induced mutations complemented all known adjacent loci and were presumed to be intragenic. In contrast, 8 of 30 X-ray-induced mutations were intragenic. The interpretation of these results is that in spermatozoa X-rays induce primarily deletions that either produce deficiencies of the Adh locus or nonsense mutations within the locus, whereas ENU induces primarily missense mutations. This forward mutation assay based on loss of enzymatic activity efficiently recovered a broad spectrum of mutations ranging from missense to intragenic deletions and multi-locus deficiencies. Only 3 of these 40 mutations produced a polypeptide detectable as an electrophoretic variant. 37 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Average Nuclear Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56,57FE from Primary (Gamma)-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Garrett, P.E.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.; Younes, W.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental primary γ-ray spectrum vs. excitation-energy bin (P(E x , E γ ) matrix) in a light-ion reaction is obtained for 56,57 Fe isotopes using a subtraction method. By factorizing the P(E x , E γ ) matrix according to the Axel-Brink hypothesis the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function (RSF) in 56,57 Fe are extracted simultaneously. A step structure is observed in the level density for both isotopes, and is interpreted as the breaking of Cooper pairs. The RSFs for 56,57 Fe reveal an anomalous enhancement at low γ-ray energies

  4. Experimental study of the X-ray spectra optimization for computed radiography mammography systems; Investigacao experimental da otimizacao do espectro de raios X em sistemas de mamografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomal, Alessandra, E-mail: atomal@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Cunha, Diego M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Nogueira, Maria S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gaspar, Fabio [Vigilancia Sanitaria, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Poletti, Martin E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica

    2013-12-15

    Digital mammography is replacing screen-film mammography due to several advantages of digital receptors. The use of Computed Radiography (CR) mammography systems has been considered an alternative to achieve digital images with a low cost. Besides, the optimization of the X-ray spectrum, characterized by the anode/filter combination and tube potential, is an important step in order to improve the image quality with the lower dose to the breast. In this work, we investigated the optimal X-ray spectra using a figure of merit for two mammography equipment: Senographe DMR (General Electric Medical Systems) and Mammomat 3000 Nova (Siemens), both using an image plate Kodak EHR-M2 (Kodak DirectView). A PMMA phantom, simulating breast with thicknesses of 5 cm, was used. The anode/filter combinations evaluated were: Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh and Rh/Al for the Senographe system, and Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, W/Rh for the Mammomat system, for all the intervals of tube potential range from 24 to 35 kVp. Results demonstrate that the higher values of FOM were achieved with the Rh/Rh at 29 kVp and Rh/Al at 26 kVp for the Senographe system, and for the W/Rh at 28 kVp in the Mammomat one. The reduction in the dose associated with the optimum spectra was 13 and 26% for the Senographe and Mammomat systems, respectively. Finally, our results suggest that anode/filter combinations of more energetic spectra than the standard Mo/Mo combination are recommended for thicker breast, in order to reduce the breast dose levels. (author)

  5. Carbon X-ray absorption spectra of fluoroethenes and acetone: a study at the coupled cluster, density functional, and static-exchange levels of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Thomas; Coriani, Sonia; Christiansen, Ove; Norman, Patrick

    2013-03-28

    Near carbon K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectra of a series of fluorine-substituted ethenes and acetone have been studied using coupled cluster and density functional theory (DFT) polarization propagator methods, as well as the static-exchange (STEX) approach. With the complex polarization propagator (CPP) implemented in coupled cluster theory, relaxation effects following the excitation of core electrons are accounted for in terms of electron correlation, enabling a systematic convergence of these effects with respect to electron excitations in the cluster operator. Coupled cluster results have been used as benchmarks for the assessment of propagator methods in DFT as well as the state-specific static-exchange approach. Calculations on ethene and 1,1-difluoroethene illustrate the possibility of using nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) with additional effects of electron correlation and relativity added as scalar shifts in energetics. It has been demonstrated that CPP spectra obtained with coupled cluster singles and approximate doubles (CC2), CCSD, and DFT (with a Coulomb attenuated exchange-correlation functional) yield excellent predictions of chemical shifts for vinylfluoride, 1,1-difluoroethene, trifluoroethene, as well as good spectral features for acetone in the case of CCSD and DFT. Following this, CPP-DFT is considered to be a viable option for the calculation of X-ray absorption spectra of larger π-conjugated systems, and CC2 is deemed applicable for chemical shifts but not for studies of fine structure features. The CCSD method as well as the more approximate CC2 method are shown to yield spectral features relating to π∗-resonances in good agreement with experiment, not only for the aforementioned molecules but also for ethene, cis-1,2-difluoroethene, and tetrafluoroethene. The STEX approach is shown to underestimate π∗-peak separations due to spectral compressions, a characteristic which is inherent to this

  6. Comparison of various molecular forms of bovine trypsin: Correlation of infrared spectra with X-ray crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestrelski, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City Univ. of New York (USA)); Byler, D.M. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Liebman, M.N. (AMOCO Technology Corporation, Naperville, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is a valuable method for the study of protein conformation in solution primarily because of the sensitivity to conformation of the amide I band (1700-1620 cm{sup {minus}1}) which arises from the backbone C{double bond}O stretching vibration. Combined with resolution-enhancement techniques such as derivative spectroscopy and self-deconvolution, plus the application of iterative curve-fitting techniques, this method provides a wealth of information concerning protein secondary structure. Further extraction of conformational information from the amide I band is dependent upon discerning the correlations between specific conformation types and component bands in the amide I region. In this paper the authors report spectra-structure correlations derived from conformational perturbations in bovine trypsin which arise from autolytic processing, zymogen activation, and active-site inhibition. IR spectra were collected for the single-chain ({beta}-trypsin) and once-cleaved, double-chain ({alpha}-trypsin) forms as well as at various times during the course of autolysis and also for zymogen, trypsinogen, and {beta}-trypsin inhibited with diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Spectral differences among the various molecular forms were interpreted in light of previous biochemical studies of autolysis and the known three-dimensional structures of the zymogen, the active enzyme, and the DIP-inhibited form. The spectroscopic results from these proteins in D{sub 2}O imply that certain loop structures may absorb in the region of 1655 cm{sup {minus}1}. They estimate that this approach to data analysis and interpretation is sensitive to changes of 0.01 unit or less in the relative integrated intensities of component bands in spectra whose peaks are well resolved.

  7. Correlations between variations in solar EUV and soft X-ray irradiance and photoelectron energy spectra observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-11-01

    extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F10.7 index currently used.

  8. Correlations Between Variations in Solar EUV and Soft X-Ray Irradiance and Photoelectron Energy Spectra Observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F(10.7) index currently used.

  9. A Test of Thick-Target Nonuniform Ionization as an Explanation for Breaks in Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, gordon; Dennis Brian R.; Tolbert, Anne K.; Schwartz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Solar nonthermal hard X-ray (HXR) flare spectra often cannot be fitted by a single power law, but rather require a downward break in the photon spectrum. A possible explanation for this spectral break is nonuniform ionization in the emission region. We have developed a computer code to calculate the photon spectrum from electrons with a power-law distribution injected into a thick-target in which the ionization decreases linearly from 100% to zero. We use the bremsstrahlung cross-section from Haug (1997), which closely approximates the full relativistic Bethe-Heitler cross-section, and compare photon spectra computed from this model with those obtained by Kontar, Brown and McArthur (2002), who used a step-function ionization model and the Kramers approximation to the cross-section. We find that for HXR spectra from a target with nonuniform ionization, the difference (Delta-gamma) between the power-law indexes above and below the break has an upper limit between approx.0.2 and 0.7 that depends on the power-law index delta of the injected electron distribution. A broken power-law spectrum with a. higher value of Delta-gamma cannot result from nonuniform ionization alone. The model is applied to spectra obtained around the peak times of 20 flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI from 2002 to 2004 to determine whether thick-target nonuniform ionization can explain the measured spectral breaks. A Monte Carlo method is used to determine the uncertainties of the best-fit parameters, especially on Delta-gamma. We find that 15 of the 20 flare spectra require a downward spectral break and that at least 6 of these could not be explained by nonuniform ionization alone because they had values of Delta-gamma with less than a 2.5% probability of being consistent with the computed upper limits from the model. The remaining 9 flare spectra, based on this criterion, are consistent with the nonuniform ionization model.

  10. A computer program for automatic gamma-ray spectra analysis with isotope identification for the purpose of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, H.; Dauk, J.

    1974-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for a PDP-9 computer, with 16K storage capacity, is developed performing automatic analysis of complex gamma-spectra, taken with Ge/Li/ detectors. It searches for full energy peaks and evaluates the peak areas. The program features and automatically performed isotope identifiaction. It is written in such a flexible manner that after reactor irradiation, spectra from samples of any composition can be evaluated for activation analysis. The peak search rutin is based on the following criteria: the counting rate has to increase for two succesive channels; and the amplitude of the corresponding maximum has to be greater than/or equal to F 1 times the statistical error of the counting rate in the valley just before the maximum. In order to detect superimposed peaks, it is assumed that the dependence of FWHM on channel number is roughly approximated by a linear function, and the actual and''theoretical''FWHM values are compared. To determine the net peak area a Gaussian based function is fitted to each peak. The isotope identification is based on the procedure developed by ADAMS and DAMS. (T.G.)

  11. The influence of mammographic X-ray spectra on absorbed energy distribution in breast: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is proposed for deriving absorbed energy and dose distribution in mammography utilizing a mathematical water-like phantom. The model was validated for its accuracy against experimental and published data. The main factor discriminating absorbed energy distribution characteristics among different mammographic techniques was considered the X-ray spectrum. The absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom was investigated via percentage depth dose and isodose curves. The influence of the factors affecting X-ray spectrum (tube voltage, anode material, filter material and thickness) on absorbed energy distribution was examined. The hardness of the beam, due to increase of tube voltage or filtration, was found to be the major factor affecting absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom. In general, Mo and W anode systems demonstrated superior dosimetric characteristics against those of W-Mo or Rh. The model presented can be used for estimating absolute and relative breast dose values and their spatial distributions

  12. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations

  13. Influence of electric gas discharge to x-ray spectra on composite varistor based on ZnO-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahadzade, Sh.M.

    2016-01-01

    In work the X-ray spectrum of the composite resistors before and after being subjected to an electric discharge is carried out. It is found that the effect of electrical discharge on the samples greatly influences on the intensity of the diffraction reflexes. It was revealed that, the intensity of the reflections increases in dependence on the percentage of filler content in the case of samples exposed to electric discharge.

  14. Electronic states in Li/sub c/Mg/sub l-c/ alloys: soft x-ray emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, G.M.; Tagle, J.A.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1980-01-01

    A first principles theory is developed for Li-Mg alloy systems which avoids the use of pseudo-potentials and, more importantly, low-order perturbation theory and which can be checked quantitatively against detailed probes of the electronic structure such as soft x-ray spectroscopy. These calculations can then be used as a base against which the psuedo-potential methods can, in the future, be checked

  15. Structure of X-ray photoelectron spectra of low-energy and core electrons of Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the results of an X-ray photo electron spectroscopy of lanthanide ortho-metoxybenzoates Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3, where Ln represents lanthanides La through Lu except for Pm and C6H4OCH3COO- - residuum of ortho-metoxybenzoic acid. The core and outer electron X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectra in the binding energy range of 0-1250 eV were shown to exhibit a complex, fine structure. The said structure was established due to the outer (0-15 eV binding energy and inner (15-50 eV binding energy valence molecular orbital from the filled Ln5p and O2s atomic shells multiple splitting, many-body perturbation, dynamic effect, etc. The mechanisms of such a fine structure formation were shown to manifest different probabilities in the spectrum of a certain electronic shell. There fore, the fine X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure resulting from a certain mechanism can be interpreted and its quantitative parameters related to the physical and chemical properties of the studied com pounds (degree of delocalization and participation of Ln4f electrons in the chemical bond, electronic configuration and oxidation states, density of uncoupled electrons on paramagnetic ions, degree of participation of the low binding energy filled electronic shells of lanthanide and ligands information of the outer and in nervalence molecular orbitals, lanthanide close environment structure in amorphous materials, etc.

  16. Reconstruction of energetic electron spectra in the upper atmosphere: balloon observations of auroral X-rays coordinated with measurements from the Eiscat radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olafsson, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic electron precipitation in the auroral zone has been studied using coordinated auroral X-ray measurements from balloons, altitude profiles of the ionospheric electron density measured by the EISCAT radar above the balloons, and cosmic noise absorption data from the Scandinavian riometer network. The data were obtained during the coordinated EISCAT and balloon observation campaign in August 1984. A method by which an estimate of the energy spectrum of precipitating energetic electrons can be obtained from balloon measurements of bremsstrahlung X-rays is described. The energy spectral variation of both the X-ray fluxes and the primary precipitating electrons were examined for two precipitation events in the morning sector. As far as reasonably can be concluded from observations of magnetic activity in the auroral zone, and from the temporal development of the energy spectra, the two precipitation events can be interpreted in the frame of present models of energetic electron precipitation on the morning side of the auroral zone. 96 refs

  17. Measurement of high-dynamic range x-ray Thomson scattering spectra for the characterization of nano-plasmas at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Gorkhover, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Technische Universität, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Bachmann, B.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Pardini, T.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bucher, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Argonne National Lab, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Carron, S. [California Lutheran University, Thousand Oaks, California 91360 (United States); Coffee, R. N.; Fletcher, L. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Göde, S.; Krzywinski, J.; O’Grady, C. P.; Osipov, T.; Swiggers, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Drake, R. P. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ferguson, K. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization. Single shot x-ray Thomson scattering signals were recorded at 120 Hz using a crystal spectrometer in combination with a single-photon counting and energy-dispersive pnCCD. A precise pump laser collimation scheme enabled recording near background-free scattering spectra from Ar clusters with an unprecedented dynamic range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. Such measurements are important for understanding collective effects in laser-matter interactions on femtosecond time scales, opening new routes for the development of schemes for their ultrafast control.

  18. Pair Natural Orbital Restricted Open-Shell Configuration Interaction (PNO-ROCIS) Approach for Calculating X-ray Absorption Spectra of Large Chemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganas, Dimitrios; DeBeer, Serena; Neese, Frank

    2018-02-08

    In this work, the efficiency of first-principles calculations of X-ray absorption spectra of large chemical systems is drastically improved. The approach is based on the previously developed restricted open-shell configuration interaction singles (ROCIS) method and its parametrized version, based on a density functional theory (DFT) ground-state determinant ROCIS/DFT. The combination of the ROCIS or DFT/ROCIS methods with the well-known machinery of the pair natural orbitals (PNOs) leads to the new PNO-ROCIS and PNO-ROCIS/DFT variants. The PNO-ROCIS method can deliver calculated metal K-, L-, and M-edge XAS spectra orders of magnitude faster than ROCIS while maintaining an accuracy with calculated spectral parameters better than 1% relative to the original ROCIS method (referred to as canonical ROCIS). The method is of a black box character, as it does not require any user adjustments, while it scales quadratically with the system size. It is shown that for large systems, the size of the virtual molecular orbital (MO) space is reduced by more than 90% with respect to the canonical ROCIS method. This allows one to compute the X-ray absorption spectra of a variety of large "real-life" chemical systems featuring hundreds of atoms using a first-principles wave-function-based approach. Examples chosen from the fields of bioinorganic and solid-state chemistry include the Co K-edge XAS spectrum of aquacobalamin [H 2 OCbl] + , the Fe L-edge XAS spectrum of deoxymyoglobin (DMb), the Ti L-edge XAS spectrum of rutile TiO 2 , and the Fe M-edge spectrum of α-Fe 2 O 3 hematite. In the largest calculations presented here, molecules with more than 700 atoms and cluster models with more than 50 metal centers were employed. In all the studied cases, very good to excellent agreement with experiment is obtained. It will be shown that the PNO-ROCIS method provides an unprecedented performance of wave-function-based methods in the field of computational X-ray spectroscopy.

  19. Mathematical methods in the problem of reconstruction of hadron interaction characteristics and primary cosmic ray spectra at superhigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the mathematical methods used for analyzing the experimental data obtained in investigations of cosmic rays of superhigh energies (10 14 -10 19 eV). The analysis is carried out on the basis of the direct problem solution, i.e. calculation of the characteristics of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade showers developed in the atmosphere with regard to the specific features of experimental devices. The analytical and numerical metods for solving equations describing shower development, as well as simulation of cascade processes by the Monte Carlo method are applied herein

  20. Hydrogen isotope effect on muonic x-ray spectra of (CH2)/sub x/ and H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Knight, J.D.; Orth, C.J.; Schillaci, M.E.; Naumann, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    We have measured the muonic x-ray intensity patterns of C in (CH 2 )/sub x/ and (CD 2 )/sub x/ and of O in H 2 O and D 2 O. In both cases the relative intensities of the higher Lyman series members are significantly lower in the deuterium compounds, indicating that the initial angular momentum distribution of the muons captured on C and O is weighted to higher l states compared to the normal hydrogen compounds. This isotope effect has not been predicted by any model of negative-meson capture

  1. Core-level spectra and binding energies of transition metal nitrides by non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy through capping layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greczynski, G.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • First non-destructive measurements of XPS core level binding energies for group IVb-VIb transition metal nitrides are presented. • All films are grown under the same conditions and analyzed in the same instrument, providing a useful reference for future XPS studies. • Extracted core level BE values are more reliable than those obtained from sputter-cleaned N-deficient surfaces. • Comparison to Ar+-etched surfaces reveals that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer. • The N/metal concentration ratios from capped samples are found to be 25-90% higher than those from the corresponding ion-etched surfaces. - Abstract: We present the first measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE:s) for the widely-applicable group IVb-VIb polycrystalline transition metal nitrides (TMN’s) TiN, VN, CrN, ZrN, NbN, MoN, HfN, TaN, and WN as well as AlN and SiN, which are common components in the TMN-based alloy systems. Nitride thin film samples were grown at 400 °C by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets in Ar/N 2 atmosphere. For XPS measurements, layers are either (i) Ar + ion-etched to remove surface oxides resulting from the air exposure during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, or (ii) in situ capped with a few nm thick Cr or W overlayers in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument. Film elemental composition and phase content is thoroughly characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and x-ray diffraction. High energy resolution core level XPS spectra acquired with monochromatic Al Kα radiation on the ISO-calibrated instrument reveal that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer that substantially affects the extracted binding energy values. These

  2. Core-level spectra and binding energies of transition metal nitrides by non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy through capping layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G., E-mail: grzgr@ifm.liu.se [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Primetzhofer, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Lu, J.; Hultman, L. [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • First non-destructive measurements of XPS core level binding energies for group IVb-VIb transition metal nitrides are presented. • All films are grown under the same conditions and analyzed in the same instrument, providing a useful reference for future XPS studies. • Extracted core level BE values are more reliable than those obtained from sputter-cleaned N-deficient surfaces. • Comparison to Ar+-etched surfaces reveals that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer. • The N/metal concentration ratios from capped samples are found to be 25-90% higher than those from the corresponding ion-etched surfaces. - Abstract: We present the first measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE:s) for the widely-applicable group IVb-VIb polycrystalline transition metal nitrides (TMN’s) TiN, VN, CrN, ZrN, NbN, MoN, HfN, TaN, and WN as well as AlN and SiN, which are common components in the TMN-based alloy systems. Nitride thin film samples were grown at 400 °C by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets in Ar/N{sub 2} atmosphere. For XPS measurements, layers are either (i) Ar{sup +} ion-etched to remove surface oxides resulting from the air exposure during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, or (ii) in situ capped with a few nm thick Cr or W overlayers in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument. Film elemental composition and phase content is thoroughly characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and x-ray diffraction. High energy resolution core level XPS spectra acquired with monochromatic Al Kα radiation on the ISO-calibrated instrument reveal that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer that substantially affects the extracted binding energy

  3. The MIT/OSO 7 catalog of X-ray sources - Intensities, spectra, and long-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, T. H.; Laird, F. N.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Sprott, G. F.; Li, F. K.; Bradt, H. V.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Schnopper, H. W.; Winkler, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the observations of the cosmic X-ray sky performed by the MIT 1-40-keV X-ray detectors on OSO 7 between October 1971 and May 1973. Specifically, mean intensities or upper limits of all third Uhuru or OSO 7 cataloged sources (185 sources) in the 3-10-keV range are computed. For those sources for which a statistically significant (greater than 20) intensity was found in the 3-10-keV band (138 sources), further intensity determinations were made in the 1-15-keV, 1-6-keV, and 15-40-keV energy bands. Graphs and other simple techniques are provided to aid the user in converting the observed counting rates to convenient units and in determining spectral parameters. Long-term light curves (counting rates in one or more energy bands as a function of time) are plotted for 86 of the brighter sources.

  4. MIT/OSO 7 catalog of x-ray sources: intensities, spectra, and long-term variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Winkler, P.F.; Laird, F.N.; Clark, G.W.; Hearn, D.R.; Sprott, G.F.; Li, F.K.; Bradt, H.V.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the observations of the cosmic X-ray sky performed by the MIT 1--40 KeV X-ray detectors on the OSO 7 between 1971 October and 1973 May. Specifically, we have computed the mean intensities or upper limits of all third Uhuru or OSO 7 cataloged sources (185 sources) in the 3--10 KeV range. For those sources for which a statistically significant (>20) intensity was found in the 3--10 KeV band (138 sources), further intensity determinations were made in the 1--15 KeV, 1--6 KeV, and 15--40 KeV energy bands. We have provided graphs and other simple techniques to aid the user in converting the observed counting rates to convenient units and in determining spectral parameters. Finally, we have plotted long-term light curves (counting rates in one or more energy bands as a function of time) for 86 of the brighter sources

  5. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Prendergast, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles’ calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments

  6. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Shih, Orion; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles' calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments.

  7. Microwave imaging of a solar limb flare - Comparison of spectra and spatial geometry with hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Kundu, M. R.; Dennis, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A solar limb flare was mapped using the Very Large Array (VLA) together with hard X-ray (HXR) spectral and spatial observations of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Microwave flux records from 2.8 to 19.6 GHz were instrumental in determining the burst spectrum, which has a maximum at 10 GHz. The flux spectrum and area of the burst sources were used to determine the number of electrons producing gyrosynchrotron emission, magnetic field strength, and the energy distribution of gyrosynchrotron-emitting electrons. Applying the thick target model to the HXR spectrum, the number of high energy electrons responsible for the X-ray bursts was found to be 10 to the 36th, and the electron energy distribution was approximately E exp -5, significantly different from the parameters derived from the microwave observations. The HXR imaging observations exhibit some similiarities in size and structure o the first two burst sources mapped with the VLA. However, during the initial burst, the HXR source was single and lower in the corona than the double 6 cm source. The observations are explained in terms of a single loop with an isotropic high-energy electron distribution which produced the microwaves, and a larger beamed component which produced the HXR at the feet of the loop.

  8. Different effectiveness of hyperthermia with regard to fast electrons and X-rays with different energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader-Reichhardt, U.; Markus, B.

    1981-01-01

    The synergistic enhancement of the irradiation effect by mild (40.5 0 C) and strong (43 0 C) hyperthermia (TER = temperature enhancement ratio) was examined for different sparsely ionizing radiation qualities (15 MeV electrons in two irradiation depths corresponding to a relative depth dose of 100% and 30%, 200-kV and 29-kV-X-rays). Hypotetraploid ( 4n ) and diploid (2n), asynchronous, exponentially growing CHO fibroblasts were used as experimental subjects. The survival in the colony test was used as criterion to assess the effect. The experiments carried out with 4n cells showed that, for the two temperatures, the TER decreases with increasing ionization density and, when applying fast electrons producing an extremely sparse ionization in an irradiation depth of 100%, the TER shows a maximum increase as compared to the more densely ionizing radiation qualities. Already when mild hyperthermia is employed, fast electrons show a TER of 1.25 which rises to about 2.25 at 43 0 C. In case of 29-kV-X-rays, these values amount to 1 and 1.66 respectively. As to the 2n cells, the TER reaches here the double value and seems to be similarly dependent on the ionization density. (orig.) [de

  9. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shih, Orion [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Prendergast, David [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles’ calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments.

  10. Inner-shell X-ray line spectra of highly ionized titanium, chromium, iron and nickel and their application to laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemen, J.R.; Phillips, K.J.H.; Doschek, G.A.; Cowan, R.D.

    1986-06-01

    The intensities of X-ray lines due to inner-shell 1s-2p transitions in 0 I-, N I-, and C I-like ions of Ti XV-XVII, Cr XVII-XIX, Fe XIX-XXI, and Ni XXI-XXIII, seen in tokamak plasmas are calculated. The lines are assumed to be formed by dielectronic recombination and inner-shell excitation. The dielectronic rates were calculated using a suite of computer programs developed by one of the authors. The inner-shell contribution was estimated by van Regemorter's formula. The present calculations were applied to the problem of radial ion diffusion in tokamaks. Spectra were calculated by integrating along various lines-of-sight to simulate what might be observed by an actual spectrometer viewing a tokamak plasma. A method for determining the diffusion coefficient from tokamak observations is discussed. (author)

  11. Investigation of the properties of the flux and interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays by the method of local-muon-density spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A. G.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Kokoulin, R. P.; Mannocchi, G.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Chernov, D. V.; Shutenko, V. V.; Yashin, I. I.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying extensive air showers is considered. The method is based on the phenomenology of the localmuon density. It is shown that measurement ofmuon-density spectra at various zenith angles makes it possible to obtain information about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and interaction of cosmic rays over a broad range of energies (10 15 -10 18 eV) by using a single array of comparatively small size. The results obtained from a comparison of experimental data on muon bundles from the DECOR coordinate detector with the results of simulation performed under various assumptions on the properties of the primary flux and for various hadron-interaction models are presented, and possible versions of the interpretation of these results are discussed.

  12. Pyrimidine and halogenated pyrimidines near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra at C and N K-edges: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, P.; O'Keeffe, P.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L.; Feyer, V.; Plekan, O.; Prince, K. C.; Zhang, W.; Carravetta, V.

    2010-01-01

    The inner shell excitation of pyrimidine and some halogenated pyrimidines near the C and N K-edges has been investigated experimentally by near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and theoretically by density functional theory calculations. The selected targets, 5-Br-pyrimidine, 2-Br-pyrimidine, 2-Cl-pyrimidine, and 5-Br-2-Cl-pyrimidine, allow the effects of the functionalization of the pyrimidine ring to be studied either as a function of different halogen atoms bound to the same molecular site or as a function of the same halogen atom bound to different molecular sites. The results show that the individual characteristics of the different spectra of the substituted pyrimidines can be rationalized in terms of variations in electronic and geometrical structures of the molecule depending on the localization and the electronegativity of the substituent.

  13. Mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and measurement of x-ray energy spectra using based calcium phosphate biomaterials: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Z, M. A.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira, M. S.; Goncalves Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    In dentistry, alveolar bone regeneration procedures using based calcium phosphate biomaterials have been shown effective. However,there are not reports in the literature of studies the interaction of low energy radiation in these biomaterials used as attenuator and not being then allowed a comparison between the theoretical values and experimental.The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of radiation parameters of four dental biomaterials - BioOss, Cerasorb M Dental, Straumann Boneceramic and Osteogen for diagnostic radiology qualities. As a material and methods, the composition of the biomaterials was determined by the analytical techniques. The samples with 0.181 cm to 0,297 cm thickness were experimentally used as attenuators for the measurement of the transmitted X-rays spectra in X-ray equipment with 50 to 90 kV range by spectrometric system comprising the Cd Te detector. After this procedure, the mass attenuation coefficient, the effective atomic number were determined and compared between all the specimens analyzed, using the program WinXCOM in the range of 10 to 200 keV. In all strains examined observed that the energy spectrum of x-rays transmitted through the BioOss has the mean energy slightly smaller than the others biomaterials for close thickness. The μ/ρ and Z eff of the biomaterials showed its dependence on photon energy and atomic number of the elements of the material analyzed. It is concluded according to the methodology employed in this study that the measurements of x-ray spectrum, μ/ρ and Z eff using biomaterials as attenuators confirmed that the thickness, density, composition of the samples, the incident photon energy are factors that determine the characteristics of radiation in a tissue or equivalent material. (Author)

  14. Using a Hewlett-Packard minicomputer for the processing of gamma-ray spectra from neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main, P.L.; Hughes, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The system developed at the British Museum Research Laboratory for the examination of ancient ceramics by neutron activation analysis is described. The description covers the procedures followed for sample preparation, spectrum accumulation, and the subsequent analysis by computer to yield final concentrations of elements present in the samples. Spectra are accumulated using a 7000 series Ge(Li) detector attached to a Canberra model 8180 multi-channel analyser, and are transferred on-line to a Hewlett-Packard 1000 system computer running under the RTE IVB real-time operating system. Particular attention is given to the design of the computer programs, and how a series of smaller programs communicating via intermediate command files can overcome the problems of accommodating a large amount of program code on a minicomputer. This also results in great flexibility in how the processing is carried out. One of the programs described is an implementation of the peak-searching and fitting routines from the Naval Research Laboratory's program HYPERMET. (author)

  15. Model-independent implications of the e±, p-bar cosmic ray spectra on properties of Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, M.; Kadastik, M.; Raidal, M.; Strumia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account spins, we classify all two-body non-relativistic Dark Matter annihilation channels to the allowed polarization states of Standard Model particles, computing the energy spectra of the stable final-state particles relevant for indirect DM detection. We study the DM masses, annihilation channels and cross sections that can reproduce the PAMELA indications of an e + excess consistently with the PAMELA p-bar data and the ATIC/PPB-BETS e + +e - data. From the PAMELA data alone, two solutions emerge: (i) either the DM particles that annihilate into W,Z,h must be heavier than about 10 TeV or (ii) the DM must annihilate only into leptons. Thus in both cases a DM particle compatible with the PAMELA excess seems to have quite unexpected properties. The solution (ii) implies a peak in the e + +e - energy spectrum, which, indeed, seems to appear in the ATIC/PPB-BETS data around 700 GeV. If upcoming data from ATIC-4 and GLAST confirm this feature, this would point to a O(1) TeV DM annihilating only into leptons. Otherwise the solution (i) would be favored. We comment on the implications of these results for DM models, direct DM detection and colliders as well as on the possibility of an astrophysical origin of the excess

  16. Predicting Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectra with the Spin-Free Exact-Two-Component Hamiltonian and Orthogonality Constrained Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prakash; Derricotte, Wallace D; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2016-01-12

    Orthogonality constrained density functional theory (OCDFT) provides near-edge X-ray absorption (NEXAS) spectra of first-row elements within one electronvolt from experimental values. However, with increasing atomic number, scalar relativistic effects become the dominant source of error in a nonrelativistic OCDFT treatment of core-valence excitations. In this work we report a novel implementation of the spin-free exact-two-component (X2C) one-electron treatment of scalar relativistic effects and its combination with a recently developed OCDFT approach to compute a manifold of core-valence excited states. The inclusion of scalar relativistic effects in OCDFT reduces the mean absolute error of second-row elements core-valence excitations from 10.3 to 2.3 eV. For all the excitations considered, the results from X2C calculations are also found to be in excellent agreement with those from low-order spin-free Douglas-Kroll-Hess relativistic Hamiltonians. The X2C-OCDFT NEXAS spectra of three organotitanium complexes (TiCl4, TiCpCl3, TiCp2Cl2) are in very good agreement with unshifted experimental results and show a maximum absolute error of 5-6 eV. In addition, a decomposition of the total transition dipole moment into partial atomic contributions is proposed and applied to analyze the nature of the Ti pre-edge transitions in the three organotitanium complexes.

  17. $\\gamma$-ray energy spectra and multiplicities from the neutron-induced fission of $^{235}$U using STEFF

    CERN Document Server

    An experiment is proposed to use the STEFF spectrometer at n_TOF to study fragment $\\gamma$-correlations following the neutron-induced fission of $^{235}$U. The STEFF array of 12 NaI detectors will allow measurements of the single $\\gamma$-energy, the $\\gamma$ multiplicity, and the summed $\\gamma$energy distributions as a function of the mass and charge split, and deduced excitation energy in the fission event. These data will be used to study the origin of fission-fragment angular momenta, examining angular distribution eects as a function of incident neutron energy. The principal application of this work is in meeting the NEA high-priority request for improved $\\gamma$ray data from $^{235}$U(n; F). To improve the detection rate and expand the range of detection angles, STEFF will be modied to include two new ssion-fragment detectors each at 45 to the beam direction.

  18. Characterizing high energy spectra of NIF ignition Hohlraums using a differentially filtered high energy multipinhole x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Dewald, E D; Glenzer, S; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; MacGowan, B J; Maddox, B R; Milovich, J L; Prasad, R R; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Thomas, C A

    2010-10-01

    Understanding hot electron distributions generated inside Hohlraums is important to the national ignition campaign for controlling implosion symmetry and sources of preheat. While direct imaging of hot electrons is difficult, their spatial distribution and spectrum can be deduced by detecting high energy x-rays generated as they interact with target materials. We used an array of 18 pinholes with four independent filter combinations to image entire Hohlraums with a magnification of 0.87× during the Hohlraum energetics campaign on NIF. Comparing our results with Hohlraum simulations indicates that the characteristic 10-40 keV hot electrons are mainly generated from backscattered laser-plasma interactions rather than from Hohlraum hydrodynamics.

  19. Effects of Cu stress on maize seedlings using X-ray energy spectrum and FTIR spectra methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Lin; Fu Zhaolin; Qiao Chuanying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Cu 2+ stress on maize seedlings by using scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy spectrum and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry were investigated, and antioxidative enzymes activities such as SOD, CAT, POD, APX were measured. Results showed that, with the increasing of Cu concentration, the content of chlorophyll decreased, and antioxidative enzyme activities increased at first and then decreased at higher concentration stress. High concentration Cu 2+ treatment twisted the cells' shape and increased copper content on leaf surface, and absorption of other nutrients were also affected. The result of FTIR-ATR analysis showed that the organic content of leaf were changed by Cu 2+ stress. (authors)

  20. X-ray spectra, chemical bonding, and electron structure of ScM2Si2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherba, I.D.; Kotur, B.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    In a study of the interaction of the components in the ternary systems Sc-M-Si (where M is a 3d transition metal) it was established that there are compounds of the empirical formula ScM 2 Si 2 (M = Fe, Co, Ni). They crystallize in two structural types, HfFe 2 Si 2 (the compound ScFe 2 Si 2 ) and CeGa 2 Al 2 (ScCo 2 Si 2 and ScNi 2 Si 2 ) (ref. 1), leading to different coordination environment of the atoms in the structures of the compounds. With the aim of investigating the electron structure and the type ofin these compounds, they authors made a systematic x-ray spectral investigation with simultaneous analysis of the crystal structures of ScM 2 Si 2