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Sample records for ray film radiography

  1. Discussion of ALTERNATIVE systems for industrial radiography using X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaessen B.; Perdieus, P.; Proegler, H.

    1995-01-01

    Industrial radiography using X-ray films is an established method of NDE. In the last few years, ''novel developments'' have been put on the market as ''alternatives'' to conventional radiography, as e.g. fluorescent screen/film systems, cost-saving films, wide-latitude films, and storage phosphor films. AGFA as a market leader in the sector of X-ray films for industrial radiography has been testing these alternatives, taking into account image quality, sensitivity, handling in terms of portability, reliability, and the essential functions for NDE: (1) Detection of X-radiation; (2) conversion to optical image; (3) evaluation and validation; (4) documentation and archivation. The advantages and drawbacks, the information transfer capabilities, and the performance from the applications point of view are discussed primarily for fluorescent screen/film systems and storage phophor systems. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koedooder, C.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects of dose reduction by x-ray beam filtration in screen-film radiography. The thesis deals mainly with dose reduction under the constraint of constant image quality; an analytical approach is chosen. Therefore, part of the thesis deals with the development of an algorithm to calculate patient dose and exposure for different filter materials and different tube load conditions, under the constraint of constant contrast and constant optical density. (Auth.)

  3. Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  11. Quality study of portal images acquired by computed radiography and screen-film system under megavoltage ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Guoquan; Jin Xiance; Wu Shixiu; Xie Congying; Zhang Li; Yu Jianyi; Li Yueqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of the portal images acquired by computed radiography (CR) system and conventional screen-film system, respectively. Methods: Imaging plates (IP) and X-ray films ora home-devised lead phantom with a leakage of 6.45% were acquired, and modulation transfer function (MTF) curves of the both images were measured using edge method. Portal images of 40 nasopharyngeal cancer patients were acquired by IP and screen-film system respectively. Two doctors with similar experience evaluated the damage degree of petrosal bone, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of CR images and general images were drawn according to two doctors evaluation results. Results: The identification frequency of CR system and screen-film system were 1.159 and 0.806 Lp/mm respectively. For doctor one, the area under ROC curve of CR images and general images were 0.802 and 0.742 respectively. For doctor two, the area under ROC curve of CR images and general images were 0.751 and 0.600 respectively. The MTF curve and ROC curve of CR are both better than those of screen-film system. Conclusion: The image quality of CR portal imaging is much better than that of screen-film system. The utility of CR in linear accelerator for portal imaging is promising in clinic. (authors)

  12. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  13. Assessment of dose to patients undergoing computed radiography and film screen x-ray examinations in some Khartoum Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Khair, Haiffa Daffa Allah Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Medical ionizing radiation sources give by far the largest contribution to the population dose from man made sources and most of the contribution comes from diagnostic x-rays. The optimization principle of radiation protection requires the minimization of radiation dose to patients while acquiring diagnostic quality images in radiology. In radiography, the extent of patient dose reduction is limited by the characteristics of the system used and the quality (or penetrating ability) of the x-ray beam. In this study, the entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA Ks) to patients undergoing 7 selected x-ray examinations were estimated. The study was conducted in eight hospitals in Khartoum State, comprising nine x-ray units and a total of 1200 patients were involved. Four of the hospitals involved in this study use computed radiography (CR) technology while the other four use film screen (FS) technology. The selected examinations were, abdomen (AP), chest (PA), pelvis (AP), skull (AP/PA), skull (LAT), thoracic spine (AP) and thoracic spine (LAT). The entrance surface air kerma was calculated by two methods, utilizing software CAL Dose X-3.5 and a mathematical model. Average ESAK values calculated using the two methods for hospitals using (CR) technology in mGy were 2.99 and 2.98, 0.34 and 0.31, 2.79 and 2.58, 0.76 and 0.71, 0.94 and 0.79, 3.4 and 3,2 and 5.9 and 5.03, for the above mentioned selected investigations respectively. And average ESAK values calculated using two methods for hospital using FS technology in mGy were found 4.98 and 4.19, 0.37 and 0.34, 4.15 and 3.95, 2.2 and 2. 1.3 and 1.1, 3.9 and 3.9, 9.4 and 8.3 for the above mentioned selected investigations respectively. Average ESAK values obtained by two methods for FS were higher values than the obtained by CR by 37 and 29%, 50 and 25%, 8%, 32 and 34%, 65 and 64%, 27 and 28%, 12% and 73% and 39% for the above mentioned selected investigations, respectively. This shows that CR technique allows diagnostically

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  17. Point defects in lithium fluoride films for micro-radiography, X-ray microscopy and photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F.; Flora, F.; Marolo, T.; Montereali, R.M.; Baldacchini, G. [ENEA, UTS Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, UTS Tecnologie Fisiche Avanzate, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00060 Santa Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Reale, L. [Universita dell' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Point defects in lithium fluoride (LiF) have recently attracted renewed attention due the exciting results obtained in the realisation of miniaturised optical devices. Among light-emitting materials, LiF is of particular interest because it is almost not hygroscopic and can host, even at room temperature, stable color centers (CCs) that emit light in the visible and in the near infrared spectral range under optical excitation. The increasing demand for low-dimensionality photonic devices imposes the use of advanced irradiation methods for producing luminescent structures with high spatial resolution. An innovative irradiation technique to produce luminescent CCs in LiF crystals and films by using an extreme ultra-violet and soft X-ray laser-plasma source will be presented. This technique is capable to induce colored patterns with submicrometric spatial resolution on large areas in a short exposure time as compared with other irradiation methods. Luminescent regular arrays produced by this irradiation technique will be shown. Recently, the idea of using a LiF film as image detector for X-ray microscopy and micro-radiography based on optically-stimulated luminescence from CCs has been developed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  20. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  3. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  7. Radiography of X-ray in coral reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoli Soembogo

    2016-01-01

    The application of X-ray radiography has been developed and it is already widely used in metal materials such as metal steel and carbon steel. This radiography using a source of radiation from X-ray machines. This research attempts to use the application of digital radiography X-ray source and use scanner Epson V700 positive films media for digitization results of conventional radiographic films on coral reefs. It has been testing radiography using Fuji film 100 to get the contrast medium, the sensitivity of the medium and image quality is good, Single Wall Single Image method , and using the media scanner films positive and X-ray sources, observation parameter are density radiographic film and the defect shape. Radiography uses Fuji film 100 to obtain a good contrast medium, good medium sensitivity and good quality image. Radiography of X-ray on coral reefs aims to find defects or discontinuities coral reefs such as porosity which would interfere with the determination of the age of the coral reefs. X-ray exposure time is 1 seconds for a thickness of 5.45 mm and 5.60 mm coral reefs by using a high voltage X-ray machine Rigaku of 130 kV. The result of the positive film scanner in the form of digital radiography that allows for the transfer of digital data or digital computerized data storage. The test results of radiographic on coral reefs with Single Wall Single Image method obtained radiographic film density parameter for Fuji film 100 on coral reefs No. 2 are 2.55; 2.53; 2.59 and on coral reefs No. 4 are 2.62; 2.65; 2.66, unsharpness geometric of radiographic results obtained 0.022 mm and 0.023 mm, sensitivity radiography are 1.648% and 1.604%. No defect found of Porosity that is significant. Status is acceptable for Fuji film 100, because the density of the film is in conformity with the standards referred to. Status of coral reefs No. 2 and No. 4 can be accepted, because it has conformed with the standards referred. (author)

  8. Use of fluorescent-metal intensifying screens with RT-type films for X-ray radiography using pulse devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgovskij, L.Ya.; Khakim'yanov, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on characteristics of combination of fluorescent-metal Kyokko SMP-308 (Japan) and RCF (Agfa-Gevert) screens with domestic X-ray RT-1, RT-2, RT-5 films. Pulse X-ray MIRA-3D and NORA devices at 200 kV voltage amplitude in X-ray tube were used as radiation source. Testing was conducted for steel samples of 5-40 mm thickness. Comparative exposures for various film combinations with fluorescent-metal screens, fluorescent VP-2 screens and lead foils of 27 μm thickness were determined at that. It is shown that fluorescent-metal screens can be successfully applied with domestic X-ray technical films. They enable to decrease exposure by one order with insignificant deterioration of sensitivity. It is important for testing of pipeline welds

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  10. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  11. Optical compensation device for chest film radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert G.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.; DeForest, Sherman E.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hier, Richard G.

    1990-07-01

    Although chest radiography is the most commonly performed radiographic examination and one of the most valuable and cost-effective studies in medicine it suffers from relatively high error rates in both missing pathology and false positive interpretations. Detectability of lung nodules and other structures in underpenetrated regions of the chest film can be improved by both exposure and optical compensation but current compensation systems require major capital cost or a significant change in normal clinical practice. A new optical compensation system called the " Intelligent X-Ray Illuminator" (IXI) automatically and virtually instantaneously generates a patient-specific optical unsharp mask that is projected directly on a radiograph. When a radiograph is placed on the IXI which looks much like a conventional viewbox it acquires a low-resolution electronic image of this film from which the film transmission is derived. The transmission information is inverted and blurred in an image processor to form an unsharp mask which is fed into a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed between a light source and the radiograph. The SLM tailors the viewbox luminance by decreasing illumination to underexposed (i. e. transmissive) areas of the radiograph presenting the observer with an optically unsharp-masked image. The IXI uses the original radiograph and will allow it to be viewed on demand with conventional (uniform illumination. Potentially the IXI could introduce the known beneficial aspects of optical unsharp masking into radiology at low capital

  12. Diagnostic value of digital radiography compared to conventional screen-film system combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Zaehringer, M.; Lackner, K.

    1997-01-01

    Digital projection radiography provides digital data in X-ray examinations, which used to be carried out by examinations screen-film system combinations. The technological basis and clinical performances of digital luminescent radiography (DLR) and digital radiography are reviewed. Digital projection radiography does not allow to reduce selenium exposure significantly, compared to screen-film system combinations. Digital luminescent radiography can be used for the entire spectrum of analogous projection radiography the only exception being extremely subtile structural changes. The clinical experiences with digital selenium radiography achieved so far in chest X-rays are promising and the technique is expected to be increasing used in other anatomic regions as well. (orig.) [de

  13. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Esra Abdalrhman Dfaalla

    2013-06-01

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  14. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  15. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  16. Nuclear Malaysia Plasma Focus Device as a X-ray Source For Radiography Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Azaman Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros

    2013-01-01

    A 3.375 kJ plasma focus is designed to operate at 13.5 kV for the purpose of studying x-ray source for radiography in Argon discharge. X-rays is detected by using x-ray film from the mammography radiographic plate. The feasibility of the plasma focus as a high intensity flash x-ray source for good contrast in radiography image is presented. (author)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  18. Studies and applications of neutron radiography with film methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasushi

    1989-01-01

    Neutron radiography has been studied with film methods and applied to some industrial applications. The film methods include not only conventional silver-halide emulsion films, such as industrial, medical or soft X-ray ones, but also track-etch films and those for indirect methods. The characteristics of the film methods are analyzed and investigated with using various image converters, such as gadolinium metal foil and evaporation films, or some scintillation converters such as NE426. The sensitivities and MTFs for various sets of films and converters have been obtained, which gives a chart of the correlation between the appropriate exposure and resolving powers for them. From the chart, one can select some proper sets for the purpose and given conditions of neutron radiography facilities. The film methods have been applied to inspect very fine cracks in thick steel blocks and plates. It is also applied to observe nuclear fuel pellets or irradiated nuclear fuel pins. Furthermore, the film method has been used for neutron computed tomography. Very fine Eu-particles in TiO pellets, which diameters are nearly 300 micron, can be reconstructed by the neutron CT. The fine neutron CT will be useful for the inspection of Pu-particles in mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets for future advance nuclear reactors. (author)

  19. Digital computed radiography in industrial X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Onel, Y.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.

    2001-01-01

    Computed radiography is used for X-ray testing in many industrial applications. There are different systems depending on the application, e.g. fast systems for detection of material inhomogeneities and slower systems with higher local resolution for detection of cracks and fine details, e.g. in highly stressed areas or in welded seams. The method is more dynamic than film methods, and digital image processing is possible during testing [de

  20. Quality assurance in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    Non-destructive testing in the form of radiography is an inherent part of the manufacturing process. In the development stage - it helps locating physical discontinuities of the component and provides a feedback to specify suitable process, and balanced acceptance criteria, keeping in view the cost of manufacture and demands of specification and performance. In the manufacturing stage - it locates the discontinuities occurring at various stages of manufacture, ensuring timely intervention to prevent the production of scrap and/or rework and loss of energy. In the operation stage, it helps in-service and on-line monitoring of components and plants to avert and ensure planned minimum shutdowns

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  4. Film-screen digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenker, R.P.; Eger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent performance of the digital film-screen system as a receptor for projection radiographic data is discussed. An experimental system for obtaining high quality digital radiographic data by laser scanning radiographic films is described. This system is being used to evaluate the clinical utility of various digital image processing algorithms. Future plans include an investigation of quantitative analysis of projection radiographic data. Digital data obtained by film scanning can be used with digital image archiving and communications systems. (author)

  5. Computer radiography-X-ray with vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waitiki, C.

    2006-01-01

    Computer radiography describes an entire process of creating a digital image including acquiring, processing, presenting and managing the image data. the cassettes are special in that they use an imaging plate instead of films. the imaging plate is coated with storage phosphors which captures x-ray as they pass through the patient. the imaging plate is read with a bar code reader and the imaging plate number recorded in the computer. The cassette is then loaded in the reader unit where it is read using infra-red light which excites the particles on the plate which in turn illuminates and picked by photo-sensors which converts the signal into digital pulses. the pulses then run through a board which converts it into an image which is then displayed on the control console. The plate then runs through the erasure section where it is exposed to yellow light, which erases the plate. The IP is then put back in the cassette and locked and can be reused for the next episode

  6. Ecological and economical solutions for film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstboom, K.

    2004-01-01

    Film radiography may be perceived as technology with environmental concerns, involving the application of chemicals and the discharge of drained waters with high silver levels. Ecological legislation concerning silver content of the wash water differs from country to country. GE Inspection Technologies now offers industrial radiographers several ways to address regulatory limits silver in drained waters. First, two brand new film processors, the Agfa NDT Si and M eco, are introduced to the NDT market. Both machines are equipped with Cascade Fixing Technology, which reduces silver content in the wash water and increases the ability to comply with stricter discharge standards. Next the new eco Film System is presented. This system is based on the new machines, specially adapted films and carefully developed new chemicals. Eco stands for ecological and economic performance. The customer can now process films in a very short cycle, saving money while increasing its ability to comply with environmental limits on discharges of silver into drained waters. This paper will also address other means to reduce the silver freight in the wash water. Opportunities but most of all issues involved in the application of these technologies will be highlighted. Thus the presenter of this paper will demonstrate how film radiography responds to environmental concerns without causing extra financial burdens for the user. (author)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  1. Selenium-based digital radiography of the cervical spine. Comparison with screen-film radiography for the depiction of anatomic details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.; Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Link, T.M.; Lenzen, H.; Heindel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare selenium-based digital radiography with conventional screen-film radiography of the cervical spine. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study X-ray images of the cervical spine were obtained in 25 patients using selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography. All images were clinically indicated. Selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography were used in a randomized order. Four radiologists independently evaluated all 50 examinations for the visibility of 76 anatomic details according to a five-level confidence scale (1=not visible, 5=very good visibility). From the evaluation of these anatomic details scores for the upper and middle cervical spine, the cervicothoracic junction and the cervical soft tissues were calculated. The scores for selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography were compared using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: From a total of 15,200 observations (608 per patient) the following scores were calculated for selenium-based digital radiography and for screen-film radiography, respectively: Upper cervical spine 3.88 and 3.94; middle cervical spine 4.60 and 4.48; cervico-thoracic junction 3.64 and 2.62; cervical soft tissue 4.47 and 3.46. The differences between the last two scores were statistically significant (p [de

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  8. [Report based on fiscal 2000 diagnostic x-ray equipment questionnaire survey(conditions of radiography)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Matsuura, Takatoshi; Okuaki, Tomiyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Ide, Toshinori; Shinohara, Fuminori; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2002-08-01

    X-ray equipment has seen advances in inverters and the digitalization of reception systems. The X-ray Systems Study Group, in order to examine changes in the conditions of radiography, including pediatric radiography, variations in shortest irradiation time, and standardization of the conditions of radiography, carried out investigative research using a questionnaire survey that was sent to 400 facilities. The recovery rate was 33%. In terms of the reception system, half of the general radiography systems were using computed radiography (CR). Seventy percent of respondents used an intensifying screen and film(S EF)in stomach double-contrast radiography. About 80% used digital radiography (DR) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in aorta abdominalis angiography. At least 70% of high-voltage generators were of the inverter type. The conditions of radiography were not greatly influenced by changes in reception systems and X-ray equipment. Many pediatric radiographies were carried out by radiological technologists. We consider it useful to conduct such survey investigations.

  9. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  10. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 {mu}Gy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 {mu}Gy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  11. Skin entrance dose for digital and film radiography in Korean dental schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Sang; Choi, Kun Ho; Kim, Min Gyu; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare skin entrance dose of digital radiography with that of film radiography and to show the dose reduction achievement with digital systems at 11 dental schools in Korea. Forty six intraoral radiographic systems in 11 dental schools were included in this study. Digital sensors were used in 33 systems and film was used in 13 systems. Researchers and the volunteer visited 11 dental schools in Korea. Researchers asked the radiologic technician at each school to set the exposure parameters and aiming the x-ray tube for the peri apical view of the mandibular molar of the volunteer. The skin entrance doses were measured at the same exposure parameters and distance by the technician for each system with a dosimeter (Multi-O-Meter; Unifors instruments, Billdal, Sweden). The median dose was 491.2 μGy for digital radiography and 1,205.0 μGy for film radiography. The skin entrance dose in digital radiography was significantly lower than that of film radiography (p<0.05). Fifty-nine percent skin entrance dose reduction with digital peri apical radiography was achieved over the film radiography in Korean dental schools.

  12. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D.; Klose, K.J.; Grunewald, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with ... or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the proper position. A lead apron ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  10. Improving screen-film chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.; Baker, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally symmetric screens and double emulsion symmetric films with medium to wide latitutde are used for radiography of the chest. Beacuse of mismatch of transmitted exposure through the chest with limited latitude of the film, most of the dense areas of the chest are underexposed. Kodak's recent innovation of a unique asymmetry screen-film system (InSight) alleviates this problem. Our phantom measurement indicates that the InSight system offers wider recording range, and the flexible grid permits more positional latitude than conventional grids. Our five-year extensive clinical experience indicates that dense anatomic structures, such as mediastinum, retrocardiac and subdiaphragmatic, are more visible in the InSight system than in the conventional symmetric system. Similarly, a substantial improvement in image quality in portable chest imaging is realized by use of flexible grids because of scatter rejection and invisible grid lines. (author)

  11. Factors related to screen-film contact in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The relative importance of screen-film contact for industrial radiography is discussed, and the results are presented of an extensive field devaluation of a new type of vacuum prepacked film-screen combination

  12. Film-based dual energy radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrik, J. M.; Pelc, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray energy-difference images are obtained simultaneously by exposing a body to a broad energy spectrum X-ray beam while a radiographic film package is disposed between front and rear X-ray intensifying screens. The film package has two superimposed films with a light-opaque sheet between them. The front screen, on which the polyenergetic image beam emerging from the body is incident, is excited to luminescence by X-ray photons predominantly in one energy band and the rear screen is excited predominantly by photons in another band. The light opaque sheet preferably contains X-ray filter material for additional filtering of photons to increase the fraction of protons at said other band to which the rear screen is sensitive. A shadowgraph of a marker is formed on the film emulsions during X-ray exposure to aid in matching congruent picture elements on each film when the developed films are being read out to obtain signals corresponding to their intensities. Notches in the edges of the films and sheet serve as a code for indicating the type of screens with which the package can be used

  13. Report based on fiscal 2000 diagnostic X-ray equipment questionnaire survey. Conditions of radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Mitsuo [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Matsuura, Takatoshi [Sekishinkai Sayama Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Atsuko [Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, Tokyo (Japan); Ide, Toshinori [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Kajima Clinic; Shinohara, Fuminori [Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Second Hospital; Miyazaki, Shigeru [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital

    2002-08-01

    X-ray equipment has seen advances in inverters and the digitalization of reception systems. The X-ray Systems Study Group, in order to examine changes in the conditions of radiography, including pediatric radiography, variations in shortest irradiation time, and standardization of the conditions of radiography, carried out investigative research using a questionnaire survey that was sent to 400 facilities. The recovery rate was 33%. In terms of the reception system, half of the general radiography systems were using computed radiography (CR). Seventy percent of respondents used an intensifying screen and film (SEF) in stomach double-contrast radiography. About 80% used digital radiography (DR) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in aorta abdominalis angiography. At least 70% of high-voltage generators were of the inverter type. The conditions of radiography were not greatly influenced by changes in reception systems and X-ray equipment. Many pediatric radiographies were carried out by radiological technologists. We consider it useful to conduct such survey investigations. (author)

  14. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  15. Comparison of digital radiography and conventional film screen radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalender, W A; Huebener, K H

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of image quality, comprising spacial resolution and contrast, have been determined in the form of a contrast/detail diagram for a digital system (Topogram) and a film-screen system. The digital system was particularly examined concerning its contrast sensitivity in relation to quantum noise. The clinical implications of the comparison of the systems, where evaluated on chest X-rays of 250 patients. Despite lower image sharpness, the digital method is already able to produce equivalent or better diagnostic results in certain circumstances. The advantages and disadvantages of both systems are discussed in detail.

  16. A comparison of digital radiography and conventional film screen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalender, W.A.; Huebener, K.H.; Tuebingen Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Parameters of image quality, comprising spacial resolution and contrast, have been determined in the form of a contrast/detail diagram for a digital system (Topogram) and a film-screen system. The digital system was particularly examined concerning its contrast sensitivity in relation to quantum noise. The clinical implications of the comparison of the systems, where evaluated on chest X-rays of 250 patients. Despite lower image sharpness, the digital method is already able to produce equivalent or better diagnostic results in certain circumstances. The advantages and disadvantages of both systems are discussed in detail. (orig.) [de

  17. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G.

    2004-01-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  18. Inspection reliability comparison of digital radiography, film radiography and radioscopy for inspection of Inconel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, W.; Kidwell, C.; Warren, G. [Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group, Renton, Washington (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Digital Radiography offers the promise of economic and environmental advantages over traditional film based inspection. Boeing Commercial Aircraft Group has an on-going effort to evaluate this emerging radiographic method for production of aerospace hardware. Included in this effort was a program to evaluate the potential for utilizing amorphous silicon based digital radiography for the inspection of inconel weldments in engine ducting. For this particular program, probability of detection (POD) studies were conducted to compare the reliability of digital radiography with the existing production processes that utilize film radiography and image-intensifier based radioscopy. Cycle time studies were also conducted to determine the potential economic benefit for switching to the new process. The methodology and findings of this comparison are presented. (author)

  19. X-ray radiography inspection of core model of the CODEX AIT-2 facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasko, M.; Hozer, Z.; Maroti, L.; Windberg, P

    1999-01-01

    X-ray radiography is an advanced non-destructive technique to visualize and analyze the different damages of the investigated objects. An oxidation phenomena in severe accident was simulated by the CODEX AIT-2 test facility. The placement, the extension and features of the damages were discovered by radioscopy and film technique before cutting into slices the AIT-2 boundle. (author)

  20. Reproducible positioning in chest X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A device is described that can be used to ensure reproducibility in the positioning of the patient during X-ray radiography of the thorax. Signals are taken from an electrocardiographic monitor and from a device recording the respiratory cycle. Radiography is performed only when two preselected signals coincide

  1. Characteristics of sets of diffusion photographic materials for rapid X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Neduv, A.M.; Korolev, A.I.; Mirzoyan, I.N.; Chelnokov, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Peculiarities of application in X-ray radiography of roentgenographic films, roentgenographic paper, xeroroentgenographic plates and sets of diffusion photographic materials are considered. It is shown that the use of diffusion photographic materials for X-ray radiography permits to reduce the process labour consumption and to considerably reduce the time for the obtaining of a dry positive image and also to reduce the consumption of silver, but the image will preserve high information content. Selts of diffusion photographic materials are developed, which contain bromoiodosilver negative material with silver spraying of 2-3 g/m 3 and transparent positive material on Dacron basis. Prospects of application of sets of diffusion photographic materials in the practice of rapid X-ray radiography to solve the problems of industrial X-ray defectoscopy are panted out

  2. Comparison of the quality of the chest film between digital radiography and conventional high kV radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingsi; Cen Renli; Chen Ling; He Jianxun; Lin Hanfei

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality and usefulness of direct digital radiography system in roentgenogram of chest in clinical practice. Methods: 1000 cases of chest roentgenograms with digital radiography and high kV conventional radiography were selected for analysis by 3 senior radiologists. Results: 1. With digital radiography system, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 50.6%, grade B in 38.5%, grade C in 10.9%, and no waste film. 2. With conventional high kV radiography, the quality of chest film was assessed as grade A in 41.1%, grade B in 44.1%, grade C in 13.3%, and waste film in 1.5%. The direct digital radiography was statistically superior to the conventional high kV radiography. 3. The fine structure of the lungs could be revealed in 100.0% of chest roentgenogram with direct digital radiograph system, which was significantly higher than that acquired with the conventional high KV radiography (78.6%, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Direct digital radiography could provide the chest film with better quality than that with the conventional high kV radiography. The direct digital radiography system is easy to operate, fast in capturing imaging and could provide post-processing techniques, which will facilitate the accurate diagnosis of chest radiography

  3. Development of X-ray radiography examination technology by image processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Kim, Eun Ka [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    Because the dimension of nuclear fuel rods was measured with rapidity and accuracy by X-ray radiography examination, the set-up of image processing system which was composed of 979 CCD-L camera, image processing card and fluorescent lighting was carried out, and the image processing system enabled image processing to perform. The examination technology of X-ray radiography, which enabled dimension measurement of nuclear fuel rods to perform, was developed by image processing method. The result of dimension measurement of standard fuel rod by image processing method was 2% reduction in relative measuring error than that of X-ray radiography film, while the former was better by 100 {approx} 200 {mu}m in measuring accuracy than the latter. (author). 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  5. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polee, C; Chankow, N; Srisatit, S; Thong-Aram, D

    2015-01-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable. (paper)

  6. Feasibility study of gamma-ray medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M.; Maqsoud, Hamza A.; Mashat, Ahmad M.; Al-Mohr, Al-Sayed; Abdulwajid, Subhan

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the feasibility of using gamma-ray radiography in medical imaging. We will show that gamma-ray medical radiography has the potential to provide alternative diagnostic medical information to X-ray radiography. Approximately one Ci Am-241 radioactive source which emits mono-energetic 59.5 keV gamma rays was used. Several factors that influence the feasibility of this study were tested. They were the radiation source uniformity, image uniformity, and image quality parameters such as contrast, noise, and spatial resolution. In addition, several gamma-ray and X-ray images were acquired using humanoid phantoms. These images were recorded on computed radiography image receptors and displayed on a standard monitor. Visual assessments of these images were then conducted. The Am-241 radioactive source provided relatively uniform radiation exposure and images. Image noise and image contrast were mainly dependent on the exposure time and source size, whereas spatial resolution was dependent on source size and magnification factor. The gamma-ray humanoid phantom images were of lower quality than the X-ray images mainly due to the low radioactivity used and not enough exposure time. Nevertheless, the gamma-ray images displayed most of the main structures contained in the humanoid phantoms. Higher exposure rates and thus lower exposure times were estimated for different pure Am-241 source sizes that are hypothesized to provide high quality images similar to X-ray images. For instance, a 10 mm source size of pure Am-241 with 7 s exposure time should produce images similar in contrast and noise to X-ray images. This research paves the way for the production and usage of a highly radioactive Am-241 source with the potential to lead to the feasibility of acceptable quality medical gamma-ray radiography. - Highlights: ► Characterized the performance of gamma-ray radiography. ► Displayed medical images of humanoid phantoms using gamma radiography. ► Am-241

  7. Control of an X-ray cine radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, K.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes an X-ray cine radiography apparatus comprising an X-ray tube, an image intensifier for converting the X-rays transmitted through an object into a visual image and a cine camera for picking up the visual image, a photomultiplier detects the brightness of the visual image to produce a brightness signal and a potentiometer detects the actual tube voltage of said X-ray tube. (author)

  8. Detection unit for X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodova, B.; Hamouz, J.; Pavlicek, Z.; Jursova, L.; Pohanka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The detection field consists of a carrier accommodating detection elements with Umaplex light pipes connected to photomultipliers with level converters. The detection field and the photomultipliers are placed in a light-proof cover. The configuration improves the hygiene conditions of work with radiation. It makes possible the use of pulsed fluoroscopy instead of continuous radiography. (M.D.). 1 fig

  9. Constancy tests radiography X-ray devices with CR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdikova, M.; Zakova, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the changes in QAP (Quality Assurance Program) as consequence of digitalisation of medical facilities. Digitalisation brings many advantages - more comfort for personal use, images are easy achievable and transferable to workstation, fine quality images by postprocessing are easily achievable. But it must be taken into account that due to simplicity of image make it is sometimes taken more images then necessary .There are two possible ways of digitalisation in radiography: to exchange conventional developer machine by Computer Radiography (CR), that means to use CR reader and cassette with phosphor plate - un-direct digitalisation or to use special radiography X-ray devices with flat-panel detector -direct radiography. (authors)

  10. A method of detector correction for cosmic ray muon radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Zhao Ziran; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Wang Zhentian

    2008-01-01

    Cosmic ray muon radiography which has good penetrability and sensitivity to high-Z materials is an effective way for detecting shielded nuclear materials. The problem of data correction is one of the key points of muon radiography technique. Because of the influence of environmental background, environmental yawp and error of detectors, the raw data can not be used directly. If we used the raw data as the usable data to reconstruct without any corrections, it would turn up terrible artifacts. Based on the characteristics of the muon radiography system, aimed at the error of detectors, this paper proposes a method of detector correction. The simulation experiments demonstrate that this method can effectively correct the error produced by detectors. Therefore, we can say that it does a further step to let the technique of cosmic muon radiography into out real life. (authors)

  11. X-ray radiography equipment for patients in standing position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijder, J.G.N.

    1974-01-01

    X-ray radiography equipment suited for patients in standing position is described. The patient's body centre of mass is indicated by its vertical projection line appearing on the X-ray image. To that end, an X-ray absorbing wire is positioned through the centre of mass by means of an electrical signal acting on a servomotor and derived from the pressure on three non-colinear points in the foot plate through an analogue computer

  12. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  13. Development of cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Kunihiro

    2017-01-01

    We are developing cosmic-ray radiography with nuclear emulsion. Cosmic-ray radiography is non-destructive inspection technology to take image of inner structure of gigantic objects (nuclear reactor, pyramids, volcanoes and so on). We conducted cosmic-ray radiography of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from 2014 to 2015 and are conducting cosmic-ray radiography of Pyramids at Egypt from 2015. In this paper, technical details and latest results are presented. (author)

  14. Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondo, Gakuji; Ishiwata, Yusuke; Yamashita, Toshinori; Iida, Takashi; Moro, Yutaka

    1989-01-01

    Simplified techniques of cerebral angiography using a mobile X-ray unit and computed radiography (CR) are discussed. Computed radiography is a digital radiography system in which an imaging plate is used as an X-ray detector and a final image is displayed on the film. In the angiograms performed with CR, the spatial frequency components can be enhanced for the easy analysis of fine blood vessels. Computed radiography has an automatic sensitivity and a latitude-setting mechanism, thus serving as an 'automatic camera.' This mechanism is useful for radiography with a mobile X-ray unit in hospital wards, intensive care units, or operating rooms where the appropriate setting of exposure conditions is difficult. We applied this mechanism to direct percutaneous carotid angiography and intravenous digital subtraction angiography with a mobile X-ray unit. Direct percutaneous carotid angiography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit were taken after the manual injection of a small amount of a contrast material through a fine needle. We performed direct percutaneous carotid angiography with this method 68 times on 25 cases from August 1986 to December 1987. Of the 68 angiograms, 61 were evaluated as good, compared with conventional angiography. Though the remaining seven were evaluated as poor, they were still diagnostically effective. This method is found useful for carotid angiography in emergency rooms, intensive care units, or operating rooms. Cerebral venography using CR and a mobile X-ray unit was done after the manual injection of a contrast material through the bilateral cubital veins. The cerebral venous system could be visualized from 16 to 24 seconds after the beginning of the injection of the contrast material. We performed cerebral venography with this method 14 times on six cases. These venograms were better than conventional angiograms in all cases. This method may be useful in managing patients suffering from cerebral venous thrombosis. (J.P.N.)

  15. Probability of detection - Comparative study of computed and film radiography for high-energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, R.; Venugopal, M.; Prasad, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Suitability of computed radiography with Ir-192, Co-60 and up to 9 MeV x-rays for weld inspections is of importance to many heavy engineering and aerospace industries. CR is preferred because of lesser exposure and processing time as compared to film based radiography and also digital images offers other advantages such as image enhancements, quantitative measurements and easier archival. This paper describes systemic experimental approaches and image quality metrics to compare imaging performance of CR with film-based radiography. Experiments were designed using six-sigma methodology to validate performance of CR for steel thickness up to 160 mm with Ir- 192, Co-60 and x-ray energies varying from 100 kV up to 9 MeV. Weld specimens with defects such as lack of fusion, penetration, cracks, concavity, and porosities were studied for evaluating radiographic sensitivity and imaging performance of the system. Attempts were also made to quantify probability of detection using specimens with artificial and natural defects for various experimental conditions and were compared with film based systems. (authors)

  16. Parameter analysis of radiography film for TC use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.S. de; Lopes, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of use x-ray industrial films on the projection survey for image processing, jointly with the noise analysis in films, when used as a radiation detectors in computerized tomography are studied. (C.G.C.)

  17. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshimichi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kuroyanagi, Kinya; Ota, Yoshiko

    1997-01-01

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  18. Detectability of the mediastinal lines : comparison of conventional film-screen radiography and digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hye Young; Park, Kyung Joo; Kang, Doo Kyung; Lee, Kang Lai; Han, Chaing Jin; Suh, Jung Ho

    1998-01-01

    Using dynamic range compression (DRC) processing, this study compared the detectability of mediastinal lines by conventional film screen radiography (FS) and by storage phosphor digital radiography (DR). We selected 200 normal consecutive chest radiographs (100 FS, 100 DR); dynamic range compression was applied to DR processing and moving grids were used in both systems. Seven mediastinal lines (left paraspinal, right paraspinal, azygoesophageal, left para-aortic, posterio junctional, anterior junctional and right paratracheal) were scored from 0 point to 3 point (0: not visible, 1 : suspiciously visible, 2 : visible, but not clear, 3: clearly visible) according to visibility and sharpness, as agreed by a radiologist and a resident. The differences between the two modalities were compared and analyzed by chi-square test. DR processed with DRC visualizes mediastinal lines more frequently and clearly than conventional FS, and is therefore thought to be useful for the evaluation of mediastinal diseases. (author). 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  20. Flash X-Ray Apparatus With Spectrum Control Functions For Medical Use And Fuji Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Sato, E.; Hayasi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Arima, H.; Hoshino, F.

    1985-02-01

    Flash radiographic bio-medical studies at sub-microsecond intervals were performed by using both a new type of flash X-ray(FX) apparatus with spectrum control functions and Fuji Computed Radiography(FCR). This single flasher tends to have a comparatively long exposure time and the electric pulse width of the FX wave form is about 0.3,usec. The maximum FX dose is about 50mR at 1m per pulse, and the effective focal spot varies according to condenser charging voltage, A-C distance, etc., ranging from 1.0 to 3.0mm in diameter, but in the low dose rate region it can be reduced to less than 1.0mm in diameter. The FX dose is determined by the condenser charging voltage and the A-C distance, while the FX spectrum is determined by the average voltage of the FX tube and filters. Various clear FX images were obtained by controlling the spectrum and dose. FCR is a new storage medium for medical radiography developed by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. and this apparatus has various image forming functions: low dose radiography, film density control, image contrast control, subtraction management and others. We have used this new apparatus in conjunction with our FX radiography and have obtained some new and interesting biomedical radiograms: the edge enhancement image, the instantaneous enlarged image, and the single exposure energy subtraction image using the FX spectrum distribution.

  1. Dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhdar, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiography must comply with the same regulations with which conventional radiography complies. Radiation doses to individual patients are low but, because of the large number of patients X-rayed, the collective dose to the population is not negligible. Care in siting and regular maintenance of the equipment will reduce doses to both staff and patients. To produce X-ray films with a good image quality using a low radiation dose requires attention to film processing; this is often a neglected area. (Author)

  2. New tubes and techniques for flash X-ray diffraction and high contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, F.M.; Barbour, J.P.; Brewster, J.L.

    High energy electrons are particularly efficient in producing characteristic X-rays and soft polychromatic. A line of wide spectrum beryllium window flash X-ray tubes, ranging from 150 to 600kV, has been developed to exploit this property. Laue and Debye Scherrer flash X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained using a single 30 ns pulse exposure. X-ray diffraction tests obtained are shown. Extremely high contrast flash radiography of small, low density objects has been obtained using industrial film without screen. Alternatively, particularly at high voltages and for subjects which include a broad range of materials and thicknesses, special film techniques can be used to produce extremely wide latitudes. Equipment, techniques and results are discussed

  3. Basic principles of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestbier, P.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray radiography and gamma radiography are used in industrial radiography. X-rays and gamma rays have the ability to penetrate materials and be absorbed by different densities. This characteristic makes them useful tools in industrial and medical radiography. The sources used for the generation of x-rays, gamma rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Films are one of the recording methods of x-radiography. The article also deals with advantages and disadvantages of radiography. Factors governing radiation exposure includes: the type of radiation source, material to be radiographed, distance, film, and the method for development. International specifications are also responsible for strict control over the standard of workmanship in industrial radiography

  4. Application of X-ray radiography to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Sadatoshi

    1994-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques including radiography and scanning tomography are now often applied to archaeological and historical objects. In this report results of three imaging techniques are showed: radiography, X-ray scanning tomography and emissiography. X-ray radiography was applied to examine the technique used for a bronze object. The object was one of the national treasure from Horyuji-temple, Dragon-head Pitcher. The examination proved that the pitcher body was separated into three pieces and that the bronze was fairly homogeneous from 3 to 4 mm. The Pitcher was supposed to be made in Japan at the middle of the seventh century. A small gilt bronze statuette was investigated by an industrial X-ray scanner. The statuette about 30 cm high is supposed to be made in the seventh or eighth century. The head of the statuette was scanned by X-rays of 350kV. The computed tomograms revealed an inlaid metal and scraped hollow. It is supposed that the statuette was cast twice. The first casting might have failed causing the hollow and the missing part of the head. The hollow was scraped before the following casting so that the newly cast part would be tightly joined to the body. A piece of metal was inlaid to the missing part. A silver inlaid sword was excavated at a historic site called Etafunayama Kofun in Kumamoto in 1873. Seventy-five letters were discovered on the back of the sword, and they were regarded as important reference in studying Japanese history around the fifth century. However, the letters became illegible because of severe surface corrosion. So emissiography or electron radiography was used. All letters and even the details could be read. (author)

  5. Basic studies in X-ray radiography and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Paresh R.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the basic characteristics related to a new branch of radiography viz. the micro-focal radiography. The most important among them was to find methods of measurement of focal spot size of these X-ray sources. It is important to accomplish this because the design of such units is specifically meant to produce very fine source size. To this end. first the process of radiography test was introduced. Among other things. various properties of an image and image forming systems (like PSF, LSF, MTF etc.) were introduced and explained. Methods used for microfocus measurement of focal spot size in conventional units were reviewed. It was shown how they are not suitable for microfocal tubes. Next the microfocus X-ray unit meant for the study was installed and commissioned. Features which are different from conventional X-ray units were observed more carefully. Data was collected and analyzed for various aspects. Procedure for focussing the electron beam while getting the feed back about beam diameter from the oscilloscope was established by experiments. In addition, influence of change in tube voltage and tube current on the focal spot size was studied. Relationship between tube current and target current vis-a-vis focus size was established. Radiation zone was determined. Focal spot size was qualitatively compared with that of a conventional X-ray unit by taking radiographs of different wire meshes at different magnifications by both the units

  6. Computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupchek, G.

    2004-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is an image acquisition process that is used to create digital, 2-dimensional radiographs. CR employs a photostimulable phosphor-based imaging plate, replacing the standard x-ray film and intensifying screen combination. Conventional radiographic exposure equipment is used with no modification required to the existing system. CR can transform an analog x-ray department into a digital one and eliminates the need for chemicals, water, darkrooms and film processor headaches. (author)

  7. Comparison of digital selenium radiography with an analog screen-film system in the diagnostic process of pneumoconiosis according to ILO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaehringer, M.; Winnekendonk, G.; Gossmann, A.; Krueger, K.; Krug, B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of digital selenium radiography in patients with pneumoconiosis. For this purpose chest X-rays by digital selenium radiography and analog screen-film system were compared according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Method: After approval of the study by the local ethic commission and the Federal German Office for Radiation Protection 50 patients were subjected to X-rays by digital selenium radiography (Thoravision; Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg, Germany) and analog screen-film system of the same day within the scope of an industrial medicine preventive checkup. Four investigators rated the chest X-rays according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Results: The findings demonstrated by chest X-rays according to ILO classification were rated similar by digital selenium radiography and analog screen film systems. Image quality of the digital pictures was rated significantly better. Conclusion: The use of digital selenium radiography in evaluating chest X-rays according to the ILO classification does not result in over- or underestimation of pulmonary pathologies. Hence, in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, digital selenium radiography can replace the tested analog screen-film system. (orig.) [de

  8. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasio, A. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Ambrosino, F. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Basta, D. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Bonechi, L. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); INFN-Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bross, A. [Fermilab (United States); Callier, S. [LAL, Orsay (France); Caputo, A. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN-Firenze (Italy); Cimmino, L. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Università degli Studi di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); INFN-Firenze (Italy); D' Auria, L. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); La Taille, C. de [LAL, Orsay (France); Energico, S. [CNR- SPIN, Napoli (Italy); INFN-Napoli (Italy); Garufi, F. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Giudicepietro, F. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Lauria, A. [INFN-Napoli (Italy); Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Macedonio, G.; Martini, M. [INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Masone, V. [Università Federico II, Napoli (Italy); and others

    2013-12-21

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m{sup 2} prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  9. X-ray radiography and tomography applied to material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechapt, Jean de.

    1982-11-01

    X-ray radiography and tomography are compared to detect a defect in an object. These image acquisition processes are first modelled by a convolution system. For a fixed contrast defect and a given X ray dose, the process providing the best signal-to-noise ratio is given by calculation. Then a system for pattern recognition is given: for identifying a defect, the related signs from binary images are sorted according to their size. The improvement in the detection performance of the device, for an adapted filtration of the images obtained, is assessed. The whole of the preceding results is validated on images synthesized on a computer, selecting between tomography and radiography, the technique making it possible to ensure the detectability of a defect with a minimal dose of X photons [fr

  10. Clinical aspects of plain film radiography of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravin, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the introduction of a number of intriguing new imaging modalities including Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the plain film of the chest remains the mainstay of thoracic imaging. It is estimated that more than fifty million chest radiographs are performed each year in the United States. In the attempt to compare newer imaging modalities with the standard plain film of the chest, investigators have been forced to adopt specific structures and or disease processes to be analyzed. To some extent identification of normally appearing structures in the mediastinum and lung parenchyma serves as a clue as to the ability of a newer technology to compete with or be compared with the plain film. However, as most authors would acknowledge, the ability to portray normal underlying anatomy is only the first step in analysis in intrathoracic disease. Experimental design becomes somewhat more complicated when one wishes to move beyond normal anatomy to analysis of disease processes. The challenge of digital radiography in whatever form it may take will be to equal or exceed the standard established by conventional plain film radiography and deliver such service at reasonable cost in a manner which allows for appropriate patient throughput

  11. Patient's dose assessment during sinus X-rays radiography at 'Hopital du Point G'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidibe, S.; Sacko, B.Y.; Doucoure, M.; Traore, B.; Traore, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patient's X-rays dose during head radiography for sinusitis; To precise the influence of source-image distance on the patient's dose. Material and method: From May 1997 to January 1999, 83 patients with clinical suspicious sinusitis have been included in this study. Skull radiography in 3 positions (posterior, lateral and Blondeau view) have been achieved for each patient on 24x30 centimeters size films. These radiographies were realised on a Diagnost 7 Masio Philip X-rays machine. Three TLD dosimeters were pasted against every patient target organs (thyroid, right and left eyes). The source-image distance (SID) was 100 centimeters for the first group (35 patients) and 125 centimeters for the second group (48 patients). The selected parameters (high voltage and charge) were as follows: Skull postero-anterior view: 65 to 85 kV, 80 mAs; Skull lateral view: 60 to 75 kV, 80 mAs; Blondeau view (paranasal sinuses): 90 to 95 kV, 100 mAs. Results: All the radiographies were analysed by the same radiologist who didn't know the SID. All the films were of good quality. The patient's dose in millisievert for each target organ were: Group I (SID = 100 cm): Left eye 3,2 (+ ou - 0,66); Right eye 3, 0 (+ ou - 0,82); Thyroid 0,62 (+ ou - 0,09). Group II (SID = 125 cm): Left eye 1,9 (+ ou - 0,48); Right eye 1, 86 (+ ou - 0,50); Thyroid 0,39 (+ ou - 0,08). In conclusion, the increase of SID from 100 to 125 centimeters allows patient's dose reduction by a factor of 1.6 without the alteration of the films quality, hence the reliability of the diagnosis. (author)

  12. The quality of dental radiography in the Czech Republic - Results of a TLD and film postal audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, the postal audit in dental radiography has been supplementing standard quality control (QC) tools for dental intraoral X-ray machines. An aim of the audit is to check basic X-ray machine parameters (field size, exposure reproducibility), and a quality of the whole process of diagnostic imaging (entrance surface air-kerma measurement, a check of film processing and an image quality evaluation). The standard QC tests, performed by private companies, check mainly the X-ray unit. Conversely, the audit gives better information about the patient examination practices. During the period of January 2002 to May 2004 ∼4000 audits were performed. The results confirmed that main problems in dental radiography are due to incorrect film processing, non-optimised setting of the exposure parameters and use of obsolete X-ray machines. Only ∼30% of performed audits were satisfactory with respect to all checked parameters. (authors)

  13. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  14. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan I [Clayton, MO; Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  15. Radiography in the X-ray region of a laser implosed microball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launspach, J.; Bayer, C.; Billon, D.; Decroisette, M.; Juraszek, D.; Meynial, D.

    1981-05-01

    The OCTAL laser of the Limeil CEA Research Center was used to realize the implosion of small targets containing a mixture of DT and to produce thermonuclear fusion reactions. The experimental device in which the experiments were carried out is called Camelia. Its main component is a vacuum chamber upon which the following elements are fixed: - devices for adjusting the focussing lenses; - a device for positioning targets; - extensive diagnostic means enabling the maximum amount of information to be obtained from each shot. These experiments were performed in order to study laser implosion mechanisms and to measure the density and temperature characteristics that can be reached in this way. The X-ray radiography device is relatively simple. It consists of an X-ray source, the target to be analyzed, one or two stenopies and a detector which is either a simple film (Kodak Kodirex) for diagnostics without temporal resolution or a scanning camera with a slit when temporal resolution is required. The device can be used: - without an x-ray source for emission diagnostics with spatio-temporal resolution, - to study the pre-heating of targets by radiography of the dust at the beginning of the implosion, - for diagnostics of the plasma core by radiography of dust after the implosion [fr

  16. Non-destructive testing of rocket propellant quality using -X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arayaprecha, W.

    1979-01-01

    Currently, X-rays radiography has been used extensively in various industries. In this thesis, X-rays has been used in the study of compaction of rocket propellant. For a rocket, to gain an accurate guidance result, the propellant used must be mixed and compacted thoroughly. The quality control of the production of propellant sticks must be carefully done. In this study of non-destructive quality testing of rocket propellant, at first the ultrasonic rays was used to test its homogeneity. However, because the density of the propellant was too low, the test equipment could not detect any reflected signals from the propellant being tested. Then the new procedure using X-rays radiography was tried. The variables in the test procedure were voltage, amperage and the focal-film distance. Also different types of films were used. The results of this experiment were then used to construct an exposure chart for testing the homogeneity of the rocket propellant. The advantage of this chart is that a tester can use this table with propellant sticks of different sizes if they have similar density to the density specified in the chart. Also, it is not necessary that the mixture of the testing propellant be the same as the ones used to construct this chart

  17. Effects on patient exposure dose and image quality by increasing focal film distance in abdominal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Hyun; Kwon, Soo Il

    1998-01-01

    We can and must improve the diagnostic images using available knowledge and technology. At the same time we must strive to reduce thr patient's integral and entrance radiation dose. Reducing the integral dose to the patient during the radiologic procedure is a primary concern of the patient, especially the pediatric patient, the radiologist and the technologist. A 100cm focal film distance generally is used for most over-table radiography. The early x-ray tubes and screen film combinations required long exposures, which often resulted in motion artifacts. But nowadays, we have the generators and x-ray tubes that can deliver the energy necessary in a very short time and the receptors that can record the information just as rapidly. And, we performed this studies to evaluate the patient exposure dose and the image quality by increasing focal film distance in diagnostic radiography. There are many factors which affected to exposure factor, but we studied to verify of FFD increase, only. Effect of increasing the focal film distance to a 140 cm distance was tested as follows ; 1. The focal film distances were set at 100, 120, and 140cm. 2. A 18cm acryl(tissue equivalent) phantom was placed on the table top. 3. An Capintec 192 electrometer with PM 05 ion chamber was placed at the entrance surface of the phantom, and exposure were made at each focal film distances. 4. The procedure was repeated in the same manner as above except the ion chamber was placed beneath the phantom at the film plane. 5. Exit exposure were normalize to 8mR for each portions of the experiment. Based on the success of the empirical measurements, a detailed mathematical analysis of the dose reduction was performed using the percent depth dose data

  18. Quality control of aluminium casting: X ray radiography or tomography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, B.; Tamziti, J.; Grignard, A.; Peix, G.; Kaftandjian, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: X ray radiography has been for years a well known method commonly used for controlling parts either on line or off line. The purpose is to detect internal defects or to achieve reverse engineering on the parts. More recently two-dimensional or three-dimensional Computed Tomography has been introduced and provides key advantages over standard X ray radiography, such as dimensional measurement of complex objects with hidden structures and 3D defect localisation. However, from the user point of view, despite the clear advantages of tomography, the time consuming drawback is predominant, and thus, it is worth assessing the added value of tomography with respect to several radioscopic images. It is clear that there is no unique response to that question. If unacceptable defects are already detected in one radioscopic image, then the sample can be rejected and 3D tomography is useless. On another hand, 3D tomography cannot be replaced if internal structures such as holes must be measured with accuracy. The paper will present a comparison between radiography and tomography for controlling parts in the aluminium casting industry. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods will be reviewed. Performance features in both cases will be assessed in this specific industrial case by estimating the defect detection efficiency and image quality parameters. (authors)

  19. Factors related to the Ecran-Film contact in the industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raets, G.

    1983-01-01

    The relative importance of ecram-film for industrial radiographies is discussed, and the results are presented after an extensive evaluation of a new combination type of ecran-film prepared in a vacuum. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Studies on low-voltage x-ray radiography for graphite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Itami, Hiroharu

    1978-09-01

    Low-voltage radiography has been studied to provide optimum technique for graphite less than 50 mm thick. First we determined the exposure conditions under which the most appropriate photographic density can be obtained. By parametric studies, an exposure chart was prepared. Then we studied how the environment of photographing affected the film density. Thirdly, by use of graphite materials with artificial flaws, Image Quality Indicator (I.Q.I.) sensitivity was determined. Detectability of a crack depended on an incidence angle of X-rays onto a crack. Finally, we photographed graphites having natural flaws and gained a useful information. (author)

  1. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm. - Highlights: • We investigated a small plasma focus as pulsed x-ray source for radiography applications. • The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, LSF and MTF. • The x-ray source focal spot was obtained to be ∼0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. • The x-ray dose measurement showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. • The profiles of LSF and MTF showed that the cut-off frequency is about 1.5 cycles/mm

  2. A portable x-ray source and method for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivsky, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A portable x-ray source that produces a sufficient x-ray flux to produce high quality x-ray images on x-ray films. The source includes a vacuum chamber filled with a heavy atomic weight gas at low pressure and an x-ray emitter. The chamber is in a magnetic field and an oscillating electric field and generates electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma having a ring of energetic electrons inside the chamber. The electrons bombard the x-ray emitter which in turn produces x-ray. A pair of magnetic members generate an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap inside the chamber. The chamber may be nested within a microwave resonant cavity and between the magnets or the chamber and the microwave cavity may be a single composite structure. (author)

  3. Tone control of overexposed and underexposed x-ray films by using duplicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myeong Im; Jeon, Jung Soo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Not infrequently overexposed or underexposed x-ray films impose difficulty in interpretation necessitating repeated radiography. However, repeated examination is not always possible because of the transfer, discharge, and dying of the patients. Then, retonning of improper films is much desirable especially when such films are of considerable clinical and academical importance. The authors carried out a series of experiment to improve the tone of the overexposed and underexposed x-ray films by different exposure times. During duplicating the overexposed film, the film density because bright and imaging details were improved by increasing the exposure time. Underexposed film, however, did not showing any improvement of imaging details but darkened only of overall film density. Therefore, qualified reproduction of overexposed x-ray film using the x-ray film duplicator was easy to do and valuable in the management of film quality without any damage to the original film

  4. Medical X-ray techniques in diagnostic radiography. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaats, G.J. van der; Vijlbrief, P.

    1980-01-01

    A step by step account is given of every aspect of the technical factors involved in the production of X-ray images. Chapter titles include, methods of image formation and laws of projection, sharpness and unsharpness, contrast, perceptibility of detail in the radiographic image-image quality, properties of fluoroscopic screens, radiographic films, intensifying screens and cassettes, image intensification and X-ray television, processing technique, fluoroscopy and radiographic technique in general, special radiographic techniques, radiographic examinations using contrast media, exposure and exposure tables and automatic density control, diagnostic X-ray apparatus, and diagnostic stands and accessories. (C.F.)

  5. Analysis of sculptures using XRF and X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Freitas, R. P.; Rocha, H. S.; Nascimento, J. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood using X-ray Radiography and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. The first case is the analysis of a sculpture portraying Saint Sebastian, the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro, which is considered the second most ancient sacred image of Brazil. This sculpture was made in Portugal and was transported to Brazil by Estácio Sá, founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 1565. Nowadays, it is located on the main altar of the Church of Capuchin Friars. The second case is the analysis of a sculpture representing Our Lady of Conception, which is located in the D. João VI Museum (EBA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro). The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the general conditions of the sculptures, identifying possible problems and internal damages, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the materials and pigments employed by the artists, in order to assist its restoration procedures. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek and an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube with W anode. An X-ray source, a CR System GE CR50P and IP detectors were used to perform the radiographs. The XRF analysis of the sculptures identified the original pigments in both cases and the radiographic images revealed details of the manufacture; restored regions; extensive use of lead white; presence of cracks on the wood; use of nails and spikes, etc.

  6. Recent developments in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Advances in radiography are reviewed and eighty-one references are cited to provide additional information. The review includes information on x-ray sources in terms of output, portability and imaging geometry and detectors in terms of films and screens, electrostatic methods, real-time techniques and solid state devices. Inspection methods utilizing radiations other than x-rays, neutrons and charged particles, expand the inspection problems suitable for radiography. Techniques such as tomography, digital radiography and image enhancement are described. Tomography, in particular, provides excellent capability to characterize materials and discontinuities

  7. Manual on industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This manual is intended as a source of educational material to personnel seeking certification as industrial radiographers, and as a guide and reference text for educational organizations that are providng courses in industrial radiography. It covers the basic principles of x-ray and gamma radiation, radiation safety, films and film processing, welding, casting and forging, aircraft structures and components, radiographic techniques, and records

  8. Feasibility study of flexible flat-panel X-ray detectors for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Ok La; Yun, Seung Man; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Flexible flat-panel detectors (FPDs), which utilize both organic photodiode (OPD) and organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) technologies, are recently concerned in digital radiography. The flexible FPD has several potential advantages, such as high accessibility to patient, avoidance of geometrical burr due to the oblique angle incidence of X-ray, great reduction in manufacturing cost due to jet-printing. At once, The OPD/OTFT arrays were fabricated by jet-printing techniques, mechanical robustness due to plastic substrates, and so on. In this study, we have investigated the feasibility of flexible FPD by comparing theoretical detective quantum efficiency (DQE) with that of the conventional amorphous silicon-based FPD. We chose copper phthalocyanine-fullerene (CuPc-C60) organic materials for the construction of the flexible FPD. DQE was calculated by the linear-systems transfer theory

  9. Orthorad - the online reference database of skeletal plain film radiography; Orthorad - die Referenzdatenbank zur Skelettradiographie im Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkmann, F.M.; Heberlein, C.; Greess, H.; Ketelsen, D. [Radiologisches Inst., Friedrich-Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Klose, K.J. [Klinik fuer Strahlendiagnostik, Phillips-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Grunewald, M. [Nuklearmedizmische Klinik, Friedrich Alexander-Univ. Erlanger-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: it is evident that there is a growing need for internet-based reference databases for reasons of practicability and due to the increasing use of reporting on digital workstations. The main advantages of online databases are expected with respect to plain film radiography and cross-sectional imaging. A reference database of skeletal plain film radiography was to be created using the Orthorad program. Materials and methods: the most important standard settings and special images of young and healthy adults in plain film radiography were collected over one year. All samples were approved for the Orthorad database by a board qualified radiologist. Based on the workflows of radiographers and radiologists, the records were organized by body part (http://www.idr.med.uni-erlangen.de/orthorad/orthorad.htm). This logical data structure will ensure that the tool serves as a source of information in two ways: On the one hand, the radiographer can access information on positioning, tube voltage and cassette format. On the other hand, the radiologist receives important knowledge regarding X-ray anatomy, reference data regarding the human skeleton, and information about the correct reporting for an image. (orig.)

  10. Comparative study on computed orthopantomography and film radiographic techniques in the radiography of temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tao; Ning Lixia; Liu Yuai; Li Ningyi; Chen Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the computed orthopantomography (COPT) with Shriller radiography(SR), film orthopantomography (FOPT) and other traditional radiographic techniques in the radiography of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Methods: Ninty-eight cases were randomly divided into 3 groups, and the open and close positions of TMJs of both sides were examined with SR, FOPT, and COPT, respectively. The satisfactory rates of the X-ray pictures were statistically analyzed with Pearson chi-square in SPSS10.0, and the satisfactory rates were analyzed with q test between the groups. Results: One hundred and forty-four of the open and close positions of 144 TMJ pictures of the COPT group, 128 of 128 of the FOPT group, and 6 of 120 of the SR group were satisfactory in the mandible ramus of the TMJ, with satisfactory rate being 100%, 100%, and 5%, respectively (P 0.01), respectively between FOPT and COPT groups. The difference was not statistically significant. The exposure was as follows: COPT, 99-113 mAs; FOPT, 210-225 mAs; and SR, 48-75 mAs. Therefore, COPT and FOPT were superior to SR in the pictures of the mandible ramus, coronoid process, and incisure, but inferior in the joint space pictures. The satisfactory rates of the condylar process and articular tubercle were same in the 3 groups. The exposure of the FOPT group was greater than that of the COPT and SR groups. Conclusion: COPT is superior to SR and FOPT in TMJ radiography, and should be applied widely in the clinic. (authors)

  11. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  12. The MU-RAY project: Volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Ambrosino, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Battiston, R. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Universita di Perugia (Italy); Bross, A. [Fermilab (United States); Callier, S. [LAL, Orsay (France); Cassese, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Castellini, G. [CNR-IFAC, Firenze (Italy); Ciaranfi, R. [INFN sezione Firenze (Italy); Cozzolino, F. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [INFN sezione Firenze (Italy); Universita di Firenze (Italy); La Taille, C. de [LAL, Orsay (France); Iacobucci, G. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Marotta, A. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Masone, V. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Martini, M. [INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Nishiyama, R. [Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Noli, P. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy); Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Orazi, M. [INGV-Osservatorio Vesuviano, Napoli (Italy); Parascandolo, L.; Parascandolo, P. [INFN sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few 100 m of a volcanic cone. With resolutions up to 10s of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods. Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project aims at the construction of muon telescopes and the development of new analysis tools for muon radiography. The telescopes are required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of two X-Y planes of 2x2 square meters area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fiber coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC chip.

  13. Speeds of film-screen combinations for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.F.; Cheng, C.N.; Paix, D.

    1983-01-01

    Values of Esub(x), the exposure required to yield a net optical density of 1.0, were determined for 12 blue- and nine green-sensitive film types used with 11 blue- and eight green-emitting screen types respectively. The measurements were made using x-rays generated at 80 kVp and 200 mA, under conditions simulating clinical procedures. To examine reciprocity law failure many of the determinations were repeated under similar conditions but at 15 mA. The values of Esub(x) obtained at 15 mA were 6 percent to 93 percent greater than those at 200 mA

  14. Speeds of film-screen combinations for radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, A F; Cheng, C N; Paix, D

    1983-12-01

    Values of Ex, the exposure required to yield a net optical density of 1.0, were determined for 12 blue- and nine green-sensitive film types used with 11 blue- and eight green-emitting screen types respectively. The measurements were made using x-rays generated at 80 kVp and 200 mA, under conditions simulating clinical procedures. To examine reciprocity law failure many of the determinations were repeated under similar conditions but at 15 mA. The values of Ex obtained at 15 mA were 6% to 93% greater than those at 200 mA.

  15. Characteristics of high-energy X-rays using computed radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Mori, Yoshinobu

    1993-01-01

    A computed radiography (CR) with storage phosphor technology has advanced remarkably. Its application has been also discussed regarding the field of radiotherapy and studies have been made to shift from the film/screen system to the portal film using the CR system. The authors started to research CR portal imaging with high energy X-ray (10MV) on a regular scale in 1989. This paper deals with characteristics of high energy X-rays using the CR system. The digital characteristic curve corresponded with calculated value for dynamic range (L-value). The monitor unit (MU) counts at pixel (digital) value saturation point were L-value 0.5:28 MU, L-value 1.0:50 MU, L-value 2.0:167 MU, L-value 3.0:450 MU, L-value 4.0:1614 MU. The image contrast with the Mix-Dp phantom was L-value 0.5: about a 300 pixel value and L-value 4.0: about a 30 pixel value by a phantom 10 to 18 cm in thickness. Optimum L-value was 0.5, and tone-scale was the straight type of CR portal imaging using the graphy count mode. Optimum L-value was 4.0, and tone-scale was a rectangular wave type of CR portal imaging using therapeutic doses, and those were also described by the histogram analysis. (author)

  16. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of chest radiographs with computed radiography and conventional analog films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, C.; Brown, K.; Dalter, S.; Milos, M.J.; Huang, H.K.; Kangarloo, H.; Boechat, I.M.; Batra, P.

    1988-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic is used to compare the image quality of films obtained digitally using computed radiography (CR) and conventionally using analog film following fluoroscopic examination. Twenty-four cases, some with a solitary noncalcified nodule and/or pneumothorax, were collected. Ten radiologists have been tested viewing analog and CR digital films separately. Preliminary results indicate that there is no significant difference in the ability to detect either a pneumothorax or a solitary noncalcified nodule when comparing CR digital film with conventional analog film. A comparison of the CR digital image displayed on a 2,048-line monitor against analog and CR digital film is in progress

  17. Preliminary Development of Conductivity based Test Method for Industrial Radiography Film Developer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, N.S.; Manah, N.S.A.; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2015-01-01

    The strength of industrial radiography film developer solution is one of the most important aspects in radiography film processing. The developer solution reacts with the exposed film to visualize the latent image through chemical-film reaction. As the developer is repeatedly used, the strength decreases until a point where it cannot yield the required film optical density value. This work attempts to investigate the developer solution strength through its conductivity. Obtained data are cross correlated to the required industrial radiography optical density range. Through the experiment, the conductivity of the developer solution decreased as the number of the film processed increase. Thus, the desired optical density of the film cannot be achieved. The conductivity of developer is measured and recorded at interval of six films developed. The optical density of every film is recorded to analyze the change in optical density as the conductivity decreases. Through the procedure, it is suggested that as the conductivity decreases, the optical density of film decreased. Ultimately, the strength level of the developer solution can be determined. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray fluoroscopy and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to assess the patient doses received during conventional and digital X-ray radiography, conventional fluoroscopy of the lungs, and one of the highest dose X-ray procedures - contrast examination of the large intestine (Barium enema examination). The measured quantity is Kerma area product (KAP), registered with a clinical dosimeter DRK-1 (Doza, Russia). A total number of 89 patients are included in the study. The Organ doses and Effective doses were assessed using Monte Carlo calculation code (PCXMC 1.4 (Finland). The measurements took place at the following X-ray units: a CGR (Koch and Sterzel) with two working posts - for radiography and fluoroscopy, a Philips Telediagnost (for barium enema) and an Oldelft N800HF Digidelca (for digital radiography of the chest). The typical KAP per procedure at digital radiography, conventional X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy and Barium enema examination are: 17; 95; 928 and 3630 cGy.cm 2 respectively; the average effective doses are: 0.022; 0.053; 0.728 and 8.0 mSv respectively. Doses to the lungs at digital radiography, conventional radiography and fluoroscopy are: 0.066; 0.136 and 2.412 mSv respectively and the dose to the upper and lower large intestine are: 11.7 and 8.6 mSv respectively. Conclusion: The approach used is applicable for assessment of radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy. It needs registration of KAP meter readings when this device is installed on the stationary X-ray units

  19. X-ray pickup device for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The X-ray tube has got a tubular extension within which a W-shaped target is arranged and which can be inserted into the mouth opening of the patient. The target is inclined with respect to the axis of the beam of electrons striking it in such a way, that the X-radiation emitted by it is received either by the upper or the lower row of teeth, including the root area. A screen mounted on the extension causes only these semicircular areas to be irradiated. An X-ray film holder is also fastened to the extension and covers mouth and cheeks of the patient from outside. The focal spot on the target is adjustable so that a sharp picture can be produced. (RW) [de

  20. Assessment of image quality in x-ray radiography imaging using a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, A.; Shirani, B.; Jabbari, I.; Mokhtari, J.

    2014-08-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive investigation of image quality parameters for a small plasma focus as a pulsed hard x-ray source for radiography applications. A set of images were captured from some metal objects and electronic circuits using a low energy plasma focus at different voltages of capacitor bank and different pressures of argon gas. The x-ray source focal spot of this device was obtained to be about 0.6 mm using the penumbra imaging method. The image quality was studied by several parameters such as image contrast, line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF). Results showed that the contrast changes by variations in gas pressure. The best contrast was obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mbar and 3.75 kJ stored energy. The results of x-ray dose from the device showed that about 0.6 mGy is sufficient to obtain acceptable images on the film. The measurements of LSF and MTF parameters were carried out by means of a thin stainless steel wire 0.8 mm in diameter and the cut-off frequency was obtained to be about 1.5 cycles/mm.

  1. X-ray backscatter radiography. Intrusive instead of penetrating, X-ray shadow phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, Norma; Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Osterloh, Kurt; European Federation for Non-Destructive Testing

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the primary practical advantage of X-ray backscattering radiography is that there is no need to place a detector on the side of the specimen opposite to the source. Such a situation usually is encountered whenever the specimen is not only standing right in front of a wall or even inside a wall but also if the specimen is such big that radiography is not possible because of the layer thickness to be penetrated. The method used here differs fundamentally from the conventional method to interrogate the object with a scanning beam ('pencil beam') and to collect the whole backscattered radiation from the area. The object is fully illuminated by a (uncollimated) cone beam. Here, the image is recorded with a camera of absorbent material (tungsten, lead), which contains a matrix detector as the image receiver. The optical effect is generated by a special twisted slit collimator which operates according to an extended pinhole camera. The independent positioning of source and camera allows a variable irradiation geometry which causes different images as a result. As a consequence, a complex object in front of a backscattering wall appears completely different than standing alone. So X-ray backscatter images have to be interpreted according to their illumination with X-rays and their surroundings. (orig.)

  2. The application and development of radiography technology based on x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Zhou; Li, Ming

    2009-07-01

    Modern Radiography technology was combined with radiation physics and modern imaging processing, which was an important branch of information obtainment and processing. We can get the inside information of the object, by the X ray's attenuation when the ray penetrated the object, and depending on the computer's fast processing, we can see the slice imaging of the object. Computerized Tomography, Computerized Laminography, and Digital Radiography were important parts in Radiography. The institute of applied electronics, CAEP in the research of intense radiation had developed several advanced radiation sources and some advanced radiography imaging systems, for example, S-band small spot linear accelerator, full solid state modulator, C-band linear accelerator, high energy Tera-hertz radiation source and CT technology based on cone beam, DR technology, CL Technology etc. Such imaging systems had been applied in industrial NDT/NDE, security check, medical diagnosis, petroleum and gas pipeline inspection system etc.

  3. Substitution of the radiographic plaques for photographic paper for x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Sanchez, C.

    1994-01-01

    The german photo paper Afga-Gevaert and the chinese Friendship were used as detectors for X-ray radiography, of steel specimens, together with the amplifier screens Perlux (Germany) and Standard (Russian). A wide energy range (80-240 Kv) and steel specimen thickness (5-25 mm) were tested. The exposition monograph for radiography control which comply both DIN 54109 and the GOST 7512-82 standards was obtained. A methodology allowing the use of the photo paper was made

  4. Contrast optimization in X-ray radiography with single photon counting imagers of Medipix type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Vavřík, Daniel; Žemlička, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, C12011 (2012), s. 1-5 ISSN 1748-0221. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /14./. Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, 01.07.2012-05.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/1551 Grant - others:GA MKO(CZ) DF12P01OVV048 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : X-ray detectors * X-ray radiography and digital radiography * inspection with x-rays Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/7/12/C12011/

  5. An Intraoral Miniature X-ray Tube Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Dental Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  6. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube

  7. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  8. Automation of photographic film processing in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhenukhin, V.K.; Grachev, A.V.; Kuleshov, A.V.; Majorov, A.N.

    1973-01-01

    The automation of industrial radiographs photoprocessing is discussed. It pulses into the foreground the requirement to physicomechanical characteristics of films. The most widely used radiographic film sorts and photoprocessing conditions are presented. The values of permissible mechanical effect at film photoprocessing in dependence on temperature are established. The main technical parameters of the automatic unit for radiographic film photoprocessing have been presented

  9. An Intraoral Miniature X-ray Tube Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Dental Radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun Jin Kim; Hyun Nam Kim; Hamid Saeed Raza; Han Beom Park; Sung Oh Cho

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be ...

  10. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie (μCi) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory's routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance

  11. Computer radiography - indirect digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezierski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of the new European standards for industrial radiography with the use of storage phosphor imaging plates will result in the arousing of interest among numerous laboratories in non-destructive testing with application of the new method of testing to replace conventional radiography used so far, i.e. film radiography. Computer radiography is quite commonly used for medical radiography, where the fundamental problem consists in reduction of the radiation dose during the examination of a patient. However, it must be kept in mind that industrial applications have a little bit different requirements when compared with medical radiography. The article describes only new method for radiographic testing. (author)

  12. Investigation of microporosity in die-cast AlSi12(Cu) alloys by neutron- and X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsolt, S.; Marton, B.

    1999-01-01

    The porosity of the casting can dramatically reduce the solidity and reliability of the objects made from aluminum alloys. The X-ray radiography is able to find the placement of the porosity of the aluminum devices. After a special 'water saturation' process the dynamic neutron radiography is available to discover the 'dangerous' surface nearporosity in the aluminum samples. The X-ray and neutron radiography were used as complementary examination techniques to study the porosity of the aluminum castings.(author)

  13. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  14. Reduction of radiation dose by using digital luminescence radiography compared to conventional screen film system with grid cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyne, J.P.; Merbold, H.; Neumann, R.; Freesmeyer, M.; Jonetz-Mentzel, L.; Kaiser, W.A.; Sehner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: How much can the radiation dose be reduced for skull radiography by using digital luminescence radiography (DLR) compared to a conventional screen film system with a grid cassette? Methods and Materials: A skull phantom (3M) was X-rayed in anterior-posterior orientation using both a conventional screen film system with grid cassette and DLR (ADC-70, Agfa). The tube current time product (mAs) was diminished gradually while keeping the voltage constant. The surface entrance dose was measured by a sensor of Dosimax (Wellhoefer). Five investigators evaluated the images by characteristic and critical features, spatial resolution and contrast. Results: The surface entrance dose at 73 kV/22 mAs was 0,432 mGy in conventional screen film system and 0,435 mGy in DLR. The images could be evaluated very well down to an average dose of 71% (0,308 mGy; SD 0,050); sufficient images were obtained down to an average dose of 31% (0,136 mGy; SD 0,065). The resolution of the line pairs were reduced down to a 2 levels depending on the investigator. Contrast was assessed as being very good to sufficient. The acceptance of the postprocessed images (MUSICA-software) was individually different and resultde in an improvement of the assessment of bone structures an contrast in higher dose ranges only. Conclusion: For the sufficient assessment of a possible fracture/of paranasal sinuses/of measurement the skull the dose can be reduced to at least 56% (31%; SD 14,9%)/40% (27%; SD 9,3%)/18% (14%; SD 4,4%). Digital radiography allows question-referred exposure parameters with clearly reduced dose, so e.g. for fracture exclusion 73 kV/12,5 mAs and to skull measurement 73 kV/4 mAs. (orig.) [de

  15. High-speed radiography and x-ray cinematography by high-current betatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimochkin, Yu.V.; Akulov, G.V.; Leunov, F.G.; Moskalev, V.A.; Ryabukhin, V.L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper provides a description of an equipment system comprising a pair of 25 MeV high-current betatrons and an X-ray drum-type cinecamera for high-speed radiography and X-ray cinematography for use when studying dynamics of objects moving at a rate of 0.5 - 3.0 km/s as well as in X-ray cinematography of processes at a rate of up to 1 m/s. (author)

  16. Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hounsfield, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiographic apparatus is described in which a thin planar slice of the body is examined by a swath of penetrating radiation such as X-rays. Collimators are provided for collimating the radiation after it has passed through the body into a set of beams which are directed into respective detectors. The swath of radiation, the collimeters and the detectors are orbited in the plane of the slice so that the beams pass through the body from many different angular directions. Means are provided for additionally displacing at least the collimators relative to the source so that the relative position of the beams and gaps between the beams are changed during the orbital movement

  17. Experimental system for high resolution X-ray transmission radiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakůbek, J.; Holý, T.; Jakůbek, M.; Vavřík, Daniel; Vykydal, Z.

    Volume 563, č. 1 (2006), s. 278-281 ISSN 0168-9002. [Intern. Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /7./. Grenoble, 04.07.2005-07.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA211; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/04/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : digital radiography * beam hardening * mikroradiography * roentgenogram quality Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2006

  18. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  19. Lateralized odontoid in plain film radiography. Sign of fractures? A comparison study with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, S.; Bieck, K.; Karul, M.; Schoennagel, B.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.; Yamamura, J. [University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate X-ray standards for the detection of odontoid fractures. Summary of background data: Cervical spine fractures are a common finding in emergency medicine, accounting for 1 - 3 % of injuries. Involvement of the C1 / C2 complex is found in 25 % of cases, affecting the odontoid peg in 55 - 80 %. Regarding the consequences of missed fractures, radiographic techniques built the groundwork for further treatment procedures. As standardized X-ray measurements have not been established, the incidence of unrecognized cervical spine fracture is expected to be up to 20 %. The establishment of X-ray-based guidelines is also limited by the presumed low specificity and sensitivity of distance measurements caused by rotational distortion which leads to a rising popularity of CT. 79 (age 60 ± 26 yrs) patients with lateralization of the odontoid process on conventional plain film radiography (anteroposterior, lateral, and open mouth odontoid process view projection) were examined. The distance between the odontoid process and lateral mass of C1, angles of vertical odontoid line and basis of C2 were measured in the ap view. In the lateral view, dorsal alignment and atlantodental distance were assessed. MDCT examinations were used as a reference. Discriminatory power test was applied to assess significance. 8/79 (10.1 %) odontoid process fractures were found. Diagnosis was achieved on conventional radiographs in 6 patients. Neither distance and angle measurements between odontoid and C1 nor the dorsal alignment of the vertebral bodies differed significantly between healthy and affected patients. Decentralization of the odontoid process is not necessarily an indirect sign for its fracture. In patients with suspected injury of the odontoid process, an MDCT scan might be the method of choice to rule out a fracture.

  20. Conversion from film to image plates for transfer method neutron radiography of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to characterize and qualify a computed radiography (CR) system for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL has multiple programs that are actively developing, testing, and evaluating new nuclear fuels. Irradiated fuel experiments are subjected to a number of sequential post-irradiation examination techniques that provide insight into the overall behavior and performance of the fuel. One of the first and most important of these exams is neutron radiography, which provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Results from neutron radiography are often the driver for subsequent examinations of the PIE program. Features of interest that can be evaluated using neutron radiography include irradiation-induced swelling, isotopic and fuel-fragment redistribution, plate deformations, and fuel fracturing. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique with film for imaging fuel. INL is pursuing multiple efforts to advance its neutron imaging capabilities for evaluating irradiated fuel and other applications, including conversion from film to CR image plates. Neutron CR is the current state-of-the-art for neutron imaging of highly-radioactive objects. Initial neutron radiographs of various types of nuclear fuel indicate that radiographs can be obtained of comparable image quality currently obtained using film. This paper provides neutron radiographs of representative irradiated fuel pins along with neutron radiographs of standards that informed the qualification of the neutron CR system for routine use. Additionally, this paper includes evaluations of some of the CR scanner parameters and their effects on image quality.

  1. Experiences with a new film-screen system in pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenen, A.; Brandt, G.A.; Riebel, T.; Marciniak, H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the X-ray images made by the Kodak InSight Pediatric Imaging System (InSight P) with conventional film-screen systems in pediatric chest radiography. Material and methods: The comparison involved chest radiographs made using Quanta-Fast-Detail/Cronex 4 (DuPont), Trimax 16/XDA (3 M) and DuPont UVR/UVL systems. The image quality of critical structures and the physical parameters of quantum interference, contrast and resolution were assessed. The energy path of the system was assessed by preparing density curves. Test conditions were in accordance with the latest guidelines of the Bundesaerztekammer (German Physicians' Association). Results: The mediastinal area, retrocardiac and paravertebral spaces and the peripheral vessels of the lung were all displayed more distinctly using InSight P. The reason for this seems to be a lower degree of quantum interference associated with this system. With tube voltages between 60 and 80 kV, InSight P displayed a relatively low degree of sensitivity. Conclusion: InSight P can be used to produce predominantly high quality chest radiographs on infants between one and five years of age. However, this system has limited sensitivity in the tube voltage range recommended by the German Physicians' Association. (orig.) [de

  2. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography.

  3. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography

  4. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography.

  5. Free focus radiography with miniaturized dental x-ray machines: a comparison of ''midline'' and ''lateral'' techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    The use of free focus radiography (FFR) employing miniaturized dental x-ray machines with radiation probes has never been generally accepted in dentistry despite its recognized radiographic potential. The present investigation studied ways to improve imaging and lower radiation burdens in dental free focus radiography. Relatively high air exposures ranging from 42,050 mR per film for high-resolution images to 3,214 mR per film for lower-resolution images using a current midline radiographic technique for panoramic FFR were found. In a proposed lateral FFR panoramic technique, reduced exposures ranged from 420 mR per film for high-resolution images to 14 mR per film for lower-resolution images. In each technique the lower exposure was obtained with a rare earth imaging system. A proposed modification of the current midline FFR technique using a rare earth imaging system and heavy added copper filtration was found to produce exposures in the range normally used in dentistry (207 mr), and the resultant image was high in contrast with relatively low detail. A comparison of essential characteristics of midline and lateral FFR techniques failed to identify specific advantages for the midline technique in current use. Lateral exposure modes in dental FFR should receive increased attention in the interest of good imaging and radiation control. It was noted that existing miniaturized dental x-ray machines may have been designed specifically for use of the midline FFR exposure technique, and modification of this equipment to support reliable lateral exposure modes was recommended

  6. Determination of Corrosion Rate of Artificial Bone Made of Metal at Different pH Conditions using X-Ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno; Handayani, L.; Edi, S. S.; Susilo; Elvira

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to observe the mechanism and the rate of corrosion of artificial bone made of metal by using x-ray radiography technique. Artificial bones can be made of metallic materials and composites which are biomaterials. The most commonly used metal for bone graft is stainless steel. The interaction between artificial bone and human tissue will have important medical impacts that need to be observed and examined. This interaction can be a mechanical or chemical interaction. X-ray radiography technique is selected because it uses non-destructive method. This method is done by x-ray radiation exposure on the observed body part. The bone density and bone fracture can be seen on the resulted radiographic film or image on the monitor screen.

  7. High intensification screen-film systems in thorax radiography: a clinical comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, C.B.; Sokiranski, R.; Claussen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: The quality of chest images was evaluated for a conventional screen-film system, a new asymmetric screen-film system, and a new uv screen-film system. Materials and Methods: 138 Chest radiographs (69 p.a., 69 lateral) obtained with three different high intensification screen-film combinations were compared. Film density and film contrast were measured. Three readers graded the image quality according to 16 criteria. Results: The asymmetric film-screen combination Insight HC showed the lowest film contrast, the best exposure range, and a elevated film density in the mediastinal area. The asymmetric screen-film system was ranked by all three observers as being substantially better in image quality. Conclusion: Compared to conventional screen-film systems, the new screen-film systems can improve the image quality of chest radiographs. Therefore, the new high intensification screen-film combinations can be used as a low cost alternative to the Amber technique and digital radiography. (orig.) [de

  8. Void fraction measurements by means of flash x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, S.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss X-ray radiography as a means of obtaining quantitative space distributions of void fractions in highly-transient, multiphase flows. The technique and the calibration of the instrument are discussed in detail, and its application in the MAGICO-2000 experiments is used to illustrate its potential in providing unique information about the interactions. (author)

  9. X-Ray Radiography of Three-Point Bending of Single Human Trabecula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, S1 (2012), s. 261-261 ISSN 0021-9290 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : microspheres * strain measurement * three-point bending * trabecular bone * X-ray radiography Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2012

  10. Licensing for industrial gamma and X-ray radiography installation in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    1988-01-01

    According the regulations for ionizing radiation source installations an application to the Peruvian National Authority should be forwarded in order to get the construction on operation license both industrial gamma and X-ray. Radiography is considered as well as personnel aspects. The proceedings are described

  11. Composite structure of helicopter rotor blades studied by neutron- and X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasko, M.; Veres, I.; Molnar, Gy.; Balasko, Zs.; Svab, E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to inspect the possible defects in the composite structure of helicopter rotor blades combined neutron- and X-ray radiography investigations were performed at the Budapest Research Reactor. Imperfections in the honeycomb structure, resin rich or starved areas at the core-honeycomb surfaces, inhomogeneities at the adhesive filling and water percolation at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections were discovered

  12. Composite structure of helicopter rotor blades studied by neutron- and X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaskó, M.; Veres, I.; Molnár, Gy.; Balaskó, Zs.; Sváb, E.

    2004-07-01

    In order to inspect the possible defects in the composite structure of helicopter rotor blades combined neutron- and X-ray radiography investigations were performed at the Budapest Research Reactor. Imperfections in the honeycomb structure, resin rich or starved areas at the core-honeycomb surfaces, inhomogeneities at the adhesive filling and water percolation at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections were discovered.

  13. Image quality in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution deals with the potentials of digital radiography and critically evaluates the advantages of drawbacks of the image intensifier-tv-digital system; digitalisation of the X-ray film and scanning of luminescent storage foils. The evaluation is done in comparison with the image quality of the traditional, large-size X-ray picture. (orig.) [de

  14. Bone structure investigation using X-ray and neutron radiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Taheri, T.; Ayubian, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report a study of the periodic variation of bone tissue humidity immediately after death using both neutron and X-ray radiography techniques. After death, bone tissue experiences sequential change over time. This change consists of organic and inorganic phase variations of the bone structure, as well as gradual reduction of the bone's water content. These variations are investigated by periodically imaging dead bone using X-ray and neutron radiography. Chemical separation techniques such as calcification and decalcification were used to separate the organic and inorganic phases of the bone. Comparison between X-ray and neutron radiographs of bone following phase separation can be potentially used to investigate the bone disease or to determine a cause of death. In our experiments, we use adult rat femur bones, and the interpretations of these results are presented based on our understanding of bone structure and images produced by neutron and X-ray photon interactions

  15. Bone structure investigation using X-ray and neutron radiography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K. [Nuclear Research Center (NRC), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: kkamali@aeoi.org.ir; Taheri, T.; Ayubian, M. [Nuclear Research Center (NRC), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), P.O. Box 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper we report a study of the periodic variation of bone tissue humidity immediately after death using both neutron and X-ray radiography techniques. After death, bone tissue experiences sequential change over time. This change consists of organic and inorganic phase variations of the bone structure, as well as gradual reduction of the bone's water content. These variations are investigated by periodically imaging dead bone using X-ray and neutron radiography. Chemical separation techniques such as calcification and decalcification were used to separate the organic and inorganic phases of the bone. Comparison between X-ray and neutron radiographs of bone following phase separation can be potentially used to investigate the bone disease or to determine a cause of death. In our experiments, we use adult rat femur bones, and the interpretations of these results are presented based on our understanding of bone structure and images produced by neutron and X-ray photon interactions.

  16. X-ray vector radiography for bone micro-architecture diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA). Although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility, its visualisation implies an imaging resolution better than 100 {mu}m, which limits the field of view and increases the necessary radiation dose. Here we describe a new method, X-ray Vector Radiography (XVR), based on X-ray scattering rather than absorption as contrast source, which yields information about the local orientation and degree of anisotropy of the bone micro-structure. This information is highly relevant for osteoporosis diagnostic. We demonstrate the feasibility by showing first experimental X-ray Vector Radiographies of human vertebra bone samples, yielding information on the trabecular structure.

  17. Characterization of film-converter screens systems for neutron radiography; Caracterizacao de sistemas filme-conversor para radiografia com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2002-07-01

    In general a good quality radiography is that one able to furnish high contrast and sharp edge images. Technically 'high contrast' means high capability to discern material thickness and 'sharp edges', high resolution power. In the present work the optimal conditions to obtain neutron radiography images by using the following film-converter screen systems, Kodak-AA/Gd vaporated; Kodak-AA/Gd metallic; Kodak-AA/LiF; Min-R/GdS{sub 2}O{sub 4}, have been determined. The irradiations were performed in a radiographic facility which was designed and constructed by the neutron radiography working group and is installed at the beamhole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. In order to determine such conditions, the start point was to evaluate the neutron exposure interval for which the optical contrast is maximal and so quantify the sensitivity or capability to discern material thickness, as well as the spatial resolution achieved in the radiographic image, for these systems. The best results have been obtained for the Kodak-AA/Gd vaporated system which is able to discern, for example, 0,024 cm of lucite, with a maximal resolution of 22{mu}m. The radiography images presently obtained in IPEN-CNEN/SP have similar quality when compared to the ones from several other research centers, around the world, whose making use of the same film-converter screens systems. (author)

  18. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  19. Radiography of oral cavity disorders [dentistry, stomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic examination in odonto-stomatology can he made easier by using intra-oral dental films and a dental X-ray machine. Parallel and bissecting angle techniques allow X-ray pictures to be taken with intra-and extra-oral films. Radiography provides information for diagnosis but it also allows the evaluation of dental treatments

  20. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  1. X-ray image intensifier/television systems for digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, J.A.; Hynes, D.M.; Edmonds, E.W.; Porter, A.J.; Toth, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The imaging criteria for skeletal radiography (high resolution and low noise) relevant to the use of x-ray image intensifier/TV digital systems are discussed. It is shown from the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise, and phantom evaluations that conventional x-ray image intensifiers in conjunction with a 1,000-line Plumbicon or Saticon TV camera are in most respects suitable for skeletal radiography. The optimum focal spot size depends on a trade-off with motion blurring through the x-ray exposure time and so is a function of the clinical problem. Since the skeletal system is readily immobilized, a 0.3-mm focal spot size is nearly optimum

  2. The relationship of over density to overexposure each film/screen systems in chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Huo Joon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Taro, Hayash; Yuji, Ishida; Tatsuya, Sakurai [The Chemotherapeutic Istitute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    This study is to calculate the exposed radiation dose using Bit method, NDD calculation method and monogram method without dosimeter. In addition,we can calculate the radiation dose from x-ray film density as a film badge. The authors examined the entrance skin dose from 2 {approx} 3 intercostal chest x-ray film density. We also studied the relationship between film density and equivalent dose in the each screen film system under the different radiation quality and the poor geometry condition of grid ratio. As results, we established the deductive method to define the entrance skin dose from chest x-ray film density. The error range was found in the range -13 percent {approx} +17 percent for between deductive entrance skin dose and the 2 {approx} 3 inter coastal chest x-ray film density to actual detective radiation dose with dosimeter. (author)

  3. The advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Lijuan; Luo Xiaomei; Wu Tengfang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the advantages of digital radiography in department of radiology by comparing digital radiography with common radiography. Methods: Test card was used for testing the spatial resolution of DR and common radiography. 1000 films of chest by DR and 1000 films of chest by common radiography were compared in image quality, dose of radiation, the rate of waste film, and the advantages of DR was analyzed. Results: Compared to common radiography, DR had a high sensitivity, high DQE (quantum detection efficiency), high spatial resolution and density resolution. The speed of acquisition and X-ray conversion efficiency were fast. The function of post-processing was strong and the rate of disease detection was high. Conclusion: DR is better than common radiography in all respects, it will be widely applied. (authors)

  4. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. - Highlights: • A material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography is proposed. • To solve the materials overlapping problem of the current dual energy algorithm. • The experimental results with the 4/7 MV container inspection system are shown.

  5. X-ray radiography of abdominal emergencies in clinical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencur, J.M.; Svoboda, M.

    1987-01-01

    The book explains in detail the procedure in X-ray examination and how to get the maximum of diagnostic information out of it. Part one is devoted to the organization, technology and methodology of X-ray examinations, the equipment of X-ray units and to radiation protection. Part two presents the anatomy of the abdomen and of the thorax, and the pathological manifestations of emergencies in the X-ray picture. Part three presents an analysis of the individual types of diseases and injuries illustrated with many pictures. (M.D.). 96 figs., 7 tabs., 400 refs

  6. Optimization of exposure factors for X-ray radiography non-destructive testing of pearl oyster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo; Yulianti, I.; Addawiyah, A.; Setiawan, R.

    2018-03-01

    One of the processes in pearl oyster cultivation is detecting the pearl nucleus to gain information whether the pearl nucleus is still attached in the shell or vomited. The common tool used to detect pearl nucleus is an X-ray machine. However, an X-ray machine has a drawback that is the energy used is higher than that used by digital radiography. The high energy make the resulted image is difficult to be analysed. One of the advantages of digital radiography is the energy used can be adjusted so that the resulted image can be analysed easily. To obtain a high quality of pearl image using digital radiography, the exposure factors should be optimized. In this work, optimization was done by varying the voltage, current, and exposure time. Then, the radiography images were analysed using Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR). From the analysis, it can be determined that the optimum exposure factors are 60 kV of voltage, 16 mA of current, and 0.125 s of exposure time which result in CNR of 5.71.

  7. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  8. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  9. A Compact 5 MeV S-Band Electron Linac Based X-Ray Source for Industrial Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Auditore, Lucrezia; De Pasquale, Domenico; Emanuele, Umberto; Italiano, Antonio; Trifirò, Antonio; Trimarchi, Marina

    2005-01-01

    A compact and reliable X-ray source, based on a 5 MeV, 1 kW, S-band electron linac, has been set up at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit\\'a di Messina. This source, coupled with a GOS scintillator screen and a CCD camera, represents an innovative transportable system for industrial radiography and X-ray tomography. Optimization of the parameters influencing the e-gamma conversion and the X-ray beam characteristics have been studied by means of the MCNP-4C2 code. The converter choice is the result of the study of the e-gamma conversion performances for different materials and materials thicknesses. Also the converter position with respect to the linac exit window was studied. The chosen converter consists in a Ta-Cu target inserted close to the linac window. The Cu layer acts as a filter both on the electrons from the source and on the low energy X-rays. The X-ray beam angular profile was studied by means of GafChromic films with and without collimation. In the final source project, a collimation system pr...

  10. Corrosion monitoring in insulated pipes using x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Suffian Saad; Shaharuddin Sayuti; Shukri Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    In engineering plants, detection of corrosion and evaluation of deposit in insulated pipes using radiography method are considered as very challenging tasks. In general, this degradation problem is attributed to water condensation. It causes the formation of deposit and scale inside the pipe, as well as between the insulation and pipe in cold temperature pipes. On the other hand, for hot temperature pipes the main problem is mainly due to corrosion/erosion attack inside the pipe. In the study of corrosion in pipelines, one of the most important parameters to be monitored and measured is the wall thickness. Currently, most pipeline corrosion monitoring and evaluation for both insulated and non-insulated pipes is performed using an ultrasonic method. The most notable disadvantage of using this method is that the insulation covering the pipe has to be removed before the inspection can be carried out and this is considered as not so cost effective. Due to this reason, the possibility of employing other alternative NDT method, namely radiographic testing method was studied. The technique used in this studied are known as tangential technique. In this study it was found that the result found using tangential technique is consistent with the actual thickness of the pipe. Besides the thickness, types of corrosion can also be identified easily. Result of this study is presented and discussed in this paper. (Author)

  11. Shielded radiography with a laser-driven MeV-energy X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shouyuan; Golovin, Grigory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Miller, Cameron [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Haden, Daniel; Banerjee, Sudeep; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Baozhen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Clarke, Shaun; Pozzi, Sara [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Umstadter, Donald, E-mail: donald.umstadter@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of experimental and numerical-simulation studies of shielded radiography using narrowband MeV-energy X-rays from a compact all-laser-driven inverse-Compton-scattering X-ray light source. This recently developed X-ray light source is based on a laser-wakefield accelerator with ultra-high-field gradient (GeV/cm). We demonstrate experimentally high-quality radiographic imaging (image contrast of 0.4 and signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1) of a target composed of 8-mm thick depleted uranium shielded by 80-mm thick steel, using a 6-MeV X-ray beam with a spread of 45% (FWHM) and 10{sup 7} photons in a single shot. The corresponding dose of the X-ray pulse measured in front of the target is ∼100 nGy/pulse. Simulations performed using the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX accurately reproduce the experimental results. These simulations also demonstrate that the narrow bandwidth of the Compton X-ray source operating at 6 and 9 MeV leads to a reduction of deposited dose as compared to broadband bremsstrahlung sources with the same end-point energy. The X-ray beam’s inherently low-divergence angle (∼mrad) is advantageous and effective for interrogation at standoff distance. These results demonstrate significant benefits of all-laser driven Compton X-rays for shielded radiography.

  12. High-speed videography combined with an x-ray image intensifier for dynamic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Spin Physics SP-2000 high-speed video system can be combined with an x-ray source, a dynamic event having internal (not directly visible) movement and an x-ray image intensifier to perform dynamic radiography. The cesium iodide input fluor and P-20 output fluor of the image intensifier have rapid decay to allow x-ray imaging up to 12,000 pictures per second. Applications of this technique include internal functioning of a compressor, turbulent-water action, and other mechanical actions

  13. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. N., E-mail: hall98@llnl.gov; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J.; Romano, E. [National Security Technologies LLC, 161 S Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40–200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  14. Screen-film versus digital radiography of sacroiliac joints: Evaluation of image quality and dose to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablanovic, D.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Damjanov, N.; Seric, S.; Radak-Perovic, M.; Arandjic, D.; Maksimovic, R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the image quality and dose to patients in the radiography of sacroiliac joints and to perform a clinical comparative study of digital and conventional screen-film radiography. Routine radiography of sacroiliac joint was performed in 60 patients using digital and screen-film radiography. The visibility of five anatomical regions and the overall image quality were rated by experienced radiologists. Patient dose assessment in terms of entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was performed. The digital system showed slightly improved visualisation of specific anatomical structures. Overall image quality was significantly better in the digital when compared with the screen-film imaging system. The average ESAK was 2.4 mGy in screen-film and 3.6 mGy in digital radiography. The digital radiography provided equal or better visibility of anatomical details and overall image quality, but on higher dose levels. Therefore, the practice on digital systems must be optimised. (authors)

  15. Bedrock topography beneath uppermost part of Aletsch glacier, Central Swiss Alps, revealed from cosmic-ray muon radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Käser, Samuel; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo; Ereditato, Antonio; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    In mountainous landscapes such as the Central Alps of Europe, the bedrock topography is one of the most interesting subjects of study since it separates the geological substratum (bedrock) from the overlying unconsolidated units (ice). The geometry of the bedrock topography puts a tight constraint on the erosional mechanism of glaciers. In previous studies, it has been inferred mainly from landscapes where glaciers have disappeared after the termination of the last glacial epoch. However, the number of studies with a focus on the structure beneath active glaciers is limited, because existing exploration methods have limitation in resolution and mobility. The Eiger-μ project proposes a new technology, called muon radiography, to investigate the bedrock geometry beneath active glaciers. The muon radiography is a recent technique that relies on the high penetration power of muon components in natural cosmic rays. Specifically, one can resolve the internal density profile of a gigantic object by measuring the attenuation rate of the intensity of muons after passing through it, as in medical X-ray diagnostic. This technique has been applied to many fields such as volcano monitoring (eg. Ambrosino et al., 2015; Jourde et al., 2016; Nishiyama et al., 2016), detection of seismic faults (eg. Tanaka et al., 2011), inspection inside nuclear reactors, etc. The first feasibility test of the Eiger-μ project has been performed at Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps, Switzerland. We installed cosmic-ray detectors consisting of emulsion films at three sites along the Jungfrau railway tunnel facing Aletsch glacier (Jungfraufirn). The detectors stayed 47 days in the tunnel and recorded the tracks of muons which passed through the glacier and bedrock (thickness is about 100 m). Successively the films were chemically developed and scanned at University of Bern with microscopes originally developed for the analysis of physics experiments on neutrino oscillation. The analysis of muon

  16. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrdlicka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a radiographic method using a neutron beam of a defined geometry. The neutron source usually consists of a research reactor, a specialized neutron radiography reactor or the 252 Cf radioisotope source. There are two types of the neutron radiography display system, viz., a system producing neutron radiography images by a photographic process or a system allowing a visual display, eg., using a television monitor. The method can be used wherever X-ray radiography is used except applications in the radiography of humans. The neutron radiography unit at UJV uses the WWR-S reactor as the neutron source and both types of the above mentioned display system. (J.P.)

  17. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering...... properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists...... of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually...

  18. Influence of pulsed electric field on defectoscopic characteristics of electro- x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.A.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Sosnin, F.R.

    1988-01-01

    A new method to increase electric resistance of semiconductor plates in the process of electro-X-ray radiography, which is based on influence of a pulsed electric field on the plate semiconductor layer is suggested. The effect of a pulsed field with the intensity E=10 6 V/cm, frequency of 50 Hz and front length of 1 ns has increased electric resistance of the semiconductor layer and improved flaw detection in the process of electroradiography

  19. Interpretation of Core Length in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    interrogating the near field of a number of dense sprays including diesel injectors , aerated liquid jets, solid-cone sprays, impinging-jet sprays and gas...Measurements of Mass Distributions in the Near- Nozzle Region of Sprays form Standard Multi-hole Common-rail Diesel Injection Systems,” 11th Triennial...Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  20. Automatic film loader for X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A light tight tunnel extends over the top of a diagnostic X-ray table. A film cassette is mounted for reciprocating in the tunnel between an X-ray exposure position and a position in which the cassette is unloaded or loaded with film automatically. Unexposed films are dispensed one at a time into the cassette from a feed magazine at one end of the tunnel. After exposure, the film is ejected from the cassette into a receiving magazine at the same end of the tunnel. (Auth.)

  1. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Roscoe E.

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  2. Horizontal cosmic ray muon radiography for imaging nuclear threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, Joseph; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Sugita, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses information contained in the Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons to generate three dimension images of volumes between tracking detectors. Advantages of this technique are the muons ability to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the long exposure times and limited resolution because of the low flux. Here we compare the times needed to image objects using both vertically and horizontally mounted tracking detectors and we develop a predictive model for other geometries

  3. Horizontal cosmic ray muon radiography for imaging nuclear threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher L.; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Fabritius, Joseph; Miyadera, Haruo; Perry, John; Sugita, Tsukasa

    2014-07-01

    Muon tomography is a technique that uses information contained in the Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons to generate three dimension images of volumes between tracking detectors. Advantages of this technique are the muons ability to penetrate significant overburden and the absence of any additional dose beyond the natural cosmic ray flux. Disadvantages include the long exposure times and limited resolution because of the low flux. Here we compare the times needed to image objects using both vertically and horizontally mounted tracking detectors and we develop a predictive model for other geometries.

  4. Automatic X-ray television rig for high-speed radiography of polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbakh, V.D.; Garasim, Yu.A.; Oshkaderov, S.P.; Pet'kov, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The high-speed radiography method is used for studying the phase and structural transformation in metals and alloys during rapid changes in temperature. In order to improve the effectiveness of this method the Institute of Metal Physics, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, has developed an automatic rig for high-speed radiography of polycrystalline materials using a television method for recording the x-ray diffraction patterns. The rig, described here, consists of an x-ray block, a vacuum chamber, a device for programmed electro-contact heating of specimens, a system for imaging and scanning x-ray diffraction patterns, and a system for collecting and analyzing the data. Focusing is carried out by the Zeeman-Bolin method. The new rig helps to significantly reduce the recording time and ensures adequate quality and reliability of the recorded diffraction image over a wide range of temperatures. Data using the rig is presented for high-speed radiography for cooling a specimen of G20 steel. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. Miniature, mobile X-ray computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Rose, Evan A

    2017-03-07

    A miniature, portable x-ray system may be configured to scan images stored on a phosphor. A flash circuit may be configured to project red light onto a phosphor and receive blue light from the phosphor. A digital monochrome camera may be configured to receive the blue light to capture an article near the phosphor.

  6. A method of simultaneous no-screen X-ray film taking with direct twofold magnification of hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajgner, J.; Szymanska-Prach, H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose an original method of X-ray examination of hands and feet which makes possible simultaneous radiography without screen and direct twofold magnified film taking. The method is not connected with the necessity of exposing the patient to an additional dose of X-rays. It has been tried in 20 patients with suspected rheumatoid arthritis. It requires an X-ray tube with 0.3 x 0.3 mm microfocus. (author)

  7. Registration of pencil beam proton radiography data with X-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffet, Sylvain; Macq, Benoît; Righetto, Roberto; Vander Stappen, François; Farace, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Proton radiography seems to be a promising tool for assessing the quality of the stopping power computation in proton therapy. However, range error maps obtained on the basis of proton radiographs are very sensitive to small misalignment between the planning CT and the proton radiography acquisitions. In order to be able to mitigate misalignment in postprocessing, the authors implemented a fast method for registration between pencil proton radiography data obtained with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) and an X-ray CT acquired on a head phantom. The registration was performed by optimizing a cost function which performs a comparison between the acquired data and simulated integral depth-dose curves. Two methodologies were considered, one based on dual orthogonal projections and the other one on a single projection. For each methodology, the robustness of the registration algorithm with respect to three confounding factors (measurement noise, CT calibration errors, and spot spacing) was investigated by testing the accuracy of the method through simulations based on a CT scan of a head phantom. The present registration method showed robust convergence towards the optimal solution. For the level of measurement noise and the uncertainty in the stopping power computation expected in proton radiography using a MLIC, the accuracy appeared to be better than 0.3° for angles and 0.3 mm for translations by use of the appropriate cost function. The spot spacing analysis showed that a spacing larger than the 5 mm used by other authors for the investigation of a MLIC for proton radiography led to results with absolute accuracy better than 0.3° for angles and 1 mm for translations when orthogonal proton radiographs were fed into the algorithm. In the case of a single projection, 6 mm was the largest spot spacing presenting an acceptable registration accuracy. For registration of proton radiography data with X-ray CT, the use of a direct ray-tracing algorithm to compute

  8. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  9. A color display device recording X ray spectra, especially intended for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulch, J.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a color display recording device for X ray spectra intended for medical radiography. The video signal of the X ray camera receiving the radiation having passed through the patient is amplified and transformed into a color coding according to the energy spectrum received by the camera. In a first version, the energy spectrum from the camera gives directly an image on the color tube. In a second version the energy spectrum, after having been transformed into digital signals, is first sent into a memory, then into a computer used as a spectrum analyzer, and finally into the color display device [fr

  10. Discriminated neutron and X-ray radiography using multi-color scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Takahara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tamura, Toshiyuki

    1999-01-01

    A new conversion screen Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu is developed, which emits red light on irradiation by thermal neutrons. By applying this in combination with the currently used Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb, a green-light scintillator, in the radiography under a neutron + X-ray coexisting field, we can easily separate the neutron image and the X-ray image by simple color-image processing. This technique enables a non-destructive and detailed inspection of industrial products composed both of light elements (water, plastics, etc.) and heavy elements (metals), widening the horizon of new applications

  11. Discriminated neutron and X-ray radiography using multi-color scintillation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nittoh, K; Yoshida, T; Tamura, T

    1999-01-01

    A new conversion screen Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S:Eu is developed, which emits red light on irradiation by thermal neutrons. By applying this in combination with the currently used Gd sub 2 O sub 2 S:Tb, a green-light scintillator, in the radiography under a neutron + X-ray coexisting field, we can easily separate the neutron image and the X-ray image by simple color-image processing. This technique enables a non-destructive and detailed inspection of industrial products composed both of light elements (water, plastics, etc.) and heavy elements (metals), widening the horizon of new applications.

  12. Inspection of welded joints and cords using industrial x-ray and gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar R, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The first part of this work contains five chapters related to theoretical aspects and basic knowledge of welding metallurgy, welding, welded joint discontinuity, non-destructive testing (NDT) and industrial x-rays. The second part contains experimental works applied and carried out by the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). Due to the importance of identifying and applying the different methods of NDT in the industry's quality control, more emphasis is placed on industrial x-ray and gamma radiography, a method that involves the radiographic inspection of welded joints and cords

  13. Clinical evaluation of wide-latitude HR-C film for chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sung; Hwang, Nam Sun; Yeo, Young Bok; Lee, In Ja; Huh, Joon

    1990-01-01

    In application of wide latitude HR-C film to chest x-ray examination, former x-ray diagnosis area is larger and diagnostic information has great deal of promotion. HR-C film is compare to former x-ray film is larger latitude and density level is small, reading is very easily. Especially, high estimate that is in characteristic curve linearity of toe part is good, contrast of low density made good shape and not good describe to overlap is diagnostic information increase mediastinum portion etc

  14. X-ray pick-up device for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The X-ray tube has got a tabular extension at the front end of which a W-shaped target is mounted. The target hit by electrons emits X-radiation passing through a ceramic window in the surface area. The extension can be inserted into the mouth opening of the patient. For holding down the tongue and for shielding purposes it has got a device shaped like a sleeve with diverging wings fastened to it. Thex leave the ceramic window uncovered. (orig.) [de

  15. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, J. M.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  16. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Durham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  17. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. M., E-mail: durham@lanl.gov; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Renshaw, J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC 28262-8550 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  18. On the Performance of X-ray Imaging Plates in Gamma Radiography employing Reactor-produced Radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; de Almeida, Gevaldo L.; Furieri, Rosanne C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-08-01

    Gamma-radiography employing radiographic films is a well established technique for non-destructive assays. The advent of X-ray sensitive Imaging Plates opens up new possibilities to apply this technique thanks to the advantages exhibited by this new device. Indeed, besides a sensitivity about 20 times higher then the conventional photographic film, requiring thus a shorter exposure time, it does not require a dark room for a cumbersome and time-consuming chemical processing associated to the development, an can be erased to be reused many times. Moreover, its development carried out by means of a laser beam produces digitalized images which can be promptly stored in a computer. Although its resolution is still poorer than that of the conventional film, those advantages overwhelms this specific parameter when it is not an essential feature for the intended application. This work evaluates the feasibility of employing X-ray Imaging Plates as detector for higher photon energies as those emitted by reactor-produced radioisotopes. Within this frame, radioisotopes such as 198Au and 56Mn, produced at the Argonauta research reactor in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-CNEN have been employed as sources to acquire radiographic images of several pieces of equipment, devices and components. In order to keep the source appearance—with regard to the detector—as punctual as possible, reducing hence the penumbra effect, the mass of the irradiated material had to be limited. Therefore, due to the low neutron flux available at the main port of the reactor, the exposure times have to be extended along several hours or even a couple of days in order to reach an image with adequate contrast. This demand, nevertheless, does not constitute a serious hindrance as the exposure process can be carried out without any intervention or surveillance. Results have shown that in spite of the higher photon energies used, surpassing the X-ray range for which the imaging plates have been

  19. UGCT: New X-ray radiography and tomography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masschaele, B.C.; Cnudde, V.; Dierick, M.; Jacobs, P.; Hoorebeke, L. van; Vlassenbroeck, J.

    2007-01-01

    The UGCT (University Gent Computer Tomography) facility, a cooperation between the Radiation Physics research group and the Sedimentary Geology and Engineering Geology research group is a new CT facility providing a large range of scanning possibilities. Formerly a Skyscan 1072 was used to perform X-ray micro-CT scans at the UGCT facility and although this is a very powerful instrument, there were needs for a higher resolution and more flexibility. Therefore, the UCGT facility started the construction of a multidisciplinary micro-CT scanner inside a shielded room with a maximum flexibility of the set-up. The X-ray tube of this high-resolution CT scanner is a state-of-the-art open-type device with dual head: one head for high power micro-CT and one for sub-micro- or also called nano-CT. An important advantage of this scanner is that different detectors can be used to optimize the scanning conditions of the objects under investigation. The entire set-up is built on a large optical table to obtain the highest possible stability. Due to the flexible set-up and the powerful CT reconstruction software 'Octopus', it is possible to obtain the highest quality and the best signal-to-noise of the reconstructed images for each type of sample

  20. UGCT: New X-ray radiography and tomography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masschaele, B.C. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.masschaele@ugent.be; Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Dierick, M. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Jacobs, P. [Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Hoorebeke, L. van; Vlassenbroeck, J. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2007-09-21

    The UGCT (University Gent Computer Tomography) facility, a cooperation between the Radiation Physics research group and the Sedimentary Geology and Engineering Geology research group is a new CT facility providing a large range of scanning possibilities. Formerly a Skyscan 1072 was used to perform X-ray micro-CT scans at the UGCT facility and although this is a very powerful instrument, there were needs for a higher resolution and more flexibility. Therefore, the UCGT facility started the construction of a multidisciplinary micro-CT scanner inside a shielded room with a maximum flexibility of the set-up. The X-ray tube of this high-resolution CT scanner is a state-of-the-art open-type device with dual head: one head for high power micro-CT and one for sub-micro- or also called nano-CT. An important advantage of this scanner is that different detectors can be used to optimize the scanning conditions of the objects under investigation. The entire set-up is built on a large optical table to obtain the highest possible stability. Due to the flexible set-up and the powerful CT reconstruction software 'Octopus', it is possible to obtain the highest quality and the best signal-to-noise of the reconstructed images for each type of sample.

  1. X-ray absorption radiography for high pressure shock wave studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Brambrink, E.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Koenig, M.; Le Bel, E.; Maheut, Y.; Nguyen-Bui, T.; Richetta, M.; Rousseaux, C.; Ribeyre, X.; Schiavi, A.; Trela, J.

    2018-01-01

    The study of laser compressed matter, both warm dense matter (WDM) and hot dense matter (HDM), is relevant to several research areas, including materials science, astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion. X-ray absorption radiography is a unique tool to diagnose compressed WDM and HDM. The application of radiography to shock-wave studies is presented and discussed. In addition to the standard Abel inversion to recover a density map from a transmission map, a procedure has been developed to generate synthetic radiographs using density maps produced by the hydrodynamics code DUED. This procedure takes into account both source-target geometry and source size (which plays a non negligible role in the interpretation of the data), and allows to reproduce transmission data with a good degree of accuracy.

  2. Stereographic images acquired with gamma rays and thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Ines Silvani; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne C.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The inner structure of an object, which should not be submitted to an invasive assay, can only be perceived by using a suitable technique in order to render it transparent. A widely employed technique for this purpose involves the using of a radiation capable to pass through the object, collecting the transmitted radiation by a proper device, which furnishes a radiographic attenuation map of the object. This map, however, does not display the spatial distribution of the inner components of the object, but a convoluted view for each specific attitude of the object with regard to the set beam-detector. A 3D tomographic approach would show that distribution but it would demand a large number of projections requiring special equipment and software, not always available or affordable. In some circumstances however, a 3D tomography can be replaced by a stereographic view of the object under inspection, as done in this work, where instead of tens of radiographic projections, only two of them taken at suitable object attitudes are employed. Once acquired, these projections are properly processed and observed through a red and green eyeglass. For monochromatic images, this methodology requires the transformation of the black and white radiographs into red and white and green and white ones, which are afterwards merged to yield a single image. All the process is carried out with the software Image J . In this work, the Argonauta reactor at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro has been used as a source of thermal neutrons to acquire the neutron radiographic images, as well as to produce 198 Au sources employed in the acquisition of gamma-ray radiographic ones. X-ray or neutron-sensitive imaging plates have been used as detector, which after exposure were developed by a reader using a 0.5μm-diameter laser beam. (author)

  3. Absorbed and effective dose from periapical radiography by portable intraoral x-ray machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the absorbed dose and to calculate the effective dose for periapical radiography done by portable intraoral x-ray machines. 14 full mouth, upper posterior and lower posterior periapical radiographs were taken by wall-type 1 and portable type 3 intraoral x-ray machines. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were placed at 23 sites at the layers of the tissue-equivalent ART woman phantom for dosimetry. Average tissue absorbed dose and radiation weighted dose were calculated for each major anatomical site. Effective dose was calculated using 2005 ICRP tissue weighted factors. On 14 full mouth periapical radiographs, the effective dose for wall-type x-ray machine was 30 Sv; for portable x-ray machines were 30 Sv, 22 Sv, 36 Sv. On upper posterior radiograph, the effective dose for wall-type x-ray machine was 4 Sv; for portable x-ray machines doses were 4 Sv, 3 Sv, 5 Sv. On lower posterior radiograph, the effective dose for wall type x-ray machine was 5 Sv; for portable x-ray machines doses were 4 Sv, 4 Sv, 5 Sv. Effective doses for periapical radiographs performed by portable intraoral x-ray machines were similar to doses for periapical radiographs taken by wall type intraoral x-ray machines

  4. Development of a mobile shield for X-ray radiography and its application in diagnosis of endemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hengxiang; Zhang Huafang; Chen Peizhong; Ma Aihua; Wang Yutao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mobile shield for X-ray radiography in order to improve the protection of operators against the exposure in diagnosis of endemic diseases at site. Methods: Firstly, X-ray tube was routinely fixed on the stand while the operator was 1 and 2 m respectively away from the axis of it. When the shanks and forearms of the patient were exposed fractionally, the dose-equivalent rates of operator were detected at their forehead, chest and abdomen by pressurized ionization chamber. Secondly, the mobile shield was added before X-ray tube. The same parts were exposed and the dose-equivalent rates at the corresponding positions were detected as above. Fifty-five people were examined in areas with endemic diseases. The X-ray films were sham-exposed as control. The photographing quality was assessed. Results: In the routine way, the dose-equivalent rates for the forearms were 1043, 1191, and 1297 μSv/h at 1 m, and 512, 673, and 798 μSv/h at 2 m, while for the shanks were 1356, 1489, 1675 μSv/h at 1 m, and 743, 978 and 1127 μSv/h at 2 m, respectively. After the shield was added, the dose-equivalent rates for the forearms reduced to 1.7, 2.9 and 7.9 μSv/h at 1 m, and 0.6, 1.3 and 3.1 μSv/h at 2 m, while for the shanks were 2.2, 3.4, 9.1 μSv/h at 1 m, and 0.9, 1.2, and 3.9 μSv/h at 2 m respectively, which were 1/150-1/800 of the former. Moreover, the percentage of high-quality photos was increased by 30%. Conclusions: As a small device, the mobile shield for X-ray radiography is convenient for photograph of multi-parts, which helps to perform the X-ray test safely and effectively in areas of endemic diseases. (authors)

  5. Plasma spectroscopy diagnostics in pulsed-power X-ray radiography diode research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Johnston, Mark D.; Rose, David Vincent; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Schamiloglu, Edl; Welch, Dale R.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Maenchen, John Eric

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopic investigations in the visible and near UV are underway to study plasmas present in X-ray radiography diodes during the time of the electron beam propagation. These studies are being performed on the RITS-3 accelerator (5.25 MV and 120 kA) at Sandia National Laboratories using several diode configurations. The proper characterization of the plasmas occurring during the time of the X-ray pulse can lead to a greater understanding of diode behavior and X-ray spot size evolution. By studying these plasmas along with the use of selective dopants, insights into such phenomena as impedance collapse, thermal and non-thermal species behavior, charge and current neutralization, anode and cathode plasma formation and propagation, and beam/foil interactions, can be obtained. Information from line and continuum emission and absorption can give key plasma parameters such as temperatures, densities, charge states, and expansion velocities. This information is important for proper modeling and future predictive capabilities for the design and improvement of flash X-ray radiography diodes. Diagnostics include a gated, intensified multichannel plate camera combined with a 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator with a multi-fiber spectral input, allowing for both temporal and spatial resolution. Recent results are presented.

  6. X-ray phase radiography and tomography with grating interferometry and the reverse projection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Ge, Xin; Wu, Zhao; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu; Zhu, Peiping; Yuan, Qingxi; Huang, Wanxia; Zhang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    X-ray grating interferometry provides substantially increased contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging methods, and therefore new and complementary information. Compared with other phase-contrast imaging techniques, x-ray grating interferometry can overcome some of the problems that have impaired the applications of x-ray phase-contrast radiography and phase tomography. Recently, special attention has been paid to the development of quantitative phase retrieval methods, which is mandatory to perform x-ray phase tomography, to achieve material identification, to differentiate distinct tissues, etc. Typically, the phase-stepping approach has been utilized for phase retrieval in grating interferometry. This method requires a grating scanning and acquisition of multiple radiographic projections, and therefore is disadvantageous in terms of imaging speed and radiation damage. Here we present an innovative, highly sensitive approach, dubbed ‘reverse projection’ (RP), for quantitative phase retrieval. Compared with the phase-stepping approach, the present RP method abandons grating scanning completely, and thus is advantageous due to its much higher efficiency and the reduced radiation dose, without the degradation of reconstruction quality. This review presents a detailed explanation of the principle of the RP method. Both radiography and phase tomography experiments are performed to validate the RP method. We believe that this new technique will find widespread applications in biomedical imaging and in vivo studies. (paper)

  7. A study on the distribution of scatter ray in chest radiography of a health examination bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Jin, Seong Jin; Min, Byeong In

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of spatial scatter ray on the chest radiographs of patients on health examination bus. In this paper, we propose a method for minimize unnecessary exposure by measuring the scattered dose after exposure the actual subject and comparing the body mass index (BMI) with the tube current amount mAs. The results of this study showed that the mean BMI of the subjects was 23.31±3.12. The mean mAs value was 2.92±1.19, which males was higher than females. The mean value of the scatter ray at position 1 in the radiography room was 771.81±151.15 μ/hr. The mean value of the scatter rays at the position 2 outside the entrance of the radiography room was measured as 53.86±25.66 μ/hr. As the BMI and mAs was increase the spatial scatter dose was increased at position 1 and position 2 in the photographing room. In order to minimize the exposure dose of scatter ray, radiation workers should shoot the radiation as low as possible within the range that does not impair the quality of the image. It will be necessary to make efforts to not wait for a waiting person near the entrance door of the photographing room

  8. A study on the distribution of scatter ray in chest radiography of a health examination bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Ji Hwan [Dept. of Health Care Clinic, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Seong Jin [Gammaknife center, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byeong In [Dept. of of Nuclear Applied Engineering, Inje University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of spatial scatter ray on the chest radiographs of patients on health examination bus. In this paper, we propose a method for minimize unnecessary exposure by measuring the scattered dose after exposure the actual subject and comparing the body mass index (BMI) with the tube current amount mAs. The results of this study showed that the mean BMI of the subjects was 23.31±3.12. The mean mAs value was 2.92±1.19, which males was higher than females. The mean value of the scatter ray at position 1 in the radiography room was 771.81±151.15 μ/hr. The mean value of the scatter rays at the position 2 outside the entrance of the radiography room was measured as 53.86±25.66 μ/hr. As the BMI and mAs was increase the spatial scatter dose was increased at position 1 and position 2 in the photographing room. In order to minimize the exposure dose of scatter ray, radiation workers should shoot the radiation as low as possible within the range that does not impair the quality of the image. It will be necessary to make efforts to not wait for a waiting person near the entrance door of the photographing room.

  9. An alternative approach to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An alternative to industrial X-ray film for industrial radiography is described. The experimental system uses film containing approximately 35% of the silver in an industrial type film, which makes the film easier to process, and uses high resolution phosphor screens, which improves the absorption of X-ray photons. Those properties that affect image quality, namely contrast, modulation transfer function and granularity, are discussed in detail for both types of system. A study of low contrast detail in radiographs indicates that for noise limited information the experimental system offers a higher quality than industrial X-ray film of similar speed. (author)

  10. Neutron induced electron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 μm in 24 μm of aluminum at a resolution of 32 μm. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  11. Displacement Tracking in Single Human Trabecula with Metal-plated Micro-spheres using X-ray Radiography Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kytýř, Daniel; Doktor, Tomáš; Dammer, J.; Krejčí, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), C02041-C02047 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2305 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronic * X-ray radiography and digital radiography (DR) * single trabeculae Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/02/C02041

  12. Neutron radiography by using JSW baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Yojiro

    1995-01-01

    At present, JSW baby cyclotrons are mostly used for the production of the radioisotopes for medical use. The attempt to use this baby cyclotron for neutron radiography began already in 1981. The feasibility of the neutron radiography for the explosives in metallic cases which are used for H1 rockets was investigated. In 1983, it was shown that the neutron radiography by using the baby cyclotron in Muroran Works, Japan Steel Works, Ltd. was able to be carried out as a routine work. Since then, the nondestructive inspection by neutron radiography has been performed for rocket pyrotechnic articles, and contributed to heighten their reliability. Further, the radiography by using fast neutrons was developed and put to practical use for recent large H2 rockets. The JSW baby cyclotron BC 168 which has been used for neutron radiography can accelerate 16 MeV protons or 8 MeV deuterons up to 50 μA. The principle of thermal neutron radiography is the generation of fast neutrons by irradiating a Be target with the proton beam accelerated by a baby cyclotron, the moderation of the fast neutrons, the formation of the thermal neutron flux of uniform distribution with a collimator, the thermal neutron flux hitting the Gd plate in a film cassette through an object, and the exposure of an X-ray film to electrons from the Gd plate. Fast neutron radiography apparatus, and commercial neutron radiography are described. (K.I.)

  13. Lead iodide films as X-ray sensors tested in the mammography energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condeles, J.F.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative method for the deposition of thin films of lead iodide (PbI 2 ), which is a promising semiconductor candidate for applications in medical digital radiography. The spray pyrolysis technique enables the fabrication of thick films with a deposition rate of about 3.3 As -1 . We investigate the influence of the main deposition parameters on the final properties of the films. They were substrate temperature from 150 up to 270 o C and nozzle-spray distance to substrate from 13.0 to 16.5 cm. The films were mainly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Also, electrical characterizations were made in the dark as a function of temperature, and with the samples submitted to X-ray exposures in the energy range of mammography diagnosis

  14. Radiography studies with gamma rays produced by 14-MeV fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen contained in pure water has been activated via the 16 O(n, p) 16 N reaction using 14-MeV neutrons produced at a neutron generator with the 3 H(d,n) 4 He source. Photons of 6.129 and 7.115 MeV, generated by the decay of 7.13-second 16 N, were then used to demonstrate the feasibility of employing highly penetrating, nearly monoenergetic gamma rays for radiography studies of thick, dense objects composed of elements with medium to relatively high atomic numbers. A simple radiography apparatus was constructed by circulating water continuously between a position near the target of the neutron generator and a remote location where photon transmission measurements were conducted. A sodium iodide scintillator was employed to detect the photons. Pulses equivalent to photon energies smaller than 2.506 MeV (corresponding to the cascade sum of 1.333- and 1.173-MeV gamma rays from the decay of 5.271-year 60 Co) were rejected by the electronics settings in order to reduce background and improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Respectable S/N ratios on the order of 20-to-1 were achieved with this setup. Most of the background (N) could be attributed to ambient environmental radiation and cosmic-ray interactions with the lead shielding and detector. Four representative objects were examined by photon radiography in this study. This demonstrated how such - interesting features as hidden holes and discontinuities in atomic number could be easily identified from observed variations in the intensity of transmitted photons. Some advantages of this technique are described, and potential applications are suggested for a future scenario where fusion reactors are used to generate electric power and very intense sources of high-energy photons from 16 N decay are continuously available as a byproduct of the reactor cooling process

  15. Industrial radiography with phosphor screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental system that comprises a film of low silver content and a pair of high resolution phosphor intensifying screens and a commercial industrial X-ray film of similar speed are compared for image quality. It is concluded that the use of phosphor screens offers an increase in image quality when the information is limited by the graininess or quantum mottle of a radiograph which is frequently the case in practical radiography. (author)

  16. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu

    2009-01-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 μA, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 μA, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  17. Experimental Comparison of 2-3MV X-Ray Sources for Flash Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MENGE, PETER RICHARD; JOHNSON, DAVID LEE; MAENCHEN, JOHN E.; OLSON, CRAIG L.; ROVANG, DEAN C.; DROEMER, D.; HUNT, E.; OLIVER, BRYAN VELTEN; ROSE, DAVID VINCENT; WELCH, DALE ROBERT

    2002-01-01

    High-brightness flash x-ray sources are needed for penetrating dynamic radiography for a variety of applications. Various bremsstrahlung source experiments have been conducted on the TriMeV accelerator (3MV, 60 Ω 20 ns) to determine the best diode and focusing configuration in the 2-3 MV range. Three classes of candidate diodes were examined: gas cell focusing, magnetically immersed, and rod pinch. The best result for the gas cell diode was 6 rad at 1 meter from the source with a 5 mm diameter x-ray spot. Using a 0.5 mm diameter cathode immersed in a 17 T solenoidal magnetic field, the best shot produced 4.1 rad with a 2.9 mm spot. The rod pinch diode demonstrated very reproducible radiographic spots between 0.75 and 0.8 mm in diameter, producing 1.2 rad. This represents a factor of eight improvement in the TriMeV flash radiographic capability above the original gas cell diode to a figure of merit (dose/spot diameter) > 1.8 rad/mm. These results clearly show the rod pinch diode to be the choice x-ray source for flash radiography at 2-3 M V

  18. X-ray fluorescence and computed radiography analysis of a famous brazilian painting from XIX century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Davi F.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear], e-mail: ccalza@lin.ufrj.br; Pedreira, Andrea [Museu Nacional de Belas Artes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Computed Radiography (CR) to evaluate the general conditions of the painting 'Gioventu' (Eliseu Visconti, 1898), identifying possible problems, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the pigments used by the artist. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system consisting of an X-ray tube Oxford TF3005 with W anode, operating at 25 kV and 100 {mu}A, and a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek. Several spectra were obtained in each color, with an acquisition time of 300 s and a beam collimation of 2 mm. The spectra were analyzed using the software QXAS-AXIL (IAEA). The results revealed that the drawings were made over a preparatory layer of lead white. Some pigments identified were: yellow, red and brown ochre; umbra; vermilion; cobalt blue; etc. The experimental setup used in the CR analysis consisted of an Oxford X-ray source, operating at 50 kV and 200 {mu}A, placed at 85 cm from the painting, a GE CR 50P portable computed radiography scanner and a Fuji imaging plate detector. The exposure time was 600 s. The radiographic images revealed that the painting was in a good state of conservation and also a complete composition hidden underneath the visible paint layer.(author)

  19. Particle physics seminar: Muon radiography of volcanoes and the MU-RAY project

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92   Wednesday 25  May 2011 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Muon radiography of volcanoes and the MU-RAY project Par Prof. Paolo Strolin, Università Federico II and INFN, Napoli Thanks to their penetration power, high energy muons generated in the interactions of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere offer the possibility to perform “muon radiographies” of geological structures and in particular volcanoes. The principle is similar to that of the imaging of the interior of human body through the observation of the absorption of X rays. Muon radiography has been first applied in 1970 to the search of unknown burial chambers in the Chefren’s pyramid. In the years 2000, the technique has been ...

  20. Design of parallel dual-energy X-ray beam and its performance for security radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Myoung, Sung Min; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of dual-energy X-ray beam generation and acquisition of dual-energy security radiography is proposed. Erbium (Er) and rhodium (Rh) with a copper filter were positioned in front of X-ray tube to generate low- and high-energy X-ray spectra. Low- and high-energy X-rays were guided to separately enter into two parallel detectors. Monte Carlo code of MCNPX was used to derive an optimum thickness of each filter for improved dual X-ray image quality. It was desired to provide separation ability between organic and inorganic matters for the condition of 140 kVp/0.8 mA as used in the security application. Acquired dual-energy X-ray beams were evaluated by the dual-energy Z-map yielding enhanced performance compared with a commercial dual-energy detector. A collimator for the parallel dual-energy X-ray beam was designed to minimize X-ray beam interference between low- and high-energy parallel beams for 500 mm source-to-detector distance.

  1. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  2. Crystal nucleation in metallic alloys using x-ray radiography and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Carlos; Lempitsky, Victor

    2018-01-01

    The crystallization of solidifying Al-Cu alloys over a wide range of conditions was studied in situ by synchrotron x-ray radiography, and the data were analyzed using a computer vision algorithm trained using machine learning. The effect of cooling rate and solute concentration on nucleation undercooling, crystal formation rate, and crystal growth rate was measured automatically for thousands of separate crystals, which was impossible to achieve manually. Nucleation undercooling distributions confirmed the efficiency of extrinsic grain refiners and gave support to the widely assumed free growth model of heterogeneous nucleation. We show that crystallization occurred in temporal and spatial bursts associated with a solute-suppressed nucleation zone. PMID:29662954

  3. Panoramic dental radiography with an intra-oral X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, L.

    1980-01-01

    Surveys of the complete dentition and jaws can be obtained in various ways. Panoramic radiography with an intra-oral X-ray tube results in a lower radiation exposure than other methods, and is less time-consuming. However, the symmetrical views generally employed result in relatively poor imaging of the molars. This disadvantage can be overcome by using lateral projections which also cause less discomfort for the patient and, particularly in combination with intensifying screens, a further reduction in radiation exposure. Some possible future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  4. Advanced X-ray radiography and tomography in several engineering applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Dammer, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Jeon, I.; Jiroušek, Ondřej; Kroupa, M.; Zlámal, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), s. 152-155 ISSN 0168-9002. [International workshop on radiation imaging detectors /11./. Praha, 26.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : digital radiography * computed tomography * X-ray crack imaging Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.152

  5. On the image formation in x-ray radiography using aligned carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, F., E-mail: okuya@mui.biglobe.ne.jp

    2017-04-11

    Evidence is presented that field electrons emitted from vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) yield clearer x-ray images than do thermionic electrons, under the identical electron-optical condition. Specifically, the same sample, an LSI circuit, mounted on the same x-ray chamber could be imaged far more sharply with a CNF emitter than with a thermionic one. It is hypothesized that electrons discharged from CNF tips hit the target to form “discrete focal points” thereon, thereby generating multiple x-ray beams that interplay to form a brilliant, sharply-delineated x-ray image. This hypothesis may stimulate open discussion on how to define the “focal point” for the x-ray imaging using nano-structured electron sources. Also, the improved resolution attained with CNFs might indicate that the heat generation originating in electron-target interactions is not so serious in the present field-emission mode. - Highlights: • Field-emission (FE) x-ray radiography (XR) is based on nanotechnology. • FE-XR surpasses thermionic XR in image resolution and brilliance. • Highly-resolved FE-XR images are due possibly to a discrete array of x-ray spots. • This hypothesis stimulates open discussion on how to define the focal-point in FE-XR.

  6. On the image formation in x-ray radiography using aligned carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, F.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is presented that field electrons emitted from vertically-aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) yield clearer x-ray images than do thermionic electrons, under the identical electron-optical condition. Specifically, the same sample, an LSI circuit, mounted on the same x-ray chamber could be imaged far more sharply with a CNF emitter than with a thermionic one. It is hypothesized that electrons discharged from CNF tips hit the target to form “discrete focal points” thereon, thereby generating multiple x-ray beams that interplay to form a brilliant, sharply-delineated x-ray image. This hypothesis may stimulate open discussion on how to define the “focal point” for the x-ray imaging using nano-structured electron sources. Also, the improved resolution attained with CNFs might indicate that the heat generation originating in electron-target interactions is not so serious in the present field-emission mode. - Highlights: • Field-emission (FE) x-ray radiography (XR) is based on nanotechnology. • FE-XR surpasses thermionic XR in image resolution and brilliance. • Highly-resolved FE-XR images are due possibly to a discrete array of x-ray spots. • This hypothesis stimulates open discussion on how to define the focal-point in FE-XR.

  7. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  8. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described.

  9. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  10. New X-ray testing methods of aerosol products for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozydar Knyziak, Adrian, E-mail: a.knyziak@gum.gov.pl; Rzodkiewicz, Witold, E-mail: w.rzodkiewicz@gum.gov.pl; Kaczorowska, Ewa, E-mail: e.kaczorowska@gum.gov.pl; Derlacinski, Michal, E-mail: m.derlacinski@gum.gov.pl

    2017-02-01

    An amount of product in e.g. an aerosol canister is not difficult to estimate by weighing a filled can and subtracting the tare of packaging. In this way, we can obtain the net weight of the ingredients present in the can. Although, this does not indicate the volumetric content. Therefore, in the paper, the fundamental (the weight method and given by FEICA) and new methods (given by authors) related to the determination of the volumetric content of canister filled with aeorosol products are presented. The new methods are based on direct digital radiography (DR) using X-ray radiation. For the needs of new methods, the X-ray CCD-DR imaging system was built and developed in our Laboratory in Department of Radiation and Vibration at the Central Office of Measures. For comparison purposes, with regard to the volumetric content, a lot of metal cans of capacities 140, 185, 450, 700 ml were inspected. In future, computed tomography (CT) for industrial radiography in our laboratory will be used. Currently, an algorithm for CT is being tested. It will give us possibility for very precise measurements to determine volumetric content of examined canisters.

  11. Interior Temperature Measurement Using Curved Mercury Capillary Sensor Based on X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Jiang, Xing; Lu, Guirong

    2017-07-01

    A method was presented for measuring the interior temperature of objects using a curved mercury capillary sensor based on X-ray radiography. The sensor is composed of a mercury bubble, a capillary and a fixed support. X-ray digital radiography was employed to capture image of the mercury column in the capillary, and a temperature control system was designed for the sensor calibration. We adopted livewire algorithms and mathematical morphology to calculate the mercury length. A measurement model relating mercury length to temperature was established, and the measurement uncertainty associated with the mercury column length and the linear model fitted by least-square method were analyzed. To verify the system, the interior temperature measurement of an autoclave, which is totally closed, was taken from 29.53°C to 67.34°C. The experiment results show that the response of the system is approximately linear with an uncertainty of maximum 0.79°C. This technique provides a new approach to measure interior temperature of objects.

  12. Estimation of dose to patients undergoing computed radiography x-ray examinations in some Khartoum hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badri, Fatima Abulgasiem Abdulrhman

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma to the patient during x-ray examination to (chest PA, lumbar spine AP and Lat, pelvis AP) by using computed radiography (CR) in different three hospitals in Khartoum. Three x-ray machines were covered. A total of 135 patients were evaluated. The entrance surface air kerma was calculated for each patient from the exposure parameters using cal dose software version 3.5. The obtained results showed that, the entrance surface air kerma range founded to be (0.28-1.59) for chest PA, (1.98-2.62) for lumbar spine and (0.438-2.47) for pelvis AP. The higher entrance surface air kerma for all projections were observed in Center 1, except for pelvis it is higher in center 2. And the lower entrance surface air kerma were observed in center 3. This study recommends that CR operator must to be used to achieve optimize the patient dose by use the best strategies available for reducing radiation dose, computed radiography must be used with high level of training for medical staff to reduce the dose, each radiology department should implement a patient dose measurement quality assurance programme, doses to the patients should be regularly monitored and the proposed national DRLs should be taken as guidance for optimization.(Author)

  13. Characterization of a gamma-ray source based on a laser-plasma accelerator with applications to radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.D.; Sinclair, M.A.; Goldsack, T.J.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Najmudin, Z.; Tatarakis, M.; Walton, B.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Spencer, I.; Norreys, P.A.; Clarke, R.J.; Kodama, R.; Toyama, Y.; Tampo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The application of high intensity laser-produced gamma rays is discussed with regard to picosecond resolution deep-penetration radiography. The spectrum and angular distribution of these gamma rays is measured using an array of thermoluminescent detectors for both an underdense (gas) target and an overdense (solid) target. It is found that the use of an underdense target in a laser plasma accelerator configuration produces a much more intense and directional source. The peak dose is also increased significantly. Radiography is demonstrated in these experiments and the source size is also estimated

  14. Applications of some non destructive testing techniques to the characterization of calcareous rocks: ultrasounds, X and gamma-ray radiography, tomography, neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicardy, O.

    1986-02-01

    NUCLEART Laboratory has been developping various techniques of conservation of art objects made of wood or stone. It has, among others, achieved a technique of strengthening porous stone objects, by resin impregnation followed by polymerization under gamma rays. The good conduct of such operations implies the existence of characterization means, before and after treatment of the objects. Two means of rocks characterization have been studied: - ultrasound techniques, - radiography techniques. The first part consists in a general description of the calcareous rocks morphology and a presentation of the studied specimens. The second part deals with the application of ultrasound techniques to rocks. Experimentally, one pays particular attention to the specific aspects of ultrasounds propagation inside materials like porous rocks, and especially diffusion phenomena. Results were interpreted in terms of propagation medium structure. Practical interest for rocks control through such techniques has been underligned. The third part concerns the application of radiographic techniques to calcareous rocks. Experimental work consists in establishing exposure curves for a wide range of energy, and the images quality determination. Through a statistics approach, and using digitalization techniques, one has done an exhaustive study of the radiographic noise. Moreover two techniques close to conventional radiography were explored: neutron radiography and X-ray tomography. Their specificity and interest in the case of calcareous rocks have been shown [fr

  15. Radiography imaging of cultural heritage obtained with a modified portable X-Ray Fluorescence System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Velazquez Maldonado, Luis Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The sufficiency of imaging quality of the radiographies obtained with a modified portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was evaluated for the study of cultural heritage. The proposed instrument use an X-ray tube with Pd anode (2 mm) that allows a maximum voltage and current of 50 kV and 1 mA respectively and a collimation system permit to irradiate a square shape region in the analyzed object by the projection of light beam with the same shape on its surface. The spatial resolution of the obtained radiographic image make possible to localize and well define pentimenti in painting, identify filling materials in a painting under restoration process, the radiogrametry of archaeological bone and the identification of a petrified sphere from an archaeological discovery. The radiographic analysis is proposed for study of physical anthropology in Cuba. (author)

  16. Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.

    2018-05-01

    The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.

  17. A comparison of digital luminescence radiography and conventional film/screen techniques in the diagnosis of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.; Schwerdtfeger, J.; Fink, B.K.; Schaetzl, M.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy of digital luminescence radiography was compared with that of conventional film/screen techniques, using animal preparations and clinical examinations. Fine fissures were made in 8 animal bones and these were examined radiologically. The digital examinations were carried out with and without edge enhancement. 208 patients were examined in a similar way. Film quality and assessment of the fractures were evaluated quantitatively. In no instance did either of the digital methods provide inferior quality when compared with conventional films. ROC analysis for evaluation of fractures in patients, using an experienced radiologist, showed no significant difference between the various methods (ROC areas: Conventional 0.947, digital 0.958, digital with edge enhancement 0.943). With a less experienced observer there were significant advantages for both digital methods (ROC areas: 0.851, 0.886, 0.908). Our investigation has proved that fractures which are difficult to see can be reliably demonstrated by digital luminescence radiography. (orig.) [de

  18. Complementary X-ray and neutron radiography study of the initial lithiation process in lithium-ion batteries containing silicon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fu, E-mail: fu.sun@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Markötter, Henning [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Manke, Ingo; Hilger, André [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alrwashdeh, Saad S. [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mu' tah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak 61710 Jordan (Jordan); Kardjilov, Nikolay [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Banhart, John [Institute of Material Science and Technologies, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A radiography cell for in operando X-ray radiography was designed and built. • A self-assembled CR2032 coin cell was built for in operando neutron radiography. • In operando X-ray and neuron radiography were conducted by using Si electrode half cells. - Abstract: Complementary in operando X-ray radiography and neutron radiography measurements were conducted to investigate and visualize the initial lithiation in silicon-electrode lithium-ion batteries. By means of X-ray radiography, a significant volume expansion of Si particles and the Si electrode during the first discharge was observed. In addition, many Si particles were found that never undergo electrochemical reactions. These findings were confirmed by neutron radiography, which, for the first time, showed the process of Li alloying with the Si electrode during initial lithiation. These results demonstrate that complementary X-ray and neutron radiography is a powerful tool to investigate the lithiation mechanisms inside Si-electrode based lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Comparison of digital selenium radiography with an analog screen-film system in the diagnostic process of pneumoconiosis according to ILO classification; Vergleich der digitalen Selenradiographie mit einem analogen Film-Folien-System in der Diagnostik von Staublungenerkrankungen anhand der ILO-Klassifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Winnekendonk, G.; Gossmann, A.; Krueger, K.; Krug, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Piekarski, C.; Saupe, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin und Sozialhygiene; Braun, W. [Koeln Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie (IMSIE)

    2001-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of digital selenium radiography in patients with pneumoconiosis. For this purpose chest X-rays by digital selenium radiography and analog screen-film system were compared according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Method: After approval of the study by the local ethic commission and the Federal German Office for Radiation Protection 50 patients were subjected to X-rays by digital selenium radiography (Thoravision; Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg, Germany) and analog screen-film system of the same day within the scope of an industrial medicine preventive checkup. Four investigators rated the chest X-rays according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Results: The findings demonstrated by chest X-rays according to ILO classification were rated similar by digital selenium radiography and analog screen film systems. Image quality of the digital pictures was rated significantly better. Conclusion: The use of digital selenium radiography in evaluating chest X-rays according to the ILO classification does not result in over- or underestimation of pulmonary pathologies. Hence, in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, digital selenium radiography can replace the tested analog screen-film system. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Zur Ermittlung des Stellenwertes der digitalen Selenradiographie in der Diagnostik von Staublungenerkrankungen werden mittels Selenradiographie und einer analogen Film-Folienkombination angefertigte Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen im sagittalen Strahlengang anhand der ILO-Klassifikation fuer Staublungenerkrankungen verglichen. Methoden: Nach Genehmigung der Studie durch die oertliche Ethikkommission und das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz wurden bei 50 Patienten im Rahmen einer arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorgeuntersuchung am selben Tag Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen im sagittalen Strahlengang in analoger und digitaler Technik (Thoravision; Philips Medizin Systeme, Hamburg, Deutschland

  20. Development of advanced neutron radiography for inspection on irradiated fuels and materials (2). Observation of hydride and oxide film on zircaloy cladding by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Ryou; Nakata, Masahito; Mastubayashi, Masahito; Harada, Katsuya

    2001-02-01

    Neutron radiography has been used as available diagnosis method of integrity on irradiated fuels, and has not been employed for estimating hydride and oxide film, which are influenced on integrity of Zircaloy cladding. Preliminary tests for PIE were carried out to assess possibility of neutron radiography as evaluation tool for hydrided and oxide film on the cladding. In these experiments, Zircaloy claddings with controlled amount of hydrogen absorption (200, 500, and 1000ppm) and thickness of oxide film were radiographed in center axis and in side directions of cladding tube by neutron imaging plate method. It is noted that thickness of oxide film was formed range from 7 μ m to 70 μ m at various temperatures (973, 1173, and 1323K) under steam atmosphere on the Zircaloy claddings. CT (Computed Tomography) restructure calculation was carried out to obtain cross section image of the claddings non-destructively. The Radiographs were qualitatively investigated about structure formation area and dependence of hydrogen absorption amount on PSL (Photo Simulated Luminescence) and CT values using by image analysis processor. At the results of imaging plate test, obvious difference was not found out between hydride formation (except for 1000ppm cladding) and standard claddings in side direction image. However, on the center axis direction image, outer circumference in the cladding cross-section that corresponded with hydride segregation area became blacker. In the case of oxide film formed cladding images, although oxide film could not find out on all speciments in the radiographs taken at the center axis and side directions, cross-section of claddings heat-processed at 973K showed appreciable blackness increasing with oxide film thickness on the radiographs. On the other hand, there is no effective difference between images of oxide film formed claddings processed at 1173K and 1323K and that of standard cladding. In CT image of 1000ppm hydrogen absorbed cladding, it is

  1. Digital radiography of the skeleton using a large-area detector based on amorphous silicon technology: Image quality and potential for dose reduction in comparison with screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, M.; Strotzer, M.; Holzkneckt, N.; Manke, C.; Lenhart, M.; Gmeinwieser, J.; Link, J.; Reiser, M.; Feuerback, S.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large-area, flat-panel X-ray detector (FD), based on caesium-iodide (CsI) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) with respect to skeletal radiography. Conventional images were compared with digital radiographs using identical and reduced radiation doses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients were studied prospectively using conventional screen-film radiography (SFR; detector dose 2.5 μGy). Digital images were taken from the same patients with detector doses of 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 μGy, respectively. The active-matrix detector had a panel size of 43 x 43 cm, a matrix of 3 x 3K, and a pixel size of 143 μm. All hard copies were presented in a random order to eight independent observers, who rated image quality according to subjective quality criteria. Results were assessed for significance using the Student's t -test (confidence level 95%). RESULTS: A statistically significant preference for digital over conventional images was revealed for all quality criteria, except for over-exposure (detector dose 2.5 μGy). Digital images with a 50% dose showed a small, statistically not significant, inferiority compared with SFR. The FD-technique was significantly inferior to SFR at 75% dose reduction regarding bone cortex and trabecula, contrast and overall impression. No statistically significant differences were found with regard to over- and under-exposure and soft tissue presentation. CONCLUSION: Amorphous silicon-based digital radiography yields good image quality. The potential for dose reduction depends on the clinical query. Volk, M. (2000)

  2. Comparison of computerized digital and film-screen radiography: response to variation in imaging kVp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, N J; Long, B; Dreesen, R G; Cohen, M D; Cory, D A [Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Katz, B P; Kalasinski, L A [Regenstreif Inst., Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States). Dept. of Medicine

    1992-09-01

    A controlled prospective study, in an animal model chosen to simulate portable neonatal radiography, was performed to compare the response of the Philips Computed Radiography (CR) system and conventional 200 speed film-screen (FS) to variation in imaging kVp. Acceptable images were obtained on the CR system over a very wide kVp range. In contrast the FS system produced acceptable images over a narrow kVp range. This ability suggests that the CR system should eliminate the need for repeat examinations in cases where a suboptimal kVp setting would have resulted in an unacceptable FS image. CR technology should therefore be ideally suited to portable radiography especially in situations where selection of correct exposure factors is difficult as in the neonatal nursery. (orig.).

  3. Comparison of computerized digital and film-screen radiography: response to variation in imaging kVp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, N.J.; Long, B.; Dreesen, R.G.; Cohen, M.D.; Cory, D.A.; Katz, B.P.; Kalasinski, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    A controlled prospective study, in an animal model chosen to simulate portable neonatal radiography, was performed to compare the response of the Philips Computed Radiography (CR) system and conventional 200 speed film-screen (FS) to variation in imaging kVp. Acceptable images were obtained on the CR system over a very wide kVp range. In contrast the FS system produced acceptable images over a narrow kVp range. This ability suggests that the CR system should eliminate the need for repeat examinations in cases where a suboptimal kVp setting would have resulted in an unacceptable FS image. CR technology should therefore be ideally suited to portable radiography especially in situations where selection of correct exposure factors is difficult as in the neonatal nursery. (orig.)

  4. X-ray film spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Trelles, F.; Caputo, M.C. (Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Lab. de Fisica del Plasma; Ministerio de Defensa, Buenos Aires (Argentina). DIGID)

    1982-02-15

    A multi-pinhole camera using film as a detector is described. Separation of variables in the master-curve sense leads to integral exposure equations which are solved by regularization. A filter-selection method is used to maximize the information content of a given set of measurements. Numerical simulation examples of the unfolding procedure are shown and the inversion error is evaluated. The essential role of absorption edges of filters and detectors for increasing the information content is emphasized and the method is compared with other absorption-edge techniques. A discussion of the present limitations of the method is given.

  5. Fracture healing: direct magnification versus conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Kessler, T.; Lange, T.; Overbeck, J.; Fiebich, M.; Peters, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of magnification radiography in diagnosing fracture healing and assessing its complications. Seventy-three patients with fractures or who had undergone osteotomy were radiographed with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (5-fold) techniques. Since 10 patients were radiographed twice and 1 three times, 83 radiographs using each technique were obtained. All radiographs were analysed and the findings correlated with the patients' follow-up studies. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. As an imaging system, digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Magnification radiography proved superior to conventional radiography in 47% of cases: endosteal and periosteal callus formations were seen earlier and better in 26 cases, and osseous union could be evaluated with greater certainty in 33 cases. In 49% of cases magnification radiography was equal and in 4% inferior to conventional radiography. Additionally an ''inter-observer analysis'' was carried out. Anatomical and pathological structures were classified into one of four grades. Results were significantly (P < 0.01) better using magnification radiography. We conclude that the magnification technique is a good method for monitoring fracture healing in its early stages. (orig.)

  6. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayon, G.

    1989-01-01

    Neutronography or neutron radiography, a non-destructive test method which is similar in its principle to conventional X-ray photography, presently occupies a marginal position among non-destructive test methods (NDT) (no source of suitable performance or cost). Neutron radiography associated with the ORPHEE reactor permits industrial testing; it can very quickly meet a cost requirement comparable to that of conventional test methods. In 1988, 2500 parts were tested on this unit [fr

  7. Non-destructive investigation of a time capsule using neutron radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, B. L.; Vanderstelt, J.; O'Meara, J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. This study applied two techniques: X-ray fluorescence and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a capped, tubular metal object recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton, Canada. The site is an urban park containing a World War I commemorative monument that underwent renovation and relocation. Historical documentation suggested that the object buried underneath the monument was a time capsule containing a paper document listing the names of 1800 Canadians who died during WWI. The purpose of this study was to assess the condition of the object, and to verify if it was what the historical records purported. XRF analysis was used to characterize the elemental composition of the metal artifact, while neutron radiography revealed that its contents were congruent with historical records and remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage.

  8. Non-destructive investigation of a time capsule using neutron radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, B.L., E-mail: macdonbl@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Vanderstelt, J., E-mail: joshv@nray.ca [Nray Services Inc., 56A Head Street, Dundas, ON (Canada); O’Meara, J. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph (Canada); McNeill, F.E. [McMaster University, Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. This study applied two techniques: X-ray fluorescence and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a capped, tubular metal object recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton, Canada. The site is an urban park containing a World War I commemorative monument that underwent renovation and relocation. Historical documentation suggested that the object buried underneath the monument was a time capsule containing a paper document listing the names of 1800 Canadians who died during WWI. The purpose of this study was to assess the condition of the object, and to verify if it was what the historical records purported. XRF analysis was used to characterize the elemental composition of the metal artifact, while neutron radiography revealed that its contents were congruent with historical records and remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage.

  9. Digital radiography - usability of experience in medical technology with fluorescent storage material for technical X-ray testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattis, A.; Winterberg, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    In nearly 100 years' development of X-ray technique, synergy effects between medical technology and non-destructive material testing (NDT) have repeatedly led to new applications. Thus digital radiography in medicine is a 'low dose' process introduced years ago which, by using a specially developed storage foil technique, offers extensive possibilities of application for NDT. (orig.) [de

  10. New developments in radiography. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Orphan, V.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for radiographic inspection are undergoing change. Changes in X-ray sources include higher voltage and current, pulse techniques, smaller focal spots, portability, ease-of-use, and high reliability. Detector improvements include better films, screens and scintillators, real-time methods, electrostatic methods and solid state detectors. We now use many radiation for radiography (X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and charged particles) and can process radiographic information to accomplish such things as image enhancement, tomography and digital radiography. In this review, the authors discuss some of these developments, many of which have not been applied - or widely applied in the nuclear industry

  11. The upper limits of the SNR in radiography and CT with polyenergetic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the upper limits of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in radiography and computed tomography (CT) with polyenergetic x-ray sources. In x-ray imaging, monoenergetic x-rays provide a higher SNR compared to polyenergetic x-rays. However, the SNR in polyenergetic x-ray imaging can be increased when a photon-counting detector is used and x-rays are optimally weighted according to their energies. For a particular contrast/background combination and at a fixed x-ray entrance skin exposure, the SNR in energy-weighting x-ray imaging depends on tube voltage and can be maximized by selecting the optimal tube voltage. The SNR in energy-weighted x-ray images acquired at this optimal tube voltage is the highest SNR that can be achieved with polyenergetic x-ray sources. The optimal tube voltages and the highest SNR were calculated and compared to the SNR of monoenergetic x-ray imaging. Monoenergetic, energy-weighting polyenergetic and energy-integrating polyenergetic x-ray imagings were simulated at a fixed entrance skin exposure of 20 mR. The tube voltages varied in the range of 30-140 kVp with 10 kV steps. Contrast elements of CaCO 3 , iodine, adipose and tumor with thicknesses of 280 mg cm -2 , 15 mg cm -2 , 1 g cm -2 and 1 g cm -2 , respectively, inserted in a soft tissue background with 10 cm and 20 cm thicknesses, were used. The energy weighting also improves the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT when monoenergetic CT projections are optimally weighted prior to CT reconstruction (projection-based weighting). Alternatively, monoenergetic CT images are reconstructed, optimally weighted and composed to yield a final CT image (image-based weighting). Both projection-based and image-based weighting methods improve the CNR in CT. An analytical approach was used to determine which of these two weighting methods provides the upper limit of the CNR in CT. The energy-weighting method was generalized and expanded as a weighting method applicable in

  12. Skull Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    What you need to know about… Skull Radiography X-ray images of the skull are taken when it is necessary to see the cranium, facial bones or jaw bones. ... Among other things, x-ray exams of the skull can show fractures. Patient Preparation Before the examination, ...

  13. Film-screen vs. digital radiography in rheumatoid arthritis of the hand. An ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, A.; Borg, A.; Hannesson, P.; Herrlin, K.; Jonsson, K.; Sloth, M.; Pettersson, H.

    1994-01-01

    In a prospective investigation the diagnostic accuracy of filmscreen and digital radiography in rheumatoid arthritis of hands was compared. Seventy hands of 36 patients with established rheumatoid arthritis were included in the study. Each of 11 joints in every hand was evaluated regarding the following radiologic parameters: soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing, erosions and periarticular osteopenia. The digital images were obtained with storage phosphor image plates and evaluated in 2 forms; as digital hard-copy on film and on a monitor of an interactive workstation. The digital images had a resolution of either 3.33 or 5.0 lp/mm. ROC curves were constructed and comparing the area under the curves no significant difference was found between the 3 different imaging forms in either resolution group for soft tissue swelling, joint space narrowing and erosions. The film-screen image evaluation of periarticular osteopenia was significantly better than the digital hard-copy one in the 3.33 lp/mm resolution group, but no significant difference was found in the 5.0 lp/mm group. These results support the view that currently available digital systems are capable of adequate diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  14. Film replacement by digital x-ray detectors - the correct procedure and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewert, U.; Zscherpel, U.; Bavendiek, K.

    2004-01-01

    New digital detectors were developed for medical applications, which have the potential to substitute the X-ray film and revolutionise the radiological technique. Digital Detector Arrays (DDA: Flat Panel Detectors, Line Detectors) and Imaging Plates (Computed Radiography) allow a fast detection of radiographic images in a shorter time and with higher dynamic than film applications. Companies report about a reduction of exposure time down to 5 - 25% in comparison to NDT film exposures. This provides together with the reduction of consumables economical (and also ecological) benefits and short amortisation periods. But this does not always provide the same image quality as NDT film. The requirements of the European and USA standards for film radiography are analysed to derive correct requirements for the digital image quality and procedures for prediction and measurement of image quality. Basically the USA standards seem to be more tolerant for these new innovative technologies. New standard proposals use signal/noise ratio and unsharpness as dominant parameters for image quality. Specialised measurement procedures are described. The properties of the new detectors can be controlled by electronics and exposure conditions. New names appear in literature like 'direct radiography' and 'film replacement techniques'. The basic advantage of the new digital techniques is the possibility to use numeric procedures for image interpretation. Industrial radiology can be optimised for crack detection as well as for analysis of flaw depth and shape measurement. Automated flaw detection, measurement of part dimensions and detection of completeness are used for serial part inspection devices. Parallel to the development of DDA's, an extraordinary increase of Computed Tomography (CT) applications can be observed. (author)

  15. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary diseases using x-ray darkfield radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hellbach, Katharina; Auweter, Sigrid; Meinel, Felix G; Reiser, Maximilian; Yildirim, Önder; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In this work we develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for classification of pulmonary disease for grating-based x-ray radiography. In addition to conventional transmission radiography, the grating-based technique provides a dark-field imaging modality, which utilizes the scattering properties of the x-rays. This modality has shown great potential for diagnosing early stage emphysema and fibrosis in mouse lungs in vivo. The CAD scheme is developed to assist radiologists and other medical experts to develop new diagnostic methods when evaluating grating-based images. The scheme consists of three stages: (i) automatic lung segmentation; (ii) feature extraction from lung shape and dark-field image intensities; (iii) classification between healthy, emphysema and fibrosis lungs. A study of 102 mice was conducted with 34 healthy, 52 emphysema and 16 fibrosis subjects. Each image was manually annotated to build an experimental dataset. System performance was assessed by: (i) determining the quality of the segmentations; (ii) validating emphysema and fibrosis recognition by a linear support vector machine using leave-one-out cross-validation. In terms of segmentation quality, we obtained an overlap percentage (Ω) 92.63  ±  3.65%, Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) 89.74  ±  8.84% and Jaccard Similarity Coefficient 82.39  ±  12.62%. For classification, the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of diseased lung recognition was 100%. Classification between emphysema and fibrosis resulted in an accuracy of 93%, whilst the sensitivity was 94% and specificity 88%. In addition to the automatic classification of lungs, deviation maps created by the CAD scheme provide a visual aid for medical experts to further assess the severity of pulmonary disease in the lung, and highlights regions affected. (paper)

  16. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  17. Neutron radiography, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    After describing the principles of the ''in pool'' and ''dry'' installations, techniques used in neutron radiography are reviewed. Use of converter foils with silver halide films for the direct and transfer methods is described. Advantages of the use of nitrocellulose film for radiographying radioactive objects are discussed. Dynamic imaging is shortly reviewed. Standardization in the field of neutron radiography (ASTM and Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group) is described. The paper reviews main fields of use of neutron radiography. Possibilities of use of neutron radiography at research reactors in various scientific, industrial and other fields are mentioned. Examples are given of application of neutron radiography in industry and the nuclear field. (author)

  18. Radiography apparatus using gamma rays emitted by water activated by fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald L.; Ikeda, Yujiro; Uno, Yoshitomo

    1996-01-01

    Radiography apparatus includes an arrangement for circulating pure water continuously between a location adjacent a source of energetic neutrons, such as a tritium target irradiated by a deuteron beam, and a remote location where radiographic analysis is conducted. Oxygen in the pure water is activated via the .sup.16 O(n,p).sup.16 N reaction using .sup.14 -MeV neutrons produced at the neutron source via the .sup.3 H(d,n).sup.4 He reaction. Essentially monoenergetic gamma rays at 6.129 (predominantly) and 7.115 MeV are produced by the 7.13-second .sup.16 N decay for use in radiographic analysis. The gamma rays have substantial penetrating power and are useful in determining the thickness of materials and elemental compositions, particularly for metals and high-atomic number materials. The characteristic decay half life of 7.13 seconds of the activated oxygen is sufficient to permit gamma ray generation at a remote location where the activated water is transported, while not presenting a chemical or radioactivity hazard because the radioactivity falls to negligible levels after 1-2 minutes.

  19. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  20. [The reduction of the radiation dosage by means of storage phosphor-film radiography compared to a conventional film-screen system with a grid cassette on a skull phantom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, J P; Merbold, H; Sehner, J; Neumann, R; Freesmeyer, M; Jonetz-Mentzel, L; Kaiser, W A

    1999-07-01

    How much can the radiation dose be reduced for skull radiography by using digital luminescence radiography (DLR) compared to a conventional screen film system with a grid cassette? A skull phantom (3M) was x-rayed in anterior-posterior orientation using both a conventional screen film system with grid cassette and DLR (ADC-70, Agfa). The tube current time product (mAs) was diminished gradually while keeping the voltage constant. The surface entrance dose was measured by a sensor of Dosimax (Wellhöfer). Five investigators evaluated the images by characteristic and critical features, spatial resolution and contrast. The surface entrance dose at 73 kV/22 mAs was 0.432 mGy in conventional screen film system and 0.435 mGy in DLR. The images could be evaluated very well down to an average dose of 71% (0.308 mGy; SD 0.050); sufficient images were obtained down to an average dose of 31% (0.136 mGy; SD 0.065). The resolution of the line pairs were reduced down to 2 levels depending on the investigator. Contrast was assessed as being very good to sufficient. The acceptance of the postprocessed images (MUSICA-software) was individually different and resulted in an improvement of the assessment of bone structures and contrast in higher dose ranges only. For the sufficient assessment of a possible fracture/of paranasal sinuses/of measurement of the skull the dose can be reduced to at least 56% (phi 31%; SD 14.9%)/40% (phi 27%; SD 9.3%)/18% (phi 14%; SD 4.4%). Digital radiography allows question-referred exposure parameters with clearly reduced dose, so e.g. for fracture exclusion 73 kV/12.5 mAs and to skull measurement 73 kV/4 mAs.

  1. Neutron and high-contrast X-ray micro-radiography as complementary tools for monitoring organosilicon consolidants in natural building stones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavíková, M.; Krejčí, F.; Kotlík, P.; Jakůbek, J.; Tomandl, Ivo; Vacík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 338, NOV (2014), s. 42-47 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010237; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : stone consolidation * neutron radiography * X-ray radiography * Organosilicon consolidants Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  2. Studies on the radiation exposure and protection at the X-ray radiography in the medical care at home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Fujii, Shigehisa; Asada, Yasuo; Orito, Takeo; Kamei, Tetsuya; Koga, Sukehiko

    1998-01-01

    Since there are scarce studies on the exposure and protection at the radiography in the medical care at home, authors performed such studies as comparison of doses from self-rectifying and inverter tubes, exposure and protection to patients and nursing persons and actual measurement (October, 1997) at home in Tohno city, Iwate prefecture, of scattering radiation dose at radiography. Apparatuses used were: Portable X-ray equipments; self-rectifying types (Toshiba TR-20 and Medisonacoma PX 30N) and an inverter type (Medisonacoma PX-15HF), Kyoto Kagaku WAC water phantom, X-ray analyzer Model 200 of Kasei Optonics, and Dosimeters (Victoreen Radocon ionization dosimeter and Aloka ICS-301 ionization chamber survey meters). Radiation qualities, surface doses and scattering doses of the equipments under various conditions were compared by the half value layer and effective energy measured with the analyzer. Actual measurement of scattering dose was done at home for 4 patients at chest radiography. Annual dose in monthly ordinary radiography at home, when the distance was >200 cm far from the flux center, was found about 1/100 of 1 mSv (the annual public dose limit), thus securing the safety of nurses. (K.H.)

  3. Studies on the radiation exposure and protection at the X-ray radiography in the medical care at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Fujii, Shigehisa; Asada, Yasuo; Orito, Takeo [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Health Science; Kamei, Tetsuya; Koga, Sukehiko

    1998-12-01

    Since there are scarce studies on the exposure and protection at the radiography in the medical care at home, authors performed such studies as comparison of doses from self-rectifying and inverter tubes, exposure and protection to patients and nursing persons and actual measurement (October, 1997) at home in Tohno city, Iwate prefecture, of scattering radiation dose at radiography. Apparatuses used were: Portable X-ray equipments; self-rectifying types (Toshiba TR-20 and Medisonacoma PX 30N) and an inverter type (Medisonacoma PX-15HF), Kyoto Kagaku WAC water phantom, X-ray analyzer Model 200 of Kasei Optonics, and Dosimeters (Victoreen Radocon ionization dosimeter and Aloka ICS-301 ionization chamber survey meters). Radiation qualities, surface doses and scattering doses of the equipments under various conditions were compared by the half value layer and effective energy measured with the analyzer. Actual measurement of scattering dose was done at home for 4 patients at chest radiography. Annual dose in monthly ordinary radiography at home, when the distance was >200 cm far from the flux center, was found about 1/100 of 1 mSv (the annual public dose limit), thus securing the safety of nurses. (K.H.)

  4. Radiography and X-ray fluorescence used to analyze cultural and artistic artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Kajiya, Elizabeth M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de; Almeida, Paula A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003 the analyses of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, are growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, which possess distinct physical characteristics and also high cultural and monetary value. The examinations in this kind of objects were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible photography, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings. These techniques are helping the analyses of the conservation state of the objects and also revealing characteristics of the painter such as underlying drawings, which help understand the creative process of the artist. These new procedures of analysis are aimed to enable better analytic research in archaeology and artistic and cultural heritage objects and to provide results that subsidize authentic investigations of art objects as well as the origin of archaeological artifacts, while stimulating archeometry and 'arteometry' research in Brazilian Museums. (author)

  5. Trochoidal X-ray Vector Radiography: Directional dark-field without grating stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y.; Bachche, S.; Kageyama, M.; Kuribayashi, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Lasser, T.; Momose, A.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray Vector Radiography (XVR) is an imaging technique that reveals the orientations of sub-pixel sized structures within a sample. Several dark-field radiographs are acquired by rotating the sample around the beam propagation direction and stepping one of the gratings to several positions for every pose of the sample in an X-ray grating interferometry setup. In this letter, we present a method of performing XVR of a continuously moving sample without the need of any grating motion. We reconstruct the orientations within a sample by analyzing the change in the background moire fringes caused by the sample moving and simultaneously rotating in plane (trochoidal trajectory) across the detector field-of-view. Avoiding the motion of gratings provides significant advantages in terms of stability and repeatability, while the continuous motion of the sample makes this kind of system adaptable for industrial applications such as the scanning of samples on a conveyor belt. Being the first step in the direction of utilizing advanced sample trajectories to replace grating motion, this work also lays the foundations for a full three dimensional reconstruction of scattering function without grating motion.

  6. Radiography and X-ray fluorescence used to analyze cultural and artistic artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Kajiya, Elizabeth M.; Campos, Pedro H.O.V. de; Almeida, Paula A.D., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br, E-mail: elizabethkajiya@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2003 the analyses of artistic and cultural heritage objects at LAMFI-USP (Laboratorio de Analises de Materiais com Feixes Ionicos), initially restricted to ion beam methods, are growing steadily. Since then, alternative methodologies and procedures have been incorporated to better characterize these objects, which possess distinct physical characteristics and also high cultural and monetary value. The examinations in this kind of objects were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques like portable EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) analysis, X-ray radiography, visible photography, UV (ultraviolet) and IR (infrared) light imaging that are helping to better understand these art objects, particularly paintings. These techniques are helping the analyses of the conservation state of the objects and also revealing characteristics of the painter such as underlying drawings, which help understand the creative process of the artist. These new procedures of analysis are aimed to enable better analytic research in archaeology and artistic and cultural heritage objects and to provide results that subsidize authentic investigations of art objects as well as the origin of archaeological artifacts, while stimulating archeometry and 'arteometry' research in Brazilian Museums. (author)

  7. Comparison of low-contrast detectability of computed radiography and screen/ film mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Kwan-Hoong Ng; McLean, D.; McLean, D.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare low-contrast detectability of computed radiography (CR) and screen/ film (SF) mammography systems. The Nijimegen contrast detail test object (CDMAM type 3.4) was imaged at 28 kV, in automatic exposure control mode separately. Six medical imaging physicists read each CDMAM phantom image. Contrast detail curves were plotted to compare low-contrast detectability of CR (soft copy and hard copy) and SF mammography systems. Effect of varying exposure parameters, namely kV, object position inside the breast phantom, and entrance surface exposure (ESE) on the contrast detail curve were also investigated using soft copy CR. The significance of the difference in contrast between CR and SF, and for each exposure parameter, was tested using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. The low-contrast detectability of the CR (soft copy and hard copy) system was found to be not significantly different to that of the SF system (p> 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test).For CR soft copy, no significant relationship (p>0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test) was seen for variation of kV, object position inside the breast phantom and ESE. This indicates that CR is comparable with SF for useful detection and visualization of low-contrast objects such as small low-contrast areas corresponding to breast pathology. (Author)

  8. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M.; Schwab, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 ± 231.7 cGy*cm 2 versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 ± 103.8 cGy*cm 2 ). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  9. Peak potential meter applied to X-ray tubes in mammal radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Frere, Annie F.; Andreeta, Jose P.

    1989-01-01

    It is of a great importance to identify accurately the real peak potential (or simply, KVp) applied to a X-ray tube purposed to medical diagnosis, since it defines the beam energetic quality in terms of photons penetration power. Mainly in mammographic systems. it is of fundamental relevance the KVp accurate measurement because the soft tissues involved in this kind of examination provides different absorption - and, hence, clear contrast on mammographic film - just in a very restrict energetic range. Thus a device to measure KVp with adequate accuracy in mammographic units, using the basic principles of scintillation detection, was developed. This system is therefore composed of a NaI(Tl) crystal which is a X-ray sensor - replacing radiographic films which usually are a source of errors in these measurements - , a photo multiplier tube and changed into amplified electric pulses. Finally the electronic circuit, after adequate pulses treatment, shows instantaneously the actual KVp value in the test on displays. (author)

  10. Effect of oblique ray on image quality of direct digitized radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuquan; Wu Xiaomei; Deng Yu; He Jianxun; Xiao Shaoping; He Zhecheng; Yu Cixi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effec on image quality of DDR system caused by oblique ray. Methods: (1) Experiment group: A sphere was taken radiographes repeatedly using DDR system, the respective incidence were vertical (0 degree), 15 degree, 30 degree, 45 degree, and all images were printed into laser films. (2) Comparison group: By way of self comparing, conventional films were radio graphed under all conditions as in experiment group with screen-film system instead of flat-panel detector. (3) To evaluate the edge fog of sphere image, micro-density of image edge. Both groups were measured separately. Results: (1) The image edge fog in both experiment group and comparison group increased along with increase of X-ray incidence, the more large angle was, the more amplitude of image fog was. And the amplitude of experiment group was more distinct while with large incidence. When incidence was 45 degree, the edge fog value of experiment group went up to (0.9240±0.0033) mm, while only (0.4840±0.0033) mm of comparison group contrarily. (2) When projecting with 15 degree inclination of tube, the amplitude of variation of image edge fog in both DDR system and screen-film system had no distinct difference (P>0.05); when the lean angle were 30 degree and 45 degree, it had distinct difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: (1) The image edge fog of DDR system has no distinctly difference from screen-film system and better image gotten while the inclination of tube is vertical or small angle. (2) The amplitude of variation of image edge fog have distinctly difference that it of DDR system is visibly over screen-film system, when the inclination of tube is big, the imaging quality will be affected. (authors)

  11. Understanding Nickel Thin Film crystallization using X-Ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microstructures of these Ni films were studied using X-ray diffractometry technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depicted 100% and 42% relative intensity (RI) peaks identified for normal and helical deposited Ni films but none for the zigzag deposited Ni film. Higher degree of crystallinity of Ni was demonstrated ...

  12. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to x-ray flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L.

    1991-01-01

    Semi-insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X ray single shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 μrad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charges, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors

  13. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to X-ray flash radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L.; Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M.

    1992-01-01

    Some insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X-ray single-shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 μrad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charge, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X-ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X-ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors. (orig.)

  14. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to X-ray flash radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L. (CEA, Direction des Technologies Avancees, Lab. d' Electronique, de Technologie et d' Instrumentation, DSYS, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M. (CEA, Direction des Applications Militaires, 77 - Courtry (France))

    1992-11-15

    Some insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X-ray single-shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 [mu]rad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charge, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X-ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X-ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors. (orig.).

  15. Application of GaAs and CdTe photoconductor detectors to x-ray flash radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, F.; Cuzin, M.; Gagelin, J.J.; Mermet, R.; Piaget, B.; Rustique, J.; Verger, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (FR). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Hauducoeur, A.; Nicolas, P.; Le Dain, L.; Hyvernage, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Vaujours, 77 - Courtry (FR)

    1991-12-31

    Semi-insulating GaAs and CdTe:Cl photoconductor probes were qualified on high energy X ray single shot flash generators. The estimated minimum detected dose per flash corresponding to a 230 mrad direct beam attenuated by 200 mm lead was 20 {mu}rad. The dynamic range was about 4 decades in amplitude or charges, with a good linearity. Such detectors, by locating the origin of the parasitic scattered beam, could be used to eliminate this parasitic beam in X ray flash radiography in detonics experiments. Imaging possibilities are mentioned, as well as X ray generator monitoring with such detectors or with neutron preirradiated photoconductors.

  16. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  17. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis-Application to digital radiography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni; Cardarelli, Paolo; Contillo, Adriano; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The quality of a radiography system is affected by several factors, a major one being the focal spot size of the x-ray tube. In fact, the measurement of such size is recognized to be of primary importance during acceptance tests and image quality evaluations of clinical radiography systems. The most common device providing an image of the focal spot emission distribution is a pin-hole camera, which requires a high tube loading in order to produce a measurable signal. This work introduces an alternative technique to obtain an image of the focal spot, through the processing of a single radiograph of a simple test object, acquired with a suitable magnification. The radiograph of a magnified sharp edge is a well-established method to evaluate the extension of the focal spot profile along the direction perpendicular to the edge. From a single radiograph of a circular x-ray absorber, it is possible to extract simultaneously the radial profiles of several sharp edges with different orientations. The authors propose a technique that allows to obtain an image of the focal spot through the processing of these radial profiles by means of a pseudo-CT reconstruction technique. In order to validate this technique, the reconstruction has been applied to the simulated radiographs of an ideal disk-shaped absorber, generated by various simulated focal spot distributions. Furthermore, the method has been applied to the focal spot of a commercially available mammography unit. In the case of simulated radiographs, the results of the reconstructions have been compared to the original distributions, showing an excellent agreement for what regards both the overall distribution and the full width at half maximum measurements. In the case of the experimental test, the method allowed to obtain images of the focal spot that have been compared with the results obtained through standard techniques, namely, pin-hole camera and slit camera. The method was proven to be effective for simulated

  18. X-ray focal spot reconstruction by circular penumbra analysis—Application to digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Domenico, Giovanni, E-mail: didomenico@fe.infn.it; Cardarelli, Paolo; Taibi, Angelo; Gambaccini, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122, Italy and INFN - sezione di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy); Contillo, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, FE I-44122 (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The quality of a radiography system is affected by several factors, a major one being the focal spot size of the x-ray tube. In fact, the measurement of such size is recognized to be of primary importance during acceptance tests and image quality evaluations of clinical radiography systems. The most common device providing an image of the focal spot emission distribution is a pin-hole camera, which requires a high tube loading in order to produce a measurable signal. This work introduces an alternative technique to obtain an image of the focal spot, through the processing of a single radiograph of a simple test object, acquired with a suitable magnification. Methods: The radiograph of a magnified sharp edge is a well-established method to evaluate the extension of the focal spot profile along the direction perpendicular to the edge. From a single radiograph of a circular x-ray absorber, it is possible to extract simultaneously the radial profiles of several sharp edges with different orientations. The authors propose a technique that allows to obtain an image of the focal spot through the processing of these radial profiles by means of a pseudo-CT reconstruction technique. In order to validate this technique, the reconstruction has been applied to the simulated radiographs of an ideal disk-shaped absorber, generated by various simulated focal spot distributions. Furthermore, the method has been applied to the focal spot of a commercially available mammography unit. Results: In the case of simulated radiographs, the results of the reconstructions have been compared to the original distributions, showing an excellent agreement for what regards both the overall distribution and the full width at half maximum measurements. In the case of the experimental test, the method allowed to obtain images of the focal spot that have been compared with the results obtained through standard techniques, namely, pin-hole camera and slit camera. Conclusions: The method was

  19. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Application of gamma-ray radiography and gravimetric measurements after accelerated corrosion tests of steel embedded in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffó, Gustavo, E-mail: duffo@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Gerencia Materiales, Depto. Corrosión, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaillard, Natalia [Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mariscotti, Mario; Ruffolo, Marcelo [Tomografía de Hormigón Armado S.A. (THASA), Reclus 2017, 1609 Boulogne, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    The accelerated corrosion by the impressed current technique is widely used in studies of concrete durability since it has the advantage that tests can be carried out within reasonable periods of time. In the present work the relationship between the applied current density and the resulting damage on the reinforcing steel, by applying optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, gamma-ray radiography and gravimetric measurements, was studied by means of the implementation of accelerated corrosion tests on reinforced mortar. The results show that the efficiency of the applied current is between 1 and 77%, regardless of the applied current density, the water/cement ratio and the mortar cover depth of the specimens. The results show the applicability of the gamma-ray radiography technique to detect localized corrosion of steel rebars in laboratory specimens.

  1. X-radiography using photographic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitiyaporn, W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the possibility of using photographic paper, available on the market, for x-ray radiography instead of x-ray film which is more expensive and more complicate to develop. This research concerned about (1) the method and the limitation of x-ray radiography by using 3 types of photographic paper, namely, F2, F3 and F4 distributed by the Kodak Company, as the screen with 3 different kinds of intensifying screens produced by the Phillips Company, Toshiba Company and Picker Company to increase photographic efficiency; (2) correction factor between these 3 types of photographic paper and intensifying screens; (3) the most suitable combination of photographic paper and intensifying screens used; (4) the result of using photographic paper and x-ray film in x-ray radiography regarding quality, cost and film developing. From the research, it was found that (1) the combination of intensifying screen from Picker Company and Kodak photographic paper No. F4 coating with silver bromide with a little mixture of silver iodide resulted in higher sensitivity and more contrast than other combination; (2) photographic papers had more limitation than x-ray film in the sense that it could be used with the iron test piece no thicker than 3 cm.with the x-ray energy of 220 k Vp; (3) photographic papers would give almost the same degree of contrast and sensitivity as x-ray film when used with thin test specimens. For instance the smallest wire No.12 of DIN 62 FE could be seen in the photographic paper at 220 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp while it could be seen in the x-ray film at 200 k Vp. The exposure of photographic paper would be in vicinity of x-ray film when it was used with thin test specimens. Photographic paper would produce sharpness definition, density and contrast picture and also details of the picture closely to what given by x-ray film. It is concluded that if the test specimens are thin, photographic papers

  2. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Digital radiography in NDT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprins, E.

    2004-01-01

    A lot of film radiography could be replaced by today's technologies in the field of digital radiography. Only few of these applications have indeed replaced film. The choice to go digital depends on cost, quality requirement, workflow and throughput. Digital images offer a lot of advantages in terms of image manipulation and workflow. But despite the many advantages, a lot of considerations are needed before someone can decide to convert his organization from conventional to digital radiography. This paper gives an overview of all different modalities that can be used in digital radiography with today's technologies, together with the experiences of the pioneers of digital radiography. Film Scanning, Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography by using of different kinds of flat panel detectors all have their specific application fields and customers. What is the status of the technology today, which advantages brings digital radiography, and which are the limitations radiographers have to consider when replacing film by digital systems. (author)

  4. Structural analysis of jewelry from the Moche tomb of the `lady of Cao' by X-ray digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, S. R.; Cesareo, R.; Franco, R.; Fernandez, A.; Bustamante, A.; Lopes, R. T.

    2018-04-01

    Nose ornaments from the tomb of the `Lady of Cao', a mummified woman representative of the Moche culture and dated to the third-or-fourth century AD, were analyzed by X-ray digital radiography. These spectacular gold and silver jewels are some of the most sophisticated metalworking ever produced in ancient America. The Mochecivilization flourished along the north coast of present-day Peru, between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, approximately between 100 and 600 AD. The Moche were very sophisticated artisans and metal smiths, being considered the finest producers of jewels and artifacts of the region. A portable X-ray digital radiography (XDR) system consisting of a flat panel detector with high resolution image and a mini X-ray tube was used for the structural analysis of the Moche jewels aiming at inferring different joining methods of the silver-gold sheets. The radiographic analysis showed some differences in the joint of the silver-and-gold sheets. Presence of filler material and adhesive for joining the silver-and-gold sheets was visible as well as silver-gold junctions without filler material (or with a material invisible in radiography). Furthermore, the technique demonstrated the advantage of using a portable XDR micro system when the sample cannot be brought to the laboratory.

  5. Direct magnification radiography of newborn with mobile X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Kazuhiko; Kigure, Hatsuo; Hatori, Noboru; Shinohara, Yasuji.

    1989-01-01

    Small patient size is a major factor of the difficulty in interpreting the newborn infant radiograph. Direct radiographic magnification can be employed to relieve this problem and special positioning devices were made to image the infant, confined to incubator and connected to life-supporting systems. The mobile X-ray equipment with a microfocus (0.2 mm) radiographic tube, a rare-earth high-speed recording system and carbon cassette were combined to obtain a radiograph at magnification of 1.5-2.0. Image quality was superior to that of conventional contact radiographic system, but infant radiation exposure was 26% more than that of conventional study. Although direct radiographic magnification was very useful to recognize subtle or equivocal abnormality which could not be made from conventional image, its application should be restricted to specific disease at this present, considering infant radiation exposures. This technique will have wide clinical application when radiation exposure can be reduced by using other recording system such as computed radiography (CR). (author)

  6. Visualization of water on through-plane direction of GDL using X-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongrok; Je, Junho; Kim, MooHwan; Kim, TaeJoo; Kaviany, Massoud; Son, Sang Young

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we visualized water distribution and behavior of water on through plane direction of GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer), which is one of components of PEMFC, using X-ray radiography. In order to investigate water distribution and behavior at GDL of PEMFC, the facilities was set up at the 7B2 beam line in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The phenomena of cathode side GDL is more important because the cathode side GDL has more water than the anode side. For this reason, the cathode side GDL was targeted and test section (Figure 1) was made to make similar boundary condition with a cathode side GDL of operating PEMFC. GDL faced two single channels. One is air channel as cathode gas channel of PEMFC and the other is liquid channel as cathode catalyst layer. Water is produced in cathode catalyst layer and almost of this water transport through cathode GDL. Because of this, liquid channel was adopted as catalyst layer. Images of water distribution were recorded per 4 second under various liquid pressure conditions. Water content was calculated from these images using mathematic process.

  7. Methodology of a numerical chain model for x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christenson, P.J.; Snell, C.M.; DeVolder, B.G.; Yin, L.; Mathews, A.R.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Carlsten, B.E.

    2002-01-01

    The chain model for x-ray flash radiography (Ref. 1) developed at Los Alamos is an integrated simulation capability consisting of linked codes for the various physical processes that model an en$= radiographic event. Two new features have been added to the computational chaiwmodel: (1) a link between accelerator and particle-in-cell codes, enabling accelerated electrons to be injected into a 2-D, relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code and propagated to a bremsstrahlung converter target, and (2) a distribution-functio'n capability to create electron sources from PIC simulations for use in Monte Carlo electroxdphoton transport calculations to produce synthetic radiographs. Physical variables of electrons from PIC calculations are binned to produce distribution functions, which can be randomly sampled to obtain source particles for Monte Carlo transport calculations through a bremsstrahlung converter target. Several methods of binning have been used to construct both correlated and uncorrelated distributions. We will present end-to-end simulations of the radiographic process in order to compare synthetic radiographs produced using several electron distribution functions and analoglike links. In addition, we studied the effects of different electron distributions on photon spectra, doses, and spot sizes produced from a converter target. Advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques will be discussed, and applications of the chain model will be presented.

  8. Endobronchial Tuberculosis and Chest Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial tuberculosis and chest radiography I read, with interest, the article entitled “Clinical and Para-clinical Presentations of Endobronchial Tuberculosis” by Ahmadi Hoseini H. S. et al. (1 published in this journal. I would like to focus on some details about the chest X-ray of patients as elaborated by the authors in the results section. Accordingly, the findings of chest radiography in the available patients were as follows: pulmonary consolidation (75%, reduced pulmonary volume (20%, and hilar adenopathy (10%. This is an incomplete statement because the authors did not explain whether there was any normal chest radiography in the study population. In addition, it is not clear whether the X-ray examinations of the patients were normal, how many abnormal plain films yielded the presented data. On the other hand, the fact that the studied patients had no normal chest radiography is  controversial since in the literature, 10-20% of the patients with endobronchial tuberculosis are reported to have normal chest X-ray (2, 3. In fact, this is one of the problems in the diagnosis of the disease, as well as a potential cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment of the patients. Therefore, the absence of normal chest radiographs is in contrast to the available literature, and if not an error, it could be a subject of further investigation.

  9. Limitations of retarded (bisulfite) x-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoering, J.P.; Dittmore, C.

    1979-01-01

    We demonstrate the limitations of using retarded (bisulfite) developer to abate film sensitivity of x-ray films that have been exposed to intense radiation. We compared the measured densities of a large number of Kodak Type-M x-ray film samples exposed to a known fluence of monochromatic x-rays. These film samples were processed in three separate batches of bisulfite developer mixed in the same proportions. We concluded that reproducible film-density information cannot be obtained using different batches of (bisulfite) developer solutions

  10. Pulsed X-ray radiography of a gas jet target for laser-matter interaction experiments with the use of a CCD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowski, R.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; MikoIajczyk, J.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.; Foeldes, I.B.; Toth, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of gas jet targets has been carried out using pulsed X-ray radiography. A laser-plasma X-ray source was applied for backlighting of the targets to obtain X-ray shadowgraphs registered with a CCD detector. From the shadowgraphs, characteristics of the targets were determined

  11. A study on the directional dependence of scatter ray in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyun Joo; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Young Il; Lee, Who Min; Kim, Hak Sung; Lim, Han Young; Kim, Heung Tae; Lee, Sang Suk

    1995-01-01

    In this papper, the back, forward, side and 45 .deg. oblique scatter dose were measured the X-ray exposure conditions 60, 80, 100, 120 kV, FFD 100 cm, FS 20 x 20 cm, toward the 25 x 25cm x 10 ∼ 20cm of solid water, paraffin and MiX-DP phantom, and Pb, Cu, AI, and styrofoam materials, by the electrometer and 5.3 cc ionization chamber. The obtained results are summarized as following. 1. The percentage depth dose(PDD) at the range of the diagnostic x-ray energy were appeared 50 % depth dose at the 2 cm depth with 60 kV, and 5 cm depth with 120 kV X-ray, 10 % depth dose at the 10 cm depth with 60 kV and 14 cm depth with 120 kV X-ray, 5 % below depth dose at the 20 cm depth. 2. The back scatter dose which were generated the surface of Pb, Cu and Al metal plates were 10 % below, and than the back scatter dose at the Pb plate were a most amount of these which were about 10 %, and were appeared the order of Cu and AI. 3. The percentage forward scatter were appeared from 50 % to 65 %, and the more phantom thickness become, the more forward scatter were increased with the ratio of 5 % per 5 cm thickness. 4. The percentage back scatter which were generated the tissue equivalence materials solid water, paraffin and MiX-DP were from 20 % to 40 %, and than the back scatter dose at the solid water were a mast amount of those, and paraffin and MiX-DP were appeared with the next values. 5. The percentage 90 .deg. lateral and 45 .deg. oblique side scatter dose were measured from 4 % to 12 %. a most amount of scatter dose which were generated from the patient in radiography were the forward scatter, the next values were the back scatter, the third values were the 90 .deg. lateral scatter

  12. Industrial radiography X and Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres M, Nelson; Torres B, Miguel; Montanez, Juan.

    1986-04-01

    This publication gives a practical orientation on industrial radiography. The first chapters deal with basic facts that are useful for professional work in this field. It comprises topics such as generation of X-rays, equipment being used, radiographic films, sensibility, and the penetrameters used. This publication also describes the most used radiographic techniques and the processing of the radiographic film. It contains practical recommendations on how to obtain a good radiographic inspection. It states the reasons for defects in the radiographies. Two annexes are attached which include tables for the selection of penetrameters according to the ASME and DIN codes as well as the time needed for development and fixing according to the temperature

  13. Comparison between film-screen and computed radiography systems in Brazilian mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.A.; Oliveira, J.R.; Carvalho, L.A.P.; César, A.C.Z.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 the Public Health Office of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil has established the Image Quality Control Program in Mammography. It evaluates the image quality based on an accredited phantom of the Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR). This phantom follows international standards such as masses, specks, fibers, contrast details and spatial resolution. The contrast index (CI) is accessed through optical density (OD) measurements. Although OD is defined under film-screen (FS) scope, among all accessible mammographic systems under the health office surveillance, almost 80% are computed radiography (CR) based. A necessity to adapt the protocol has emerged to consider OD as a conformity parameter. Objective: To verify the OD accessibility under CR´s printed out films and the feasibility to calculate contrast index, in comparison with FS´s. Results: A total of 56 images were evaluated with three different CBR phantoms. They were equally divided into FS and CR systems and a densitometer was used to read out their OD values. The correlation between their contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was found to be in the order of 0.77 (±0.14). The samples were not significantly different (inside 5% incertitude) for every phantom. The CNR correlation coefficient was 0.871. For OD, correlation coefficient was 0.989 and a log-fit function has shown good agreement with detector response. The OD-normalized standard deviation difference between CR and FS for every different phantom was 36.6%, 2.8% and 20.2%. A CI range for CR´s lying between 0.13 and 0.69 was found. Conclusions: Different phantoms were successfully tested in both CR and FS to evaluate the feasibility in use contrast index as a conformity parameter since their correlations are strictly related to calibration curve, as provided by phantom manufacturer. The relative CR-FS OD σ-difference provides a spreading indicator, where the first and last phantoms are considerably out of expectation. Such differences are

  14. Option study of an orthogonal X-ray radiography axis for pRad at LANSCE area C, Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Bryan Velten; Johnson, David L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on an option study of two potential x-ray systems for orthogonal radiography at Area C in the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The systems assessed are expected to be near equivalent systems to the presently existing Cygnus capability at the Nevada Test Site. Nominal dose and radiographic resolution of 4 rad (measured at one meter) and 1 mm spot are desired. Both a system study and qualitative design are presented as well as estimated cost and schedule. Each x-ray system analyzed is designed to drive a rod-pinch electron beam diode capable of producing the nominal dose and spot.

  15. Digital radiography is promising in industrial testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Fabbro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital radiography has recently entered the industrial world as a tool for non-destructive testing. There are 3 types of digital radiography: computed radiography (CR), direct radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). In computed radiography, traditional silver-halide films are replaced by photostimulable phosphor imaging plates that are activated through laser scanning and digitized. Direct radiography uses a flat panel detector (FPD) composed of X-ray detectors that performs an immediate digital conversion of the image that can be read by a computer. DR is a perfect tool for industrial testing but the fragility of the FPD panels reduces its uses. Computed tomography is based on the principle of DR to get data corresponding to successive cross-section images of the object. These data are processed by a software to get a 3-dimensional image of the object. CT was first developed for medical use but requires some improvement to become more accurate, faster, particularly for big objects. In recent years DR has enjoyed the highest growth rate in digital radiography. (A.C.)

  16. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  17. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  18. Local liquid velocity measurement of Trickle Bed Reactor using Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar

    Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques. This work also make possible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) VLL measurements that can be taken in TBRs. Measurements taken through both the combined and the novel technique, once validated, were found to be comparable to another technique (a two-point fiber optical probe) currently being developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The results from this study indicate that, for a gas-liquid-solid type bed, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 35 and 51 times that of its superficial liquid velocity (VSL). Without the existence of gas, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 4 and 4.7 times that of its VSL. At a higher V SL, the particle tracer was greatly distributed and became carried away by a high liquid flow rate. Neither the variance nor the range of measured VLL varied for any of the replications, confirming the reproducibility of the experimental measurements used, regardless of the VSL . The liquid's movement inside the pore was consistent with findings from previous studies that used various techniques.

  19. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seong Kwan

    2016-01-01

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room

  20. A study of changes in the primary dose penetrating the protective apron on SID in x-ray radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Kwan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Kwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study is to figure out the amount of primary X-ray generated in SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m penetrating protective aprons in X-ray radiography for hands, skull, and lumbar spine. Results are as follows: Firstly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is low such as that of hand X-ray may be reduced by 270 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still slightly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Secondly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is moderate such as that of skull X-ray may be reduced by 22 times if protective aprons are worn, but it still fairly penetrates 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Thirdly, the exposure dose of primary X-ray which is very high such as that of lumbar spine X-ray may be reduced b y 13 times if protective aprons a re worn, but it still penetrates a lot 0.3mm thick Pb protective aprons at SID 50cm, 1m, and 2m. Therefore, people in X-ray room should not only wear protective aprons at any spaces that the primary X-ray can reach, but also need to stand behind the thick Pb shield to protect the body if it is inevitable to stay in the room.

  1. Clinical evaluation of digital radiography based on a large-area cesium iodide-amorphous silicon flat-panel detector compared with screen-film radiography for skeletal system and abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Terue; Tanaka, Saori; Koyama, Koichi; Norihumi, Nishida; Daikokuya, Hideo; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ryusaku; Kishimoto, Kenji; Hatagawa, Masakatsu; Kudoh, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to compare the image quality of digital radiography using the new digital Bucky system based on a flat-panel detector with that of a conventional screen-film system for the skeletal structure and the abdomen. Fifty patients were examined using digital radiography with a flat-panel detector and screen-film systems, 25 for the skeletal structures and 25 for the abdomen. Six radiologists judged each paired image acquired under the same exposure parameters concerning three observation items for the bone and six items for the abdomen. Digital radiographic images for the bone were evaluated to be similar to screen-film images at the mean of 42.2%, to be superior at 50.2%, and to be inferior at 7.6%. Digital radiographic images for the abdomen were judged to be similar to screen-film images at the mean of 43.4%, superior at 52.4%, and inferior at 4.2%; thus, digital radiographic images were estimated to be either similar as or superior to screen-film images at over 92% for the bone and abdomen. On the statistical analysis, digital radiographic images were also judged to be preferred significantly in the most items for the bone and abdomen. In conclusion, the image quality of digital radiography with a flat-panel detector was superior to that of a screen-film system under the same exposure parameters, suggesting that dose reduction is possible with digital radiography. (orig.)

  2. X-ray film cassette and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An x-ray film cassette which is capable of providing forces on the film that vary across the surface of the cassette is described. Methods of manufacture are discussed. The system is of particular use when large area films are used in conjunction with intensifying screens. (U.K.)

  3. Design of a 7-MV Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) for down-hole flash x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Welch, Dale Robert; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Rose, David Vincent; Johnson, David Lee; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Leckbee, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed power driven flash x-ray radiography is a valuable diagnostic for subcritical experiments at the Nevada Test Site. The existing dual-axis Cygnus system produces images using a 2.25 MV electron beam diode to produce intense x-rays from a small source. Future hydrodynamic experiments will likely use objects with higher areal mass, requiring increased x-ray dose and higher voltages while maintaining small source spot size. A linear transformer driver (LTD) is a compact pulsed power technology with applications ranging from pulsed power flash x-ray radiography to high current Z-pinch accelerators. This report describes the design of a 7-MV dual-axis system that occupies the same lab space as the Cygnus accelerators. The work builds on a design proposed in a previous report [1]. This new design provides increased diode voltage from a lower impedance accelerator to improve coupling to low impedance diodes such as the self magnetic pinch (SMP) diode. The design also improves the predicted reliability by operating at a lower charge voltage and removing components that have proven vulnerable to failure. Simulations of the new design and experimental results of the 1-MV prototype are presented

  4. Displacement tracking in single human trabecula with metal-plated micro-spheres using X-ray radiography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiroušek, O; Kytýř, D; Doktor, T; Dammer, J; Krejčí, F

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an improved radiographic method for strain measurement in very small samples of a single trabeculae. X-ray micro-radiography was used to track the deformation behaviour of individual trabecula during mechanical loading. As the X-ray micro-radiography images of a single trabecula show no significant features applicable for digital image correlation (DIC) a random pattern of markers was created on the surfaces of the samples to improve the accuracy of tracking. Metal plated borosilicate glassmicro-spheres (mean diameter 10 μm) were used as the markers for trabecular displacement tracking. Two different X-ray imaging setups were used for this purpose. The specimens of isolated trabeculae were loaded by a micro-mechanical testing device developed with respect to radiographical observation. This compact device enables a high precision three-point bending measurement. The specimen was continuously irradiated during the loading procedure by a micro-focus X-ray source. The radiographs were acquired by a single-photon counting silicon pixel detector and s flat panel sensor with CsI flipped scintillator plate. Circular Hough transform was used to locate positions of the spherical markers in the sequence of acquired radiographs and to calculate the strain in the loaded sample. The gold-coated micro-spheres provide clearly visible features in the sequence of radiographs after beam hardening correction, which in conjunction with pattern recognition algorithm enables to substantially improve the accuracy of strain measurements.

  5. Real-Time X-ray Radiography Diagnostics of Components in Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortopassi, A. C.; Martin, H. T.; Boyer, E.; Kuo, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    the recession of the solid propellant grain can drastically alter the flow-field and effect the recession of internal insulation and nozzle materials. Simultaneous measurement of the overall erosion rate, the development of the char layer, and the recession of the char-virgin interface during the motor operation can be rather difficult. While invasive techniques have been used with limited success, they have serious drawbacks. Break wires or make wire sensors can be installed into a sufficient number of locations in the charring material from which a time history of the charring surface can be deduced. These sensors fundamentally alter the local structure of the material in which they are imbedded. Also, the location of these sensors within the material is not known precisely without the use of an X-ray. To determine instantaneous recession rates, real-time X-ray radiography (X-ray RTR) has been utilized in several SRM experiments at PSU. The X-ray RTR system discussed in this paper consists of an X-ray source, X-ray image intensifier, and CCD camera connected to a capture computer. The system has been used to examine the ablation process of internal insulation as well as nozzle material erosion in a subscale SRM. The X-ray source is rated to 320 kV at 10 mA and has both a large (5.5 mm) and small (3.0 mm) focal spot. The lead-lined cesium iodide X-ray image intensifier produces an image which is captured by a CCD camera with a 1,000 x 1,000 pixel resolution. To produce accurate imagery of the object of interest, the alignment of the X-ray source to the X-ray image intensifier is crucial. The image sequences captured during the operation of an SRM are then processed to enhance the quality of the images. This procedure allows for computer software to extract data on the total erosion rate and the char layer thickness. Figure 1 Error! Reference source not found.shows a sequence of images captured during the operation the subscale SRM with the X-ray RTR system. The X-ray

  6. Thin film soft X-ray absorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattin, H.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses the composition, reparation and performance of soft x-ray transmission filters for a water window soft x-ray microscope. Unbacked thin films of aluminum, silver and vanadium/aluminum were made by evaporation on a substrate from which they were released. Measured transmittances agree reasonably well with calculations. The report also includes some related theory and discussions about film preparation methods, film contamination and evaluation methods. 33 refs

  7. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  8. Interobserver agreement and performance score comparison in quality control using a breast phantom: screen-film mammography vs computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Satake, Hiroko; Ishigaki, Satoko; Sawaki, Akiko; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate interobserver agreement and to compare the performance score in quality control of screen-film mammography and computed radiography (CR) using a breast phantom. Eleven radiologists interpreted a breast phantom image (CIRS model X) by four viewing methods: (a) original screen-film; (b) soft-copy reading of the digitized film image; (c) hard-copy reading of CR using an imaging plate; and (d) soft-copy reading of CR. For the soft-copy reading, a 17-in. CRT monitor (1024 x 1536 x 8 bits) was used. The phantom image was evaluated using a scoring system outlined in the instruction manual, and observers judged each object using a three-point rating scale: (a) clearly seen; (b) barely seen; and (c) not seen. For statistical analysis, the kappa statistic was employed. For ''mass'' depiction, interobserver agreement using CR was significantly lower than when using screen-film (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the kappa value for detecting ''microcalcification''; however, the performance score of ''microcalcification'' on CR hard-copy was significantly lower than on the other three viewing methods (p<0.05). Viewing methods (film or CR, soft-copy or hard-copy) could affect how the phantom image is judged. Paying special attention to viewing conditions is recommended for quality control of CR mammograms. (orig.)

  9. Filmless Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technology initially prototyped under a Small Business Innovation Research contract between Quantex Corporation and Langley Research Center was licensed to Liberty Technology and incorporated into RADView, a new filmless radiography technology. The NASA-sponsored work involved the investigation of Electron Trapping, which led to a solid-state film that uses a special class of photoluminescent materials to capture radiographic images. RadView is a total imaging solution for the conversion of radiographic film records to digital format and digital acquisitions of radiographs. With the RADView technology, there is a reduction of exposure times and errors; film waste is eliminated; and the efficiency of data management and precise image analysis is boosted. The solid-state film can be exposed, read, erased, and re- exposed indefinitely until mechanical replacement is required. Digital images can be stored to optical media for up to 100 years and beyond without information loss.

  10. [Consideration of algorithms to presume the lesion location by using X-ray images of the stomach--geometric analysis of four direction radiography for the U region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henmi, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    The author considered algorithms to presume the lesion location from a series of X-ray images obtained by four direction radiography without blind area for the U region of the stomach. The objects of analysis were six cases that protruding lesions were noticed in the U region. Firstly, from the length of short axis and measure of the lateral width of U region projected on the film, we presumed the length of longitudinal axis and angle between short axis and the film. Secondly, we calculated the rate of length to stomach walls from right side and left side of every image to the lateral width at the height passing through the center of the lesion. Using the lesion location calculated from these values, we presumed that the values that almost agreed between two images to be the lesion location. As the result of analysis, there were some cases that the lesion location could be presumed certainly or un-certainly, on the other hand, there were some cases that the lesion location could not be presumed. Since the form of the U region can be distorted by a change of position, or the angle between longitudinal axis and sagittal plane was changed, the error might have been made in calculation, and so it was considered that the lesion location could not be presumed.

  11. Demonstration of the self-magnetic-pinch diode as an X-ray source for flash core-punch radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Portillo, Salvador; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Bruner, Nichelle Lee; Ziska, Derek Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of the radiographic spot size and maximization of the radiation dose is a continuing long-range goal for development of electron beam driven X-ray radiography sources. In collaboration with members of the Atomic Weapons Establishment(AWE), Aldermaston UK, the Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept. 1645 is conducting research on the development of X-ray sources for flash core-punch radiography. The Hydrodynamics Dept. at AWE has defined a near term radiographic source requirement for scaled core-punch experiments to be 250 rads(at)m with a 2.75 mm source spot-size. As part of this collaborative effort, Dept. 1645 is investigating the potential of the Self-Magnetic-Pinched (SMP) diode as a source for core-punch radiography. Recent experiments conducted on the RITS-6 accelerator [1,2] demonstrated the potential of the SMP diode by meeting and exceeding the near term radiographic requirements established by AWE. During the demonstration experiments, RITS-6 was configured with a low-impedance (40 (Omega)) Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL), which provided a 75-ns, 180-kA, 7.5-MeV forward going electrical pulse to the diode. The use of a low-impedance MITL enabled greater power coupling to the SMP diode and thus allowed for increased radiation output. In addition to reconfiguring the driver (accelerator), geometric changes to the diode were also performed which allowed for an increase in dose production without sacrificing the time integrated spot characteristics. The combination of changes to both the pulsed power driver and the diode significantly increased the source x-ray intensity

  12. Study on Construction of a Medical X-Ray Direct Digital Radiography System and Hybrid Preprocessing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a medical X-ray direct digital radiography (DDR system based on a CCD (charge-coupled devices camera. For the original images captured from X-ray exposure, computer first executes image flat-field correction and image gamma correction, and then carries out image contrast enhancement. A hybrid image contrast enhancement algorithm which is based on sharp frequency localization-contourlet transform (SFL-CT and contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE, is proposed and verified by the clinical DDR images. Experimental results show that, for the medical X-ray DDR images, the proposed comprehensive preprocessing algorithm can not only greatly enhance the contrast and detail information, but also improve the resolution capability of DDR system.

  13. Ambulating radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Strong gamme or X-ray sources are utilized for non-destructive testing of i.e. bridges. The activities involve certain risks of accident that might lead to serious injuries caused by radiation. The National Institute of Radiation Protection has during the laste decade greatly yhe inspection rate in this area. It has today made controls of most enterprieses running ambulating radiography. (O.S.)

  14. Investigation of some ancient opaque glasses in the archaeological museums of Istanbul by x-ray radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.; Sungur, F.; Atik, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, opaque glass samples of which interiors is invisible, investigated by the x-ray radiography technique. In the evaluation,some knowledge has been extracted about the glass base and mold technique. Furthermore,it was shown that ornamental attachments have been fixed on the glass artifacts by techniques different than what it appears to be. In addition to that, joining edges of restorated opaque glass samples can be investigated and quality of the restoration can be evaluated. Therefore, the opaque glass samples were investigated non-destructively a short period of time, much like transparent glass could be studied. (author)

  15. Comparative study between computed radiography and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Sapizah Rahim; Shaharudin Sayuti; Arshad Yassin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    In Industrial Radiography, there are many criteria that need to be considered based on established standards to accept or reject the radiographic film. For conventional radiography, we need to consider the optical density by using the densitometer when viewing the film on the viewer. But in the computed radiography (CR) we need to evaluate and performed the analysis from the quality of the digital image through grey value. There are many factors that affected the digital image quality. One of the factors which are affected to the digital image quality in the image processing is grey value that related to the contrast resolution. In this work, we performed grey value study measurement on digital radiography systems and compared it with exposed films in conventional radiography. The test sample is a steel step wedge. We found out the contrast resolution is higher in Computed Radiography compared with Conventional Radiography. (author)

  16. Development of an imaging-planning program for screen/film and computed radiography mammography for breasts with short chest wall to nipple distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S L; Su, J L; Yeh, Y H; Chu, T C; Lin, Y C; Chuang, K S

    2011-04-01

    Imaging breasts with a short chest wall to nipple distance (CWND) using a traditional mammographic X-ray unit is a technical challenge for mammographers. The purpose of this study is the development of an imaging-planning program to assist in determination of imaging parameters of screen/film (SF) and computed radiography (CR) mammography for short CWND breasts. A traditional mammographic X-ray unit (Mammomat 3000, Siemens, Munich, Germany) was employed. The imaging-planning program was developed by combining the compressed breast thickness correction, the equivalent polymethylmethacrylate thickness assessment for breasts and the tube loading (mAs) measurement. Both phantom exposures and a total of 597 exposures were used for examining the imaging-planning program. Results of the phantom study show that the tube loading rapidly decreased with the CWND when the automatic exposure control (AEC) detector was not fully covered by the phantom. For patient exposures with the AEC fully covered by breast tissue, the average fractional tube loadings, defined as the ratio of the predicted mAs using the imaging-planning program and mAs of the mammogram, were 1.10 and 1.07 for SF and CR mammograms, respectively. The predicted mAs values were comparable to the mAs values, as determined by the AEC. By applying the imaging-planning program in clinical practice, the experiential dependence of the mammographer for determination of the imaging parameters for short CWND breasts is minimised.

  17. X-ray backscatter imaging for radiography by selective detection and snapshot: Evolution, development, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel

    Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) is a single-sided imaging technique that uses the penetrating power of radiation and unique interaction properties of radiation with matter to image subsurface features. CBI has a variety of applications that include non-destructive interrogation, medical imaging, security and military applications. Radiography by selective detection (RSD), lateral migration radiography (LMR) and shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) are different CBI techniques that are being optimized and developed. Radiography by selective detection (RSD) is a pencil beam Compton backscatter imaging technique that falls between highly collimated and uncollimated techniques. Radiography by selective detection uses a combination of single- and multiple-scatter photons from a projected area below a collimation plane to generate an image. As a result, the image has a combination of first- and multiple-scatter components. RSD techniques offer greater subsurface resolution than uncollimated techniques, at speeds at least an order of magnitude faster than highly collimated techniques. RSD scanning systems have evolved from a prototype into near market-ready scanning devices for use in a variety of single-sided imaging applications. The design has changed to incorporate state-of-the-art detectors and electronics optimized for backscatter imaging with an emphasis on versatility, efficiency and speed. The RSD system has become more stable, about 4 times faster, and 60% lighter while maintaining or improving image quality and contrast over the past 3 years. A new snapshot backscatter radiography (SBR) CBI technique, shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR), has been developed from concept and proof-of-principle to a functional laboratory prototype. SABR radiography uses digital detection media and shaded aperture configurations to generate near-surface Compton backscatter images without scanning, similar to how transmission radiographs are taken. Finally, a

  18. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankow, Nares; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aims of this research are to study properties of neutron imaging plate, to obtain a suitable condition for neutron radiography and to use the neutron imaging plate for testing of materials nondestructively. The experiments were carried out by using a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 at a power of 1.2 MW. A BAS-ND 2040 FUJI neutron imaging plate and a MX125 Kodak X-ray film/Gadolinium neutron converter screen combination were tested for comparison. It was found that the photostimulated light (PSL) read out of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time. It was also found that radiography with neutron using the imaging plate was approximately 40 times faster than the conventional neutron radiography using x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination. The sensitivity of the imaging plate to gamma-rays was investigated by using gamma-rays from an 192 Ir and a 60 Co radiographic sources. The imaging plate was found to be 5-6 times less sensitive to gamma-rays than a FUJI BAS-MS 2040 gamma-ray imaging plate. Finally, some specimens were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the imaging plate and the x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination in comparison to x-rays. Parts containing light elements could be clearly observed by the two neutron radiographic techniques. It could be concluded that the image quality from the neutron imaging plate was comparable to the conventional x-ray film/Gd converter screen combination but the exposure time could be approximately reduced by a factor of 40

  19. Methodological study of aging effects on fuel cells using X-ray synchrotron radiography and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, new and advanced methods for the investigation of methanol and hydrogen powered fuel cells were analyzed. Synchrotron radiography and tomography were applied to investigate materials and transport processes in operating fuel cells ''in-situ'' and non-destructively. The corrosion of ruthenium is a key issue during aging of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Therefore the influence of different aging processes on the distribution of ruthenium is of great interesting. An imaging method based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was applied to investigate the changes in the distribution of fuel cell catalysts three-dimensionally. Using monoenergetic synchrotron radiation it was shown that the distribution of ruthenium (Ru) in the anode catalyst changes after application of an accelerated aging procedure. A strong influence on the flowfield and the gas diffusion layer structures on the Ru distribution were found in the gas diffusion electrode at the anode side. Additionally some ruthenium moves through the membrane from the anode to the cathode. The redistribution caused by the accelerated aging procedure strongly differs from that obtained after aging under realistic stack operation (here over 1700 h) of a fuel cell in a pallet transporter. For the tomographic investigations samples were taken out from a stack operation in aged membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and were analyzed ex-situ. It was shown that the Ru redistribution can be attributed to mass transport processes (CO 2 and H 2 O) in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Other high energy resolved measurements showed that the strength of the oxidation of ruthenium and platinum depends on the spatial distribution of the ruthenium. Last mentioned - also for the platinum catalyst - could be given quantitatively by means of this newly developed method. In the second part of this work high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEFC) were investigated. No liquid water can

  20. Technical characterization of five x-ray detectors for paediatric radiography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, N. W.; Smet, M.; Hofmans, M.; Pauwels, H.; De Clercq, T.; Bosmans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Physical image quality of five x-ray detectors used in the paediatric imaging department is characterized with the aim of establishing the range/scope of imaging performance provided by these detectors for neonatal imaging. Two computed radiography (CR) detectors (MD4.0 powder imaging plate (PIP) and HD5.0 needle imaging plate (NIP), Agfa HealthCare NV, B-2640 Mortsel, Belgium) and three flat panel detectors (FPD) (the Agfa DX-D35C and DX-D45C and the DRX-2530C (Carestream Health Inc., Rochester, NY 14608, USA)) were assessed. Physical image quality was characterized using the detector metrics given by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1) to measure modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using the IEC-specified beam qualities of RQA3 and RQA5. The DQE was evaluated at the normal operating detector air kerma (DAK) level, defined at 2.5 µGy for all detectors, and at factors of 1/3.2 and 3.2 times the normal level. MTF curves for the different detectors were similar at both RQA3 and RQA5 energies; the average spatial frequency for the 50% point (MTF0.5) at RQA3 was 1.26 mm-1, with a range from 1.20 mm-1 to 1.37 mm-1. The DQE of the NIP CR compared to the PIP CR was notably greater and similar to that for the FPD devices. At RQA3, average DQE for the FPD and NIP (at 0.5 mm-1 2.5 µGy) was 0.57 compared to 0.26 for the PIP CR. At the RQA5 energy, the DRX-2530C and the DX-D45C had the highest DQE (~0.6 at 0.5 mm-1 2.5 µGy). Noise separation analysis using the polynomial model showed higher electronic noise for the DX-D35C and DRX-2530C detectors; this explains the reduced DQE seen at 0.7 µGy/image. The NIP CR detector offers notably improved DQE performance compared to the PIP CR system and a value similar to the DQE for FPD devices at the RQA3 energy.

  1. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Saman, E-mail: saman.khan343@gmail.com [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Rafique, Muhammad Shahid [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Anjum, Safia [Physics Department, Lahore College for Woman University, Lahore (Pakistan); Hayat, Asma [Physics Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Malaysia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C using PLD technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorption in UV-visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm{sup -2}. Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV-vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 Degree-Sign C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 Degree-Sign C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV-visible region.

  2. Impact of X-ray irradiation on PMMA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Saman; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Anjum, Safia; Hayat, Asma; Iqbal, Nida

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA thin films were deposited at 300 °C and 500 °C using PLD technique. ► These films were irradiated with different fluence of laser produced X-rays. ► Irradiation affects the ordered packing as well as surface morphology of film. ► Hardness of film decreases up to certain value of X-ray fluence. ► Absorption in UV–visible range exhibits a non linear behavior. - Abstract: The objective of this project is to explore the effect of X-ray irradiation of thin polymeric films deposited at various substrate temperatures. pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used for the deposition of PMMA thin films on glass substrate at 300 °C and 500 °C. These films have been irradiated with various X-rays fluences ranging from 2.56 to 5.76 mJ cm −2 . Characterization of the films (before and after the irradiation) is done with help of X-ray Diffractrometer, Optical Microscope, Vickers hardness tester and UV–vis spectroscopy techniques. From XRD data, it is revealed that ordered packing has been improved for the films deposited at 300 °C. However after irradiation the films exhibited the amorphous behavior regardless of the X-ray fluence. Film deposited at 500 °C shows amorphous structure before and after irradiation. Hardness and particle size of thin film have also increased with the increasing substrate temperature. However, the irradiation has reverse effect i.e. the particle size as well as the hardness has reduced. Irradiation has also enhanced the absorption in the UV–visible region.

  3. Extra-oral dental radiography for disaster victims using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, M; Oshima, T; Mimasaka, S

    2017-12-01

    Forensic odontologists commonly incise the skin for post-mortem dental examinations when it is difficult to open the victim's mouth. However, it is prohibited by law to incise dead bodies without permission in Japan. Therefore, we attempted using extra-oral dental radiography, using a digital X-ray equipment with rechargeable batteries, to overcome this restriction. A phantom was placed in the prone position on a table, and three plain dental radiographs were used per case: "lateral oblique radiographs" for left and right posterior teeth and a "contact radiograph" for anterior teeth were taken using a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator. The resolving power of the images was measured by a resolution test chart, and the scattered X-ray dose was measured using an ionization chamber-type survey meter. The resolving power of the flat panel X-ray detector was 3.0 lp/mm, which was less than that of intra-oral dental methods, but the three extra-oral plain dental radiographs provided the overall dental information from outside of the mouth, and this approach was less time-consuming. In addition, the higher dose of scattered X-rays was laterally distributed, but the dose per case was much less than that of intra-oral dental radiographs. Extra-oral plain dental radiography can be used for disaster victim identification by dental methods even when it is difficult to open the mouth. Portable and rechargeable devices, such as a flat panel X-ray detector and a hand-held X-ray generator, are convenient to bring and use anywhere, even at a disaster scene lacking electricity and water.

  4. Non-destructive analysis of ancient bimetal swords from western Asia by γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Arimatsu, Yui; Nojima, Hisashi

    2017-09-01

    Eight ancient bimetal swords held by Hiroshima University, Japan were analyzed non-destructively through γ-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). 137Cs and 60Co γ-ray irradiation sources were used to obtain transmission images of swords. A scanning radiography method using a 60Co γ-ray source was developed. XRF was used for qualitative elemental analysis of the swords. The presence of iron cores in the hilts of some swords had been observed and it was assumed that the cores were a ritual symbol or had a functional purpose. However, our work reveals that these swords were originally bronze-hilted iron swords and that the rusty blades were replaced with bronze blades to maintain the swords' commercial value as an antique. Consequently, the rest of the iron blade was left in the hilt as an iron tang. The junction of the blade and the guard was soldered and painted to match the patina color. XRF analysis clearly showed that the elemental Sn/Cu ratios of the blades and the hilts were different. These findings are useful for clarifying the later modifications of the swords and are important for interpreting Bronze Age and Iron Age history correctly.

  5. Accuracy of ultrasonography and plain-film abdominal radiography in the diagnosis of urologic abnormalities in men with urinary tract infection: critically appraised topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daunt, S.W.

    2004-01-01

    An adult male patient presented with dysuria and urinary frequency. A subsequent urine culture confirmed the presence of a urinary tract infection. How accurate is the combination of ultrasonography and plain-film abdominal radiography in the diagnosis of urologic abnormalities in men with confirmed urinary tract infection? (author)

  6. Assessment of survey radiography and comparison with x-ray computed tomography for detection of hyperfunctioning adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Stolp, R.; Rijnberk, A.; Waes, P.F.G.M. van

    1990-01-01

    Results of abdominal survey radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) were compared in 13 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism histologically attributed to adrenocortical tumors. X-ray computed tomography enabled accurate localization of the tumor in all 13 dogs. Apart from 2 poorly demarcated irregular-shaped and mineralized carcinomas, there were no differences between adenoma (n = 3) and carcinoma (n = 10) on CT images. In 1 dog, invasion of the caudal vena cava by the tumor was suggested on CT images and was confirmed during surgery. Suspicion of adhesions between tumors of the right adrenal gland and the caudal vena cava on the basis of CT images was confirmed during surgery in only 2 of 6 dogs. Survey radiography allowed accurate localization of the tumor in 7 dogs (4 on the right side and 3 on the left). In 6 of these dogs, the tumor was visible as a well-demarcated soft tissue mass and, in the other dog, as a poorly demarcated mineralized mass. The smallest tumor visualized on survey radiographs had a diameter of 20 mm on CT images. Six tumors with diameter less than or equal to 20 mm were not visualized on survey radiographs. In 1 of these dogs, a mineralized nodule was found in the left adrenal region, without evidence of a mass. In a considerable number of cases, survey radiography can provide presurgical localization of adrenocortical tumors in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism; CT is redundant in these instances. In the absence of positive radiographic findings, CT is valuable for localization of adrenocortical tumors

  7. Industrial Radiography: Principle and Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The successful and effectiveness of radiography method as a tool to increase quality level and safety of the engineering system and processing plants depend with the level of radiographer knowledge as service provider and also as supervisor. This book was published as effort several local experts to give their knowledge, theory and practical related to radiography technique to the involved public directly or indirectly. This book started with basic physic knowledge that becomes a root to radiography technology. Then, followed by discussion on tools and device that used in radiography work including x-ray machine, gamma projector, film, dark room, and others. Each aspect of radiograph quality also mentioned here to guide the reader on how to produce good radiograph that filled the specification wanted. The good radiograph does not mean anything if it failed to be interpreted correctly. Because of that, this book also explain how to choose good radiograph that qualified to be interpreted and after that how interpretation and evaluation process of object quality inspected was implemented based on image digestion that showed in radiograph. Several code and standard that usually applied in this country also will be referred as well for this work.

  8. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoennagel, B.P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Großterlinden, L.G. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Rupprecht, M. [Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Hamburg-Altona, Bleickenallee 38, 22763 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G.; Yamamura, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  9. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoennagel, B.P.; Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G.; Großterlinden, L.G.; Rupprecht, M.; Adam, G.; Yamamura, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  10. Genetic damage in exfoliated cells from oral mucosa of individuals exposed to X-rays during panoramic dental radiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, E M M; Gomes-Filho, I S; Trindade, S; Lopes, M A; Passos, J S; Machado-Santelli, G M

    2004-08-08

    The genotoxic effects of X-ray emitted during dental panoramic radiography were evaluated in exfoliated cells from oral epithelium through a differentiated protocol of the micronucleus test. Thirty-one healthy individuals agreed to participate in this study and were submitted to this procedure for diagnosis purpose after being requested by the dentist. All of them answered a questionnaire before the examination. Cells were obtained from both sides of the cheek by gentle scrapping with a cervical brush, immediately before the exposure and after 10 days. Cytological preparations were stained according to Feulgen-Rossenbeck reaction and analyzed under light and laser scanning confocal microscopies. Micronuclei, nuclear projections (buds and broken eggs) and degenerative nuclear alterations (condensed chromatin, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) were scored. The frequencies of micronuclei, karyolysis and pycnosis were similar before and after exposure (P > 0.90), whereas the condensation of the chromatin and the karyorrhexis increased significantly after exposure (P structures are associated to the normal epithelium differentiation. The results suggest that the X-ray exposure during panoramic dental radiography induces a cytotoxic effect by increasing apoptosis. We also believe that the score of other nuclear alterations in addition to the micronucleus improves the sensitivity of genotoxic effects detection.

  11. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.J.C.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.; Ines Vaz, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: → EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. → Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. → Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. → Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  12. White-Beam X-ray Diffraction and Radiography Studies on High-Boron Containing Borosilicate Glass at High Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Kathryn; Vohra, Yogesh; Kono, Yoshio; Wereszczak, Andrew; Patel, Parimal

    Multi-angle energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction studies and white-beam x-ray radiography were conducted with a cylindrically shaped (1 mm diameter and 0.7 mm high) high-boron content borosilicate glass sample (17.6% B2O3) to a pressure of 13.7 GPa using a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) press at Beamline 16-BM-B, HPCAT of the Advanced Photon Source. The measured structure factor S(q) to large q = 19 Å-1, is used to determine information about the internuclear bond distances between various species of atoms within the glass sample. Sample pressure was determined with gold as a pressure standard. The sample height as measured by radiography showed an overall uniaxial compression of 22.5 % at 13.7 GPa with 10.6% permanent compaction after decompression to ambient conditions. The reduced pair distribution function G(r) was extracted and Si-O, O-O, and Si-Si bond distances were measured as a function of pressure. Raman spectroscopy of pressure recovered sample as compared to starting material showed blue-shift and changes in intensity and widths of Raman bands associated with silicate and B3O6 boroxol rings. US Army Research Office under Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0614.

  13. Imaging the density profile of a volcano interior with cosmic-ray muon radiography combined with classical gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, S; Tanaka, H K M

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography has the potential to reveal the density structure of gigantic objects. It utilizes the strong penetration ability of high-energy muons. By measuring the number of muons that travel through a target object, the average density can be calculated along the muon path. Since muons travel in straight paths through matter, specially designed detectors can generate density maps with higher spatial resolution than those obtained with conventional geophysical methods. However, this technique has a few notable limitations in that it can only be applied to near-surface structures above the muon sensor and strongly depends on the characteristics of the local topography. This is due to the fact that almost all cosmic-ray muons arrive only from the upper hemisphere. Geological structures, e.g. volcanoes, that allow for muon detectors to be placed on a slope directly below the point of interest are thus the best candidates for this technique. The drawback of muon radiography that only the horizontally integrated density above the sensor is measured with a time resolution larger than several weeks may be partly remedied by combining its results with gravity data, as they are both sensitive to target density while complementary to each other in several aspects. An example of such a combination is presented: real-time monitoring of magma head height in a volcano conduit. (topical review)

  14. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J.; Lin, Kuo-Cheng; Carter, Campbell D.; Kastengren, Alan L.

    2017-08-02

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through x-ray radiography and x-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an x-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low x-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength (EPL) and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveal a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry.

  15. Characterization of the external and internal flow structure of an aerated-liquid injector using X-ray radiography and fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, Scott J. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Arnold AFB, TN (United States); Lin, Kuo-Cheng [Taitech, Inc., Beavercreek, OH (United States); Carter, Campbell D. [Aerospace Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Kastengren, Alan L. [Argonne National Laboratory, X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    In the present study, the internal flowfield of aerated-liquid fuel injectors is examined through X-ray radiography and X-ray fluorescence. An inside-out injector, consisting of a perforated aerating tube within an annular liquid stream, sprays into a quiescent environment at a fixed mass flow rate of water and nitrogen gas. The liquid is doped with bromine (in the form of NaBr) to create an X-ray fluorescence signal. This allows for reasonable absorption and fluorescence signals, and one or both diagnostics can be used to track the liquid distribution. The injector housing is fabricated from beryllium (Be), which allows the internal flowfield to be examined (as Be has relatively low X-ray attenuation coefficient). Two injector geometries are compared, illustrating the effects of aerating orifice size and location on the flow evolution. Time-averaged equivalent pathlength and line-of-sight averaged density ρ(y) reveal the formation of the two-phase mixture, showing that the liquid film thickness along the injector walls is a function of the aerating tube geometry, though only upstream of the nozzle. These differences in gas and liquid distribution (between injectors with different aerating tube designs) are suppressed as the mixture traverses the nozzle contraction. The averaged liquid velocity (computed from the density and liquid mass flow rate) reveals a similar trend. This suggests that at least for the current configurations, the plume width, liquid mass distribution, and averaged liquid velocity for the time-averaged external spray are insensitive to the aerating tube geometry. (orig.)

  16. Sensitometric curve of radiographic films by X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, E.A.S., E-mail: elicardo.goncalves@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Oliveira, L.F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiographic film exposure is traditionally measured by the transmittance of a beam of light through the film. There are many mathematical and computational models to characterize the curve behavior and its properties, but almost none of them considers the limitations caused by the equipment used. As long as exposure in film increases, light intensity measured after the film decreases in a way that from a certain exposure, light could not be distinguished from any kind of noise. This work aims to propose x-ray fluorescence as a solution for better measure high exposed films and show how it could be modeled mathematically. (author)

  17. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10 10 neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10 7 to 3.8x10 8 n/cm 2 depending on the type of screen and film

  18. Visualization of neonatal lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation using x-ray dark-field radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Pritzke, Tina; Koschlig, Markus; Kamgari, Nona; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; Auweter, Sigrid; Hellbach, Katharina; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hilgendorff, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) and supplementation of oxygen-enriched gas, often needed in postnatal resuscitation procedures, are known to be main risk factors for impaired pulmonary development in the preterm and term neonates. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack in sensitivity for the detection of early stage lung injury. The present study reports a new imaging approach for diagnosis and staging of early lung injury induced by MV and hyperoxia in neonatal mice. The imaging method is based on the Talbot-Lau x-ray grating interferometry that makes it possible to quantify the x-ray small-angle scattering on the air-tissue interfaces. This so-called dark-field signal revealed increasing loss of x-ray small-angle scattering when comparing images of neonatal mice undergoing hyperoxia and MV-O2 with animals kept at room air. The changes in the dark field correlated well with histologic findings and provided superior differentiation than conventional x-ray imaging and lung function testing. The results suggest that x-ray dark-field radiography is a sensitive tool for assessing structural changes in the developing lung. In the future, with further technical developments x-ray dark-field imaging could be an important tool for earlier diagnosis and sensitive monitoring of lung injury in neonates requiring postnatal oxygen or ventilator therapy.

  19. X-ray radiography of Ti6Al4V welded by plasma tungsten arc (PTA) welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikbas, Halil; Caligulu, Ugur; Taskin, Mustafa; Turkmen, Mustafa [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Metallurgy Dept.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, X-ray radiographic tests of Ti6Al4V alloys welded by plasma tungsten arc welding (PTA) were investigated. PTA welding experiments were carried out under argon shielding gas atmosphere, at 1400-1600 W and 1800 W welding powers as well as 1 m/min, 0.75 m/min, and 0.50 m/min welding speeds. After this process, radiography of the welded joints was performed by X-ray diffraction. The result of the radiographic tests indicated that by increasing welding power the widths of deep penetration increased in all specimens. On the contrary, increasing welding speeds decreases the widths deep penetration. The best properties of Ti6Al4V joints were observed for specimens welded at 1800 W welding power and at 0.50 m/min welding speed. (orig.)

  20. Noise analysis of grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging with angular signal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Wali; Gao Kun; Wu Zhao; Wei Chen-Xi; Zan Gui-Bin; Tian Yang-Chao; Bao Yuan; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is one of the novel techniques, and has potential to enhance image quality and provide the details of inner structures nondestructively. In this work, we investigate quantitatively signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging (GBPCI) system by employing angular signal radiography (ASR). Moreover, photon statistics and mechanical error that is a major source of noise are investigated in detail. Results show the dependence of SNR on the system parameters and the effects on the extracted absorption, refraction and scattering images. Our conclusions can be used to optimize the system design for upcoming practical applications in the areas such as material science and biomedical imaging. (paper)

  1. Influence of imaging factors on image quality in bovine computed radiography (CR) using portable X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Sumiya, T.; Lee, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of X-ray tube-cassette distance and image scanning time on image quality to establish the benefit of Computed Radiography (CR) in bovine clinical practice. The tube-cassette distance had no effect on the visual evaluation score (graininess and sharpness). The image scanning time correlated with graininess but not sharpness. From these results, it was concluded that accidental variations in the tube-cassette distance and variations in image scanning time of several hours will not be major problems in clinical practice. CR is considered a useful X-ray system in bovine clinical imaging in which the maintenance of reproducible tube-cassette distance is difficult and variations in image scanning time is assumed

  2. Digital chest radiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne Elisabeth; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Thomsen, Henrik

    on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years...

  3. X-ray findings in the skeleton of the hand to prove renal osteopathy. Soft ray immersions radiography versus standard procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, T.; Friedberg, R.; Heinicke, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In examinations of the hand skeleton, findings typical of renal osteopathy are much more readily revealed by soft ray immersions radiography than by images obtained using conventional techniques. In combination with microradioscopy the method is highly suitable for the primary diagnosis and follow-up of renal osteopathy. The information provided eliminates the need for examinations of other skeletal sections and thus justifies the slightly increased dose requirements. The fact that unchanged parathormone can be determined simultaneously adds to the sensitivity of this non-invasive technique. Histological assessments of the skeleton can, however, not always be avoided. (orig.) [de

  4. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  5. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  6. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yonoshin

    1971-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  7. Technical and diagnostic problems of X-ray radiography of children in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, W.

    An increase in biomedical paediatric radiography of 5-10% per year is expected and therefore it is necessary to look for new possibilities to reduce the dose with the aim to make an increase of radiation exposure impossible, a radiation exposure which would indeed have a very negative effect on the organism of children. Some reasons for the increased radiation sensivity of children are explained. To reduce the radiation exposure the author demands for the sector of children radiobiology that doctors and assistents should be trained in a right way, further a clear diagnosis and the best possible equipment. Concerning the last point various possibilities are presented. The special problem of biomedical radiography is shortly dealt with. At the end of his report the author gives some recommendations concerning the dose, dose capacity, filters which should be used. (MG) [de

  8. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital general radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M

    1995-12-01

    Digital radiographic systems based on photoconductive layers with the latent charge image readout by photoinduced discharge (PID) are investigated theoretically. Previously, a number of different systems have been proposed using sandwiched photoconductor and insulator layers and readout using a scanning laser beam. These systems are shown to have the general property of being very closely coupled (i.e., optimization of one imaging characteristic usually impacts negatively on others). The presence of a condensed state insulator between the photoconductor surface and the readout electrode does, however, confer a great advantage over systems using air gaps with their relatively low breakdown field. The greater breakdown field of condensed state dielectrics permits the modification of the electric field during the period between image formation and image readout. The trade-off between readout speed and noise makes this system suitable for instant general radiography and even rapid sequence radiography, however, the system is unsuitable for the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopy.

  9. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  10. Imaging of bone tumors: evaluation of direct magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Hillmann, A.; Erlemann, R.; Groenefeld, A.; Haeussler, M.; Heppe, A.E.; Vestring, T.; Peters, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the potentials of magnification radiography as compared with conventional radiography in diagnosing bone tumors. Design and patients. Sixty-two patients with primary bone tumors and tumorlike lesions underwent radiography with both conventional (non-magnified) and magnification (fivefold) techniques. All radiographs were analyzed by four radiologists and the findings correlated with the histopathology findings. The microfocal X-ray unit used for magnification radiography had a focal spot size of 20-130 μm. Digital luminescence radiography was employed with magnification, while normal film-screen systems were used with conventional radiography. Results. The diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions as well as the individual tumor diagnosis were determined with higher accuracy using magnification compared with conventional radiography (88% vs 75% and 71% vs 52%, p<0.01). Margins of destruction, periosteal reactions and matrix patterns were evaluated with higher certainty by all of the radiologists (p<0.01). Conclusion. Magnification radiography may improve the evaluation and diagnosis of bone tumors. (orig.). With 6 tabs

  11. Quality control procedure for dental x-ray film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, D.R.C.

    1983-08-01

    Methods of obtaining the optimum processing from dental films are discussed. A method of quality control of developing conditions for dental x-ray films has been developed. It is relatively easy to maintain and is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes

  12. X-ray findings in the skeleton of the hand to prove renal osteopathy. Soft ray immersions radiography versus standard procedures; Roentgendiagnostik der renalen Osteopathie am Handskelett. Weichstrahl-Immersions-Radiographie kontra Standardtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, T. [Radiologische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany); Friedberg, R. [Radiologische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany); Heinicke, H.J. [1. Medizinische Klinik, Krankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Staedtisches Klinikum (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    In examinations of the hand skeleton, findings typical of renal osteopathy are much more readily revealed by soft ray immersions radiography than by images obtained using conventional techniques. In combination with microradioscopy the method is highly suitable for the primary diagnosis and follow-up of renal osteopathy. The information provided eliminates the need for examinations of other skeletal sections and thus justifies the slightly increased dose requirements. The fact that unchanged parathormone can be determined simultaneously adds to the sensitivity of this non-invasive technique. Histological assessments of the skeleton can, however, not always be avoided. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung des Handskeletts mit Hilfe der Weichstrahl-Immersions-Radiographie (WIR) ist fuer typische Befunde der renalen Osteopathie wesentlich sensitiver als die Aufnahmen in Standardtechnik. In Kombination mit der Mikroradioskopie ist sie fuer die roentgenologische Basisdiagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle der renalen Osteopathie sehr gut geeignet. Der Informationsgewinn und die Moeglichkeit der Einsparung von Roentgenuntersuchungen anderer Skelettabschnitte rechtfertigt den etwas hoeheren Dosisbedarf der WIR. Die gleichzeitige Bestimmung des intakten Parathormons erhoeht die Sensitivitaet der nichtinvasiven Diagnostik. Dennoch laesst sich auf eine Knochenhistologie nicht in jedem Fall verzichten. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of X-Ray Protective Measurements in Intraoral Radiography Equipped Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Goodarzi Pour

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A few decades have past from using radiographic technology as an accurate paraclinical method and always protective measurements is applicated against ionizing radiation. As dentalradiography is a routine procedure in dentistry the importance of protective strategies is clear.Propose: The aim of this descriptive study is to evaluate the protection principles in centers which haveintraoral radiographic devices in Yazd.Material and Methods: We have considered all three aspects of practitioner, environment and patientprotection using questionnaire and visiting those centers.Results: 33/7% of dental offices ,10 clinics ,3 institution and faculty of dentistry had intraoral radiographicequipments. Stablishment of protection principles for radiographer was favorable. 7.7% of centers had x-ray room with leaded walls, 23.1% had curtain , in 69/2% of centers radiographers stood in correct position anddistance while taking radiograph. Regarding to protection of environment, beams leakage control in 23.1% dental offices, 70% of clinics, all institution and faculty of dentistry have done.Conclusion: Non of the centers used rectangular localizator, thyroid shield, film holder and just some centers used leaded apron in specific circumstances. We have concluded that patient protection constitute less consideration. Generally lack of protective consideration is related to deficient knowledge of operators. Lackof information about protection equipments causes decrease of demanding of these tools and ultimately lack of these equipments in the market.

  14. Improved In vivo Assessment of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice using X-Ray Dark-Field Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, Andre; Hellbach, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Conlon, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Isis Enlil; Bech, Martin; Velroyen, Astrid; Meinel, Felix G.; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Eickelberg, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive lung disease with a median life expectancy of 4-5 years after initial diagnosis. Early diagnosis and accurate monitoring of IPF are limited by a lack of sensitive imaging techniques that are able to visualize early fibrotic changes at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface. Here, we report a new x-ray imaging approach that directly visualizes the air-tissue interfaces in mice in vivo. This imaging method is based on the detection of small-angle x-ray scattering that occurs at the air-tissue interfaces in the lung. Small-angle scattering is detected with a Talbot-Lau interferometer, which provides the so-called x-ray dark-field signal. Using this imaging modality, we demonstrate-for the first time-the quantification of early pathogenic changes and their correlation with histological changes, as assessed by stereological morphometry. The presented radiography method is significantly more sensitive in detecting morphological changes compared with conventional x-ray imaging, and exhibits a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional x-ray CT. As a result of the improved imaging sensitivity, this new imaging modality could be used in future to reduce the number of animals required for pulmonary research studies.

  15. Gamma radiography and its technological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.

    1962-01-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  16. A survey of digital radiography practice in four South African teaching hospitals: an illuminative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, T; Chirwa, Tf; van der Merwe, Dg

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess radiographer familiarity and preferences with digital radiography in four teaching hospitals and thereafter make recommendations in line with the migration from screen film to digital radiography. A questionnaire was designed to collect data from either qualified or student radiographers from four teaching hospitals. From the four teaching hospitals, there were a total of 205 potential respondents. Among other things, responses regarding experiences and preferences with digital radiography, quality control procedures, patient dose, advantages and disadvantages of digital radiography were sought. The information collected was based on self-reporting by the participants. The study is exploratory in nature and descriptive statistics were generated from the collected data using Microsoft Excel 2007 and StatsDirect software. Sixty-three out of 205 (31%) radiographers from all the four radiology centers responded to the circulated questionnaire. Only 15% (8) of the qualified radiographers had 4 or more years of experience with digital radiography compared to 68% (36) for the same amount of experience with screen-film radiography. Sixty-one percent (38) of the participants had been exposed to digital radiography during their lectures while at university. A small proportion, 16% (10) of the respondents underwent formal training in quality control procedures on the digital X-ray units they were using. Slightly more than half (55%) of the participants felt it was easier for them to retake an image in digital radiography than in screen film radiography. The results of this survey showed that the participants are familiar with digital radiography and have embraced this relatively new technology as shown by the fact that they can identify both its advantages and disadvantages as applied to clinical practice. However, there are minimal quality control procedures specific to digital radiography being undertaken as such there is need for

  17. Comparison of image quality among three x-ray systems for chest radiography: first step in optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocetti, D.; Ubeda, C.; Calcagno, S.; Acevedo, J.; Pardo, D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three digital X-ray systems [one flat-panel (DR) and two computed radiography (CR)] for chest radiography in terms of the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) delivered to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom of 20 cm (equivalent to an adult patient) and image quality through of numerical evaluations using a test object (TO). The tube charge applied was ranged from 0.6 to 32 mAs, to a fixed tension of 125 kVp. The DR system presented the highest mean values of ESAK (615.9 μGy) along with the highest signal-to-noise ratio values, whereas CR systems showed a better high-contrast spatial resolution. Differences were statistically significant in both cases regarding the tube charge used. Thus, this parameter should be mainly considered to optimise the radiological protection through exposure settings selected. This survey represents the first effort to achieve optimisation in digital radiology for Chile. (authors)

  18. Suresh K. AggarwalQuantified Analysis of a Production Diesel Injector Using X-Ray Radiography and Engine Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Anita I.

    The work presented in this thesis pursues further the understanding of fuel spray, combustion, performance, and emissions in an internal combustion engine. Various experimental techniques including x-ray radiography, injection rate measurement, and in-cylinder endoscopy are employed in this work to characterize the effects of various upstream conditions such as injection rate profile and fuel physical properties. A single non-evaporating spray from a 6-hole full-production Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector (HEUI) nozzle is studied under engine-like ambient densities with x-ray radiography at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Two different injection pressures were investigated and parameters such as fuel mass distribution, spray penetration, cone angle, and spray velocity were obtained. The data acquired with x-ray radiography is used for the development and validation of improved Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models. Rate of injection is studied using the same HEUI in a single cylinder Caterpillar test engine. The injection rate profile is altered to have three levels of initial injection pressure rise. Combustion behavior, engine performance, and emissions information was acquired for three rate profile variations. It is found that NOx emission reduction is achieved when the SOI timing is constant at the penalty of lower power generated in the cycle. However, if CA50 is aligned amongst the three profiles, the NOx emissions and power are constant with a slight penalty in CO emissions. The influence of physical and chemical parameters of fuel is examined in a study of the heavy alcohol, phytol (C20H40O), in internal combustion engine application. Phytol is blended with diesel in 5%, 10%, and 20% by volume. Combustion behavior is similar between pure diesel and the phytol/diesel blends with small differences noted in peak cylinder pressure, ignition delay, and heat release rate in the premix burn

  19. Radiation protection in equine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    During radiography of the carpus of horses calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to measure the radiation exposure to the hand of an assistant positioning the x-ray film. Three portable x-ray machines and a mobile machine were used during the recordings. The effects of x-ray machine, radiographic technique, and lead rubber gloves upon radiation exposure to the hand were investigated. The size of the primary beam of the x-ray machine was found to be the major factor in determining the dose of radiation received by the hand. The highest radiation exposures were recorded when using two portable machines which were fitted with beam limiting devices that permitted only one primary beam size. The lowest exposures were measured when radiographs were taken with the mobile machine that was fitted with a light beam diaphragm. The control of primary beam size with a light beam diaphragm was found to be the most effective method of reducing radiation dosage to the hand. It is strongly recommended that for equine radiography a light beam diaphragm be fitted to and used on all x-ray machines, and a cassette holder be used to keep the hands out of the primary beam. (author)

  20. Technical Note : A direct ray-tracing method to compute integral depth dose in pencil beam proton radiography with a multilayer ionization chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Deffet, Sylvain; Meijers, Arturs; Vander Stappen, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a fast ray-tracing algorithm in pencil proton radiography (PR) with a multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) for in vivo range error mapping. Methods: Pencil beam PR was obtained by delivering spots uniformly positioned in a square (45x45 mm(2) field-of-view) of 9x9 spots capable

  1. Development of a novel direct X-ray detector using photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, D.; Jeon, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, R. K.; Cha, B. K.; Moon, B. J.; Yoon, J.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a novel direct X-ray detector using photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital radiography. The pixel resolution is 512 × 512 with 200 μm pixel and the overall active dimensions of the X-ray imaging panel is 10.24 cm × 10.24 cm. The detector consists of an X-ray absorption layer of amorphous selenium, a charge accumulation layer of metal, and a PID readout layer of amorphous silicon. In particular, the charge accumulation is pixelated because image charges generated by X-ray should be stored pixel by pixel. Here the image charges, or holes, are recombined with electrons generated by the PID method. We used a 405 nm laser diode and cylindrical lens to make a line beam source with a width of 50 μm for PID readout, which generates charges for each pixel lines during the scan. We obtained spatial frequencies of about 1.0 lp/mm for the X-direction (lateral direction) and 0.9 lp/mm for the Y-direction (scanning direction) at 50% modulation transfer function.

  2. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuccio, G.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    The Fifth School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials was devoted to thin film characterization by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques. Twenty contributions are contained in this volume; all twenty are recorded in the INIS Database. X-ray diffraction is known to be a powerful analytical tool for characterizing materials and understanding their structural features. The aim of these articles is to illustrate the fundamental contribution of modern diffraction techniques (grazing incidence, surface analysis, standing waves, etc.) to the characterization of thin and ultra-thin films, which have become important in many advanced technologies

  3. The stationary neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Newell, D.L.; Heidel, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    To provide the high intensity neutron beam and support systems necessary for radiography, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System was constructed at McClellan Air Force Base. The Stationary Neutron Radiography System utilizes a one megawatt TRIGA reactor contained in an Aluminium tank surrounded by eight foot thick concrete walls. There are four neutron beam tubes at inclined angles from the reactor core to separate radiography bays. In three of the bays, robotic systems manipulate aircraft components in the neutron beam, while real-time imaging systems provide images concurrent with the irradiation. Film radiography of smaller components is performed in the remaining bay

  4. The optimum circular field size for dental radiography with intraoral films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, F.J. van; Aken, J. van

    Intraoral radiographs are often made with circular fields to irradiate the film, and in many instances these fields are much larger than the film. The feasibility of reducing a circular radiation field without increasing the probability of excessive cone cutting was evaluated clinically, and an

  5. X-ray varieties of acute lung abscess course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilyin, R.Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Chest of x-ray films of 52 patients with lung abscess aged of 18-78 were analyzed. Eight patients were performed radiography in 2 projections, liner and computed tomography. All patients underwent dynamic investigation.

  6. X-ray radiation detectors of 'scintillator-photoreceiving device type' for industrial digital radiography with improved spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhykov, V.D.; Lysetska, O.K.; Opolonin, O.D.; Kozin, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Main types of photo receivers used in X-ray digital radiography systems are luminescent screens that transfer the optical image onto charge collection instruments, which require cooling, and semiconductor silicon detectors, which limit the contrast sensitivity. We have developed and produced X-ray radiation detectors of 'scintillator-photoreceiving device' (S-PRD) type, which are integrally located on the inverse side of the photodiode (PD). The receiving-converting circuit (RCC) is designed for data conversion into digital form and their input into PC. Software is provided for RCC control and image visualization. Main advantages of these detectors are high industrial resolution (3-5 line pairs per mm), detecting activity up to 20 μm, controlled sensitivity, low weight and small size, imaging low (0.1-0.3 mrad) object dose in real time. In this work, main characteristics of 32-, 64- and 1024-channel detectors of S-PRD type were studied and compared for X-ray sensitivity with S-PD detectors. Images of the tested objects have been obtained. Recommendations are given on the use of different scintillation materials, depending upon the purpose of a digital radiographic system. The detectors operate in a broad energy range of ionizing radiation, hence the size of the controlled object is not limited. The system is sufficiently powerful to ensure frontal (through two walls) observation of pipelines with wall thickness up to 10 cm

  7. Experimental study of the X-ray spectra optimization for computed radiography mammography systems; Investigacao experimental da otimizacao do espectro de raios X em sistemas de mamografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomal, Alessandra, E-mail: atomal@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Cunha, Diego M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Nogueira, Maria S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gaspar, Fabio [Vigilancia Sanitaria, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Poletti, Martin E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica

    2013-12-15

    Digital mammography is replacing screen-film mammography due to several advantages of digital receptors. The use of Computed Radiography (CR) mammography systems has been considered an alternative to achieve digital images with a low cost. Besides, the optimization of the X-ray spectrum, characterized by the anode/filter combination and tube potential, is an important step in order to improve the image quality with the lower dose to the breast. In this work, we investigated the optimal X-ray spectra using a figure of merit for two mammography equipment: Senographe DMR (General Electric Medical Systems) and Mammomat 3000 Nova (Siemens), both using an image plate Kodak EHR-M2 (Kodak DirectView). A PMMA phantom, simulating breast with thicknesses of 5 cm, was used. The anode/filter combinations evaluated were: Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh and Rh/Al for the Senographe system, and Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, W/Rh for the Mammomat system, for all the intervals of tube potential range from 24 to 35 kVp. Results demonstrate that the higher values of FOM were achieved with the Rh/Rh at 29 kVp and Rh/Al at 26 kVp for the Senographe system, and for the W/Rh at 28 kVp in the Mammomat one. The reduction in the dose associated with the optimum spectra was 13 and 26% for the Senographe and Mammomat systems, respectively. Finally, our results suggest that anode/filter combinations of more energetic spectra than the standard Mo/Mo combination are recommended for thicker breast, in order to reduce the breast dose levels. (author)

  8. Direct magnification radiography of the hand for the study of erosions in reumathoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzincolo, C; Corcione, S; Campanati, A; Scutellari, P N; Bonari, L R

    1986-01-01

    Plain films and direct magnification radiographs of the hands were performed in 34 patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis, using mammographic x-ray tube, achieved with 0.1 mm microfocus, and 1.85 x magnification factor. Direct magnification radiography has provided essential or useful diagnostic data in 44% of cases, particularly in recognizing early skeletal erosions. Nevertheless direct magnification radiography must be used only in those cases in which traditional mammographic techniques do not supply sactisfactory results.

  9. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  10. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts

  11. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The first applications of the imaging capability of X-rays were non-medical. Roentgen produced images of his shotgun, a compass and a set of weights in a closed box to show his colleagues. Prior to 1912, X-rays were used little outside the realms of medicine and dentistry because the X-ray tubes failed under the higher voltages required for industrial purposes. However, that changed in 1913 when high vacuum X-ray tubes designed by Coolidge became available. In 1922, industrial radiography took another step forward with the advent of the 200,000-volt X-ray tube that allowed radiographs of thick steel parts to be produced in a reasonable amount of time. In 1931 the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) permitted approval of fusion welded pressure vessels by x-ray, which promoted an acceptance and use of the method. That application continues. Radium became the initial gamma ray source for industrial radiography. The material allowed radiography of castings up to 30cm thick. During World War II, industrial radiography grew significantly as part of the US Navy's shipbuilding-program, and in 1946 gamma ray sources such as cobalt 60 and iridium 192 became available. These new sources gained rapid popularity because they emitted more intense radiation than radium and were less expensive. Present state: the majority of industrial radiography techniques have changed little since their inception. An image is captured, processed and analysed for evidence of fault or defect. Today however, the images are of higher quality and greater sensitivity, through the use of better quality films, smaller radiation sources and automated processing. Developments in electronics and computers now allow technicians to create a digital image, enhance it, transmit it or store it indefinitely. The most noticeable change in industrial radiography equipment from the technician's view would be the reduction in weight of the equipment for a given kV output. Never the less it remains

  12. Reduction of radiation dose by using digital luminescence radiography compared to conventional screen film system with grid cassette; Reduktion der Strahlendosis mittels Speicherfolienradiographie im Vergleich zum konventionellen Film-Folien-System mit Rasterkassette am Schaedelphantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, J.P.; Merbold, H.; Neumann, R.; Freesmeyer, M.; Jonetz-Mentzel, L.; Kaiser, W.A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie (Germany); Sehner, J. [AGFA-Deutschland, Vertriebsgesellschaft (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: How much can the radiation dose be reduced for skull radiography by using digital luminescence radiography (DLR) compared to a conventional screen film system with a grid cassette? Methods and Materials: A skull phantom (3M) was X-rayed in anterior-posterior orientation using both a conventional screen film system with grid cassette and DLR (ADC-70, Agfa). The tube current time product (mAs) was diminished gradually while keeping the voltage constant. The surface entrance dose was measured by a sensor of Dosimax (Wellhoefer). Five investigators evaluated the images by characteristic and critical features, spatial resolution and contrast. Results: The surface entrance dose at 73 kV/22 mAs was 0,432 mGy in conventional screen film system and 0,435 mGy in DLR. The images could be evaluated very well down to an average dose of 71% (0,308 mGy; SD 0,050); sufficient images were obtained down to an average dose of 31% (0,136 mGy; SD 0,065). The resolution of the line pairs were reduced down to a 2 levels depending on the investigator. Contrast was assessed as being very good to sufficient. The acceptance of the postprocessed images (MUSICA-software) was individually different and resultde in an improvement of the assessment of bone structures an contrast in higher dose ranges only. Conclusion: For the sufficient assessment of a possible fracture/of paranasal sinuses/of measurement the skull the dose can be reduced to at least 56% (31%; SD 14,9%)/40% (27%; SD 9,3%)/18% (14%; SD 4,4%). Digital radiography allows question-referred exposure parameters with clearly reduced dose, so e.g. for fracture exclusion 73 kV/12,5 mAs and to skull measurement 73 kV/4 mAs. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Wie weit kann unter Einsatz der rasterlosen Speicherfolienradiographie bei einer Schaedelaufnahme die Strahlendosis im Vergleich zum Film-Folien-System (FFS) mit Rasterkassette (RK) fragestellungsbezogen gesenkt werden? Material und Methode: Ein Schaedelphantom (3M) wurde konventionell

  13. Positioning X-Ray Film Inside A Flow Splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darter, Charles; Pierce, Darryl

    1990-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive tool ensures secure placement for radiographic inspection. Holder places film positively and securely for x-ray inspection inside sections of tube with splitter welds. V-shaped piece of film fits on arms of holder. With arms squeezed together, holder inserted in opening of neck. Arms of holder cut from 0.020-in. (0.51-mm) thick stock of unspecified material.

  14. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Fassi, Aurora [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zaffino, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit—CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  15. The optimum circular field size for dental radiography with intraoral films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Straaten, F.J.; van Aken, J.

    1982-01-01

    Intraoral radiographs are often made with circular fields to irradiate the film, and in many instances these fields are much larger than the film. The feasibility of reducing a circular radiation field without increasing the probability of excessive cone cutting was evaluated clinically, and an optimum field size was determined. A circular radiation field 4.5 cm. at the tube end was found to minimize cone cutting and reduce the area of tissue irradiated by at least 44 percent. Findings suggest that current I.C.R.P. recommendations for a 6 to 7.5 cm. diameter circular field may be too liberal

  16. First experience with digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The digital radiogram is explained, its advantages being the various possibilities of image processing, loss-free transmission, recording and storage capabilities, and in special cases, prompt availability of processed images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and the high-resolution method of digital, luminescent radiography, which replaced the conventional film-foil radiography, are explained as the first developments for the introduction of digital radiography, which today already is an applicable technique. (orig./MG) [de

  17. SIMPLE for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Azmi; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Siti Madiha Muhammad Amir; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Saidi Rajab

    2004-01-01

    The first thing industrial radiographers have to do before commencing radiography works is to determine manually the amount of correct exposure that the film need to be exposed in order to obtain the right density. The amount of exposure depends on many variables such as type of radioisotope, type of film, nature of test-object and its orientation, and specific arrangement related to object location and configuration. In many cases radiography works are rejected because of radiographs fail to meet certain reference criteria as defined in the applicable standard. One of the main reasons of radiograph rejection is due to inadequate exposure received by the films. SIMPLE is a software specially developed to facilitate the calculation of gamma-radiography exposure. By using this software and knowing radiographic parameters to be encountered during the work, it is expected that human error will be minimized, thus enhancing the quality and productivity of NDT jobs. (Author)

  18. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yueping; Han Yan; Li Ruihong; Wang Liming

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  19. Radiography imaging by 64 and 128 micro-strips crystalline detectors at different X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Cabal, A.; Montano, L. M.; Fontaine, M.; Mora, R. de la; Padilla, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes some results obtained in the evaluation of the performance of position sensitive detectors in track reconstruction in particle physics experiments. Crystalline silicon micro-strips detectors with 64 and 128 channels and 100 μm pitch were used to obtain radiographic digital images of different objects. The more relevant figures for spectrometry applications were measured and reported. Two-dimensional images were obtained by scanning the object with a collimated beam using different source-target-detector positioning and three sources of X-rays (8.04, 18.55 and 22.16 keV). The counts acquired by each strip correspond to a particular collimator position during the scan, thus serving to reconstruct the image of the exposed to X-ray object and to reveal its internal structure. The use of some techniques for image processing allow the further improvement of the radiography quality. The preliminary results obtained using in-house made and accreditation mammography phantoms allow to infer that such detectors can be successfully introduced in the digital mammography practice. (Author)

  20. Impulsive shock induced single drop steam explosion visualized by high-speed x-ray radiography and photography - metallic melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. S.; Hansson, R. C.; Sehgal, B. R.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental investigation of fine fragmentation process during vapor explosion was conducted in a small-scale single drop system employing continuous high-speed X-ray radiography and photography. A molten tin drop of about 0.7 g at approximately 1000 .deg. C was dropped into a water pool, at temperatures ranging from 20 to 90 .deg. C, and the explosion was triggered by an external shock pulse of about 1 MPa. X-ray radiographs show that finely fragmented melt particles accelerates to the vapor bubble boundary and forms a particle shell during the period of vapor bubble expansion due to vapor explosions. From the photographs, it was possible to observe a number of counter-jets on the vapor boundary. For tests with highly subcooled coolant, local explosion due to external impulsive shock trigger initiates the stratified mode of explosion along the entire melt surface. For tests with lower subcooled coolant local explosions were initiated by an external impulsive shock trigger and by collapse of vapor/gas pocket attached on the top of the melt drop. Transient spatial distribution map of melt fragments during vapor explosion was obtained by a series of image processing and calibration tests

  1. An application of neutron radiography to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron radiography is more useful for certain materials than are the other radiographic techniques. Some neutrons are attenuated by light materials such as water, hydrocarbons and boron, but penetrate through heavy materials such as steel, lead and uranium. The object must be irradiated by neutrons for neutron radiography. The neutron irradiation can take place in a reactor or with a neutron source. The transfer technique relies on the build-up of radioactivity in a foil due to neutron absorption. In this way an activation image is formed in the foil. For this technique, dysprosium ( 164 Dy) and indium ( 115 In) foils can be used. After this irradiation, foils are transferred to a film in the dark-room, the latent image being formed in the film by decay radiation from the foil. The neutron radiography technique has been applied to a sword together with its sheath (inventory number 83/173) (Tugrul and Erdal 1987); a piece of cloth was visible on the handle of the sword. Sword and sheath had become corroded together. The artefact is from the Ikiztepe excavation near the city of Samsun in north Anatolia and belongs to the Early Bronze Age. First, X-ray radiography showed that the sword had been destroyed in large part and was not suitable for conservation and restoration procedures. Second, neutron radiography was carried out. Dysprosium-164 was used for the transfer method as a foil screen and irradiated in the reactor at 100 kW for half an hour. The dysprosium foil remained against the radiographic (Structurix, D-7) film for approximately three half-lives after the irradiation. The neutron radiograph shows the cloth layer continuing towards the bottom of the sheath. Through the cloth, water would have been introduced to the inside of the sheath and this was the main cause of corrosion to the artefact and so of the sword's destruction. (author)

  2. Fuji computed radiography (FCR) for the diagnosis of spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yoshichika; Waga, Shiro; Kojima, Tadashi

    1987-01-01

    Since April, 1985, we have, in co-operation with the Fuji Film Co., Ltd., used Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) in the diagnosis of spinal disorders. FCR is a new computed radiographic system which uses an energy-storage phosphorus panel called an ''Imaging Plate'' as an image sensor. The ''Imaging Plate'' can be used to obtain radiographs in exactly the same way as the screen-film combination used in conventional radiography; X-rays are exposed on the ''Imaging Plate'' instead of X-ray film in the conventional fashion, and then the ''Imaging Plate'' is calculated. The processed digital data from the scans is transformed into a picture by means of digital-to-analogue conversion. The pictures are always clear and beautiful. Plain films of the spine taken by FCR are even clearer, even in the cervicothoracic region, where it is usually difficult to obtain clear cervicothoracic films in conventional radiography. We can obtain much precise information about the spinal posterior osteophytes and grafted bone, even when the patients are immobilized in a Halo apparatus. In myelography, the pictures are also clearer; we can see how the root or roots are compressed, how the dura and cord are involved in patients with cervical disc disease, and even the very narrow space between the cord and an intradural tumor. FCR is thus very useful in observing spinal disorders, either in plain films or myelography. (author)

  3. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  4. Industrial radiography techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wamorkar, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of industrial radiography are discussed. These include: radiation sources, geometrical unsharpness of image, radiation attenuation in the specimen, radiation effect of film, types of film, intensifying screens, exposure time calculations, source to film distance and sensivitity. Radiography techniques for examination of welded joints on flat plate and pipes or cylindrical objects, and castings are indicated. Applications of radiography in various industries are mentioned. (M.G.B.)

  5. X-ray diagnostic study on the optimization of digital radiography in dentistry. Optimal exposure conditions for X-ray CCD sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, Toshifumi

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to reduce the patient dose by optimization of irradiation conditions of an X-ray CCD sensor in intra-oral digital radiography. The X-ray diagnosis was divided into two, high quality-of-image diagnosis and low quality-of-image diagnosis, and it optimized by using the exposure of necessary minimum for each. The image quality of CCD was evaluated using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in order to estimate the influence of irradiation conditions. The dose based on CCD maker setting value was set up so that the highest quality of image might be obtained mostly. In low quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduced the dose to 13.2% of standard irradiation, SNR was 40% and interpretation was possible. In high quality-of-image diagnosis, even if it reduces the dose to 49% of standard irradiation, SNR remained 80% and there were few differences of the image with a standard. A study of the digital X-ray examination taken at the dental clinic showed high quality-of-image diagnosis was 69% and low quality-of-image one was 31%. When this optimization was performed, it was presumed that reduction of about 62% of the dose is possible. (author)

  6. Pediatric radiation dose management in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, U.

    2004-01-01

    Direct digital radiography (DR) systems based on flat-panel detectors offer improved dose management in pediatric radiography. Integration of X-ray generation and detection in one computer-controlled system provides better control and monitoring

  7. Dual-energy X-ray radiography for automatic high-Z material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin; Bennett, Gordon; Perticone, David

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for high-Z material detection in cargo. Materials with Z > 74 can indicate the presence of fissile materials or radiation shielding. Dual (high) energy X-ray material discrimination is based on the fact that different materials have different energy dependence in X-ray attenuation coefficients. This paper introduces the basic physics and analyzes the factors that affect dual-energy material discrimination performance. A detection algorithm is also discussed

  8. Evaluation of radiation protection in x rays room design in diagnostic radiography department in Omdurman locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ahmed yusif Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection in x-ray rooms design in diagnosis radiology department, evaluate personal monitoring devices, to assess primary scatter and leakage radiation dose, to assess monitoring devices if available, in period from March 2013 to August 2013. The design data included room size, control room size, manufacture of equipment, room surrounding areas, workload of all equipment rooms, type of x-ray equipment, radiation worker's in all hospital, number of patient in each shift, structural material and shielding, K vp and m As used in x-ray room department during examination testing. The results of this study show that there is x-ray room design, the design of x-ray equipment is accepted according to the radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection devices are available and in a good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are not personal monitoring devices and services. the radiological technologist are well trained. Also the study investigation the radiation protection in x-ray room in diagnostic department in Omdurman locality. Finally the study shows that there is compact able to ICRP recommended and National quality control in Sudan Atomic Energy Council exception, Alwedad, Abusied and Blue Nile there are have not control room concludes that there is only in relationship hospital have a window without shield.(Author)

  9. Thermoluminescent dosemeters for determining the energy absorbed during X-ray radiography of the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1983-01-01

    The dose and absorbed energy during normal diagnostic X-ray of various sections of the vertebral column were determined with LiF-dosemeters in a phantom. The paper describes a method to be used to determine integral doses from the dose measurements. The energy absorbed for one X-ray picture of the vertebral column is between 5 and 30 mJ. Compared to other diagnostical X-rays the quantity of the energy absorbed during X-ray of the vertebral column is rather high and is only reached by X-rays in the pelvic region. The speculations on the rate of incidence of malignent neoplasms on the basis of diagnostical X-ray of the vertebral column reveal a value of 50 per 60 x 10 6 persons. This value is likely to overestimate the risk, seems, however, to be low in comparison to other risks of every day life (traffic accident, mountainering, etc). (orig./HP) [de

  10. Dose efficiency and low-contrast detectability of an amorphous silicon x-ray detector for digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufrichtig, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The effect of dose reduction on low-contrast detectability is investigated theoretically and experimentally for a production grade amorphous silicon (a-Si) x-ray detector and compared with a standard thoracic screen-film combination. A non-prewhitening matched filter observer model modified to include a spatial response function and internal noise for the human visual system (HVS) is used to calculate a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) related to object detectability. Other inputs to the SNR calculation are the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the imaging system. Besides threshold detectability, the model predicts the equivalent perception dose ratio (EPDR), which is the fraction of the screen-film exposure for which the digital detector provides equal detectability. Images of a contrast-detail phantom are obtained with the digital detector at dose levels corresponding to 27%, 41%, 63% and 100% of the dose used for screen-film. The images are used in a four-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) observer perception study in order to measure threshold detectability. A statistically significant improvement in contrast detectability is measured with the digital detector at 100% and 63% of the screen-film dose. There is no statistical difference between screen-film and digital at 41% of the dose. On average, the experimental EPDR is 44%, which agrees well with the model prediction of 40%. (author)

  11. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  12. Investigation of X-ray irradiation reduction for pediatric patients in oral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikone, Mitsuru

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic intraoral radiography carries the undue risk of thyroid gland irradiation due to their physical proximity to the radiation pathway. This is particularly true in children where maximum radiation protection is necessary due to their small physical stature and greater sensitivity of their thyroid to radiation. With this in mind, two new types of pediatric thyroid protectors were constructed. Using the 192 type CAPINTEC (Exposure/Exposure-ratemater) and the TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter), the effectiveness of the new protectors were analyzed statistically and clinically. They were also compared to other thyroid radiation dosage values reported in the past. The following results were obtained : 1) Even when the tube voltage was altered from 65 kVp to 80 kVp, the shielding effectiveness of the new protectors were satisfactory, recording below 1.0 mR (2.58 x 10 -7 C/kg) value. 2) Thyroid protector's clinical results with respect to the six projectioins of the upper and lower anteriors, cuspids, and molar regions were more than satisfactory, where the thyroid region's radiation dosage of below 0.9 mR (2.32 x 10 -6 C/kg) was obtained. 3) The new protectors were compared against other commercially available protectors with respect to adaptation, ease of handling, cone positioning during exposure, patient movement and weight of the protector. Most of the said problems were resolved with satisfactory in comparison to existing products. 4) As for the risk of thyroid gland cancer, when, the new thyroid gland protector is used it was 9 x 10 -6 and the probability was 1/100,000 ; whereas, it was about 1/50 for the existing protectors. (author)

  13. A range of equipment for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, G.P.M.; Clement, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review of the history of dental radiography is followed by a description of the latest Philips equipment, ranging from compact units for intra-oral radiography to advanced systems for panoramic techniques and skull radiography. The advantages of automatic exposure control and automatic film processing are also discussed. In conclusion, some probable future trends are forecast. (Auth.)

  14. Radioisotopes - their applications in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, H.R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of radioisotopes and their industrial applications with special reference to industrial radiography are outlined. The various aspects of industrial radiography such as source size, source containers, films, density of radiography, radiographic quality and applications are discussed in brief. (M.G.B.)

  15. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cummins, T.R. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction.

  16. Magnetic x-ray dichroism in ultrathin epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.; Goodman, K.W.; Cummins, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have used Magnetic X-ray Linear Dichroism (MXLD) and Magnetic X-ray Circular Dichroism (MXCD) to study the magnetic properties of epitaxial overlayers in an elementally specific fashion. Both MXLD and MXCD Photoelectron Spectroscopy were performed in a high resolution mode at the Spectromicroscopy Facility of the ALS. Circular Polarization was obtained via the utilization of a novel phase retarder (soft x-ray quarter wave plate) based upon transmission through a multilayer film. The samples were low temperature Fe overlayers, magnetic alloy films of NiFe and CoNi, and Gd grown on Y. The authors results include a direct comparison of high resolution angle resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy performed in MXLD and MXCD modes as well as structural studies with photoelectron diffraction

  17. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, A. M., E-mail: shaikham@barc.gov.in [Physics Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulsed Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ∼13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ∼27000 PSL/mm{sup 2} is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ∼200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry.

  18. Simulations Of Neutron Beam Optic For Neutron Radiography Collimator Using Ray Tracing Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfarizan Mohd Said; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin

    2014-01-01

    Ray- tracing is a technique for simulating the performance of neutron instruments. McStas, the open-source software package based on a meta-language, is a tool for carrying out ray-tracing simulations. The program has been successfully applied in investigating neutron guide design, flux optimization and other related areas with high complexity and precision. The aim of this paper is to discuss the implementation of ray-tracing technique with McStas for simulating the performance of neutron collimation system developed for imaging system of TRIGA RTP reactor. The code for the simulation was developed and the results are presented. The analysis of the performance is reported and discussed. (author)

  19. Radiography simulation on single-shot dual-spectrum X-ray for cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Oh, Youngdo; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to identify materials in the dual energy X-ray (DeX) inspection system. This method identifies materials by combining information on the relative proportions T of high-energy and low-energy X-rays transmitted through the material, and the ratio R of the attenuation coefficient of the material when high-energy are used to that when low energy X-rays are used. In Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) simulations using the same geometry as that of the real container inspection system, this T vs. R method successfully identified tissue-equivalent plastic and several metals. In further simulations, the single-shot mode of operating the accelerator led to better distinguishing of materials than the dual-shot system.

  20. Artificial urethral sphincters: Value of plain film radiography in evaluation of prosthesis malfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.C.; Hansen, M.E.; Webster, G.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    Case records were reviewed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of plain radiographs in the evaluation of inflatable artificial urethral sphincters. Of 84 patients with prostheses, 21 (25%) developed complications. Fluid leaks were found in 16 patients who presented with recurrent incontinence; plain radiographs demonstrated an interval decrease in balloon reservoir diameter. Kinked tubing, which was evident on plain films, caused acute urinary retention in three patients. However, plain radiographs failed to detect evidence of prosthesis erosion into the urethra in either of two patients with this complication. Although urethroscopy is needed to detect urethral erosion, plain radiographs are inexpensive and reliable in the initial evaluation of artifical sphincter malfunction

  1. Compton radiography, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Mishina, Hitoshi.

    1977-01-01

    Compton radiography, a tomographic technic with Compton-scattered rays of a monochromatic gamma ray beam, was feasible of tomographing a chest phantom. The result suggested that the technic could be extended to imaging of the lung and the surrounding structures of the chest wall, mediastinum and liver in Compton tomographic mode. (auth.)

  2. Monochromatic x-ray radiography of laser-driven spherical targets using high-energy, picoseconds LFEX laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hiroshi; Fujioka, S.; Lee, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shigemori, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Nishimura, H.; Sunahara, A.; Theobald, W.; Perez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Beg, F. N.

    2015-11-01

    Formation of a high density fusion fuel is essential in both conventional and advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) schemes for the self-sustaining fusion process. In cone-guided Fast Ignition (FI), a metal cone is attached to a spherical target to maintain the path for the injection of an intense short-pulse ignition laser from blow-off plasma created when nanoseconds compression lasers drive the target. We have measured a temporal evolution of a compressed deuterated carbon (CD) sphere using 4.5 keV K-alpha radiography with the Kilo-Joule, picosecond LFEX laser at the Institute of Laser Engineering. A 200 μm CD sphere attached to the tip of a Au cone was directly driven by 9 Gekko XII beams with 300 J/beam in a 1.3 ns Gaussian pulse. The LFEX laser irradiated on a Ti foil to generate 4.51 Ti K-alpha x-ray. By varying the delay between the compression and backlighter lasers, the measured radiograph images show an increase of the areal density of the imploded target. The detail of the quantitative analyses to infer the areal density and comparisons to hydrodynamics simulations will be presented. This work was performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS13KUGK072). H.S. was supported by the UNR's International Activities Grant program.

  3. Radiography of heavy materials with a 420 kV X ray generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdarios, G.; Deleuze, M.; Lemoine, P.

    1983-03-01

    The aim of this study is the improvement of X ray testing. The installation is described and tests are carried out with uranium samples up to 9 mm thick. Performances are compared with examination by a Ir 192 source: contrast is enhanced and exposure time is reduced (12 graphs and 6 tables) [fr

  4. Scanning of Cargo Containers by Gamma-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.; Megahid, M.R.; Osman, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Reda, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined systems which were installed and tested to detect contraband smuggled in cargo containers. These combined systems are based on radiographers work by gamma-rays emitted from point source 60 Co with 0.5 Ci activity and neutrons emitted from point isotopic sources of Pu-α-Be as well as 14 MeV neutrons emitted from sealed tube neutron generator. The transmitted gamma ray through the inspected object was measured by gamma detection system with NaI(Tl) detector while the transmitted fast neutron beam was measured by a neutron gamma detection system with stilbene organic scintillator. The later possess the capability of discrimination between between gamma and neutron pulses using a discrimination system based on pulse shape discrimination method. The measured intensities of primary incident and transmitted beams of gamma-rays and fast neutrons were used to construct 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected objects hidden directly within benign materials of the container and for object screened by high dense material to stop object detection by gamma or X-rays. The constructed images for the inspected objects show the good capability and effectiveness of the installed gamma and neutron radiographers to detect illicit materials hidden in air cargo containers and sea containers of med size. They have also indicated that the developed scanning systems possess the ease of mobility and low cost of scanning

  5. Hard X-ray dosimetry of a plasma focus suitable for industrial radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, P.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2018-04-01

    Dosimetric measurements of the hard X-ray emission by a small-chamber 4.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device capable of producing neat radiographs of metallic objects, were carried out with a set of thermoluminescent detectors TLD 700 (LiF:Mg,Ti). Measurements of the hard X-ray dose dependence with the angular position relative to the electrodes axis, are presented. The source-detector distance was changed in the range from 50 to 100 cm, and the angular positions were explored between ± 70°, relative to the symmetry axis of the electrodes. On-axis measurements show that the X-ray intensity is uniform within a half aperture angle of 6°, in which the source delivers an average dose of (1.5 ± 0.1) mGy/sr per shot. Monte Carlo calculations suggest that the energy of the electron beam responsible for the X-ray emission ranges 100-600 keV.

  6. Trends in obstetric radiography, 1939-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Stewart, A.M.; Knox, E.G.; Kneale, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Trends in obstetric radiography in Britian between 1939 and 1981 are reported. During this period the number of films needed to complete each examination decreased. The timing of x-rays also changed towards late pregnancy, and there was virtual elimination of all first trimester exposures following the introduction of the '10-day rule' in 1972. After the introduction of ultrasound, x-rays for twins decreased, x-rays for breech presentations remained unchanged and x-rays for foetal maturity increased. Despite repeated demonstrations of the cancer risk, the proportion of exposed infants was higher in 1970-81 (14%) than in 1960-9 (11%) or 1950-9 (12%). There were fewer x-rays in 1976-81 (12%) than in 1970-5 (15%), but it is possible that withdrawal of the '10-day rule' in 1985 will reverse this trend. (author)

  7. Study of positioning techniques for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshinori; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    A good positioning technique is of great importance in radiology in order to obtain accurate diagnostic information and reduce the patient's X-ray exposure. In positioning training, students place the phantom on the table under an X-ray tube, adjust the position of the phantom, and repeat the positioning practices until they can obtain fine diagnostic images. As X-ray films are usually used in radiography, the development of such films is necessary. In this kind of training practice, it takes a great deal of time to obtain the X-ray image at the phantom position. It is desirable for students to perform positioning accurately and to confirm the results of positioning within a short time. In this article, we propose a new positioning training method using digital image processing. First, we scan the skull phantom by CT (computed tomography) and obtain CT images. Next, we measure the positioning information of the phantom under the X-ray equipment by using scene analysis. Then, we develop a method that produces the plane image corresponding to the detected phantom position under the X-ray tube. It is expected that our method will be useful as a teaching device to help in the practice of the positioning techniques for various organs without X-ray exposure and, furthermore, in the development of X-ray films. (author)

  8. Digital radiography: a survey of pediatric dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Julie M; Russo, James A; Guelmann, Marcio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the popularity of digital radiography among members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD); and (2) report the most common systems in use. An AAPD-approved, voluntary, and anonymous electronic survey was developed and sent to 923 board certified pediatric dentists. Years in practice and in-office x-ray technology (digital or conventional) were inquired about initially. If negative for the use of digital radiography, future consideration for converting to digital radiography was ascertained. For positive responses, more in-depth information was requested. Information on type of system (sensor or phosphor plate), user friendliness, diagnostic ability, patient's comfort, general costs, durability, and parental and overall satisfaction was collected. For most of the questions, a 5-point assessment scale was used. Opportunity for additional comments was provided upon survey completion. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A 32% (296/923) response rate was obtained. Twenty-six percent of practitioners (78/296) implemented digital radiography in their practices, whereas 71% considered future acquisition. Similar distribution for sensor and phosphor plate users was found. Sensor technology was reported to produce faster images, but was less tolerable by young children due to size and thickness. Phosphor plates were considered more children friendly, less expensive, and less durable. Parental satisfaction was very high with great marketing value. Picture quality was comparable to conventional film. Overall, digital radiography users would recommend it to other pediatric dentists. Digital radiography is not yet popular among pediatric dentists. Cost reduction and technology advancement may enhance utilization.

  9. Computed radiography in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computed radiography has also been called storage phosphor technology, digital luminescence radiography and scintillation phosphor technology, since it relies on phosphor imaging plate as an alternative to screen-film. One of the major advantages in the use of computed radiography (CR) is the consistent image quality independence of the radiographer and exposure used. And secondly a marked reduction in the need for repeat films was achieved and thus a decrease in dose to the patient. In some cases, dose was able to be reduced further due to the fact that the plates respond to lower doses and still provide adequate image quality. Digitalising the Cr image allows it to be transmitted to an imaging console. The images can then be stored on optical disc. 7 refs

  10. An overview of digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aweligiba, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    The medical application of radiography has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine for fast diagnosis and therapy. Digital radiography is a relatively new technology that promises greater accuracy, lesser dose and better manipulation of patient radiology images in hospitals. In this study, a general discussion on digital radiography has been presented. The presentation focuses on the optimisation of doses to patients in the medical application of digital radiography, quality control and quality assurance. A brief presentation on performance indicators in digital radiography has also been presented. The advantages of digital radiography over the conventional film/screen system have been elaborated and its limitations are also outlined. (author)

  11. German congress on X-ray radiography 1981. Deutscher Roentgenkongress 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The book contains abstracts of 280 papers read at the 1981 German X-ray Congress - some abstracts, unfortunately, are not given. The following subjects were discussed: Diagnosis of internal injuries, traumatic lesions of the skull and brain, diagnosis in orthopaedics and ophthalmology, gastric examinations, diagnosis of pancreatitis due to alcoholism, ultrasonographic diagnosis, biopsy, CT diagnosis of the pelvis and nephro-urology, CT-diagnosis of the thorax, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radiobiology, radiological techniques and other subjects.

  12. Technical quality assurance in conventional radiography by X-ray assistants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juran, R.; Buehler, G.; Schmidt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Without the X-ray assistant, regularly involved in everyday practice, technical quality assurance can hardly be accomplished. Therefore a model for the organization of quality assurance was developed and tested in practice. It implies accountable technical checks by the technician, that are controlled by a quality supervisor, and are subsequently evaluated by the radiation physics department. This positively influences quality consciousness of the radiographers and therefore the quality itself. (author)

  13. Practical radiography. 11. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoxter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    After a brief explanation of the basics of electricity, the fundamentals of radiography are dealt with in more detail - the discovery of X-rays, their nature and properties, the production of the X-ray image and ways of improving the image. A chapter is devoted to the important subject of radiation protection. Explanations are given of the use of the Siemens exposure tables, which make it simpler to modify exposures from the values given in the tables. There is also a section on some of the standard radiographic positioning for patients. The most common medical terms used in radiography and fluoroscopy are listed and an Appendix gives details of the major items of Siemens X-ray equipment. There is a list of literature recommended for further study. Theoretical explanations have been kept to a minimum so that information that is important to radiography can be emphasized. (orig./MG)

  14. Thin film characterization by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, Adrien; Nolot, Emmanuel; Veillerot, Marc; Olivier, Segolene; Decorps, Tifenn; Calvo-Munoz, Maria-Luisa; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Lhostis, Sandrine; Kohno, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Geoffroy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of films thinner than a few nm used in nanoelectronics represents a challenge for many conventional production metrology tools. With capabilities in the 10 10 at/cm 2 , methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). This study shows that under usual configuration for contamination analysis, with incident angle smaller than the critical angle of the substrate, TXRF signal saturation occurs very rapidly for dense films (below 0.5 nm for HfO 2 films on Si wafers using a 9.67 keV excitation at 0.5 deg.). Increasing the incident angle, the range of linear results can be extended, but on the other hand, the TXRF sensitivity is degraded because of a strong increase of the measurement dead time. On HfO 2 films grown on Si wafers, an incident angle of 0.32 deg. corresponding to a dead time of 95% was used to achieve linear analysis up to 2 nm. Composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Although quantitative analyses might require specific calibration, this work shows on Co-based films that the ratio between minor elements (W, P, Mo) and Co taking into account their relative sensitivity factors is a good direct reading of the composition

  15. Internal sub-sonic burning during an explosion viewed via dynamic X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Oschwald, D.; Suvorova, N.; Remelius, D.

    2017-10-01

    We observe internal convective and conductive burn front propagation and solid consumption subsequent to thermal ignition for plastic bonded formulations of the solid organic secondary explosives octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. This work describes x-ray radiographic diagnostics enabling the study of solid density in a fully encased explosive during internal burning subsequent to ignition. The result of this study is the ability to directly observe and measure rates of energy release during a thermal explosion.

  16. Simulating X-ray diffraction of textured films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiby, Dag W.; Bunk, Oliver; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    Computationally efficient simulations of grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) are discussed, with particular attention given to textured thin polycrystalline films on supporting substrates. A computer program has been developed for simulating scattering from thin films exhibiting varying...... degrees of preferred orientation. One emphasized common case is that of a 'fibre' symmetry axis perpendicular to the sample plane, resulting from crystallites having one well defined crystal facet towards the substrate, but no preferred inplane orientation. Peak splitting caused by additional scattering......, the mathematically simplest possible descriptions are sought whenever feasible. The practical use of the program is demonstrated for a selected thin-film example, perylene, which is of relevance for organic electronics....

  17. High energy x-ray radiography and computed tomography of bridge pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R E; Logan, C M; Martz, H E; Updike, E; Waters, A M

    1999-01-01

    Bridge pins were used in the hanger assemblies for some multi-span steel bridges built prior to the 1980's, and are sometimes considered fracture critical elements of a bridge. During a test on a bridge conducted by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), ultrasonic field inspection results indicated that at least two pins contained cracks. Several pins were removed and selected for further examination. This provided an excellent opportunity to learn more about these pins and the application of x-ray systems at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as to learn more about the application of different detectors recently obtained by LLNL. Digital radiographs and computed tomography (CT) were used to characterize the bridge pins, using a LINAC x-ray source with a 9-MV bremsstrahlung spectrum. We will describe the performance of two different digital radiographic detectors. One is a detector system frequently used at LLNL consisting of a scintillator glass optically coupled to a CCD camera. The other detector is a new amorphous silicon detector recently acquired by LLNL

  18. Functioning of industrial radiography services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Costa, H.M. da; Bianchini, F.G.; Arrieta, L.A.I.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this norm is establish the necessary requirements for the functioning of industrial radiography services, as well as the procedures for acquisition and transfer of radioactive sources and/or X-ray equipments used in industrial radiography [pt

  19. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  20. X-ray Tomography using Thin Scintillator Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, E A; Lemzyakov, A G; Petrozhitskiy, A V; Popov, A S

    2017-01-01

    2-14 μm thin CsI:Tl scintillation screens with high spatial resolution were prepared by the thermal deposition method for low energy X-ray imaging applications. The spatial resolution was measured as a function of the film thickness. It was proposed that the spatial resolution of the prepared conversion screens can be significantly improved by an additional deposition of a carbon layer.

  1. Spline based iterative phase retrieval algorithm for X-ray differential phase contrast radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchian, Masih; Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; Unser, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-04-20

    Differential phase contrast imaging using grating interferometer is a promising alternative to conventional X-ray radiographic methods. It provides the absorption, differential phase and scattering information of the underlying sample simultaneously. Phase retrieval from the differential phase signal is an essential problem for quantitative analysis in medical imaging. In this paper, we formalize the phase retrieval as a regularized inverse problem, and propose a novel discretization scheme for the derivative operator based on B-spline calculus. The inverse problem is then solved by a constrained regularized weighted-norm algorithm (CRWN) which adopts the properties of B-spline and ensures a fast implementation. The method is evaluated with a tomographic dataset and differential phase contrast mammography data. We demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce phase image with enhanced and higher soft tissue contrast compared to conventional absorption-based approach, which can potentially provide useful information to mammographic investigations.

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection in conventional x-ray departments in diagnostic radiography (Kartoum City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhussien, Nuha Yousif Osman

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted in a number of governmental and private hospitals in the city of Khartoum in order to evalute radiation protection in conventional X-ray departments. The number of governmental hospitals was and 4 private 69% and 31&, respectivly, and the number of X-rays rooms that have been evaluted was 19, 15 gvernmental and private by rate of 79% and 21% respectively. And found that many of the hospitals fullfilled the requirements of radiation protection, also we have been observed that all radiology rooms are built well, but their control rooms was mostly not fulfilled the requirements of radiation protection due to either were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation due to either they were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation from the patient or their size was small that not enable workers to exerciese their work safely, as well as some height less than recommended by the competent authorities. Also found that most hospitals have lead aprons axcept three, but some they are old that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the right way. Even the good ares not used by most of the technician and co-patients. All the hoapitals have not the following radiation tools (thyroid collar, lead glasses, lead gloves. TLDs, and gonad shields). The scattered radiation (leakage) was evaluted in the control room, the door of the control room, the dark room, behind chest stand, staff office, and the waiting area. We found that the higher readings in the door of the control rooms (<10 μSv/hr) in the five control rooms from 19, also the readings exceeded the limits in three hospitals in control rooms 13 rooms. And also the readings exceeded the limits in two hospitals in the staff office, and the waiting area. (Author)

  3. 3D-printed coded apertures for x-ray backscatter radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, André A. M.; Vella, Anna; Healy, Matthew J. F.; Lane, David W.; Jupp, Ian; Lockley, David

    2017-09-01

    Many different mask patterns can be used for X-ray backscatter imaging using coded apertures, which can find application in the medical, industrial and security sectors. While some of these patterns may be considered to have a self-supporting structure, this is not the case for some of the most frequently used patterns such as uniformly redundant arrays or any pattern with a high open fraction. This makes mask construction difficult and usually requires a compromise in its design by drilling holes or adopting a no two holes touching version of the original pattern. In this study, this compromise was avoided by 3D printing a support structure that was then filled with a radiopaque material to create the completed mask. The coded masks were manufactured using two different methods, hot cast and cold cast. Hot casting involved casting a bismuth alloy at 80°C into the 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene mould which produced an absorber with density of 8.6 g cm-3. Cold casting was undertaken at room temperature, when a tungsten/epoxy composite was cast into a 3D printed polylactic acid mould. The cold cast procedure offered a greater density of around 9.6 to 10 g cm-3 and consequently greater X-ray attenuation. It was also found to be much easier to manufacture and more cost effective. A critical review of the manufacturing procedure is presented along with some typical images. In both cases the 3D printing process allowed square apertures to be created avoiding their approximation by circular holes when conventional drilling is used.

  4. Compton radiography, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Sera, Koichiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Shishido, Fumio; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1977-01-01

    Tomographic images of an object are obtainable by irradiating it with a collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and recording the resultant Compton rays scattered upward at right angles. This is the scattered-ray principle of the formation of a radiation image that differs from the traditional ''silhouette principle'' of radiography, and that bears prospects of stereopsis as well as cross-section tomography. (Evans, J.)

  5. New medical application: nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear scattering of 1 GeV protons is used to obtain three dimensional radiographies with a volume resolution of about 1 mm 3 . The information is different from the one given by X-ray radiographies and in particular one may get radiographies of the hydrogen included in objects. Results on a vertebral column and a 'sella turcica' are presented [fr

  6. Photon-counting digital radiography using high-pressure xenon filled detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Maozhen; Johns, P C

    2001-01-01

    Digital radiography overcomes many of the limitations of the traditional screen/film system. Further enhancements in the digital radiography image are possible if the X-ray image receptor could measure the energy of individual photons instead of simply integrating their energy, as is the case at present. A prototype photon counting scanned projection radiography system has been constructed, which combines a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Gas Microstrip Detector (GMD) using Xe : CH sub 4 (90 : 10) at high pressure. With the gain contribution from the GEM, the GMD can be operated at lower and safer voltages making the imaging system more reliable. Good energy resolution, and spatial resolution comparable to that of screen/film, have been demonstrated for the GEM/GMD hybrid imaging system in photon counting mode for X-ray spectra up to 50 kV.

  7. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 https://edms.cern.ch/file/346848/LAST_RELEASED/PRP30.pdf The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address: http://cern.ch/rp-radio

  8. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  9. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Dimovasili, Evangelia; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Varveris, Haralambos

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d a ) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d a was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10 -3 mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d a estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is no need for

  10. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Dimovasili, Evangelia; Varveris, Haralambos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d(a)) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d(a) was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10(-3) mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d(a) estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is no need for

  11. Conceptus radiation dose and risk from chest screen-film radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damilakis, John; Perisinakis, Kostas; Dimovasili, Evangelia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Varveris, Haralambos [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1393, 714 09 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to (a) estimate the conceptus radiation dose and risks for pregnant women undergoing posteroanterior and anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs, (b) study the conceptus dose as a function of chest thickness of the patient undergoing chest radiograph, and (c) investigate the possibility of a conceptus to receive a dose of more than 10 mGy, the level above which specific measurements of conceptus doses may be necessary. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used for dose measurements in anthropomorphic phantoms simulating pregnancy at the three trimesters of gestation. The effect of chest thickness on conceptus dose and risk was studied by adding slabs of lucite on the anterior and posterior surface of the phantom chest. The conceptus risk for radiation-induced childhood fatal cancer and hereditary effects was calculated based on appropriate risk factors. The average AP chest dimension (d{sub a}) was estimated for 51 women of childbearing age from chest CT examinations. The value of d{sub a} was estimated to be 22.3 cm (17.4-27.2 cm). The calculated maximum conceptus dose was 107 x 10{sup -3} mGy for AP chest radiographs performed during the third trimester of pregnancy with maternal chest thickness of 27.2 cm. This calculation was based on dose data obtained from measurements in the phantoms and d{sub a} estimated from the patient group. The corresponding average excess of childhood cancer was 10.7 per million patients. The risk for hereditary effects was 1.1 per million births. Radiation dose for a conceptus increases exponentially as chest thickness increases. The conceptus dose at the third trimester is higher than that of the second and first trimesters. The results of the current study suggest that chest radiographs carried out in women at any time during gestation will result in a negligible increase in risk of radiation-induced harmful effects to the unborn child. After a properly performed maternal chest X-ray, there is

  12. Neutron induced electron radiography; Radiografia com eletrons induzida por neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Marcos Leandro Garcia

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper a new radiography technique, the 'Neutron Induced Electron Radiography' - NIER, to inspect low thickness samples on the order of micra, has been developed. This technique makes use of low energy electrons as penetrating radiation generated from metallic gadolinium screens when irradiated by thermal neutrons. The conditions to obtain the best image for the conventional X-ray film Kodak-AA were determined by using a digital system to quantify the darkening level of the film. The irradiations have been performed at a radiography equipment installed at the beam-hole no. 8 of the 5 MW IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The irradiation time to obtain the best radiography was 100 seconds and for such condition the technique was able to discern 1 {mu}m in 24 {mu}m of aluminum at a resolution of 32 {mu}m. By visual comparison the images obtained by the NIER shown a higher quality when compared with the ones from other usual techniques the make use of electrons a penetrating radiation and films for image registration. Furthermore the use of the digital system has provided a smaller time for data acquisition and data analysis as well as an improvement in the image visualization. (author)

  13. Digital radiography with a large-scale electronic flat-panel detector vs screen-film radiography: observer preference in clinical skeletal diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, S.; Freyschmidt, J.; Neitzel, U.

    2001-01-01

    The imaging performance of a recently developed digital flat-panel detector system was compared with conventional screen-film imaging in an observer preference study. In total, 34 image pairs of various regions of the skeleton were obtained in 24 patients; 30 image pairs were included in the study. The conventional images were acquired with 250- and 400-speed screen-film combinations, using the standard technique of our department. Within hours, the digital images were obtained using identical exposure parameters. The digital system employed a large-area (43 x 43 cm) flat-panel detector based on amorphous silicon (Trixell Pixium 4600), integrated in a Bucky table. Six radiologists independently evaluated the image pairs with respect to image latitude, soft tissue rendition, rendition of the periosteal and enosteal border of cortical bone, rendition of cancellous bone and the visibility of potentially present pathological changes, using a subjective five-point scale. The digital images were rated significantly (p=0.001) better than the screen-film images with respect to soft tissue rendition and image latitude. Also the rendition of the cancellous bone and the periosteal and enosteal border of the cortical bone was rated significantly (p=0.05) better for the flat-panel detector. The visibility of pathological lesions was equivalent; only large-area sclerotic lesions (n=2) were seen superiorly on screen-film images. The new digital flat-panel detector based on amorphous silicon appears to be at least equivalent to conventional screen-film combinations for skeletal examinations, and in most respects even superior. (orig.)

  14. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  15. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  16. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  17. Multidimensional analysis in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavayssiere, B.; Georgel, B.

    1992-01-01

    EDF uses non-destructive testing by X or gamma-ray radiography for routine nozzle inspection in nuclear power plants. The images obtained are examined by radiographic specialists in order to detect, identify and quantify any defects, but the quality of the radiograms and the small size of the defects make their work extremely difficult. It is for these reasons that EDF developed ENTRAIGUES, a digital package for the processing and aid in interpretation of images generated by radiographical inspections, aimed at: -digitizing the radiographic films to be appraised, - facilitating analysis of the digitized radiograms. Defect orientation is estimated by 3D reconstruction of the component being inspected, based on a limited number of its projections. (authors). 11 figs., 6 refs

  18. Gamma radiography and its technological application; Gammagraphie et techniques annexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    After the presentation of gamma radiography and X-ray radiography, the author compare both techniques showing, in particular, the greater utility of gamma radiography in industrial diagnostic and more particularly on works site diagnostic. Problem of using radiography and safety consideration will be studied. Figures shows two radiography equipment which have been designed for gamma radiography respecting the safety regulations required by the Radioisotope Inter-ministerial Commission. In the second part, different techniques and uses of gamma radiography are briefly described : xerography, neutron radiography, fluoroscopy and imaging amplifier, tomography, betatrons and linear accelerators. Cost analysis will discussed in conclusion. (M.P.)

  19. Recovery of silver from used X-ray film using alkaline protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver is an important industrial metal used in several areas such as photographic and x-ray films, jewelries, silver wares and electronic objects. Silver is used for photographic film/x-ray film because of its matchless quality as a light-sensitive material for making a photographic image. Silver is not destroyed in the ...

  20. A system for fast neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm