WorldWideScience

Sample records for ray energy spectrum

  1. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Schramm, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of the ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray spectrum upon traversing the 2.7 0 K microwave background with respect to pion photoproduction, pair-production reactions, and cosmological effects. Our approach employs exact transport equations which manifestly conserve nucleon number and embody the laboratory details of these reactions. A spectrum enhancement appears around 6 x 10 19 eV due to the ''pile-up'' of energy-degraded nucleons, and a ''dip'' occurs around 10 19 eV due to combined effects. Both of these features appear in the observational spectrum. We analyze the resulting neutrino spectrum and the effects of cosmological source distributions. We present a complete model of the ultrahigh-energy spectrum and anisotropy in reasonable agreement with observation and which predicts an observable electron-neutrino spectrum

  2. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  3. Gamma ray energy spectrum of a buried radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, N B

    1957-07-01

    Because of current attempts to utilize airborne gamma-ray scintillation spectrometers as a means of detecting and identifying buried radioactive mineral deposits, it has become important to study the effects of multiple scattering on the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a source buried in a semi-infinite medium. A series of ten experiments was made. First a scintillation detector was located in air at a fixed distance above a 250 microcurie cobalt-60 source suspended in a large tank. The level of water was raised from 25 cm below the source to 50 cm above, and the gamma-ray energy spectrum was observed. It was found that the high energy portion of the cobalt-60 spectrum remained identifiable even when the source was submerged more than five half-lengths. Further, the ratio of the counting rate of the total incident gamma radiation to the counting rate of the primary 1.33 MeV radiation was found to be very nearly linearly proportional to the depth of water cover. This leads to an empirical method for determining the depth of burial of a cobalt-60 point source. (author)

  4. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  5. Energy spectrum and angular distribution of prompt cosmic-ray muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnoli, C; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale); Castellina, A; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G; Vernetto, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica

    1984-07-01

    The energy spectrum and angular distribution of atmospheric prompt muons are calculated by using an integral solution for production of charmed particles, their decay and muon transport in the atmosphere. Current experimental information from accelerator and theoretical ideas about charm cross-section and semi-leptonic decay are used to give a reference prompt muon spectrum to compare with that from conventional sources (..pi.. and K decay). The obtained differential spectrum has an energy dependence which approaches that of the primary cosmic rays. The integral intensity of prompt muons is equal to the conventional one at about 250 TeV. The angular distribution is found to be practically flat in the range (0/80)/sup 0/ irrespective of the muon energy. On the basis of this analysis we estimate that accurate measurements of muon energy spectrum and angular distribution at energies greater than 10 TeV should allow one to obtain useful information regarding charm hadroproduction cross-section in the 100 TeV region.

  6. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  7. Research on multi-spectrum detector in high-energy dual-energy X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinghua; Wang Xuewu; Li Jianmin; Kang Kejun; Li Yuanjing; Zhong Huaqiang

    2008-01-01

    The high-energy dual-energy X-ray imaging system can discriminate the material of the objects inspected, but when the objects are too thin, the discrimination becomes very difficult. This paper proposes the use of multi-spectrum detector to improve the ability to discriminate thin material, and a series of simulation were done with the Monte Carlo method. Firstly the X-ray depositions in the detectors with different thickness were calculated, and then the discrimination effects with different detector structure and parameters were calculated. The simulation results validated that using appropriate multi-spectrum detector can improve the discrimination accuracy of thin material, particularly thin high-Z material. (authors)

  8. Energy spectrum measurement of high power and high energy(6 and 9 MeV) pulsed x-ray source for industrial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki [Hitachi, Ltd. Power Systems Company, Ibaraki (Japan); Murata, Isao [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Industrial X-ray CT system is normally applied to non-destructive testing (NDT) for industrial product made from metal. Furthermore there are some special CT systems, which have an ability to inspect nuclear fuel assemblies or rocket motors, using high power and high energy (more than 6 MeV) pulsed X-ray source. In these case, pulsed X-ray are produced by the electron linear accelerator, and a huge number of photons with a wide energy spectrum are produced within a very short period. Consequently, it is difficult to measure the X-ray energy spectrum for such accelerator-based X-ray sources using simple spectrometry. Due to this difficulty, unexpected images and artifacts which lead to incorrect density information and dimensions of specimens cannot be avoided in CT images. For getting highly precise CT images, it is important to know the precise energy spectrum of emitted X-rays. In order to realize it we investigated a new approach utilizing the Bayesian estimation method combined with an attenuation curve measurement using step shaped attenuation material. This method was validated by precise measurement of energy spectrum from a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In this study, to extend the applicable X-ray energy range we tried to measure energy spectra of X-ray sources from 6 and 9 MeV linear accelerators by using the recently developed method. In this study, an attenuation curves are measured by using a step-shaped attenuation materials of aluminum and steel individually, and the each X-ray spectrum is reconstructed from the measured attenuation curve by the spectrum type Bayesian estimation method. The obtained result shows good agreement with simulated spectra, and the presently developed technique is adaptable for high energy X-ray source more than 6 MeV.

  9. On the high energy gamma ray spectrum and the particle production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Itaru; Tezuka, Ikuo.

    1979-01-01

    A small emulsion chamber, 25 cm x 20 cm in area and 12 radiation lengths in thick, was exposed with JAL jet-cargo at an atmospheric depth of 260 g/cm 2 during 150 hrs. The gamma ray spectrum derived by combining data from X-ray films and nuclear emulsions is well represented by I sub(r) (>=Er) = (3.65 +- 0.30) x 10 -8 [E sub(r)/TeV]sup(-1.89+0.06-0.09)/cm 2 sr sec in the energy range 200 - 3,000 GeV. This result is in good agreement with those of several other groups. We discuss our data in terms of Feynman's and Koba-Nielsen-Olesen's scaling law of high energy particle production model. Interpreted in terms of an assumption of mild violation of the scaling law as x.d delta-s / delta-s indx = AE sup(2a)exp (-BE sup(a)x), our gamma ray spectrum results suggest an existence of a violation parameter of a = 0.18, which is consistent with results from gamma ray spectrum observations at great depth such as the mountain elevations. (author)

  10. The high energy x-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula observed from OSO 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, J.F.; Crannell, L.J.; Dennis, B.R.; Orwig, L.E.; Maurer, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula was measured with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite. The total emission of the X-ray source shows no long term variability. The spectrum itself can be described by a single power law out to energies of at least 500 keV

  11. THE γ-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband γ-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright γ-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of γ-ray pulsars—i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and γ-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with γ-ray peaks—all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.

  12. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.

    2009-01-01

    The large sample of data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory has led to a significant improvement over previous measurements on the energy spectrum of cosmic rays. We observe a suppression of the flux at the highest energy with a significance of more than 6 standard deviations. The spectral index γ of the flux, J∝E -γ , at energies between 4x10 18 eV and 4x10 19 eV is 2.69±0.02 (stat) ±0.06 (syst), steepening to 4.2±0.4 (stat) ±0.06 (syst) at higher energies, consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min. Observations of cosmic rays by the fluorescence detector allowed the extension of the energy spectrum to lower energies, where the efficiency of the surface detector is less then 100% and a change in the spectral index is expected.

  13. The Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Related Measurements with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 10{sup 18} eV with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) The cosmic ray flux observed at zenith angles larger than 60 degrees with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Energy calibration of data recorded with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (4) Exposure of the Hybrid Detector of The Pierre Auger Observatory; and (5) Energy scale derived from Fluorescence Telescopes using Cherenkov Light and Shower Universality.

  14. Calculation of the energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays between 1 and 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays at 4 g/cm 2 has been calculated for cut-off rigidities of 4.5, 10 and 16 GV. The considered processes for the production of these gamma-rays were the π 0 decay plus the bremsstrahlung from primary, secondary like splash and re-entrant albedo electrons. The calculations indicated that the spectrum could be fitted to a power law in energy, with the exponential index varying from 1.1 in the energy range 1 - 10 MeV, to 1.4 in the energy range 10 - 200 MeV and 1.8 in the energy range 200 - 1000 MeV. These results are discussed [pt

  15. All-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum measured by the HAWC experiment from 10 to 500 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño de León, S.; De León, C.; De la Fuente, E.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dichiara, S.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Enriquez-Rivera, O.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fleischhack, H.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hinton, J.; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Luis Raya, G.; Luna-García, R.; López-Cámara, D.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Nisa, M. U.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pretz, J.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Villaseñor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report on the measurement of the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory in the energy range 10 to 500 TeV. HAWC is a ground-based air-shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcan Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico, and is sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays at TeV energies. The data used in this work were taken over 234 days between June 2016 and February 2017. The primary cosmic-ray energy is determined with a maximum likelihood approach using the particle density as a function of distance to the shower core. Introducing quality cuts to isolate events with shower cores landing on the array, the reconstructed energy distribution is unfolded iteratively. The measured all-particle spectrum is consistent with a broken power law with an index of -2.49 ±0.01 prior to a break at (45.7 ±0.1 ) TeV , followed by an index of -2.71 ±0.01 . The spectrum also represents a single measurement that spans the energy range between direct detection and ground-based experiments. As a verification of the detector response, the energy scale and angular resolution are validated by observation of the cosmic ray Moon shadow's dependence on energy.

  16. Search for the end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, John

    1998-01-01

    The title I was asked to speak about expresses an idea that occurred rather recently in the history of cosmic ray studies. I argue that the idea of a possible end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum came into being after a sequence of three rapid advances in knowledge which I describe, calling them 'breakthroughs'. I suggest that the present workshop be regarded as a step toward a fourth breakthrough. I argue that this may occur through application of the Space Airwatch concept--the earth atmosphere as target and signal generator--as embodied in the NASA OWL project

  17. Energy spectrum analysis between single and dual energy source x-ray imaging for PCB non-destructive test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Myung Soo; Lee, Min Ju; Kang, Dong Uk; Lee, Dae Hee; Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Chan Kyu; Kim, Hyoung Taek; Kim, Gi Yoon; Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Reliability of printed circuit board (PCB), which is based on high integrated circuit technology, is having been important because of development of electric and self-driving car. In order to answer these demand, automated X-ray inspection (AXI) is best solution for PCB nondestructive test. PCB is consist of plastic, copper, and, lead, which have low to high Z-number materials. By using dual energy X-ray imaging, these materials can be inspected accurately and efficiently. Dual energy X-ray imaging, that have the advantage of separating materials, however, need some solution such as energy separation method and enhancing efficiency because PCB has materials that has wide range of Z-number. In this work, we found out several things by analysis of X-ray energy spectrum. Separating between lead and combination of plastic and copper is only possible with energy range not dose. On the other hand, separating between plastic and copper is only with dose not energy range. Moreover the copper filter of high energy part of dual X-ray imaging and 50 kVp of low energy part of dual X-ray imaging is best for efficiency.

  18. Energy spectrum analysis between single and dual energy source x-ray imaging for PCB non-destructive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Myung Soo; Lee, Min Ju; Kang, Dong Uk; Lee, Dae Hee; Kim, Ye Won; Kim, Chan Kyu; Kim, Hyoung Taek; Kim, Gi Yoon; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2015-01-01

    Reliability of printed circuit board (PCB), which is based on high integrated circuit technology, is having been important because of development of electric and self-driving car. In order to answer these demand, automated X-ray inspection (AXI) is best solution for PCB nondestructive test. PCB is consist of plastic, copper, and, lead, which have low to high Z-number materials. By using dual energy X-ray imaging, these materials can be inspected accurately and efficiently. Dual energy X-ray imaging, that have the advantage of separating materials, however, need some solution such as energy separation method and enhancing efficiency because PCB has materials that has wide range of Z-number. In this work, we found out several things by analysis of X-ray energy spectrum. Separating between lead and combination of plastic and copper is only possible with energy range not dose. On the other hand, separating between plastic and copper is only with dose not energy range. Moreover the copper filter of high energy part of dual X-ray imaging and 50 kVp of low energy part of dual X-ray imaging is best for efficiency

  19. Analysis of a gamma-ray spectrum by using a standard spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji

    1975-06-01

    The standard spectrum method has been extended to take into account the energy dependence of a standard spectrum. The method analyses the observed gamma-ray spectrum by the least-square method, using an interpolated standard spectrum for expressing the line shape and a linear function for the background continuum. The interpolated standard spectrum is defined for each fitting interval by interpolating several standard spectra, which are derived directly from the observed spectra of single photopeaks each corresponding to the incident monochromatic gamma-rays by subtracting the background and smoothing the data. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the Neutron Detector Response for Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum by Monte Carlo Transport Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Carlson, Brett V.; Federico, Claudio A.; Gonzalez, Odair L.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere make an important contribution to the dose accumulated in electronic circuits and aircraft crew members at flight altitude. High-energy neutrons are produced in spallation reactions and intranuclear cascade processes by primary cosmic-ray particle interactions with atoms in the atmosphere. These neutrons can produce secondary neutrons and also undergo a moderation process due to atmosphere interactions, resulting in a wider energy spectrum, ranging from thermal energies (0.025 eV) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. The Long-Counter (LC) detector is a widely used neutron detector designed to measure the directional flux of neutrons with about constant response over a wide energy range (thermal to 20 MeV). ). Its calibration process and the determination of its energy response for the wide-energy of cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum is a very difficult process due to the lack of installations with these capabilities. The goal of this study is to assess the behavior of the response of a Long Counter using the Monte Carlo (MC) computational code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended). The dependence of the Long Counter response on the angle of incidence, as well as on the neutron energy, will be carefully investigated, compared with the experimental data previously obtained with 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources and extended to the neutron spectrum produced by cosmic rays. (Author)

  1. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data

  2. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrati, R., E-mail: rafik.sedrati@univ-annaba.org; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  3. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse γ rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  4. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons measured with H.E.S.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egberts, Kathrin

    2009-03-30

    The spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons has so far been measured using balloon and satellite-based instruments. At TeV energies, however, the sensitivity of such instruments is very limited due to the low flux of electrons at very high energies and small detection areas of balloon/satellite based experiments. The very large collection area of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon/ satellite based instruments when detecting very-high-energy electrons (> 300 GeV). By analysing data taken by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), this work extends the known electron spectrum up to 4 TeV - a range that is not accessible to direct measurements. However, in contrast to direct measurements, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S. detect air showers that cosmic-ray electrons initiate in the atmosphere rather than the primary particle. Thus, the main challenge is to differentiate between air showers initiated by electrons and those initiated by the hadronic background. A new analysis technique was developed that determines the background with the support of the machine-learning algorithm Random Forest. It is shown that this analysis technique can also be applied in other areas such as the analysis of diffuse {gamma} rays from the Galactic plane. (orig.)

  5. Measuring the low-energy cosmic ray spectrum with the AFIS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Gaisbauer, Dominic; Greenwald, Daniel; Hahn, Alexander; Hauptmann, Philipp; Konorov, Igor; Meng, Lingxin; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Renker, Dieter [Physics Department E17, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy cosmic rays interact with Earth's upper atmosphere and produce antiprotons, which can be trapped in Earth's magnetic field. The Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) Mission will measure the flux of trapped antiprotons with energies less than 100 MeV aboard the nanosatellite MOVE 2. An active-target tracking detector comprised of scintillating plastic fibers and silicon photomultipliers is already under construction at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. As a precursor to the space-bound mission, a prototype version of the detector will be launched aboard a balloon from Kiruna, Sweden as part of the REXUS/BEXUS student program by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Named AFIS-P, it will be used to measure the low-energy part of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies less than 100 MeV-per-nucleon. Spectrometers in previous balloon missions were not sensitive in this low-energy region. Thus AFIS-P will deliver unprecedented data, while simultaneously allowing us to field-test the AFIS detector.

  6. Origin of the ankle in the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum, and of the extragalactic protons below it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Michael; Farrar, Glennys R.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum around 1 018.6 eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle and intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically, without fine-tuning. We propose a mechanism whereby photo-disintegration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator accounts for the observed spectrum and inferred composition at Earth. For suitable source conditions, the model reproduces the spectrum and the composition over the entire extragalactic cosmic ray energy range, i.e. above 1 017.5 eV . Predictions for the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos resulting from this process are also presented.

  7. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Utsumi, Yuichi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the processing depth of PMMA from the total exposure energy in deep X-ray lithography. (author)

  8. Improved spatial resolution and lower-dose pediatric CT imaging: a feasibility study to evaluate narrowing the X-ray photon energy spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, Mark G. [Safer Pediatric Imaging and Engineering Horizons International, Lincoln, VT (United States); Benz, Matthew W. [Southboro Medical Group, Southboro, MA (United States); Birnbaum, Steven B. [Dartmouth Hitchcock Clinic Manchester, Department of Radiology, Manchester, NH (United States); Chason, Eric; Sheldon, Brian W. [Brown University, Division of Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, Providence, RI (United States); McGuire, Dale [R and D Manager, C and G Technologies Inc., Jeffersonville, IN (United States)

    2014-08-15

    This feasibility study has shown that improved spatial resolution and reduced radiation dose can be achieved in pediatric CT by narrowing the X-ray photon energy spectrum. This is done by placing a hafnium filter between the X-ray generator and a pediatric abdominal phantom. A CT system manufactured in 1999 that was in the process of being remanufactured was used as the platform for this study. This system had the advantage of easy access to the X-ray generator for modifications to change the X-ray photon energy spectrum; it also had the disadvantage of not employing the latest post-imaging noise reduction iterative reconstruction technology. Because we observed improvements after changing the X-ray photon energy spectrum, we recommend a future study combining this change with an optimized iterative reconstruction noise reduction technique. (orig.)

  9. Development of analytical software for semi-quantitative analysis of x-ray spectrum acquired from energy-dispersive spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, A.; Rana, M.A.; Qamar, R.; Latif, A; Ahmad, M.; Farooq, M.A.; Ahmad, Z.

    2003-12-01

    Software package for elemental analysis for X-ray spectrum obtained from Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) attached with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) has been developed: A Personal Computer Analyzer card PCA-800 is used to acquire data from the EDS. This spectrum is obtained in binary format, which is transformed into ASCII format using PCAII card software. The program is modular in construction and coded using Microsoft's QUICKBASIC compiler linker. Energy line library containing all lines of elements is created for analysis of acquired characteristic X-ray spectrum. Two techniques of peak identification are provided. Statistical tools are employed for smoothing of a curve and for computing area under the curve. Elemental concentration is calculated in weight % and in atomic. (author)

  10. Magnetic diffusion effects on the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban, E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500 (8400) (Argentina)

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the effects of diffusion of high energy cosmic rays in turbulent extra-galactic magnetic fields. We find an approximate expression for the low energy suppression of the spectrum of the different mass components (with charge Z) in the case in which this suppression happens at energies below ∼ Z EeV, so that energy losses are dominated by the adiabatic ones. The low energy suppression appears when cosmic rays from the closest sources take a time comparable to the age of the Universe to reach the Earth. This occurs for energies E < Z EeV (B/nG)√(l{sub c}/Mpc)(d{sub s}/70Mpc) in terms of the magnetic field RMS strength B, its coherence length l{sub c} and the typical separation between sources d{sub s}. We apply this to scenarios in which the sources produce a mixed composition and have a relatively low maximum rigidity (E{sub max} ∼ (2–10)Z EeV), finding that diffusion has a significant effect on the resulting spectrum, the average mass and on its spread, in particular reducing this last one. For reasonable values of B and l{sub c} these effects can help to reproduce the composition trends observed by the Auger Collaboration for source spectra compatible with Fermi acceleration.

  11. The puzzle of the ankle in the Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum, and composition indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Glennys

    2015-08-01

    The sharp change in slope of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum around 10^18.6 eV (the ankle), combined with evidence of a light but extragalactic component near and below the ankle and intermediate composition above, has proved exceedingly challenging to understand theoretically. In this talk I discuss two possible solutions to the puzzle and how they can be (in)validated.First, I present a new mechanism whereby photo-disintegration of ultra-high energy nuclei in the region surrounding a UHECR accelerator naturally accounts for the observed spectrum and inferred composition (using LHC-tuned models extrapolated to UHE) at Earth. We discuss the conditions required to reproduce the spectrum above 10^17.5 eV and the composition, which -- in our model -- consists below the ankle of extragalactic protons and the high energy tail of Galactic Cosmic Rays, and above the ankle of surviving nuclei from the extended source. Predictions for the spectrum and flavors of neutrinos resulting from this process will be presented, and also implications for candidate sources.The other possible explanation is that in actuality UHECRs are entirely or almost entirely protons, and the cross-section for p-Air scattering increases more rapidly above center-of-mass energy of 70 TeV (10 times the current LHC cm energy) than predicted in conventional models. This gives an equally good fit to the depth-of-shower maximum behavior obverved by Auger, while being an intriguing sign of new state in QCD at extremely high energy density.

  12. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  13. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye

    2009-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E∼10 15 eV to 6x10 19 eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10 15 and ∼10 19 eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  14. Measuring extensive air showers with Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array: the energy spectrum of cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A A; Knurenko, S P; Sleptsov, I Ye [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2009-06-15

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays in the range E{approx}10{sup 15} eV to 6x10{sup 19} eV is studied in this paper using air Cherenkov light detectors of the Yakutsk array. The total flux of photons produced by the relativistic electrons (including positrons as well, hereafter) of extensive air showers in the atmosphere is used as an energy estimator of the primary particle initiating a shower. The resultant differential flux of cosmic rays exhibits, in agreement with previous measurements, a knee and ankle feature at energies of 3x10{sup 15} and {approx}10{sup 19} eV, respectively. A comparison of observational data with simulations is made in the knee and ankle regions in order to choose the models of galactic and extragalactic components of cosmic rays that describe well the energy spectrum measured.

  15. Systematic Studies of Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy and Energy Spectrum with IceCube and IceTop

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Frank

    Anisotropy in the cosmic-ray arrival direction distribution has been well documented over a large energy range, but its origin remains largely a mystery. In the TeV to PeV energy range, the galactic magnetic field thoroughly scatters cosmic rays, but anisotropy at the part-per-mille level and smaller persists, potentially carrying information about nearby cosmic-ray accelerators and the galactic magnetic field. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was the first detector to observe anisotropy at these energies in the Southern sky. This work uses 318 billion cosmic-ray induced muon events, collected between May 2009 and May 2015 from both the in-ice component of IceCube as well as the surface component, IceTop. The observed global anisotropy features large regions of relative excess and deficit, with amplitudes on the order of 10-3. While a decomposition of the arrival direction distribution into spherical harmonics shows that most of the power is contained in the low-multipole (ℓ ≤ 4) moments, higher-multipole components are found to be statistically significant down to an angular scale of less than 10°, approaching the angular resolution of the detector. Above 100TeV, a change in the topology of the arrival direction distribution is observed, and the anisotropy is characterized by a wide relative deficit whose amplitude increases with primary energy up to at least 5PeV, the highest energies currently accessible to IceCube with sufficient event statistics. No time dependence of the large- and small-scale structures is observed in the six-year period covered by this analysis within statistical and systematic uncertainties. Analysis of the energy spectrum and composition in the PeV energy range as a function of sky position is performed with IceTop data over a five-year period using a likelihood-based reconstruction. Both the energy spectrum and the composition distribution are found to be consistent with a single source population over declination bands. This work

  16. Effects of X-rays spectrum on the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez I, J. L.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.

    2015-10-01

    The X-ray equipment for diagnosis comes in different sizes and shapes depending on the scan type to perform. The X-ray spectrum is the energy distribution of the beam photons and consists of a continuous spectrum of photons braking and discrete spectrum due to the characteristic photons. The knowledge of the X-rays spectrum is important to understand like they affect the voltage changes (k Vp), current (m A), time (s) and the type of filter in the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and patient's body, the image receptor or other material that gets in the beam. Across the spectrum can be estimated the absorbed dose in any point of the patient, the quality of the image and the scattered radiation (which is related to the dose received by the equipment operator). The Monte Carlo method was used by MCNP5 code to calculate the spectrum of X-rays that occurs when a monoenergetic electron beam of 250 keV interact with targets of Mo, Rh and W. The spectra were calculated with and without filter, and the values of ambient dose equivalent were estimated, as well as the air kerma. (Author)

  17. The X-ray emission spectrum of gaseous acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Wassdahl, N.; Nordgren, J.

    1987-01-01

    The X-ray emission spectrum of acetylene in the gas phase has been recorded using a 10 m grazing incidence spectrometer. Analysis of the spectrum is made based on calculations of total energies, potential curves and Franck-Condon vibrational intensities. Four emission bands are seen with the 1 π u band exhibiting vibrational structure. Analysis of the vibrations gives the CIs ionization energy. High energy satellite structure is observed and interpreted. (orig.)

  18. The high energy X-ray spectrum of 4U 1700-37 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius has been identified as 4U 1700-37 (=HD 153919). Observations extending over three binary periods in 1978 September were carried out with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO 8. The 3.4 day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photonumber spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photonumber spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 (+15, -7)keV. The counting rate above 20 keV outside of eclipse shows no evidence for the 96.8 minute X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties that exist in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with our currently accepted theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U 1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.

  19. A wavelet-based Gaussian method for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelet-based Gaussian method (WGM for the peak intensity estimation of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF. The relationship between the parameters of Gaussian curve and the wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point is firstly established based on the Mexican hat wavelet. It is found that the Gaussian parameters can be accurately calculated by any two wavelet coefficients at the peak point which has to be known. This fact leads to a local Gaussian estimation method for spectral peaks, which estimates the Gaussian parameters based on the detail wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point. The proposed method is tested via simulated and measured spectra from an energy X-ray spectrometer, and compared with some existing methods. The results prove that the proposed method can directly estimate the peak intensity of EDXRF free from the background information, and also effectively distinguish overlap peaks in EDXRF spectrum.

  20. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  1. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays with the 26 station configuration of the IceTop detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2011-09-27

    IceTop is an instrument at the geographic South Pole designed to detect cosmic ray air showers, particle cascades in the atmosphere initiated by high-energy cosmic rays. It is the surface component of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Since its completion in December 2010, IceTop consists of 81 detector stations covering an area of one square kilometer on the ice surface above IceCube. Each IceTop station consists of two ice-filled tanks in which the Cherenkov light emitted by charged air shower particles is measured. In this dissertation, an analysis of data taken in 2007 with 26 IceTop stations operational at that time is presented. First, properties of air showers like core position, direction and shower size were reconstructed from the measured signals. The core position can be determined to an accuracy of up to 6m and a direction resolution of up to 0.3 is achieved. The shower size is a measure of the energy of the primary particle and a resolution of up to 10% is achieved at high energies. In the next step the relation between primary energy and shower size, as well as resolution and efficiency are determined from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers and the IceTop detector. Here, an assumption was made about the chemical composition of cosmic rays. The informations obtained in these simulations are then used to unfold the spectrum of measured shower sizes in order to obtain the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum. This is done independently for particles from three different zenith angle intervals. The result of the unfolding depends on the assumed primary composition. Due to the isotropy of cosmic rays, results obtained in different zenith angle intervals must agree. While with the chosen analysis technique a simultaneous determination of primary particle mass and energy is limited due to systematic uncertainties, it has already been shown that the requirement of isotropy can be used to constrain the range of possible assumptions on the chemical

  2. THE DETECTABILITY OF DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION WITH FERMI USING THE ANISOTROPY ENERGY SPECTRUM OF THE GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the anisotropy (the anisotropy energy spectrum) of the large-scale diffuse gamma-ray background can reveal the presence of multiple source populations. Annihilating dark matter in the substructure of the Milky Way halo could give rise to a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi, enabling the detection of a dark matter signal. We determine the detectability of a dark-matter-induced modulation for scenarios in which unresolved blazars are the primary contributor to the measured emission above ∼1 GeV and find that in some scenarios pair-annihilation cross sections on the order of the value expected for thermal relic dark matter can produce a detectable feature. We anticipate that the sensitivity of this technique to specific dark matter models could be improved by tailored likelihood analysis methods.

  3. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karashtin, A.N. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ryabov, V.A., E-mail: ryabov@x4u.lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V. [Ionosphere Institute, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ptitsyn, M.O., E-mail: ptitsyn@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shalamova, S.Ya. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shlyugaev, Yu.V. [Research Radiophysics Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Zybin, K.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gurevich, A.V., E-mail: alex@lpi.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-10

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  4. Energy spectrum of lightning gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, A.P.; Karashtin, A.N.; Ryabov, V.A.; Shepetov, A.L.; Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Mitko, G.G.; Naumov, A.S.; Pavljuchenko, L.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Shalamova, S.Ya.; Shlyugaev, Yu.V.; Vildanova, L.I.; Zybin, K.P.; Gurevich, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of gamma emission observations obtained during thunderstorms at Tien-Shan Mountain Cosmic Ray Station are presented. The energy spectrum radiation of the stepped leader gamma radiation is measured. The total energy of stepped leader emitted in gamma rays is estimated as 10 -3 -10 -2 J. The experimental results are in an agreement with the runaway breakdown mechanism.

  5. THE COSMIC-RAY ENERGY SPECTRUM OBSERVED WITH THE SURFACE DETECTOR OF THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W. [High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J. [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, W. R. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); and others

    2013-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} eV and a steepening at 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the ''thinning'' approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.

  6. Analytical Approximation of Spectrum for Pulse X-ray Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S; Fofanof, O; Koshkin, G; Udod, V

    2016-01-01

    Among the main characteristics of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses the spectral energy characteristics are the most important ones: the spectral distribution of the photon energy, effective and maximum energy of quanta. Knowing the spectral characteristics of the radiation of pulse sources is very important for the practical use of them in non-destructive testing. We have attempted on the analytical approximation of the pulsed X-ray apparatuses spectra obtained in the different experimental papers. The results of the analytical approximation of energy spectrum for pulse X-ray tube are presented. Obtained formulas are adequate to experimental data and can be used by designing pulsed X-ray apparatuses. (paper)

  7. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    OpenAIRE

    Fedynitch, Anatoli; Tjus, Julia Becker; Desiati, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to...

  8. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  9. Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2009-06-15

    We briefly describe the energy loss processes of ultrahigh-energy protons, heavier nuclei and {gamma}-rays in interactions with the universal photon fields of the Universe. We then discuss the modification of the accelerated cosmic-ray energy spectrum in propagation by the energy loss processes and the charged cosmic-ray scattering in the extragalactic magnetic fields. The energy lost by the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays goes into {gamma}-rays and neutrinos that carry additional information about the sources of highest energy particles. The new experimental results of the HiRes and the Auger collaborations are discussed in view of the predictions from propagation calculations.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of X-ray spectrum with human tissue, in the energies range of diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayllahua Q, L. F.; Apaza V, G.; Vega R, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: This paper is an approach to an increasingly complete knowledge about the nature of the processes that occur during a simple examination of radiological diagnosis; know as X-rays are produced and how they will put their energy into the tissue of patients when they are subjected to an examination of radiological diagnosis. First, using the MCNP code an X-rays tube was simulated, where electrons are emitted from a filament (cathode) which travel a certain distance with a certain kinetic energy and then be stopped suddenly in the tungsten target. The X-rays emitted as a result of this interaction, are previously filtered through the inherent filter of Pyrex glass and then by a thin aluminum foil before quantification as an X-rays spectrum. 6 spectra (for 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 KeV) were obtained. Second, using the Penelope code was simulated the interaction of the X-rays spectrum, obtained in the first part with human tissue, putting as simile of human tissue water phantoms of different thicknesses. As final result: dose of energy deposited (in 2 and 3-dimensional) and reflected, absorbed and transmitted photons spectra. (Author)

  11. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  12. The energy spectrum of cosmic rays measured with the HEAT extension at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, Nils Sven Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the calculation of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays, that is the absolute flux of cosmic rays as a function of energy, from data of air showers observed with the HEAT (High Elevation Auger Telescopes) extension and the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The Pierre Auger Observatory is the largest observatory for the study of cosmic rays. The Pierre Auger Observatory observes air showers, that are cascades of particles that were instigated by cosmic rays hitting the Earth's atmosphere, with two different detection concepts. The surface detector samples the secondary particles of air showers that hit the ground with an array of surface detector stations, whereas the fluorescence detector measures the energy loss profile of air showers by detecting fluorescence light, produced by the air showers when they travel through the atmosphere, with optical telescopes. The properties of the cosmic rays are not directly measurable but have to be reconstructed from the observed air shower parameters. Properties of particular interest are the type of the primary cosmic ray particle, its energy and its arrival direction. HEAT is an extension to the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. It is designed to lower the energy threshold by one order of magnitude down to 10 17 eV or lower. HEAT is taking data since 2010. The calculation of the absolute flux of cosmic rays needs two ingredients: the number of detected air showers as a function of shower energy and the exposure of the detector as a function of energy. The studied air shower class are hybrid events, which are events that have been detected by a fluorescence detector and at least one surface detector station. The used air showers were observed in a time period of fifteen month starting from June 2010. A first step of the analysis is the reconstruction of air showers and cosmic ray parameters from raw data. To calculate the exposure, the uptime, that is the integral

  13. The High Energy X-ray Spectrum of 4U1700-37 Observed from OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Maurer, G. S.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius is identified as 4U1700-37. The 3.4-day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photon-number spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photo-number spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 96.8-min X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.

  14. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, M; Carrillo Montoya, G; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi accelera...

  15. Segmented-spectrum detection mechanism for medical x-ray in CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zaifeng; Meng, Qingzhen; Cao, Qingjie; Yao, Suying

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a segmented X-ray spectrum detection method based on a layered X-ray detector in Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) substrate. We describe the three-dimensional structure of proposed detector pixel and investigate the matched spectrum-resolving method. Polychromatic X-ray beam enter the CdTe substrate edge on and will be absorbed completely in different thickness varying with photon energy. Discrete potential wells are formed under external controlling voltage to collect the photo-electrons generated in different layers, and segmented X-ray spectrum can be deduced from the quantity of photo-electrons. In this work, we verify the feasibility of the segmented-spectrum detection mechanism by simulating the absorption of monochromatic X-ray in a CdTe substrate. Experiments in simulation show that the number of photo-electrons grow exponentially with the increase of incident thickness, and photons with different energy will be absorbed in various thickness. The charges generated in different layers are collected into adjacent potential wells, and collection efficiency is estimated to be about 87% for different incident intensity under the 40000V/cm electric field. Errors caused by charge sharing between neighboring layers are also analyzed, and it can be considered negligible by setting appropriate size of electrodes.

  16. HESS J1427−608: AN UNUSUAL HARD, UNBROKEN γ -RAY SPECTRUM IN A VERY WIDE ENERGY RANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Wei-Hong [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xin, Yu-Liang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Yuan, Qiang; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Liu, Si-Ming, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: gaoweihong@njnu.edu.cn, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We report the detection of a GeV γ -ray source that spatially overlaps and is thus very likely associated with the unidentified very high energy (VHE) γ -ray source HESS J1427−608 with the Pass 8 data recorded by the Fermi Large Area Telescope . The photon spectrum of this source is best described by a power law with an index of 1.85 ± 0.17 in the energy range of 3–500 GeV, and the measured flux connects smoothly with that of HESS J1427−608 at a few hundred gigaelectronvolts. This source shows no significant extension and time variation. The broadband GeV to TeV emission over four decades of energies can be well fitted by a single power-law function with an index of 2.0, without obvious indication of spectral cutoff toward high energies. Such a result implies that HESS J1427−608 may be a PeV particle accelerator. We discuss the possible nature of HESS J1427−608 according to the multiwavelength spectral fittings. Given the relatively large errors, either a leptonic or a hadronic model can explain the multiwavelength data from radio to VHE γ -rays. The inferred magnetic field strength is a few micro-Gauss, which is smaller than the typical values of supernova remnants (SNRs) and is consistent with some pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). On the other hand, the flat γ -ray spectrum is slightly different from typical PWNe but is similar to that of some known SNRs.

  17. Using soft-X-ray energy spectrum to measure electronic temperature Te and primary research with computer data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyao; Zhang Guangyang

    1993-01-01

    The authors reported the application of SCORPIO--2000 Computer detecting system on a nuclear fusion equipment, to measure the energy spectrum of soft X-ray from which the plasma electronic temperature was calculated. The authors processed systematically the data of the energy area of 1-4 Kev soft X-ray. The program edited was mostly made in FORTRAN, but only one SUBSB was made in assembly language. The program worked normally with convincing operation and easy correction of the data. The result obtained from calculation is the same as what was expected and the diagram obtained is the same as the expected one

  18. The Cosmic Ray spectrum in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV measured by ARGO–YBJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montini Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in full and stable data taking at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l. for more than five years. The detector has been designed in order to explore the Cosmic Ray (CR spectrum in an energy range from few TeV up to several PeV. The high segmentation of the detector allows a detailed measurement of the lateral particle distribution which can be exploited on order to identify showers produced by primaries of different mass. The results of the measurement of the all-particle and proton plus helium energy spectra in the energy region between 1012 and 1016 eV are discussed.

  19. Eigenvector decomposition of full-spectrum x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Brian J; Lalush, David S

    2012-03-07

    Energy-discriminated x-ray computed tomography (CT) data were projected onto a set of basis functions to suppress the noise in filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstructions. The x-ray CT data were acquired using a novel x-ray system which incorporated a single-pixel photon-counting x-ray detector to measure the x-ray spectrum for each projection ray. A matrix of the spectral response of different materials was decomposed using eigenvalue decomposition to form the basis functions. Projection of FBP onto basis functions created a de facto image segmentation of multiple contrast agents. Final reconstructions showed significant noise suppression while preserving important energy-axis data. The noise suppression was demonstrated by a marked improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) along the energy axis for multiple regions of interest in the reconstructed images. Basis functions used on a more coarsely sampled energy axis still showed an improved SNR. We conclude that the noise-resolution trade off along the energy axis was significantly improved using the eigenvalue decomposition basis functions.

  20. Energy Calibration of a Silicon-Strip Detector for Photon-Counting Spectral CT by Direct Usage of the X-ray Tube Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats; Karlsson, Staffan; Persson, Mats; Xu, Cheng; Huber, Ben

    2015-02-01

    The variation among energy thresholds in a multibin detector for photon-counting spectral CT can lead to ring artefacts in the reconstructed images. Calibration of the energy thresholds can be used to achieve homogeneous threshold settings or to develop compensation methods to reduce the artefacts. We have developed an energy-calibration method for the different comparator thresholds employed in a photon-counting silicon-strip detector. In our case, this corresponds to specifying the linear relation between the threshold positions in units of mV and the actual deposited photon energies in units of keV. This relation is determined by gain and offset values that differ for different detector channels due to variations in the manufacturing process. Typically, the calibration is accomplished by correlating the peak positions of obtained pulse-height spectra to known photon energies, e.g. with the aid of mono-energetic x rays from synchrotron radiation, radioactive isotopes or fluorescence materials. Instead of mono-energetic x rays, the calibration method presented in this paper makes use of a broad x-ray spectrum provided by commercial x-ray tubes. Gain and offset as the calibration parameters are obtained by a regression analysis that adjusts a simulated spectrum of deposited energies to a measured pulse-height spectrum. Besides the basic photon interactions such as Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption, the simulation takes into account the effect of pulse pileup, charge sharing and the electronic noise of the detector channels. We verify the method for different detector channels with the aid of a table-top setup, where we find the uncertainty of the keV-value of a calibrated threshold to be between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.

  1. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-Ray Observations of Earth’s Limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; et al.

    2014-04-17

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly-discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the ${\\it Fermi}$ Large Area Telescope observations of the $\\gamma$-ray emission from the Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range $\\sim 90~$GeV-$6~$TeV (derived from a photon energy range $15~$GeV-$1~$TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index $2.68 \\pm 0.04$ and $2.61 \\pm 0.08$ above $\\sim 200~$GeV, respectively.

  2. Design of a nondestructive two-in-one instrument for measuring the polarization and energy spectrum at an X-ray FEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmin; Deng, Bangjie; Chen, Yuanmiaoliang; Liu, Bochao; Chen, Shaofei; Fan, Jinquan; Feng, Lie; Deng, Haixiao; Liu, Bo; Wang, Dong

    2017-10-01

    The free electron laser (FEL), as a next-generation light source, is an attractive tool in scientific frontier research because of its advantages of full coherence, ultra-short pulse duration, and controllable polarization. Owing to the demand of real-time bunch diagnosis during FEL experiments, precise nondestructive measurements of the polarization and X-ray energy spectrum using one instrument are preferred. In this paper, such an instrument based on the electron time-of-flight technique is proposed. By considering the complexity and nonlinearity, a numerical model in the framework of Geant4 has been developed for optimization. Taking the Shanghai Soft X-ray FEL user facility as an example, its measurement performances' dependence on the critical parameters was studied systematically, and, finally, an optimal design was obtained, achieving resolutions of 0.5% for the polarization degree and 0.3 eV for the X-ray energy spectrum.

  3. Research on influence of energy spectrum response of ICT detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rifeng; Gao Fuqiang; Zhang Ping

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum response is important characteristic for X-ray ICT detector. But there exist many difficulties to measure these parameters by experiments. The energy spectrum response of CdWO 4 detector was simulated by using the EGSnrc code. Meanwhile the effect of detection efficiency was analyzed by the distribution of accelerator bremsstrahlung spectra and the X-ray spectrum hardening, and some theoretic parameters were offered for the consistent and no-linearity correction of detector arrays. It was applied to ICT image correction, and a satisfying result was obtained. (authors)

  4. Perspective on the Cosmic-ray Electron Spectrum above TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Kun; Wang, Bing-Bing; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Su-Jie; Yin, Peng-Fei [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-02-20

    The AMS-02 has measured the cosmic-ray electron (plus positron) spectrum up to ∼TeV with unprecedented precision. The spectrum can be well described by a power law without any obvious features above 10 GeV. The satellite instrument Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which was launched a year ago, will measure the electron spectrum up to 10 TeV with high-energy resolution. The cosmic electrons beyond TeV may be attributed to few local cosmic-ray sources, such as supernova remnants. Therefore, spectral features, such as cut-off and bumps, can be expected at high energies. In this work, we provide a careful study on the perspective of the electron spectrum beyond TeV. We first examine our astrophysical source models on the latest leptonic data of AMS-02 to give a self-consistent picture. Then we focus on the discussion about the candidate sources, which could be electron contributors above TeV. Depending on the properties of the local sources (especially on the nature of Vela), DAMPE may detect interesting features in the electron spectrum above TeV in the future.

  5. The intergalactic propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab; Sarkar, Subir; /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.; Taylor, Andrew M.; /Oxford U.

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic ray nuclei (A = 1-56) from cosmologically distant sources through the cosmic radiation backgrounds. Various models for the injected composition and spectrum and of the cosmic infrared background are studied using updated photodisintegration cross-sections. The observational data on the spectrum and the composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are jointly consistent with a model where all of the injected primary cosmic rays are iron nuclei (or a mixture of heavy and light nuclei).

  6. The high-energy pulsed X-ray spectrum of Hercules X-1 as observed with OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G. S.; Dennis, B. R.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Cutler, E. P.

    1979-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed from August 30 to September 10, 1977, by using the high-energy X-ray scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO 8 satellite. The observation, during which the source was monitored continually for nearly an entire ON-state, covered the energy range from 16 to 280 keV. Pulsed-flux measurements as a function of binary orbit and binary phase are presented for energies between 16 and 98 keV. The pulsed flux between 16 and 33 keV exhibited a sharp decrease following the fourth binary orbit and was consistent with zero pulsed flux thereafter. Only weak evidence was found for temporal variation in the pulsed flux between 33 and 98 keV. The pulsed spectrum has been fitted with a power law, a thermal spectrum without features, and a thermal spectrum with a superposed Gaussian centered at 55 keV. The latter fit has the smallest value of chi-square per degree of freedom, and the resulting integrated line intensity is approximately 0.0015 photon/sec per sq cm for a width of 3.1 (+9.1, -2.6) keV. This result, while of low statistical significance, agrees with the value observed by Truemper (1978) during the same ON-state.

  7. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  8. Galactic x-ray and gamma-ray emission and the nature of the interstellar electron spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protheroe, R J; Wolfendale, A W [Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1980-12-01

    An analysis is made of all available data, both direct and indirect, on the energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons. It is shown that the data are consistent with an injection spectrum having a constant exponent, ..gamma.. = 2.1 +- 0.1, over a wide range of energy: 10-10sup(g) MeV. Attention is drawn to the role of a possible deficit of sources in reducing the intensity of local electrons both above 10 GeV and below a few hundred MeV.

  9. Galactic X-ray and gamma-ray emission and the nature of the interstellar electron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protheroe, R.J.; Wolfendale, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of all available data, both direct and indirect, on the energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons. It is shown that the data are consistent with an injection spectrum having a constant exponent, γ = 2.1 +- 0.1, over a wide range of energy: 10-10sup(g) MeV. Attention is drawn to the role of a possible deficit of sources in reducing the intensity of local electrons both above 10 GeV and below a few hundred MeV. (orig.)

  10. Role of fluctuations in the primary energy estimation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Malecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    Energy spectrum and chemical composition of primary cosmic ray for energies higher than 1 PeV are obtained mainly from research on the intensity and properties of extensive air showers (EAS). Similar additional information is obtained from research on properties of gamma ray families. A common characteristic of these researches is the fact that we are working in the range of high fluctuation parameters serving us to obtain primary energy spectrum. In this research different probability distributions have been used as well as their convolutions with the power spectrum. The role of the influence of different parameters on measurements of the primary energy spectrum

  11. Spectrum analysis with indoor multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (NaI(Tl))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shengli; Fan Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Two calculational methods for analyzing the spectrum which measured by indoor low background multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (Na(Tl)) to get the specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of the sample are discussed, they are the spectrum analysis method and the characteristic energy peak method (inverse matrix method) respectively. The sample spectrum are analyzed with the program designed according to the two methods, and compared with the results by HPGe gamma-rays spectrometer, showing that the relative deviation is ≤10% with the two methods. (authors)

  12. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  13. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7. 5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-09-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and /sup 40/K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 R/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum.

  14. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and 40 K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 μR/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum. (author)

  15. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray primary spectrum with ARGO-YBJ experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, B; Iuppa, R; Di Sciascio, G

    2013-01-01

    The study of cosmic ray physic of 10 12 – 10 15 primary cosmic energy is one of the main goals of ARGO-YBJ experiment. The detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (Tibet, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm 2 ), is an EAS array consisting of a continuous carpet of RPCs. The low energy threshold of the detector allows to study an energy region characterized by the transition from the direct to the indirect measurements. In this talk we will report on the measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at different zenith angles. The phenomenology of horizontal air shower (θ > 70°) will be described and discussed.

  16. X-ray spectrum of Markarian 509 observed by Exosat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.; Lipani, N.A.; Molteni, D.; Palermo Universita, Italy)

    1987-01-01

    Mrk 509 was observed with Exosat at three different epochs during October and November 1983. Variability of about 30 percent was apparent both in the medium-energy (1-10 keV) and in the low-energy (less than 2 kev) X-ray bands between the different observations, on a time scale of 10 days. No correlation between the two energy bands was observed. The 1-10-keV spectrum of the source is best fitted by a power law with energy index 0.8. In addition, a fluorescence iron line is required to fit the data obtained on Nov. 3, 1983. The best-fit energy of the line is 6.31 + or - 0.21 keV (source frame) and the equivalent width 316 + or - 100 eV. No low-energy interstellar absorption is observed in the medium-energy spectra. When the low-energy photometric data are included in the spectral analysis, the single-power-law model requires an absorption density considerably smaller than the Galactic column density in the direction of the source: this can be fitted only through a variable soft X-ray component (VSXC). If a thermal spectrum is assumed for VSXC, a temperature of about 70 eV can be inferred from the data. The VSXC and the presence of the iron fluorescence line, have interesting implications on the source model: a limit on the size of the soft X-ray emission region of 10 to the 16th cm can be derived, and the fluorescent material must be hot, with a temperature in the range 50-80 million K, and have a flat spatial distribution. 32 references

  17. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu; Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke.

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to γ-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, γ-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains γ-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct γ-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting γ-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural γ-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, γ-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in γ-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  18. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to {gamma}-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, {gamma}-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains {gamma}-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct {gamma}-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting {gamma}-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural {gamma}-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, {gamma}-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in {gamma}-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  19. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  20. A Simple Method of Spectrum Processing for β-ray Measurement without Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Woo; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactivity analysis of β-emitting radionuclide is important because of its dangerousness of overexposure. γ-ray has been measured by conventional detector such as NaI(Tl) or high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. But β-ray is hard to detect by those detectors because of its short range. Therefore, liquid scintillation counter (LSC) has been used to measure the radioactivity of pure beta emitter but there is huge problem of organic waste production, though LSC has high efficiency for detection of low energy β-ray. To solve this problem, characterization of β-ray measurement in a plastic scintillator was carried out in this study. There have been some studies about plastic scintillator to measure the β-rays without liquid scintillation method. Plastic scintillator has benefits for detection of β-ray because it has relative low effective atomic number. β-ray and γ-ray spectra in cylindrical plastic scintillator was analyzed and a method of separation of β-ray spectrum was suggested. A simple method of β-ray spectrum separation was suggested. The method was verified by chi-square method to estimate the difference between calculated and measured spectrum. This method was successfully applied by using disc source. For future works, practical radioactive source will be used to acquire the pulse height spectrum. The method can be used for measurement of pure β emitter without pretreatment if this method is verified for practical purpose.

  1. Evolution of the Deep-space Galactic Cosmic Ray Lineal Energy Transfer Spectrum through Tissue Equivalent Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Spence, H. E.; Golightly, M. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Mazur, J. E.; Blake, J. B.; Looper, M. D.; Townsend, L.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation is an energetic particle telescope that resides on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft, currently in a 50 km circular lunar polar orbit. The telescope consists of 6 silicon semi-conductor detectors placed in pairs that surround two pieces of Tissue Equivalent Plastic (TEP), which serve to absorb energy from particles as they transit through the instrument. Particles with energies greater than 12 MeV/nucleon can penetrate the outermost shield and be measured by the instrument. The primary measurement made by the instrument is of the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of energetic particles as they transit through the telescope. CRaTER measures the LET spectrum with unprecedented energy resolution and has done so during a period of historically low solar activity that led to record high intensities of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). These LET spectra are used to study changes in the properties of the incoming particles, and to make detailed measurements of the radiation doses human explorers will experience in deep space on missions to the moon, to asteroids, or to Mars. We present LET spectra accumulated during 2009 and 2010. We show how the LET spectrum evolves through the instrument as the GCR interact with the TEP. Due to the importance of these measurements for human effects, our extensive absolute calibration procedures are presented. Of particular note is a significant reduction in the flux of particles with LET greater than 10 keV/um for detectors that lie deeper within the telescope stack, due to the attenuation of high LET particles within the TEP. By measuring this attenuation we can estimate the depth in human tissue where the highest LET particles that are most likely to cause genetic damage pose the greatest threat to humans in space.

  2. Cosmic ray spectrum, composition, and anisotropy measured with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburro, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of cosmic ray surface data collected with the IceTop array of Cherenkov detectors at the South Pole provides an accurate measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum and its features in the “knee” region up to energies of about 1 EeV. IceTop is part of the IceCube Observatory that includes a deep-ice cubic kilometer detector that registers signals of penetrating muons and other particles. Surface and in-ice signals detected in coincidence provide clear insights into the nuclear composition of cosmic rays. IceCube already measured an increase of the average primary mass as a function of energy. We present preliminary results on both IceTop-only and coincident events analysis. Furthermore, we review the recent measurement of the cosmic ray anisotropy with IceCube

  3. Cosmic ray spectrum, composition, and anisotropy measured with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Alessio

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of cosmic ray surface data collected with the IceTop array of Cherenkov detectors at the South Pole provides an accurate measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum and its features in the "knee" region up to energies of about 1 EeV. IceTop is part of the IceCube Observatory that includes a deep-ice cubic kilometer detector that registers signals of penetrating muons and other particles. Surface and in-ice signals detected in coincidence provide clear insights into the nuclear composition of cosmic rays. IceCube already measured an increase of the average primary mass as a function of energy. We present preliminary results on both IceTop-only and coincident events analysis. Furthermore, we review the recent measurement of the cosmic ray anisotropy with IceCube.

  4. Pulsars as the sources of high energy cosmic ray positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Blasi, Pasquale; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2009-01-01

    Recent results from the PAMELA satellite indicate the presence of a large flux of positrons (relative to electrons) in the cosmic ray spectrum between approximately 10 and 100 GeV. As annihilating dark matter particles in many models are predicted to contribute to the cosmic ray positron spectrum in this energy range, a great deal of interest has resulted from this observation. Here, we consider pulsars (rapidly spinning, magnetized neutron stars) as an alternative source of this signal. After calculating the contribution to the cosmic ray positron and electron spectra from pulsars, we find that the spectrum observed by PAMELA could plausibly originate from such sources. In particular, a significant contribution is expected from the sum of all mature pulsars throughout the Milky Way, as well as from the most nearby mature pulsars (such as Geminga and B0656+14). The signal from nearby pulsars is expected to generate a small but significant dipole anisotropy in the cosmic ray electron spectrum, potentially providing a method by which the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope would be capable of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter origins of the observed high energy positrons

  5. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  6. Modeling high-energy gamma-rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splettstoesser, Megan

    2015-09-17

    In 2010, the Fermi Bubbles were discovered at the galactic center of the Milky Way. These giant gamma-ray structures, extending 55° in galactic latitude and 20°-30° in galactic longitude, were not predicted. We wish to develop a model for the gamma-ray emission of the Fermi Bubbles. To do so, we assume that second order Fermi acceleration requires charged particles and irregular magnetic fields- both of which are present in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy. By solving the steady-state case of the transport equation, I compute the proton spectrum due to second order Fermi acceleration. I compare the analytical solutions of the proton spectrum to a numerical solution. I find that the numerical solution to the transport equation converges to the analytical solution in all cases. The gamma-ray spectrum due to proton-proton interaction is compared to Fermi Bubble data (from Ackermann et al. 2014), and I find that second order Fermi acceleration is a good fit for the gamma-ray spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles at low energies with an injection source term of S = 1.5 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹. I find that a non-steady-state solution to the gamma-ray spectrum with an injection source term of S = 2 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹ matches the bubble data at high energies.

  7. Sequential measurements of spectrum and dose for cosmic-ray neutrons on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, N.; Nunomiya, T.; Suzuki, H.; Nakamura, T.

    2002-01-01

    The earth is continually bathed in high-energy particles that come from outside the solar system, known as galactic cosmic rays. When these particles penetrate the magnetic fields of the solar system and the Earth and reach the Earth's atmosphere, they collide with atomic nuclei in air and secondary cosmic rays of every kind. On the other hand, levels of accumulation of the semiconductor increase recently, and the soft error that the cosmic-ray neutrons cause has been regarded as questionable. There have been long-term measurements of cosmic-ray neutron fluence at several places in the world, but no systematic study on cosmic-ray neutron spectrum measurements. This study aimed to measure the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum and dose on the ground during the solar maximum period of 2000 to 2002. Measurements have been continuing in a cabin of Tohoku University Kawauchi campus, by using five multi-moderator spectrometers (Bonner sphere), 12.7 cm diam by 12.7 cm long NE213 scintillator, and rem counter. The Bonner sphere uses a 5.08 cm diam spherical 3 He gas proportional counter and the rem counter uses a 12.7 cm diam 3 He gas counter. The neutron spectra were obtained by unfolding from the count rates measured with the Bonner sphere using the SAND code and the pulse height spectra measured with the NE213 scintillator using the FORIST code . The cosmic- ray neutron spectrum and ambient dose rates have been measured sequentially from April 2001. Furthermore, the correlation between ambient dose rate and the atmospheric pressure was investigated with a barometer. We are also very much interested in the variation of neutron spectrum following big solar flares. From the sequential measurements, we found that the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum has two peaks at around 1 MeV and at around 100 MeV, and the higher energy peak increases with a big solar flare

  8. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.; Kotera, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10 19 eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ∼ E −1 ) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy E max ∼ Z 10 19 eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10 16 and 10 18 eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy

  9. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... instruments. An analytical formula for the spectrum from Maxwellian plasmas, which extends to higher temperatures than the results previously available in the literature, has been derived and used to discuss the assumptions and limitations of earlier models. In case of radio-frequency injection, numerical...... results based on a Monte Carlo method are provided, focusing in particular on improved relations between the peak shift and width from the reaction and the temperature of protons accelerated by radio-frequency heating.The results presented in this paper significantly improve the accuracy of diagnostic...

  10. X-ray Lβ215 emission spectrum of Ru in Ru(NH3)6Cl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Barth, J.; LaVilla, R.E.; Nordling, C.

    1984-07-01

    One of the broader applications of synchrotron radiation has been to EXAFS studies for material structure determination, i.e., for an analysis of x-ray absorption over an extended energy region beyond a core ionization limit. Studies of the near edge structure (XANES) give a different type of information, characteristic of the local symmetry and electronic configuration of the absorbing atom. This type of information is reflected also in the x-ray emission spectra, in particular for transitions involving the valence levels. Examination of the near edge absorption or the emission spectrum does not require an instrument capable of scanning a wide energy range with high counting statistics, as does EXAFS; the needs are rather for good resolution and a reliable calibration of the energy scale. Some of the problems of near edge spectra were particularly evident in our investigation of Ru-Lβ 2 15 emission from Ru(NH 3 ) 6 Cl 3 . The Ru-Lβ 2 15 emission was measured with a laboratory Rowland circle x-ray spectrometer with a curved quartz (1010) crystal (radius = 22 inches) in a fixed position appropriate to the energy range, and a position sensitive detector which can be positioned along the Rowland circle. The Ru spectrum was excited mainly by Sn-L/sub α/ primary radiation from a Sn anode in a demountable x-ray tube operating at 13 kV and 120 mA. The resolution of the instrument in this region is 1.5 eV. An accurate calibration of the energy scale was conveniently obtained by measuring a reference x-ray emission line in the same instrumental configuration. In the present case the Pd-L/sub α/ emission line at 2838 eV was used to establish the energy scale. The energy dispersion of the instrument was determined from the Cl-K/sub β/ emission spectrum of CH 3 Cl between 2810 eV and 2830 eV and Pd-Lα 1 2 and extrapolated to the energy region of the recorded emission spectrum. 6 references, 1 figure

  11. Internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 204TI in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, M.K.; Ramaswamy, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    The internal Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 204 TI has been measured, using magnetic deflector method, in the X-ray region. The corrected spectral intensity is compared with the Coulomb-corrected KUB theory in the energy region of 10 to 30 keV. The good agreement between experiment and theory in this energy region, suggests that 'detour effects' are negligible in the low energy region. (author)

  12. Gamma ray spectrum from gravitino dark matter decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, A.; Tran, D.

    2007-09-15

    Gravitinos are very promising candidates for the cold dark matter of the Universe. Interestingly, to achieve a sufficiently long gravitino lifetime, R-parity conservation is not required, thus preventing any dangerous cosmological influence of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. When R-parity is violated, gravitinos decay into photons and other particles with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, producing a diffuse gamma ray flux with a characteristic spectrum that could be measured in future experiments, like GLAST, AMS-02 or Cherenkov telescopes. In this letter we compute the energy spectrum of photons from gravitino decay and discuss its main qualitative features. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10.sup.18./sup. eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Kárová, Tatiana; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Nyklíček, Michal; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 685, 4-5 (2010), s. 239-246 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA AV ČR KJB300100801; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : cosmic rays * energy spectrum * Pierre Auger Observatory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.255, year: 2010

  14. The nature of the cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and supernova remnant contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulares, A.

    1989-01-01

    The observed cosmic-ray (CR) electron spectrum and position fraction e+/(e- + e+) spectrum above 1 GeV are examined, and it is found that a deconvolution of the total spectrum into three components is necessary because of the increase of e+/(e- + e+) above 5 GeV: (1) secondary electrons e+ or e- from the interaction of the CR protons with the interstellar gas provide the total e+ for energies less than 3 GeV, but for energies above 3 GeV these electrons cannot account for the observed positron flux; (2) Electrons (e-) generally thought to derive from supernova remnants (SNRs), probably via shock acceleration, dominate the total spectrum for E of 10 GeV or less but definitely decline relative to total at higher energies; (3) Another (e- + e+) source dominates the total spectrum at E of 40 GeV or greater. The derived spectrum of (2) is consistent in its energy cutoff (though gradual) with that deduced from the observed synchrotron emission of some old SNRs and follows naturally from shock acceleration with synchrotron and inverse Compton scattering losses taken into account. As for (3), nearby pulsars may be important contributors. 66 refs

  15. Cosmic ray spectrum and composition from three years of IceTop and IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, K.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    IceTop is the surface component of the IceCube Observatory, composed of frozen water tanks at the top of IceCube’s strings. Data from this detector can be analyzed in different ways with the goal of measuring cosmic ray spectrum and composition. The shower size S125 from IceTop alone can be used as a proxy for primary energy, and unfolded into an all-particle spectrum. In addition, S125 from the surface can be combined with high-energy muon energy loss information from the deep IceCube detector for those air showers which pass through both. Using these coincident events in a complementary analysis, both the spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays can be extracted in parallel using a neural network. Both of these analyses have been performed on three years of IceTop and IceCube data. Both all-particle spectra as well as individual spectra for elemental groups are presented.

  16. Discovery of the hard spectrum VHE γ-ray source HESS J1641-463

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowski, A.; Ait Benkhali, F.

    2014-10-01

    This letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641.463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641.463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640.465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of φ (E>1 TeV)=(3.64 ± 0.44 stat ± 0.73 sys ) x 10 -13 cm -2 s -1 , corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Γ=2.07±0.11 stat ±0.20 sys . It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of σ=3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE γ-ray flux of HESS J1641.463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641.463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE γ-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641.463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

  17. X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Staun Olsen, J.; Gerward, L.

    1977-03-01

    In contrast to bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation is very intense, has a smooth spectrum, its polarization is well defined, and at DESY the range of useful photon energies can be extended to about 70 keV and higher. In addition the X-ray beam is very well collimated. Thus synchrotron radiation seems to be an ideal X-ray source for energy-dispersive diffractometry. This note briefly describes the experimental set up at DESY, shows examples of results, and presents the underlying 'philosophy' of the research programme. (Auth.)

  18. Aerogel Cherenkov detector for characterizing the intense flash x-ray source, Cygnus, spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y., E-mail: yhkim@lanl.gov; Herrmann, H. W.; McEvoy, A. M.; Young, C. S.; Hamilton, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schwellenbach, D. D.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.; Smith, A. S. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An aerogel Cherenkov detector is proposed to measure the X-ray energy spectrum from the Cygnus—intense flash X-ray source operated at the Nevada National Security Site. An array of aerogels set at a variety of thresholds between 1 and 3 MeV will be adequate to map out the bremsstrahlung X-ray production of the Cygnus, where the maximum energy of the spectrum is normally around 2.5 MeV. In addition to the Cherenkov radiation from aerogels, one possible competing light-production mechanism is optical transition radiation (OTR), which may be significant in aerogels due to the large number of transitions from SiO{sub 2} clusters to vacuum voids. To examine whether OTR is a problem, four aerogel samples were tested using a mono-energetic electron beam (varied in the range of 1–3 MeV) at NSTec Los Alamos Operations. It was demonstrated that aerogels can be used as a Cherenkov medium, where the rate of the light production is about two orders magnitude higher when the electron beam energy is above threshold.

  19. Comparative study on γ-ray spectrum by several filtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Liu Liangjun; Zhou Jianliang

    2011-01-01

    Comparative study was conducted on results of gamma-ray spectrum by using a majority of active smoothing method, which were used to show filtering effect. The results showed that peak was widened and overlap peaks increased with energy domain filter in γ-ray spectrum. Filter and its parameters should be seriously taken into consideration in frequency domain. Wavelet transformation can keep signal in high frequency region well. Improved threshold method showed the advantages of hard and soft threshold method at the same time by comparison, which was suitable for weak peaks detection. A new filter was put forward to eke out gravity model approach, whose denoise level was detected by standard deviation. This method not only kept signal and net area of peak well,but also attained better result and had simple computer program. (authors)

  20. Direct detection of a break in the teraelectronvolt cosmic-ray spectrum of electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAMPE Collaboration; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Azzarello, P.; Bernardini, P.; Bertucci, B.; Cai, M. S.; Chang, J.; Chen, D. Y.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. L.; Chen, W.; Cui, M. Y.; Cui, T. S.; D'Amone, A.; de Benedittis, A.; De Mitri, I.; di Santo, M.; Dong, J. N.; Dong, T. K.; Dong, Y. F.; Dong, Z. X.; Donvito, G.; Droz, D.; Duan, K. K.; Duan, J. L.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Fan, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Fang, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Feng, L.; Fusco, P.; Gallo, V.; Gan, F. J.; Gao, M.; Gao, S. S.; Gargano, F.; Garrappa, S.; Gong, K.; Gong, Y. Z.; Guo, D. Y.; Guo, J. H.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, Y. Y.; Ionica, M.; Jiang, D.; Jiang, W.; Jin, X.; Kong, J.; Lei, S. J.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, W. L.; Li, Y.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. M.; Liao, N. H.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, W. Q.; Liu, Y.; Loparco, F.; Ma, M.; Ma, P. X.; Ma, S. Y.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Q.; Ma, X. Y.; Marsella, G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mo, D.; Niu, X. Y.; Peng, X. Y.; Peng, W. X.; Qiao, R.; Rao, J. N.; Salinas, M. M.; Shang, G. Z.; H. Shen, W.; Shen, Z. Q.; Shen, Z. T.; Song, J. X.; Su, H.; Su, M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Surdo, A.; Teng, X. J.; Tian, X. B.; Tykhonov, A.; Vagelli, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, L. G.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. P.; Wang, Y. Z.; Wen, S. C.; Wang, Z. M.; Wei, D. M.; Wei, J. J.; Wei, Y. F.; Wu, D.; Wu, J.; Wu, L. B.; Wu, S. S.; Wu, X.; Xi, K.; Xia, Z. Q.; Xin, Y. L.; Xu, H. T.; Xu, Z. L.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, G. F.; Yang, H. B.; Yang, P.; Yang, Y. Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Yao, H. J.; Yu, Y. H.; Yuan, Q.; Yue, C.; Zang, J. J.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, D. L.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, P. F.; Zhang, S. X.; Zhang, W. Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, X. F.; Zhou, C. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Zimmer, S.

    2017-12-01

    High-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons (CREs), which lose energy quickly during their propagation, provide a probe of Galactic high-energy processes and may enable the observation of phenomena such as dark-matter particle annihilation or decay. The CRE spectrum has been measured directly up to approximately 2 teraelectronvolts in previous balloon- or space-borne experiments, and indirectly up to approximately 5 teraelectronvolts using ground-based Cherenkov γ-ray telescope arrays. Evidence for a spectral break in the teraelectronvolt energy range has been provided by indirect measurements, although the results were qualified by sizeable systematic uncertainties. Here we report a direct measurement of CREs in the energy range 25 gigaelectronvolts to 4.6 teraelectronvolts by the Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) with unprecedentedly high energy resolution and low background. The largest part of the spectrum can be well fitted by a ‘smoothly broken power-law’ model rather than a single power-law model. The direct detection of a spectral break at about 0.9 teraelectronvolts confirms the evidence found by previous indirect measurements, clarifies the behaviour of the CRE spectrum at energies above 1 teraelectronvolt and sheds light on the physical origin of the sub-teraelectronvolt CREs.

  1. γ-ray spectrum of the Galactic Center region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, G.R.; Ling, J.C.; Mahoney, W.A.; Wheaton, W.A.; Jacobson, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    The HEAO-3 High Resolution γ-Ray Spectrometer observed the Galactic Center region in fall 1979 and in the spring of 1980. Variation of the positron annihilation line at 511 keV has been reported previously. The fall 1979 observations show a significant high-energy continuum at energies above 511 keV. The intensity of a possible positronium triplet-state continuum is found to be less than that expected for direct positron annihilation and positronium decay in an ionized, warm (T 5 K) plasma; depending on assumption for the shape of the high-energy continuum spectrum, positronium fractions between 0.0 and 0.75 (at 90% statistical confidence level) are consistent with the observations. 18 references

  2. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  3. Partial decay energy of 51Cr from inner bremsstrahlung spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjeeviah, H.; Sanjeevaiah, B.

    1980-01-01

    The inner bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying orbital electron capture decay of 51 Cr to the first excited state in 51 V was measured in coincidence with 320 keV gamma rays. From the Jauch plot of the spectrum the partial decay energy was deduced to be 433 +- 18 keV in good agreement with the previously measured value and the accepted mass difference. The overall shape factor of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum was found to be a constant X(1.1 +- 0.1). (author)

  4. Low-energy gamma rays from Cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, J.P.; Mandrou, P.; Lebrun, F.; Paul, J.

    1985-08-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed by the CESR balloon borne telescope OPALE, in June 1976. The high-energy spectrum of the source, which was in its ''superlow state'', was seen to extend well beyond 1 MeV. In this paper, the observed low-energy γ-ray component of Cyg X-1 is compared with the predictions of recent models involving accretion onto a stellar black hole, and including a possible contribution from the pair-annihilation 511 keV γ-ray line

  5. Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelling, M; Grupen, C; Luitz, S; Maciuc, F; Mailov, A; Müller, A -S; Sander, H -G; Schmeling, S; Tcaciuc, R; Wachsmuth, H; Zuber, K

    2013-01-01

    The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10^15 eV.

  6. NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM HIGH-ENERGY COMPONENT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Olivo, Martino; Halzen, Francis; O Murchadha, Aongus

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have the potential to produce the particle energies (up to 10 21 eV) and energy budget (10 44 erg yr -1 Mpc -3 ) to accommodate the spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays; on the other hand, there is no observational evidence that they accelerate hadrons. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently observed two bursts that exhibit a power-law high-energy extension of a typical (Band) photon spectrum that extends to ∼30 GeV. On the basis of fireball phenomenology we argue that these two bursts, along with GRB941017 observed by EGRET in 1994, show indirect evidence for considerable baryon loading. Since the detection of neutrinos is the only unambiguous way to establish that GRBs accelerate protons, we use two methods to estimate the neutrino flux produced when they interact with fireball photons to produce charged pions and neutrinos. While the number of events expected from the two Fermi bursts discussed is small, should GRBs be the sources of the observed cosmic rays, a GRB941017-like event that has a hadronic power-law tail extending to several tens of GeV will be detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope.

  7. Effects of X-rays spectrum on the dose; Efectos del espectro de rayos X sobre la dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez I, J. L.; Hernandez A, P. L.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T., E-mail: johann_greenday@hotmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria No. 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The X-ray equipment for diagnosis comes in different sizes and shapes depending on the scan type to perform. The X-ray spectrum is the energy distribution of the beam photons and consists of a continuous spectrum of photons braking and discrete spectrum due to the characteristic photons. The knowledge of the X-rays spectrum is important to understand like they affect the voltage changes (k Vp), current (m A), time (s) and the type of filter in the interaction mechanisms between X-rays and patient's body, the image receptor or other material that gets in the beam. Across the spectrum can be estimated the absorbed dose in any point of the patient, the quality of the image and the scattered radiation (which is related to the dose received by the equipment operator). The Monte Carlo method was used by MCNP5 code to calculate the spectrum of X-rays that occurs when a monoenergetic electron beam of 250 keV interact with targets of Mo, Rh and W. The spectra were calculated with and without filter, and the values of ambient dose equivalent were estimated, as well as the air kerma. (Author)

  8. Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizot, Etienne

    2014-11-15

    We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of 10{sup 17} eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovæ in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role in the origin of cosmic-rays, and could solve some persistent problems of the standard SNR-GCR scenario in a rather natural way.

  9. Topics in High-Energy Astrophysics: X-ray Time Lags and Gamma-ray Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, John J.

    2016-03-01

    The Universe is host to a wide variety of high-energy processes that convert gravitational potential energy or rest-mass energy into non-thermal radiation such as bremsstrahlung and synchrotron. Prevailing models of X-ray emission from accreting Black Hole Binaries (BHBs) struggle to simultaneously fit the quiescent X-ray spectrum and the transients which result in the phenomenon known as X-ray time lags. And similarly, classical models of diffusive shock acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae fail to explain the extreme particle acceleration in very short timescales as is inferred from recent gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula. In this dissertation, I develop new exact analytic models to shed light on these intriguing processes. I take a fresh look at the formation of X-ray time lags in compact sources using a new mathematical approach in which I obtain the exact Green's function solution. The resulting Green's function allows one to explore a variety of injection scenarios, including both monochromatic and broadband (bremsstrahlung) seed photon injection. I obtain the exact solution for the dependence of the time lags on the Fourier frequency, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous clouds. The model can successfully reproduce both the observed time lags and the quiescent X-ray spectrum using a single set of coronal parameters. I show that the implied coronal radii in the new model are significantly smaller than those obtained in the Monte Carlo simulations, hence greatly reducing the coronal heating problem. Recent bright gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the contemporary model for particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, specifically the diffusive shock acceleration model. Simulations indicate electron/positron pairs in the Crab nebula pulsar wind must be accelerated up to PeV energies in the presence of ambient magnetic fields with strength B ~100 microG. No

  10. Effects of Cu stress on maize seedlings using X-ray energy spectrum and FTIR spectra methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Lin; Fu Zhaolin; Qiao Chuanying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Cu 2+ stress on maize seedlings by using scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy spectrum and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry were investigated, and antioxidative enzymes activities such as SOD, CAT, POD, APX were measured. Results showed that, with the increasing of Cu concentration, the content of chlorophyll decreased, and antioxidative enzyme activities increased at first and then decreased at higher concentration stress. High concentration Cu 2+ treatment twisted the cells' shape and increased copper content on leaf surface, and absorption of other nutrients were also affected. The result of FTIR-ATR analysis showed that the organic content of leaf were changed by Cu 2+ stress. (authors)

  11. Composition of cosmic rays in the knee region of the primary energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das Gupta, U.

    1989-01-01

    The Soudan Surface-Underground Cosmic Ray Telescope is located at the Soudan iron mine in northern Minnesota. It consists of a coincidence arrangement of two detectors-one installed at the surface of the mine and the other located underground, at a vertical depth of 600 meters. Using such an arrangement, the energy and composition of a primary cosmic ray particle can be determined independently of one another. When a high energy cosmic ray enters the Earth's atmosphere, secondary particles are produced in successive interactions, creating an extensive air shower. Using the surface detector, the number of particles in the shower at the surface of the Earth can be counted and the energy of the primary particle estimated. Of all the particles that are created in a cosmic ray air shower, only the energetic muons are able to penetrate underground. The separations of the muons below ground are measured by the Soudan 1 detector and this serves as an indicator of the type of nucleus that initiated the shower. The Soudan surface-underground detector is sensitive to primary cosmic rays of energies between 10 14 and 10 18 eV. The data from the experiment were compared to the predictions of various cosmic ray composition models, within this energy range. The data supported a composition model that was proton dominated up to the highest energies measured. There was no indication of a shift in the composition towards heavier primaries as would be expected on the basis of some models

  12. Observational techniques of gamma rays astronomy in low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1982-02-01

    Due to the absorption of great part of the gamma-ray spectrum of cosmic origin, by the earth's atmosphere at heights above 20Km, gamma-ray astronomy achieved its full development only after the advent of the space age. Ballons and satellites are the space vehicles which have been used to transport gamma-ray telescopes to observational heights in the atmosphere, or out of it. The results of these experiments can determine the sources, the energy spectra and the intensities of the cosmic gamma-rays, and provide other important information of astrophysical interest. The detection of gamma-rays of cosmic origin is very difficult. The observational techniques used in gamma-ray astronomy are dependent on the energy range of the gamma-rays which one desires to detect. The most common telescopes of low energy gamma-ray astronomy (50KeV - 20MeV) use NaI(Tl) scintillators, or germanium diodes, as principal detectors, surrounded by an active shield (anticoincidence) of organic or inorganic scintillators. (Author) [pt

  13. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray film/screen combinations up to x-ray energy of 3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, A.; Carmel, Y.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.

    1986-01-01

    The present study is directed towards quantifying some of the parameters which define the quality of the image obtained on x-ray sensitive films and its usual accompanying intensifying screens. Both industrial (Agfa-Geveart D2,D4,D7) and medical (Kodak XAR-5) films with a variety of screens such as metallic (lead) and fluorescent (calcium tungstate, rare earth) were compared. A variety of sources were employed (radioactive, linear accelerators, flash) in order to cover the average x-ray energy spectrum from 100KeV to 3000KeV. This energy spectrum is of interest for non destructive testing, terminal ballistics and for medical purposes. The results indicate that the sensitivity of industrial x-ray films decreases with energy in the range of 100KeV to 1MeV, levels off and increases again with increasing energy. A 2.75MeV Na 24 radioactive source was used to achieve accurate calibration at the high end of the spectrum. Also, the noise level of x-ray industrial films versus film density was found to peak at a density of D=1.4. The line spread function (LSF) - or resolution - of both industrial and medical film/screen combinations were derived from the optical density of a step wedge response on the film. The noise level of medical films is twice as high compared to industrial films and their LSF is 4 to 8 times larger at x-ray energies of 3MeV. Using Pb screens in contact with common industrial x-ray films yields amplification of 2 (compared to a bare film)

  14. The simulated spectrum of the OGRE X-ray EM-CCD camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Lumb, D.; Tutt, J.; McEntaffer, R.; Schultz, T.; Holland, K.

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray astronomical telescopes in use today, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, use X-ray grating spectrometers to probe the high energy physics of the Universe. These instruments typically use reflective optics for focussing onto gratings that disperse incident X-rays across a detector, often a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD). The X-ray energy is determined from the position that it was detected on the CCD. Improved technology for the next generation of X-ray grating spectrometers has been developed and will be tested on a sounding rocket experiment known as the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE). OGRE aims to capture the highest resolution soft X-ray spectrum of Capella, a well-known astronomical X-ray source, during an observation period lasting between 3 and 6 minutes whilst proving the performance and suitability of three key components. These three components consist of a telescope made from silicon mirrors, gold coated silicon X-ray diffraction gratings and a camera that comprises of four Electron-Multiplying (EM)-CCDs that will be arranged to observe the soft X-rays dispersed by the gratings. EM-CCDs have an architecture similar to standard CCDs, with the addition of an EM gain register where the electron signal is amplified so that the effective signal-to-noise ratio of the imager is improved. The devices also have incredibly favourable Quantum Efficiency values for detecting soft X-ray photons. On OGRE, this improved detector performance allows for easier identification of low energy X-rays and fast readouts due to the amplified signal charge making readout noise almost negligible. A simulation that applies the OGRE instrument performance to the Capella soft X-ray spectrum has been developed that allows the distribution of X-rays onto the EM-CCDs to be predicted. A proposed optical model is also discussed which would enable the missions minimum success criteria's photon count requirement to have a high chance of being met with the shortest possible

  15. THE HIGH-ENERGY, ARCMINUTE-SCALE GALACTIC CENTER GAMMA-RAY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyakova, M.; Malyshev, D.; Aharonian, F. A.; Crocker, R. M.; Jones, D. I.

    2011-01-01

    Employing data collected during the first 25 months of observations by the Fermi-LAT, we describe and subsequently seek to model the very high energy (>300 MeV) emission from the central few parsecs of our Galaxy. We analyze the morphological, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the central source, 1FGL J1745.6-2900. The data show a clear, statistically significant signal at energies above 10 GeV, where the Fermi-LAT has angular resolution comparable to that of HESS at TeV energies. This makes a meaningful joint analysis of the data possible. Our analysis of the Fermi data (alone) does not uncover any statistically significant variability of 1FGL J1745.6-2900 at GeV energies on the month timescale. Using the combination of Fermi data on 1FGL J1745.6-2900 and HESS data on the coincident, TeV source HESS J1745-290, we show that the spectrum of the central gamma-ray source is inflected with a relatively steep spectral region matching between the flatter spectrum found at both low and high energies. We model the gamma-ray production in the inner 10 pc of the Galaxy and examine cosmic ray (CR) proton propagation scenarios that reproduce the observed spectrum of the central source. We show that a model that instantiates a transition from diffusive propagation of the CR protons at low energy to almost rectilinear propagation at high energies can explain well the spectral phenomenology. We find considerable degeneracy between different parameter choices which will only be broken with the addition of morphological information that gamma-ray telescopes cannot deliver given current angular resolution limits. We argue that a future analysis performed in combination with higher-resolution radio continuum data holds out the promise of breaking this degeneracy.

  16. Can diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants account for high-energy galactic cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillas, A M

    2005-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration at the outer front of expanding supernova remnants has provided by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays, and has been the subject of intensive theoretical investigation. But several problems loomed at high energies-how to explain the smooth continuation of the cosmic-ray spectrum far beyond 10 14 eV, the very low level of TeV gamma-ray emission from several supernova remnants, and the very low anisotropy of cosmic rays (seeming to conflict with the short trapping times needed to convert a E -2 source spectrum into the observed E -2.7 spectrum of cosmic rays). However, recent work on the cosmic ray spectrum (especially at KASCADE) strongly indicates that about half of the flux does turn down rather sharply near 3 x 10 15 V rigidity, with a distinct tail extending to just beyond 10 17 V rigidity; whilst a plausible description (Bell and Lucek) of the level of self-generated magnetic fields at the shock fronts of young supernova remnants implies that many SNRs in varying environments might very well generate spectra extending smoothly to just this 'knee' position, and a portion of the exploding red supergiants could extend the spectrum approximately as needed. At low energies, recent progress in relating cosmic ray compositional details to modified shock structure also adds weight to the belief that the model is working on the right lines, converting energy into cosmic rays very efficiently where injection can occur. The low level of TeV gamma-ray flux from many young SNRs is a serious challenge, though it may relate to variations in particle injection efficiency with time. The clear detection of TeV gamma rays from SNRs has now just begun, and predictions of a characteristic curved particle spectrum give a target for new tests by TeV observations. However, the isotropy seriously challenges the assumed cosmic-ray trapping time and hence the shape of the spectrum of particles released from SNRs. There is

  17. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons aboard an ER-2 high-altitude airplane

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhagen, P E; Kniss, T; Reginatto, M; Singleterry, R C; Van Steveninck, W; Wilson, J W

    2002-01-01

    Crews working on present-day jet aircraft are a large occupationally exposed group with a relatively high average effective dose from galactic cosmic radiation. Crews of future high-speed commercial aircraft flying at higher altitudes would be even more exposed. To help reduce the significant uncertainties in calculations of such exposures, the atmospheric ionizing radiation (AIR) project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on five flights of a NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The primary AIR instrument was a highly sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer with lead and steel shells placed within the moderators of two of its 14 detectors to enhance response at high energies. Detector responses were calculated for neutrons and charged hadrons at energies up to 100 GeV using MCNPX. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the measured count rates using the new MAXED code. We have measured the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (t...

  18. The cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio in CosmoALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, D; Kotaidis, V; Luitz, S; Mailov, A; Müller, A S; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Schmelling, M; Wachsmuth, H W; Tcaciuc, R; Ziegler, T; Zuber, K

    2004-01-01

    The ALEPH experiment at the LEP e**+e**- storage ring at CERN has been used to measure the momentum spectrum of cosmic ray muons. ALEPH is located at a vertical depth of 320 m.w.e. underground close to the Jura mountains. The high resolution of the time projection chamber (TPC) of ALEPH allows to reconstruct muon tracks with momenta up to the TeV region. The measured muon momentum spectrum and the charge ratio in the range from 80 to 2500 GeV are presented. After corrections for energy loss in the overburden the sea level muon spectrum at nearly vertical incidence is obtained. The experimental data are compared to theoretical expectations and results from other experiments.

  19. Gamma ray spectrum analysis code: sigmas 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siangsanan, P.; Dharmavanij, W.; Chongkum, S.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed Sigmas 1.0 a software package for data reduction and gamma ray spectra evaluation. It is capable of analysing the gamma-ray spectrum in the range of 0-3 MeV by semiconductor detector, i.e. Ge(Li) or HPGe, peak searching, net area determining, plotting and spectrum displaying. There are two methods for calculating the net area under peaks; the Covell method and non-linear fitting by the method of Levenberg and Marquardt which can fit any multiplet peak in the spectrum. The graphic display was rather fast and user friendly

  20. CHANDRA HIGH-ENERGY TRANSMISSION GRATING SPECTRUM OF AE AQUARII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauche, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    The nova-like cataclysmic binary AE Aqr, which is currently understood to be a former supersoft X-ray binary and current magnetic propeller, was observed for over two binary orbits (78 ks) in 2005 August with the High-Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The long, uninterrupted Chandra observation provides a wealth of details concerning the X-ray emission of AE Aqr, many of which are new and unique to the HETG. First, the X-ray spectrum is that of an optically thin multi-temperature thermal plasma; the X-ray emission lines are broad, with widths that increase with the line energy from σ ∼ 1 eV (510 km s -1 ) for O VIII to σ ∼ 5.5 eV (820 km s -1 ) for Si XIV; the X-ray spectrum is reasonably well fit by a plasma model with a Gaussian emission measure distribution that peaks at log T(K) = 7.16, has a width σ = 0.48, an Fe abundance equal to 0.44 times solar, and other metal (primarily Ne, Mg, and Si) abundances equal to 0.76 times solar; and for a distance d = 100 pc, the total emission measure EM = 8.0 x 10 53 cm -3 and the 0.5-10 keV luminosity L X = 1.1 x 10 31 erg s -1 . Second, based on the f/(i + r) flux ratios of the forbidden (f), intercombination (i), and recombination (r) lines of the Heα triplets of N VI, O VII, and Ne IX measured by Itoh et al. in the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum and those of O VII, Ne IX, Mg XI, and Si XIII in the Chandra HETG spectrum, either the electron density of the plasma increases with temperature by over three orders of magnitude, from n e ∼ 6 x 10 10 cm -3 for N VI [log T(K) ∼ 6] to n e ∼ 1 x 10 14 cm -3 for Si XIII [log T(K) ∼ 7], and/or the plasma is significantly affected by photoexcitation. Third, the radial velocity of the X-ray emission lines varies on the white dwarf spin phase, with two oscillations per spin cycle and an amplitude K ∼ 160 km s -1 . These results appear to be inconsistent with the recent models of Itoh et al., Ikhsanov, and

  1. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nearby starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Reda; Bouchachi, Dallel

    2018-04-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. The quest for their mysterious origin is currently a major scientific challenge. Here we explore the possibility that these particles originate from nearby starburst galaxies, a scenario that matches the recent observation by the Telescope Array experiment of a cosmic-ray hotspot above 57 EeV not far from the direction of the starburst galaxy M82. Specifically, we study the stochastic propagation in space of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays through the state-of-the-art simulation framework CRPropa 3, taking into account all relevant particle interactions as well as deflections by the intervening magnetic fields. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of this model, we consider the energy spectrum, the cosmogenic neutrinos and gamma rays, and the distribution of arrival directions. The starburst galaxy scenario reproduces well observations from both the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatories, making it very attractive for explaining the origin of cosmic rays at the highest energies.

  2. Progress in high-energy cosmic ray physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerach, S.; Roulet, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in our knowledge about high-energy cosmic rays, with an emphasis on the interpretation of the different observational results. We discuss the effects that are relevant to shape the cosmic ray spectrum and the explanations proposed to account for its features and for the observed changes in composition. The physics of air-showers is summarized and we also present the results obtained on the proton-air cross section and on the muon content of the showers. We discuss the cosmic ray propagation through magnetic fields, the effects of diffusion and of magnetic lensing, the cosmic ray interactions with background radiation fields and the production of secondary neutrinos and photons. We also consider the cosmic ray anisotropies, both at large and small angular scales, presenting the results obtained from the TeV up to the highest energies and discuss the models proposed to explain their origin.

  3. Energy spectrum of Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Hiroaki; Yoneda, Yasuharu

    1976-01-01

    The high energy photons in gamma-ray region are obtainable by the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. But the motion of the electrons in the storage ring is not necessarily uniform. In the study of the uneven effect, the energy distribution of scattered photons is derived from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. It is generally impossible to derive the momentum distribution of incident electrons from the energy spectrum of scattered photons. The additional conditions which make this possible in a special case are considered. A calculational method is examined for deriving the energy spectrum of scattered photons from the assumed momentum distribution of incident electrons. (Mori, K.)

  4. Method to deduce the energy spectrum by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, I.; Roth, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schuessler, F.; Unger, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Taken into account the great advantage of having a hybrid detector it has been developed a method, simulation independent, to determine the energy of the comic rays recorded by the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The method assumes that the cosmic ray flux has the same distribution in zenith angle for all energy ranges. Therefore one can relate the calorimetric measurement of the fluorescence detector of the CR energy with a SD quantity, e.g. shower size at 1000m distance from the core, corrected for the different attenuations in the atmosphere. The method of measuring and calibrating the primary energy and the influence of reconstruction uncertainties on the energy spectrum are presented. (orig.)

  5. THE HIGH ENERGY BUDGET ALLOCATIONS IN SHOCKS AND GAMMA RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, David; Guetta, Dafne; Pohl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The statistical distribution of energies among particles responsible for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is analyzed in light of recent results of the Fermi Observatory. The all-sky flux, F γ , recorded by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is shown, despite its larger energy range, to be not significantly larger than that reported by the Burst and Transient Explorer, suggesting a relatively small flux in the 3-30 MeV energy range. The present-day energy input rate in γ-rays recorded by the GBM from long GRBs is found, assuming star formation rates in the literature, to be W-dot(0)=0.5 F γ H/c=5x10 42 erg Mpc -3 yr -1 . The Large Area Telescope fluence, when observed, is about 5%-10% per decade of the total, in good agreement with the predictions of saturated, nonlinear shock acceleration. The high-energy component of long GRBs, as measured by Fermi, is found to contain only ∼10 -2.5 of the energy needed to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 4 EeV, assuming the latter to be extragalactic, when various numerical factors are carefully included, if the cosmic-ray source spectrum has a spectral index of -2. The observed γ-ray fraction of the required UHECR energy is even smaller if the source spectrum is softer than E -2 . The AMANDA II limits rule out such a GRB origin for UHECRs if much more than 10 -2 of the cosmic-ray energy goes into neutrinos that are within, and simultaneous with, the γ-ray beam. It is suggested that 'orphan' neutrinos out of the γ-ray beam might be identifiable via orphan afterglow or other wide angle signatures of GRBs in lieu of coincidence with prompt γ-rays, and it is recommended that feasible single neutrino trigger criteria be established to search for such coincidences.

  6. Analysis of the 3C 445 soft X-ray spectrum as observed by Chandra high-energy gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fu-Tong; Shao, Shu-Hua; Cheng, Yan; Zeng, Jiao-Long

    2018-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the soft X-ray emission of 3C 445 using an archival Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectrum. Highly-ionized H- and He-like Mg, Si and S lines, as well as a resolved low-ionized Si Kα line, are detected in the high resolution spectrum. The He-like triplets of Mg and Si are resolved into individual lines, and the calculated R ratios indicate a high density for the emitter. The low values of G ratios indicate the lines originate from collisionally ionized plasmas. However, the detection of a resolved narrow Ne X radiative recombination continua (RRC) feature in the spectrum seems to prefer a photoionized environment. The spectrum is subsequently modeled with a photoionization model, and the results are compared with those of a collisional model. Through a detailed analysis of the spectrum, we exclude a collisional origin for these emission lines. A one-component photoionization model provides a great fit to the emission features. The best-fit parameters are {log} ξ ={3.3}-0.3+0.4 erg cm s‑1, {n}{{H}}={5}-4.5+15× {10}10 cm‑3 and {N}{{H}}={2.5}-1.7+3.8× {10}20 cm‑2. According to the calculated high density for the emitter, the measured velocity widths of the emission lines and the inferred radial distance (6 × 1014 – 8 × 1015 cm), we suggest the emission lines originating from matter are located in the broad line region (BLR).

  7. DISCOVERY OF THE HARD SPECTRUM VHE γ-RAY SOURCE HESS J1641–463

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Bernlöhr, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, PO Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Avenue, 24, 0019 Yerevan, Republic of Armenia (Armenia); Angüner, E. O.; Birsin, E. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Backes, M. [Department of Physics, University of Namibia, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek (Namibia); Balenderan, S. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A. [GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barnacka, A. [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland); Becherini, Y. [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Linnaeus University, 351 95 Växjö (Sweden); Becker Tjus, J. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Berge, D. [GRAPPA, Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy and Institute of High-Energy Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bernhard, S. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Biteau, J. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Böttcher, M. [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Boisson, C., E-mail: sabrina.casanova@ifj.edu.pl, E-mail: sabrina.casanova@mpi-hd.mpg.de [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-10

    This Letter reports the discovery of a remarkably hard spectrum source, HESS J1641–463, by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in the very high energy (VHE) domain. HESS J1641–463 remained unnoticed by the usual analysis techniques due to confusion with the bright nearby source HESS J1640–465. It emerged at a significance level of 8.5 standard deviations after restricting the analysis to events with energies above 4 TeV. It shows a moderate flux level of φ(E>1 TeV) = (3.64 ± 0.44{sub stat} ± 0.73{sub sys}) × 10{sup –13} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux above the same energy, and a hard spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 2.07 ± 0.11{sub stat} ± 0.20{sub sys}. It is a point-like source, although an extension up to a Gaussian width of σ = 3 arcmin cannot be discounted due to uncertainties in the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The VHE γ-ray flux of HESS J1641–463 is found to be constant over the observed period when checking time binnings from the year-by-year to the 28 minute exposure timescales. HESS J1641–463 is positionally coincident with the radio supernova remnant SNR G338.5+0.1. No X-ray candidate stands out as a clear association; however, Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal some potential weak counterparts. Various VHE γ-ray production scenarios are discussed. If the emission from HESS J1641–463 is produced by cosmic ray protons colliding with the ambient gas, then their spectrum must extend close to 1 PeV. This object may represent a source population contributing significantly to the galactic cosmic ray flux around the knee.

  8. Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Bikash R., E-mail: bikash@ctp-jamia.res.in [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2017-09-01

    Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.

  9. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  10. Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays: Facts, Myths, and Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2013-06-27

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics/particle theory/particle experiment. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > 10^8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos which should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from ...

  11. Signatures of Synchrotron: Low-cutoff X-ray emission and the hard X-ray spectrum of Cas A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Michael D.; Fedor, Emily Elizabeth; Martina-Hood, Hyourin

    2018-06-01

    In soft X-rays, bright, young Galactic remnants (Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, etc.) present thermal line emission and bremsstrahlung from ejecta, and synchrotron radiation from the shocks. Their hard X-ray spectra tend to be dominated by power-law sources. However, it can be non-trivial to discriminate between contributions from processes such as synchrotron and bremsstrahlung from nonthermally accelerated electrons, even though the energies of the electrons producing this radiation may be very different. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of 0.5-10 keV observations with, e.g., Chandracan provide leverage in identifying the processes and their locations. Previously, Stage & Allen (2006), Allen & Stage (2007) and Stage & Allen (2011) identified regions characterized by high-cutoff synchrotron radiation. Extrapolating synchrotron model fits to the emission in the Chandra band, they estimated the synchrotron contribution to the hard X-ray spectrum at about one-third the observed flux, fitting the balance with nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission produced by nonthermal electrons in the ejecta. Although it is unlikely this analysis missed regions of the highest-cutoff synchrotron emission, which supplies the bulk of the synchrotron above 15 keV, it may have missed regions of lower-cutoff emission, especially if they are near bright ejecta and the reverse shock. These regions cannot explain the emission at the highest energies (~50 keV), but may make significant contributions to the hard spectrum at lower energies (~10 keV). Using the technique described in Fedor, Martina-Hood & Stage (this meeting), we revisit the analysis to include regions that may be dominated by low-cutoff synchrotron, located in the interior of the remnant, and/or correlated with the reverse shock. Identifying X-ray emission from accelerated electrons associated with the reverse-shock would have important implications for synchrotron and non-thermal bremsstrahlung radiation above the 10 keV.

  12. Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectrum Emitted by Cf-252 Source Using Time-of-Flight Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Yong-Kyun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The techniques proposed to detect the neutrons usually require the detection of a secondary recoiling nucleus in a scintillator (or other type of detector) to indicate the rare collision of a neutron with a nucleus. This is the same basic technique, in this case detection of a recoil proton that was used by Chadwick in the 1930 s to discover and identify the neutron and determine its mass. It is primary technique still used today for detection of fast neutron, which typically involves the use of a hydrogen based organic plastic or liquid scintillator coupled to a photo-multiplier tube. The light output from such scintillators is a function of the cross section and nuclear kinematics of the n + nucleus collision. With the exception of deuterated scintillators, the scintillator signal does not necessarily produce a distinct peak in the scintillator spectrum directly related to the incident neutron energy. Instead neutron time-of-flight (TOF) often must be utilized to determine the neutron energy, which requires generation of a prompt start signal from the nuclear source emitting the neutrons. This method takes advantage of the high number of prompt gamma rays. The Time-of-Flight method was used to measure neutron energy spectrum emitted by the Cf-252 neutron source. Plastic scintillator that has a superior discrimination ability of neutron and gamma-ray was used as a stop signal detector and liquid scintillator was used as a stat signal detector. In experiment, neutron and gamma-ray spectrum was firstly measured and discriminated using the TOF method. Secondly, neutron energy spectrum was obtained through spectrum analysis. Equation of neutron energy spectrum that was emitted by Cf-252 source using the Gaussian fitting was obtained.

  13. The high-energy pulsed X-ray spectrum of HER X-1 as observed with OSO-8. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ. of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, G. S.; Dennis, B. R.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Cutler, E. P.; Dolan, J. F.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Her X-1 was observed from 1977 August 30 to September 10 using the High-Energy X-Ray Scintillation Spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite. The observation, during which the source was monitored continually for nearly an entire ON-state, covered the energy range from 16 to 280 keV. Pulsed flux measurements as a function of binary orbit and binary phase are presented for energies between 16 and 98 keV. The pulsed flux between 16 and 33 keV exhibited a sharp decrease following the fourth binary orbit and was consistent with zero pulsed flux thereafter. The pulsed spectrum was fitted with a power law, a thermal spectrum without features, and a thermal spectrum with a superposed gaussian centered at 55 keV. The latter fit has the smallest value of chi - squared per degree of freedom, and the resulting integrated line intensity is 1.5 superscript + 4.1 subscript - 1.4 x .001 photons s superscript-1 cm superscript-2 for a width of 3.1 superscript + 9.1 subscript -2.6 keV. This result, while of low statistical significance, agrees with the value observed by Trumper (1978) during the same On-state.

  14. A new transient pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud with an unusual x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the discovery of a luminous (3.5 x 10(exp 37) ergs/sec over the 0.2 to 2 keV band) transient X-ray pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with an extremely soft component to its X-ray spectrum. This is the first time that a spectrum of this type has been seen in this class of X-ray source. The pulse period is 2.7632 s, and the pulse modulation appears to vary with energy from nearly unpulsed in the low-energy band of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) (0.07 to 0.4 keV) to about 50% in the high-energy band (1.0 to 2.4 keV). The object, RX J0059.2-7138, also shows flickering variability in its X-ray emission on timescales of 50 to 100s. The pulse-phase-averaged PSPC X-ray spectrum can be well described by a two-component source model seen through an absorbing column density of approximately 10(exp 21) atoms cm(exp -2). One spectral component is a power law with photon index 2.4. The other component is significantly softer and can be described by either a steeply falling power law or a blackbody with a temperature KT(sub BB) approximately 35 eV. Ths component is transient, but evidently upulsed, and, for the blackbody model fits, requires a large bolometric luminosity: near, or even several times greater than, the Eddington luminosity for a 1.4 solar mass object. When these characteristics of its soft emission are considered, RX J0059.2-7138 appears quite similar to other X-ray sources in the magellanic Clouds, such as CAL 83, CAL 87, and RX J0527.8-6954, which show only extreme ultrasoft (EUS) X-ray spectra. The discovery of RX J0059.2-7138, a probably high-mass X-ray binary, clearly indicates that EUS spectra may arise from accretion-powered neutron-star X-ray sources. This result lends support to the idea that some of the 'pure' EUS sources may be shrouded low-mass X-ray binaries rather than accreting white dwarfs.

  15. The high energy X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Nugent, J. J.

    The results of fitting an ionization-nonequilibrium (INE) model to the high-energy (above 5-keV) X-ray spectra of the young supernova remnants Cas A and Tycho are presented. As an additional constraint, the models must simultaneously fit lower-energy, higher-resolution data. For Cas A, a single INE component cannot adequately reproduce the features for the entire X-ray spectrum because the ionization structure of iron ions responsible for the K emission is inconsistent with that of the ions responsible for the lower-energy lines, and the flux of the highest-energy X-rays is underestimated. The iron K line and the high-energy continuum could arise from the same INE component, but the identification of this component with either the blast wave or the ejecta in the standard model is difficult. In Tycho, the high-energy data rule out a class of models for the lower-energy data which have too large a continuum contribution.

  16. A common origin of all the species of high energy cosmic rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Antoniou, Nikos; Dar, Arnon; Antoniou, Nikos

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic ray nuclei with energy above a few GeV, the cosmic ray electrons of energy above a few MeV and the diffuse gamma-ray background above a few MeV, could all predominantly originate from our galaxy {\\it and its halo}. The mechanism accelerating hadrons and electrons is the same, the electron spectrum is modulated by inverse Compton scattering on the microwave background radiation, and the $\\gamma$-rays are the resulting recoiling photons. The spectra calculated on this basis agree with observations.

  17. The color of X-rays Spectral X-ray computed tomography using energy sensitive pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, Enrico Junior

    Energy sensitive X-ray imaging detectors are produced by connecting a semiconductor sensor to a spectroscopic pixel readout chip. In this thesis, the applicability of such detectors to X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is studied. A prototype Medipix based silicon detector is calibrated using X-ray fluorescence. The charge transport properties of the sensor are characterized using a high energy beam of charged particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Monochromatic X-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are used to determined the energy response function. These data are used to implement a physics-based CT projection operator that accounts for the transmission of the source spectrum through the sample and detector effects. Based on this projection operator, an iterative spectral CT reconstruction algorithm is developed by extending an Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) method. Subsequently, a maximum likelihood based algo...

  18. High-energy gamma-rays from Cyg X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Malyshev, Denys; Chernyakova, Maria; Pooley, Guy G.

    2017-11-01

    We have obtained a firm detection of Cyg X-1 during its hard and intermediate spectral states in the energy range of 40 MeV-60 GeV based on observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, confirming the independent results at ≥60 MeV of a previous work. The detection significance is ≃8σ in the 0.1-10 GeV range. In the soft state, we have found only upper limits on the emission at energies ≳0.1 MeV. However, we have found emission with a very soft spectrum in the 40-80 MeV range, not detected previously. This is likely to represent the high-energy cut-off of the high-energy power-law tail observed in the soft state. Similarly, we have detected a γ-ray soft excess in the hard state, which appears to be of similar origin. We have also confirmed the presence of an orbital modulation of the detected emission in the hard state, expected if the γ-rays are from Compton upscattering of stellar blackbody photons. However, the observed modulation is significantly weaker than that predicted if the blackbody upscattering were the dominant source of γ-rays. This argues for a significant contribution from γ-rays produced by the synchrotron self-Compton process. We have found that such strong contribution is possible if the jet is strongly clumped. We reproduce the observed hard-state average broad-band spectrum using a self-consistent jet model, taking into account all the relevant emission processes, e± pair absorption and clumping. This model also reproduces the amplitude of the observed orbital modulation.

  19. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  20. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyoung Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Odyssey, one of the NASA’s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya, a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  1. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  2. Core-hole-induced dynamical effects in the x-ray emission spectrum of liquid methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, M P; Zhovtobriukh, I; Takahashi, O; Pettersson, L G M

    2017-04-07

    We compute the x-ray emission spectrum of liquid methanol, with the dynamical effects that result from the creation of the core hole included in a semiclassical way. Our method closely reproduces a fully quantum mechanical description of the dynamical effects for relevant one-dimensional models of the hydrogen-bonded methanol molecules. For the liquid, we find excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum, including the large isotope effect in the first split peak. The dynamical effects depend sensitively on the initial structure in terms of the local hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) character: non-donor molecules contribute mainly to the high-energy peak while molecules with a strong donating H-bond contribute to the peak at lower energy. The spectrum thus reflects the initial structure mediated by the dynamical effects that are, however, seen to be crucial in order to reproduce the intensity distribution of the recently measured spectrum.

  3. Spectrum-energy Correlations in GRBs: Update, Reliability, and the Long/Short Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Zhang, C. T.; Zhao, Y. X.; Luo, J. J.; Jiang, L. Y.; Wang, X. L.; Han, X. L.; Terheide, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Spectrum-energy correlations of peak energy with total prompt γ-ray emission energies, namely {E}p,i-{E}{iso}, {E}p,i-{E}γ , and {E}p,i-{L}p, had been studied for long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) previously by many authors. These energy correlations were proposed to measure the universe and classify GRBs as useful probes. However, most of these relations were built by non-Swift bursts. The spectrum-energy correlations of short bursts have not been systematically established yet; in particular, how the newly found GRB170817A matches these energy relations is unknown to date. We will first refresh the three spectrum-energy relations of Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM long bursts and build the corresponding relations of short bursts. Then, we confirm whether they are commonly available as a discriminator of short and long GRBs. Some potential violators to these relations will be investigated. Combining with the plane of peak energy versus fluence, we select 31 short and 252 long GRBs with well-measured peak energy and redshift to study the issue of GRB classifications connected with the above energy relations statistically. We find that the three energy relations do exist in our new GRB samples and they are marginally consistent with some previous results. We report for the first time that short GRBs hold the three corresponding energy relations having the consistent power-law indices with long GRBs. It is found that these energy relations can be adopted to discriminate GRBs successfully if they are put in the peak energy versus fluence plane. Excitingly, we point out that GRB090510 matches the energy relations of {E}p,i-{E}{iso} and {E}p,i-{L}p, but violates the {E}p,i-{E}γ relation. More excitingly, we find that GRB170817A is an outlier to all the three energy correlations.

  4. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    IceTop is a km 2 scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10 11 m 2 s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of the mixed

  5. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  6. Direct measurement of the partial decay energy of 7Be inner bremstrahlung spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjeeviah, H.; Sanjeeviah, B.

    1978-01-01

    The inner bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying orbital electron capture decay of 7 Be to the first excited state of 7 Li was measured in coincidence with 477 keV gamma rays. From the Jauch plot of the spectrum the partial decay energy was found to be 394 +- 16 keV. The shape factor of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum close to the end point was accurately determined. It was found to be a constant X(1.001 +- 0.002) (author)

  7. The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray induced neutrons measured on an airplane over a wide range of altitude and latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhagen, P.; Clem, J. M.; Wilson, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Crews of high-altitude aircraft are exposed to radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). To help determine such exposures, the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation Project, an international collaboration of 15 laboratories, made simultaneous radiation measurements with 14 instruments on a NASA ER-2 high-altitude airplane. The primary instrument was a sensitive extended-energy multisphere neutron spectrometer. Its detector responses were calculated for energies up to 100 GeV using the radiation transport code MCNPX 2.5.d with improved nuclear models and including the effects of the airplane structure. New calculations of GCR-induced particle spectra in the atmosphere were used to correct for spectrometer counts produced by protons, pions and light nuclear ions. Neutron spectra were unfolded from the corrected measured count rates using the deconvolution code MAXED 3.1. The results for the measured cosmic-ray neutron spectrum (thermal to >10 GeV), total neutron fluence rate, and neutron dose equivalent and effective dose rates, and their dependence on altitude and geomagnetic cut-off agree well with results from recent calculations of GCR-induced neutron spectra. (authors)

  8. Spectra of gamma-ray bursts at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matz, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1980 February and 1983 August the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) observed 71 gamma-ray bursts. These events form a representative subset of the class of classical gamma-ray bursts. Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts have been detected; however, most observations have been limited to an energy range of roughly 30 keV-1 MeV. The large sensitive area and spectral range of the GRS allow, for the first time, an investigation of the high energy (>1 MeV) behavior of a substantial number of gamma-ray bursts. It is found that high-energy emission is seen in a large fraction of all events and that the data are consistent with all bursts emitting to at least 5 MeV with no cut-offs. Further, no burst spectrum measured by GRS has a clear high-energy cut-off. The high-energy emission can be a significant part of the total burst energy on the average about 30% of the observed energy above 30 keV is contained in the >1 MeV photons. The fact that the observations are consistent with the presence of high-energy emission in all events implies a limit on the preferential beaming of high-energy photons, from any mechanism. Single-photon pair-production in a strong magnetic field produces such beaming; assuming that the low-energy emission is isotropic, the data imply an upper limit of 1 x 10 12 G on the typical magnetic field at burst radiation sites

  9. A Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrum of 1ES 2344+514

    OpenAIRE

    Schroedter, M.; Badran, H. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Gordo, J. Bussons; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Duke, C.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. F.; Finley, J. P.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Horan, D.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kosack, K.

    2005-01-01

    The BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES 2344+514 (1ES 2344), at a redshift of 0.044, was discovered as a source of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays by the Whipple Collaboration in 1995 \\citep{2344Catanese98}. This detection was recently confirmed by the HEGRA Collaboration \\citep{2344Hegra03}. As is typical for high-frequency peaked blazars, the VHE gamma-ray emission is highly variable. On the night of 20 December, 1995, a gamma-ray flare of 5.3-sigma significance was detected, the brightest ou...

  10. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  11. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniffen, D.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Palmeira, R.A.R.; Rao, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range can provide unique information with which to study many astrophysical problems. Observations in the 10-50 MeV range provide the cleanest window with which to view the isotropic diffuse component of the radiation and to study the possible cosmological implications of the spectrum. For the study of compact sources, this is the important region between the X-ray sky and the vastly different γ-ray sky seen by SAS-2 and COS-B. To understand the implications of medium energy γ-ray astronomy to the study of the galactic diffuse γ-radiation, the model developed to explain the high energy γ-ray observations of SAS-2 is extended to the medium energy range. This work illustrates the importance of medium energy γ-ray astronomy for studying the electromagnetic component of the galactic cosmic rays. To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center γ-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy γ-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. These results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of the theoretical model

  12. Gamma-Ray Spectrum Analysis Software GDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanabongse, P.

    1998-01-01

    The developmental work on computer software for gamma-ray spectrum analysis has been completed as a software package version 1.02 named GDA, which is an acronym for Gamma-spectrum Deconvolution and Analysis. The software package consists of three 3.5-inch diskettes for setup and a user's manual. GDA software can be installed for using on a personal computer with Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 operating system. A computer maybe the type of 80486 CPU with 8 megabytes of memory

  13. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  14. Prediction of background in low-energy spectrum of phoswich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, B.; Manohari, M.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of actinides in occupational workers is done using Phoswich detector by measuring the low-energy X ray and gamma rays. Quantification of actinides like plutonium and americium in the lungs is extremely difficult due to higher background in the low-energy regions, which is from ambient background as well as from the subject. In the latter case, it is mainly due to the Compton scattering of body potassium, which varies person-to-person. Hence, an accurate prediction of subject-specific background counts in the lower-energy regions is an essential element in the in vivo measurement of plutonium and americium. Empirical equations are established for the prediction of background count rate in 239 Pu and 241 Am lower-energy regions, called 'target regions', as a function of count rate in the monitoring region (97-130 keV)/ 40 K region in the high-energy spectrum, weight-to-height ratio of the subject (scattering parameter) and the gender. (authors)

  15. The unfolding of NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrum based on maximum likelihood method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingxian; Ge Liangquan; Gu Yi; Zeng Guoqiang; Lin Yanchang; Wang Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    NaI(Tl) detectors, having a good detection efficiency, are used to detect gamma rays in field surveys. But the poor energy resolution hinders their applications, despite the use of traditional methods to resolve the overlapped gamma-ray peaks. In this paper, the maximum likelihood (ML) solution is used to resolve the spectrum. The ML method,which is capable of decomposing the peaks in energy difference of over 2/3 FWHM, is applied to scale NaI(Tl) the spectrometer. The result shows that the net area is in proportion to the content of isotopes and the precision of scaling is better than the stripping ration method. (authors)

  16. A method to test the performance of an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Procop, Mathias

    2014-10-01

    A test material for routine performance evaluation of energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) is presented. It consists of a synthetic, thick coating of C, Al, Mn, Cu, and Zr, in an elemental composition that provides interference-free characteristic X-ray lines of similar intensities at 10 kV scanning electron microscope voltage. The EDS energy resolution at the C-K, Mn-Lα, Cu-Lα, Al-K, Zr-Lα, and Mn-Kα lines, the calibration state of the energy scale, and the Mn-Lα/Mn-Kα intensity ratio as a measure for the low-energy detection efficiency are calculated by a dedicated software package from the 10 kV spectrum. Measurements at various input count rates and processor shaping times enable an estimation of the operation conditions for which the X-ray spectrum is not yet corrupted by pile-up events. Representative examples of EDS systems characterized with the test material and the related software are presented and discussed.

  17. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

    2011-03-08

    We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

  18. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  19. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  20. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  1. High Energy Galactic Cosmic Rays Observed by RUNJOB Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareyama, Makoto [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2006-03-21

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) from proton to iron with the energy of 10{sup 13} - 10{sup 15} eV were observed by RUssia-Nippon JOint Balloon (RUNJOB) experiments. Each energy spectrum of the primary nuclear components except for helium is in agreement with the results obtained by other observations in the same energy region as the RUNJOB observation within statistical errors, while the intensity of the helium component is nearly half that obtained by the JACEE and the SOKOL observations. The spectrum slopes seem to be almost parallel or become gradually harder as mass becomes heavier. The power indices of the spectra are nearly -2.75 in the energy range of 20-500 TeV/nucleous. These our results support the acceleration mechanism and the propagation process in Galaxy of GCRs depend on its rigidity.

  2. Measurement Over Large Solid Angle of Low Energy Cosmic Ray Muon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, H. F., III; Schwitters, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advancements in portable muon detectors have made cosmic ray imaging practical for many diverse applications. Working muon attenuation detectors have been built at the University of Texas and are already successfully being used to image tunnels, structures, and Mayan pyramids. Most previous studies have focused on energy measurements of the cosmic ray spectrum from of 1 GeV or higher. We have performed an accurate measurement of the ultra-low energy (muon spectrum down to the acceptance level of our detector, around one hundred MeV. Measurements include angular dependence, with acceptance approaching horizontal. Measurements were made underwater using a custom enclosure in Lake Travis, Austin, TX. This measurement will allow more accurate predictions and simulations of attenuation for small (muon tomography.

  3. Exploring the Cosmic Ray Spectrum with the CREAM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Tyler B

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) project endeavors to resolve the cosmic-ray spectrum in an energy range between 10^{10} and 10^{15} eV for all particles with charges in the range Z = 1 (hydrogen) to Z = 26 (iron). From 2004 to 2011, the CREAM instrument was flown in a succession of long-duration balloon (LDB) missions over the Antarctic continent. To date, it has completed six successful campaigns, for a cumulative 161 days in flight. Starting in 2011, CREAM began a process of reconguration in order to prepare for ISSCREAM a three-year mission bound for the International Space Station in 2014. In addition, a subset of detectors from CREAM's balloon flights have been upgraded and reassembled for the Boron And Carbon Cosmic rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) mission, which will mount a new LDB campaign during the 2013-2014 Antarctic summer season. The CREAM project is presented, with a special emphasis on the design, construction, and performance of CREAM's (and BACCUS') Timing Charge Detector (...

  4. Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays: facts, myths and legends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchordoqui, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students in astrophysics and theoretical/experimental particle physics. In the first part, we explain the important progress made in recent years towards understanding the experimental data on cosmic rays with energies > or approx. 10 8 GeV. We begin with a brief survey of the available data, including a description of the energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions. At this point we also give a short overview of experimental techniques. After that, we introduce the fundamentals of acceleration and propagation in order to discuss the conjectured nearby cosmic-ray sources, and emphasize some of the prospects for a new (multiparticle) astronomy. Next, we survey the state of the art regarding the ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos that should be produced in association with the observed cosmic rays. In the second part, we summarize the phenomenology of cosmic-ray air showers. We explain the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from collider data to ultrahigh energies, and describe the prospects for insights into forward physics at the Large Hadron Collider. We also explain the main electromagnetic processes that govern the longitudinal shower evolution. Armed with these two principal shower ingredients and motivation from the underlying physics, we describe the different methods proposed to distinguish primary species. In the last part, we outline how ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions can be used to probe new physics beyond the electroweak scale. (author)

  5. The energy spectrum of 662 keV photons in a water equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Ozmutlu, E.N.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.; Sharaf, J.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation is made on the energy spectrum of photons originating from interactions of 662 keV primary gamma-ray photons emitted by a point source positioned at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom of dimensions 19 cm×19 cm×24 cm. Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering have been observed using a 51 mm×51 mm NaI(Tl) detector; good agreement being found between the measured and simulated response functions. The energy spectrum of the gamma photons obtained through the Monte Carlo simulation reveals local maxima at about 100 keV and 210 keV, being also observed in the experimental response function. Such spectra can be used as a method of testing the water equivalence of solid phantom media before their use for dosimetry measurements. - Highlights: ► Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering were observed. ► Energy distribution of γ-ray photons from a point source at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom. ► The method can be applied to various detector geometries.

  6. Summary of super high energy events and exotic phenomena in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, S.

    1979-01-01

    In this report, the features of superhigh energy events and exotic phenomena are presented. The examples obtained with emulsion chambers show clear trend of change in the hadron interaction characteristics with energy. The scaling law is violated in the very high energy region above 10 15 eV. In the energy region from 10 to 100 TeV, there is mild violation of scaling. The cosmic ray data on the diffusion of high energy particles in the atmosphere was used to study the mild violation of scaling. It is not easy to discuss the violation in the energy region higher than 10 15 eV, because such event can be obtained very rarely. The only method is the observation of extensive air showers. The relation of average transverse momenta to primary cosmic ray energy was compared with some accelerator data. The cosmic ray data tend to show smaller momentum values. The energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons can be measured by the underground observation, the observation of muon-production burst with emulsion chambers, or the observation of horizontal air showers. Analysis of this spectrum shows that there is an upper limit for the direct production of muons at primary energy of several times of 10 14 eV. Other support for the change of interaction character at 10 14 eV is seen. Possible examples of heavy lepton events were found in the deep underground observation. In deep underground observation, anomalous showers with energy content larger than several hundred GeV were observed. Comment on the long tail nuclear cascade is presented. Some experiments for future are introduced. (Kato, T.)

  7. A method for unfolding high-energy scintillation gamma-ray spectra up to 8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymke, N.; Hofmann, B.

    1982-01-01

    In unfolding a high-energy scintillation gamma-ray spectrum up to 8 MeV with the help of a response matrix, the means of linear algebra fail if the matrix is ill conditioned. In such cases, unfolding could be accomplished by means of a mathematical method based on a priori knowledge of the photon spectrum to be expected. The method which belongs to the class of regularization techniques was tested on in-situ gamma-ray spectra of 16 N recorded in a nuclear power plant near the primary circuit, using an 1.5 x 1.5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. For one regularized unfolding the results were presented in the form of an energy and a dose-rate spectrum. (author)

  8. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  9. Interpretation of cosmic ray spectrum above the knee measured by the Tunka-133 array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveshnikova, Lyubov, E-mail: tfl10@mail.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Leninskie Gory GSP 1, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kuzmichev, Leonid; Korosteleva, Elena; Prosin, Vasiliy [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics MSU, Leninskie Gory GSP 1, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Ptuskin, V.S. [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propogation (IZMIRAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow region 142092 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    A probable interpretation of the fine structure of all particle energy spectrum between the knee and the ankle (the sharp first knee at 3–4 PeV, the spectrum hardening at 20–30 PeV, the second knee at 200–300 PeV) as well as a (E) dependence measured recently by the Tunka-133 experiment, is presented. We show that these features are compatible with the combined model where cosmic rays around the knee are produced by the group of dedicated sources and the extragalactic light component appears in the energy region of 10{sup 16}–10{sup 17} eV and reaches about 50% of all particles around (2–3)×10{sup 17} eV.

  10. Energy determination of trans-EeV cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the primary energy estimation by observing ultra-high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (down to the EeV energies - the energy range of the Japanese AGASA experiment). The shower cascade in air initiated by cosmic rays is called Extensive Air Shower (EAS) which has been playing a key role in the detection of cosmic ray particles. There are two types of detection techniques available to measure the energy (as well as the arrival directions and mass composition) of the primary UHECR (ultra high energy cosmic rays) particles: the Ground Arrays and the Fluorescence Detectors. The two methods are highly complementary: the ground array method measures the lateral development of EAS cascades. The dynamics to determine the behavior of the lateral spread of particle distributions in EAS is well understood and rather reliable, regardless of the mass of the primary cosmic rays, but some uncertainties remain due to our incomplete knowledge concerning the hadronic interactions and the multiple scattering of secondary electrons. The fluorescence method observes the longitudinal development of cascades. It is similar to the concept of calorimetric detectors in high energy physics, since the fluorescence light generated by the charged particles in the shower is proportional to the energy deposited in the atmosphere. These two methods are complementary since they view different components of the EAS. The ground array observes the particles at ∼ 1 km away from the EAS axis while the fluorescence method is sensitive to particle energy distributions very close to the shower axis, typically less than 100 m. Therefore, both methods have their own advantage and disadvantage as far as the energy estimation is concerned. In the following sections, we discuss how to deduce the primary energy and the possible sources of the systematic uncertainties. The energy spectrum of UHECRs is a key clue for the understanding of the origin of UHE particle

  11. Results on the spectrum and composition of cosmic rays from the IceTop air shower array of the IceCube Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilav Serap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the energy spectrum and mass composition of cosmic rays above 1 PeV with the data taken during the construction phase of the IceTop and IceCube detectors. We discuss our current systematics and observation of a structure in the energy spectrum above 20 PeV where the mass composition gets heavier than iron nuclei.

  12. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, Artur, E-mail: artur.sossin@gmail.com [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, Centre Léon Bérard, CREATIS UMR 5220 U1206, F-69373 Lyon (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  13. Measurements of the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectrum and anisotropies with the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loparco, F.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite is a pair-conversion telescope for high-energy gamma rays of astrophysical origin. Although it was designed to be a high-sensitivity gamma-ray telescope, the LAT has proved to be an excellent electron/positron detector. It has been operating in low Earth orbit since June 2008 and has collected more than 16 million cosmic-ray electron and positron (CRE) events in its first seven years of operation. The huge data sample collected by the LAT enables a precise measurement of the CRE energy spectrum up to the TeV region. A search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of CREs was also performed. The upper limits on the dipole anisotropy probe the presence of nearby young and middle-aged CRE sources.

  14. The high-energy X-ray spectrum of Centaurus XR-3 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of the X-ray binary Cen XR-3 in the 20-120 keV energy range by means of OSO 8's high energy X-ray spectrometer, during July 16-19, 1975, and July 5-14 and 28-29, 1978, indicate that the source was in a high luminosity state during 1975 and a low luminosity one in 1978. While mean orbital light curves appear similar in shape in both years, orbit-to-orbit intensity variations are noted. Spectral, luminosity, and the 4.84 sec modulation are characterized. Cen XR-3 may be a system in which mass transfer by Roche lobe overflow, and by accretion from a stellar wind, are both effective in the production of observable X-ray radiation.

  15. Measurement of the very-forward energy spectrum in pp collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Sebastian; Akbiyik, Melike; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf; Woehrmann, Hauke [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The energy spectrum dN/dE in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √(s)=13 TeV is measured with the CASTOR calorimeter of CMS at pseudorapidities -5.2>η>-6.6. The spectrum of the total energy, as well as the hadronic and electromagnetic energy, is presented and compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. The performance also of model used to describe ultra-high energy cosmic ray air showers is tested, and the possible impact of the measurement on the air shower development is illustrated.

  16. An Application of the Direct Coulomb Electron Pair Production Process to the Energy Measurement of the "VH-Group" in the "Knee" Region of the "All-Particle" Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Wu, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The "all-particle" cosmic ray energy spectrum appears to be exhibiting a significant change in the spectral index just above approximately 3000 TeV. This could indicate (1) a change in the propagation of the cosmic rays in the galactic medium, and/or (2) the upper limit of the supernova shock wave acceleration mechanism, and/or (3) a new source of high-energy cosmic rays. Air shower and JACEE data indicate the spectral change is associated with a composition change to a heavier element mixture whereas DICE does not indicate this. A detector concept will be presented that utilizes the energy dependence of the production of direct Coulomb electron-positron pairs by energetic heavy ions. Monte Carlo simulations of a direct electron pair detector consisting of Pb target foils interleaved with planes of 1-mm square scintillating optical fibers will be discussed. The goal is to design a large area, non-saturating instrument to measure the energy spectrum of the individual cosmic ray elements in the "VH-group" for energies greater than 10 TeV/nucleon.

  17. X-ray emission from open star clusters with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Ojha, D.K.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The study of X-ray emission from co-evolving populations of stars in open dusters is extremely important for understanding the dynamo activity among the stars. With this objective, we propose to observe a number of open clusters in the X-ray and UV bands using SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma. The high...... throughput of SPECTRUM-Rontgen-Gamma will help detect main sequence stars like Sun in middle-aged and old clusters. We will study the relationships between various parameters - age, rotation, abundance, UBV colors, X-ray luminosity, coronal temperature etc. X-ray spectra of younger and brighter populations...

  18. Reproducibility of (n,γ) gamma ray spectrum in Pb under different ENDF/B releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebwaro, J.M., E-mail: jeremiahkebwaro@gmail.com [Department of Physical Sciences, Karatina University, P.O. Box 1957-10101, Karatina (Kenya); He, C.H.; Zhao, Y.L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Radiative capture reactions are of interest in shielding design and other fundamental research. In this study the reproducibility of (n,γ) reactions in Pb when cross-section data from different ENDF/B releases are used in the Monte-Carlo code, MCNP, was investigated. Pb was selected for this study because it is widely used in shielding applications where capture reactions are likely to occur. Four different neutron spectra were declared as source in the MCNP model which consisted of a simple spherical geometry. The gamma ray spectra due to the capture reactions were recorded at 10 cm from the center of the sphere. The results reveal that the gamma ray spectrum produced by ENDF/B-V is in reasonable agreement with that produced when ENDF/B-VI.6 is used. However the spectrum produced by ENDF/B-VII does not reveal any primary gamma rays in the higher energy region (E > 3 MeV). It is further observed that the intensities of the capture gamma rays produced when various releases are used differ by a some margin showing that the results are not reproducible. The generated spectra also vary with the spectrum of the source neutrons. The discrepancies observed among various ENDF/B releases could raise concerns to end users and need to be addressed properly during benchmarking calculations before the next release. The evaluation from ENDF to ACE format that is supplied with MCNP should also be examined because errors might have arisen during the evaluation.

  19. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, C.; Mejia, G.R.; Yoshii, H.; Toyoda, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 10 16 eV to 10 19 eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  20. A method for measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Stout, David B; Thompson, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) system energy response is typically characterized in singles detection mode, yet there are situations in which the energy spectrum of coincidence events might be different than the spectrum measured in singles mode. Examples include imaging with isotopes that emit a prompt gamma in coincidence with a positron emission, imaging with low activity in a LSO/LYSO-based cameras, in which the intrinsic activity is significant, and in high scatter situations where the two 511 keV photons have different scattering probabilities (i.e. off-center line source). The ability to accurately measure the energy spectrum of coincidence events could be used for validating simulation models, optimizing energy discriminator levels and examining scatter models and corrections. For many PET systems operating in coincidence mode, the only method available for estimating the energy spectrum is to step the lower and upper level discriminators (LLD and ULD). Simple measurement techniques such as using a narrow sliding energy window or stepping only the LLD will not yield a spectrum of coincidence events that is accurate for cases where there are different energy components contributing to the spectrum. In this work we propose a new method of measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in PET based on a linear combination of two sets of coincident count measurements: one made by stepping the LLD and one made by stepping the ULD. The method was tested using both Monte Carlo simulations of a Siemens microPET R4 camera and measured data acquired on a Siemens Inveon PET camera. The results show that our energy spectrum calculation method accurately measures the coincident energy spectra for cases including the beta/gamma spectrum of the (176)Lu intrinsic activity present in the LSO scintillator crystals, a (68)Ge source and an (124)I source (in which there are prompt gamma-rays emitted together with the positron).

  1. DISCERNING THE GAMMA-RAY-EMITTING REGION IN THE FLAT SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650092 (China); Yang, C. Y.; Wang, J. C. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Zhang, L., E-mail: ynzyg@ynu.edu.cn, E-mail: chyy@ynao.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-01

    A model-dependent method is proposed to determine the location of the γ -ray-emitting region for a given flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). In the model, the extra-relativistic electrons are injected at the base of the jet and non-thermal photons are produced by both synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton (IC) scattering in the energy dissipation region. The target photons dominating IC scattering originate from both synchrotron photons and external ambient photon fields, and the energy density of external radiation field is a function of the distance between the position of the dissipation region and a central supermassive black hole, and their spectra are seen in the comoving frame. Moreover, the energy dissipation region could be determined by the model parameter through reproducing the γ -ray spectra. Such a model is applied to reproduce the quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observed data for 36 FSRQs. In order to define the width of the broad-line region (BLR) shell and dusty molecular torus (MT) shell, a simple numerical constraint is used to determine the outer boundary of the BLR and dusty MT. Our results show that (1) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located at the range from 0.1 to 10 pc; (2) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located outside the BLRs and within the dusty molecular tori; and (3) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located closer to the dusty MT ranges than the BLRs. Therefore, it may be concluded that direct evidence for the far site scenario could be obtained on the basis of the model results.

  2. At what particle energy do extragalactic cosmic rays start to predominate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibig, Tadeusz; Wolfendale, Arnold W

    2005-01-01

    We have previously argued (e.g. Szabelski et al 2002 Astropart. Phys. 17 125) that the well-known 'ankle' in the cosmic ray energy spectrum, at log E (eV) ∼ 18.7-19.0, marks the transition from mainly galactic sources at lower energies to mainly extragalactic above. Recently, however, there have been claims for lower transitional energies, specifically from log E (eV) ∼ 17.0 (Thompson et al 2004 Proc. Catania Cosmic Ray Conf.) via 17.2-17.8 (Berezinsky et al 2004 Astropart. Phys. 21 617) to 18.0 (Hillas 2004 Proc. Leeds Cosmic Ray Conf.). In our model the ankle arises naturally from the sum of simple power law-spectra with slopes differing by Δγ ∼ 1.8; from differential slope γ = -3.8 for galactic particles (near log E = 19) to γ ∼ -2.0 for extragalactic sources. In the other models, on the other hand, the ankle is intrinsic to the extragalactic component alone, and arises from the shape of the rate of energy loss versus energy for the (assumed) protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Our detailed analysis of the world's data on the ultra-high energy spectrum shows that taken together, or separately, the resulting mean sharpness of the ankle (second derivative of the log(intensity x E 3 ) with respect to log E) is consistent with our 'mixed' model. For explanation in terms of extragalactic particles alone, however, the ankle will be at the wrong energy-for reasonable production models and of insufficient magnitude if, as seems likely, there is still a significant fraction of heavy nuclei at the ankle energy

  3. Low energy gamma rays emitted by Sco X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, A.; Martin, I.M.

    1975-01-01

    Sco X-1 was observed on a balloon flight launched from Sao Jose dos Campos, S.P., Brazil, on December 20, 1974. A 3 sigma excess of the raw count rate, covering the energy range 0.2 to 5.0 MeV, was found during the transit of the source. A power-law spectrum provided an adequate fit to the data. Although it was difficult to separate the contribution of the universal diffuse component, the existence of hard-component in the spectrum of Sco X-1 could indicate the presence of matter hotter than previously deduced from soft X-ray observations [pt

  4. Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek; Chatterjee, Anando G.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2014-01-01

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4

  5. Cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Tyumentsev, Alexander; Volkov, Nikolay

    The spectra of cosmic rays measured at Earth are different from their source spectra. A key to understanding this difference, being crucial for solving the problem of cosmic-ray origin, is the determination of how cosmic-ray (CR) particles propagate through the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). If the medium is a quasi-homogeneous the propagation process can be described by a normal diffusion model. However, during a last few decades many evidences, both from theory and observations, of the existence of multiscale structures in the Galaxy have been found. Filaments, shells, clouds are entities widely spread in the ISM. In such a highly non-homogeneous (fractal-like) ISM the normal diffusion model certainly is not kept valid. Generalization of this model leads to what is known as "anomalous diffusion". The main goal of the report is to retrieve the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources in the framework of the anomalous diffusion (AD) model. The anomaly in this model results from large free paths ("Levy flights") of particles between galactic inhomogeneities. In order to evaluate the CR spectrum at the sources, we carried out new calculation of the CR spectra at Earth. AD equation in terms of fractional derivatives have been used to describe CR propagation from the nearby (r≤1 kpc) young (t≤ 1 Myr) and multiple old distant (r > 1 kpc) sources. The assessment of the key model parameters have been based on the results of the particles diffusion in the cosmic and laboratory plasma. We show that in the framework of the anomalous diffusion model the locally observed basic features of the cosmic rays (difference between spectral exponents of proton, He and other nuclei, "knee" problem, positron to electron ratio) can be explained if the injection spectrum at the main galactic sources of cosmic rays has spectral exponent p˜ 2.85. The authors acknowledge support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant No. 14-02-31524.

  6. Results on the energy dependence of cosmic-ray charge composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements by a balloon-borne ionization spectrometer of the energy dependence of high-energy cosmic-ray charge composition. The results presented are greatly improved over those obtained earlier by Ormes et al. (1971) by the use of a multidimensional charge analysis with more efficient background rejection, and a more accurate energy determination. Complex couplings between the charge, energy, and trajectory information were taken into account and are discussed. The spectra of individual elements up to oxygen and of groups of nuclei up through iron were measured up to almost 100 GeV per nucleon. The energy spectrum of the secondary nuclei, B + N, is found to be steeper than that of the primary nuclei, C + O, in agreement with Smith et al. (1973). The most dramatic finding is that the spectrum of the iron nuclei is flatter than that of the carbon and oxygen nuclei by 0.57 plus or minus 0.14 of a power.

  7. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-01-01

    The SLAC linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. The energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08 %. The design considerations of this monitor are presented. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation data set for late summer 1986

  8. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-04-01

    The SLAC Linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved Linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. the energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC Linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08%. The design considerations of this monitor are presented in this paper. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation date set for late summer 1986. 5 refs., 6 figs

  9. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  10. Implications of the cosmic ray electron spectrum and anisotropy measured with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bernardo, Giuseppe [Gothenburg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Evoli, Carmelo [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Gaggero, Daniele; Grasso, Dario [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. die Fisica; INFN, Pisa (Italy); Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazziotta, Mario Nicola [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration recently released the updated results of the measurement of the cosmic ray electron (CRE) spectrum and published its first constraints on the CRE anisotropy. With respect to the previous Fermi-LAT results, the CRE spectrum measurement was extended down from 20 to 7 GeV, thus providing a better lever arm to discriminate theoretical models. Here we show that the new data strengthen the evidence for the presence of two distinct electron and positron spectral components. Furthermore, we show that under such hypothesis most relevant CRE and positron data sets are remarkably well reproduced. Consistent fits of cosmic-ray nuclei and antiproton data, which are crucial to validate the adopted propagation setup(s) and to fix the solar modulation potential, are obtained for the Kraichnan and plain-diffusion propagation setups, while the Kolmogorov one is disfavored. We then confirm that nearby pulsars are viable source candidates of the required e{sup {+-}} extra-component. In that case, we show that the predicted CRE anisotropy is compatible with Fermi-LAT constraints and that a positive detection should be at hand of that observatory. Models assuming that only nearby supernova remnants contribute to the high energy tail of the observed CRE spectrum are in contrast with anisotropy limits. (orig.)

  11. [Problems of the effective energy used as a quality expression of diagnostic X-ray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideki; Hayashi, Naoki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Ando, Sho; Miyamoto, Mami; Wakasugi, Nao; Suzuki, Shizuma

    2011-01-01

    The effective energy has been generally used as a method of handily expressing an X-ray quality by one numerical value. The effective energy is a concept derived from "Half Value Layer (HVL)" that is the expressing parameter of beam quality based on the attenuation of the primary X-ray by a material. When beam quality is expressed by using HVL and / or the effective energy, it is necessary to describe the tube potential, the rectification method, and the homogeneity coefficient, etc. in parallel. However, recently feelings are that the effective energy should be handled like an absolute numerical value to physical characteristics of X-rays. In this paper, it was theoretically clarified that the effective energy had a different value depending on the absorber material used for the HVL measurement. In addition, the errors when physical characteristics of the X-rays were evaluated using the effective energy was also examined. Physical characteristics, such as interactions to the material of mono-energetic X-ray, are not equal to that of X-rays with a wide energy spectrum. It is not an easy comparison to express the quality of the diagnostic X-rays, and to calculate physical characteristics of the X-rays by using the effective energy. It is necessary to design a new method of expressing the quality of X-rays that takes the place of the "effective energy."

  12. Hadronic cosmic ray interactions near the LHC energy region and in the UHE domain of giant EAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevielle, J.N. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The fluctuations of ray families simulated with CORSIKA in the energy region 3.10{sup 15} - 10{sup 17} eV on the basis of standard Lns collider physics exhibits alignments of secondaries in the stratosphere and at ground level. The remarkable event recorded on the Concorde does not fit well however those cases. The possible hints of new mechanisms, especially the valence diquark breaking, are considered. Observing that the extrapolation of the original cosmic ray primary spectrum derived from the size spectrum measured in the Akeno classical EAS array coincides with the spectrum measured recently by the Hires Stereo experiment, we point out a possible overestimation of the primary energy in inclined showers of the surface arrays like AGASA. (author)

  13. Interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonyan, F.A.; Kanevskij, B.L.; Vardanyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The formation of the bump and black-body cutoff in the cosmic-ray (CR) spectrum arising from the π-meson photoproduction reaction in collisions of CR protons with the microwave background radiation (MBR) photons is studied. A kinetic equation which describes CR proton propagation in MBR with account of a catastrophic of the π-meson photoproduction process is derived. The equilibrium CR proton spectrum obtained from the solution of the stationary kinetic equation is in general agreement with spectrum obtained under assumption of continuous energy loss approximation. However spectra from local sources especially for the times of propagation t>10 9 years differ noticeably from those obtained in the continuous loss approximation. 24 refs.; 5 figs

  14. SU-E-T-359: Emulation of Yb-169 Gamma-Ray Spectrum Using Metal-Filtered 250 KVp X-Rays for Pre-Clinical Studies of Gold Nanoparticle-Aided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso, F; Cho, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an external beam surrogate of the Yb-169 brachytherapy source applying a filter-based spectrum modulation technique to 250 kVp x-rays. In-vitro/vivo studies performed with the modulated 250 kVp beam will help gauge the benefits of implementing gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy with the Yb-169 source. Methods: A previously validated MCNP5 model of the Phillips RT-250 orthovoltage unit was used to obtain the percentage depth dose (PDD) and filtered photon spectra for a variety of filtration and irradiation conditions. Photon spectra were obtained using the average flux F4 tally in air right after all collimation. A 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 water phantom was used to compute the PDD along the central axis (CAX) under the standards conditions of a 10 x 10 cm 2 field size at 50 cm SSD. Cylindrical cells of 4 cm in diameter and the energy deposition F6 tally were used along the CAX to score the doses down to 20 cm depth. The number of particle history was set to 2 x 10 8 in order to keep the relative uncertainty within each cell < 0.3%. The secondary electron spectrum within a gold-loaded tissue due to each photon spectrum was also calculated using EGSnrc and compared with that due to Yb-169 gamma rays. Results: Under the practical constraints for the spectrum modulation task, 250 kVp x-rays filtered by a 0.25 mm Erbium (Er) foil produced the best match with Yb-169 gamma rays, in terms of PDD and, more importantly, secondary electron spectrum. Conclusion: Modulation of 250kVp x-ray spectrum by an Er-filter was found effective in emulating the gamma ray spectrum of Yb-169. Possible benefits as predicted from the current MC model such as enhanced radiosensitization with the Er-filtered beam (as a surrogate of Yb-169) was confirmed with a separate in-vitro study. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198

  15. An experiment to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray antiprotons from 100 to 1000 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, M. H.; Price, P. B.; Barwick, S. W.; Lowder, D. M.; Ahlen, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Production models were developed and the confirmation of each one had significant astrophysical impact. These include radical modifications of propagation models, cosmic ray antiprotons injection from neighboring domains of antimatter, p production by evaporating primordial black holes, and cosmic ray p's as annihilation products of supersymmetry particles that might make up the dark dynamical mass of the Galaxy. It is that p's originating from supersymmetric parents might have distinct spectral features that would survive solar modulation; in one model, higgsino annihilation proceeds through the bb quark-antiquark channel, producing a spectral bump at approx. 0.3 GeV in the p spectrum.

  16. Theoretical galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum obtained for sources of varying geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.E.

    1969-01-01

    Jokipii and Meyer have recently obtained an electron density energy spectrum of the cosmic rays, originating in the Galaxy, using integral solutions of the steady state transfer equations, by considering a circular cylindric galactic disc as source and approximating the resulting fourth order integral. In this report, we present general results, obtained by using an arbitrary circular cylindric source, without restricting ourselves to the galactic disc. The integrals are treated exactly. The conclusions of Jokipii and Meyer form special cases of these results. We also obtain an exponential energy variation which, at the moment, is not observed experimentally. The second part of this work deals with more complicated, but perhaps more realistic models of elliptic cylindric and ellipsoidal galactic disc sources. One may also note that a very large source concentrated in a very small region gives a spectrum not unlike that for a small source distributed throughout a large volume. Finally, it may be remarked that the model adopted is much less restrictive than the artificial conception of 'leakage time' followed by other workers. (author) [fr

  17. Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2014-08-25

    Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  18. X-ray echoes from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Hurley, K.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of an echo of reflected radiation in time histories of gamma-ray burst spectra can provide important information about the existence of binary companions or accretion disks in gamma-ray burst systems. Because of the nature of Compton scattering, the spectrum of the echo will be attenuated at gamma-ray energies compared with the spectrum of the primary burst emission. The expected temporal and spectral signatures of the echo and a search for such echoes are described, and implications for gamma-ray burst models are discussed. 35 refs

  19. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  20. Diffuse galactic continuum emission measured by COMPTEL and the cosmic-ray electron spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. W.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; Varendorff, M.; Youssefi, G.; Bloemen, H.; Hermsen, W.; De Vries, C.; Morris, D.; Stacy, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    Diffuse galactic continuum gamma-ray emission in the 0.75-30 MeV range from the inner Galaxy has been studied using data from COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Observations of the inner Galaxy from the Sky Survey have been used. The imaging properties of COMPTEL enable spatial analysis of the gamma-ray distribution using model fitting. A model based on atomic and molecular gas distributions in the Galaxy has been used to derive the emissivity spectrum of the gamma-ray emission and this spectrum is compared with theoretical estimates of bremsstrahlung emission from cosmic-ray electrons.

  1. Cosmic Rays and Extensive Air Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We begin with a brief introduction of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and its main features. At energies higher than 105 GeV cosmic rays are detected by the showers they initiate in the atmosphere. We continues with a brief description of the energy spectrum and composition derived from air shower data.

  2. ROLE OF LINE-OF-SIGHT COSMIC-RAY INTERACTIONS IN FORMING THE SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS IN TeV GAMMA RAYS AND HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander; Kalashev, Oleg; Beacom, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

  3. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X-Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Müller, C.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    with an absorbed power-law witha photon index Γ = 1.815 ± 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kα line in good agreement with literature values.The spectrum does not require a high-energy exponential rollover, with a constraint of Efold > 1 MeV. Athermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters....... We use archival Chandra data to estimatethe contribution from diffuse emission, extra-nuclear point-sources, and the X-ray jet to the observed NuSTAR and XMM-Newton X-ray spectra and find the contribution to be negligible. We discuss different scenarios forthe physical origin of the observed X...

  4. X-ray Emission Spectrum of Liquid Ethanol: Origin of Split Peaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Osamu; Ljungberg, Mathias P; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2017-12-14

    The X-ray emission spectrum of liquid ethanol was calculated using density functional theory and a semiclassical approximation to the Kramers-Heisenberg formula including core-hole-induced dynamics. Our spectrum agrees well with the experimental spectrum. We found that the intensity ratio between the two peaks at 526 and 527 eV assigned as 10a' and 3a″ depends not only on the hydrogen bonding network around the target molecule but also on the intramolecular conformation. This effect is absent in liquid methanol and demonstrates the high sensitivity of X-ray emission to molecular structure. The dependence of spectral features on hydrogen-bonding as well as on dynamical effects following core excitation are also discussed.

  5. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  6. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,I of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,I-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,I-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,I ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,I are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,I. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http

  7. Explanation of the Knee-like Feature in the DAMPE Cosmic {e}^{-}+{e}^{+} Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kun; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2018-02-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer, a space-based high precision cosmic-ray detector, has just reported the new measurement of the total electron plus positron energy spectrum up to 4.6 TeV. A notable feature in the spectrum is the spectral break at ∼0.9 TeV, with the spectral index softening from ‑3.1 to ‑3.9. Such a feature is very similar to the knee at the cosmic nuclei energy spectrum. In this work, we propose that the knee-like feature can be explained naturally by assuming that the electrons are accelerated at the supernova remnants (SNRs) and released when the SNRs die out with lifetimes around 105 years. The cut-off energy of those electrons have already decreased to several TeV due to radiative cooling, which may induce the observed TeV spectral break. Another possibility is that the break is induced by a single nearby old SNR. Such a scenario may bring a large electron flux anisotropy that may be observable by the future detectors. We also show that a minor part of electrons escaping during the acceleration in young and nearby SNRs is able to contribute to a several TeV or higher energy region of the spectrum.

  8. ON ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS AND THEIR RESULTANT GAMMA-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavish, Eyal; Eichler, David [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University, Be’er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-05-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope collaboration has recently reported on 50 months of measurements of the isotropic extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) spectrum between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) protons interact with the cosmic microwave background photons and produce cascade photons of energies 10 MeV–1 TeV that contribute to the EGRB flux. We examine seven possible evolution models for UHECRs and find that UHECR sources that evolve as the star formation rate (SFR), medium low luminosity active galactic nuclei type-1 ( L = 10{sup 43.5} erg s{sup −1} in the [0.5–2] KeV band), and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the most acceptable given the constraints imposed by the observed EGRB. Other possibilities produce too much secondary γ -radiation. In all cases, the decaying dark matter (DM) contribution improves the fit at high energy, but the contribution of still unresolved blazars, which would leave the smallest role for decaying DM, may yet provide an alternative improvement. The possibility that the entire EGRB can be fitted with resolvable but not-yet-resolved blazars, as recently claimed by Ajello et al., would leave little room in the EGRB to accommodate γ -rays from extragalactic UHECR production, even for many source evolution rates that would otherwise be acceptable. We find that under the assumption of UHECRs being mostly protons, there is not enough room for producing extragalactic UHECRs with active galactic nucleus, gamma-ray burst, or even SFR source evolution. Sources that evolve as BL Lacs, on the other hand, would produce much less secondary γ -radiation and would remain a viable source of UHECRs, provided that they dominate.

  9. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  10. Study of the high energy gamma-ray emission from the crab pulsar with the MAGIC telescope and Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Takayuki

    2010-12-06

    My thesis deals with a fundamental question of high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Namely, I studied the cut-off shape of the Crab pulsar spectrum to distinguish between the leading scenarios for the pulsar models. Pulsars are celestial objects, which emit periodic pulsed electromagnetic radiation (pulsation) from radio to high energy gamma-rays. Two major scenarios evolved in past 40 years to explain the pulsation mechanism: the inner magnetosphere scenario and the outer magnetosphere scenario. Both scenarios predict a high energy cut-off in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, but with different cut-off sharpness. An exponential cut-off is expected for the outer magnetosphere scenario while a super-exponential cut-off is predicted for the inner magnetosphere scenario. Therefore, one of the best ways to confirm or refute these scenarios is to measure the energy spectrum of a pulsar at around the cut-off energy, i.e., at energies between a few GeV and a few tens of GeV. All past attempts to measure pulsar spectra with ground-based instruments have failed while satellite-borne detectors had a too small area to study detailed spectra in the GeV domain. In this thesis, the gamma-ray emission at around the cut-off energy from the Crab pulsar is studied with the MAGIC telescope. The public data of the satellite-borne gamma-ray detector, Fermi-LAT, are also analyzed in order to discuss the MAGIC observation results in comparison with the adjacent energy band. In late 2007, a new trigger system (SUM trigger system) allowed to reduce the threshold energy of the MAGIC telescope from 50 GeV to 25 GeV and the Crab pulsar was successfully detected during observations from October 2007 and January 2009. My analysis reveals that the energy spectrum is consistent with a simple power law between 25 GeV to 100 GeV. The extension of the energy spectrum up to 100 GeV rules out the inner magnetosphere scenario. Fermi-LAT started operation in August 2008. The Fermi-LAT data reveal that a power

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of fission yields, kinetic energy, fission neutron spectrum and decay γ-ray spectrum for 232Th(n,f) reaction induced by 3H(d,n) 4He neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Zeen Yao; Changlin Lan; Yan Yan; Yunjian Shi; Siqi Yan; Jie Wang; Junrun Wang; Jingen Chen; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo transport code Geant4 has been successfully utilised to study of neutron-induced fission reaction for 232 Th in the transport neutrons generated from 3 H(d,n) 4 He neutron source. The purpose of this work is to examine the applicability of Monte Carlo simulations for the computation of fission reaction process. For this, Monte Carlo simulates and calculates the characteristics of fission reaction process of 232 Th(n,f), such as the fission yields distribution, kinetic energy distribution, fission neutron spectrum and decay γ-ray spectrum. This is the first time to simulate the process of neutron-induced fission reaction using Geant4 code. Typical computational results of neutron-induced fission reaction of 232 Th(n,f) reaction are presented. The computational results are compared with the previous experimental data and evaluated nuclear data to confirm the certain physical process model in Geant4 of scientific rationality. (author)

  12. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  13. Measurement of Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p(raised bar)'s) collected by the BESS-Polar II instrument during a long-duration flight over Antarctica in the solar minimum period of December 2007 through January 2008. The p(raised bar) spectrum measured by BESS-Polar II shows good consistency with secondary p(raised bar) calculations. Cosmologically primary p(raised bar)'s have been searched for by comparing the observed and calculated p(raised bar) spectra. The BESSPolar II result shows no evidence of primary p(raised bar)'s originating from the evaporation of PBH.

  14. On the Energy Spectra of GeV/TeV Cosmic Ray Leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, Lukasz; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Petrosian, Vahe; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-08-19

    Recent observations of cosmic ray electrons from several instruments have revealed various degrees of deviation in the measured electron energy distribution from a simple power-law, in a form of an excess around 0.1 to 1 TeV energies. An even more prominent deviation and excess has been observed in the fraction of cosmic ray positrons around 10 and 100 GeV energies. These observations have received considerable attention and many theoretical models have been proposed to explain them. The models rely on either dark matter annihilation/decay or specific nearby astrophysical sources, and involve several additional assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution or particle acceleration. In this paper we show that the observed excesses in the electron spectrum may be easily reproduced without invoking any unusual sources other than the general diffuse Galactic components of cosmic rays. The model presented here assumes a power-law injection of electrons (and protons) by supernova remnants, and evaluates their expected energy spectrum based on a simple kinetic equation describing the propagation of charged particles in the interstellar medium. The primary physical effect involved is the Klein-Nishina suppression of the electron cooling rate around TeV energies. With a very reasonable choice of the model parameters characterizing the local interstellar medium, we can reproduce the most recent observations by Fermi and HESS experiments. Interestingly, in our model the injection spectral index of cosmic ray electrons becomes comparable to, or even equal to that of cosmic ray protons. The Klein-Nishina effect may also affect the propagation of the secondary e{sup {+-}} pairs, and therefore modify the cosmic ray positron-to-electron ratio. We have explored this possibility by considering two mechanisms for production of e{sup {+-}} pairs within the Galaxy. The first is due to the decay of {pi}{sup {+-}}'s produced by interaction of cosmic ray nuclei with ambient

  15. Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, simulation of propagation of UHE-protons from nearby galaxies is presented. We found good parameter sets to explain the arrival distribution of UHECRs reported by AGASA and energy spectrum reported by HiRes. Using a good parameter set, we demonstrated how the distribution of arrival direction of UHECRs will be as a function of event numbers. We showed clearly that 1000-10000 events are necessary to see the clear source distribution. We also showed that effects of interactions and trapping of UHE-Nuclei in a galaxy cluster are very important. Especially, when a UHECR source is a bursting source such as GRB/AGN flare, heavy UHE-Nuclei are trapped for a long time in the galaxy cluster, which changes the spectrum and chemical composition of UHECRs coming from the galaxy cluster. We also showed that such effects can be also important when there have been sources of UHE-Nuclei in Milky Way. Since light nuclei escape from Milky Way in a short timescale, the chemical composition of UHECRs observed at the Earth can be heavy at high-energy range. Finally, we showed how much high-energy neutrinos are produced in GRBs. Since GRB neutrinos do not suffer from magnetic field bending, detection of high-energy neutrinos are very important to identify sources of UHECRs. Especially, for the case of GRBs, high-energy neutrinos arrive at the earth with gamma-rays simultaneously, which is very strong feature to identify the sources of UHECRs.

  16. Photon counting and energy discriminating X-ray detectors. Benefits and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, David; Zscherpel, Uwe; Ewert, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Since a few years the direct detection of X-ray photons into electrical signals is possible by usage of highly absorbing photo conducting materials (e.g. CdTe) as detection layer of an underlying CMOS semiconductor X-ray detector. Even NDT energies up to 400 keV are possible today, as well. The image sharpness and absorption efficiency is improved by the replacement of the unsharp scintillation layer (as used at indirect detecting detectors) by a photo conducting layer of much higher thickness. If the read-out speed is high enough (ca. 50 - 100 ns dead time) single X-ray photons can be counted and their energy measured. Read-out noise and dark image correction can be avoided. By setting energy thresholds selected energy ranges of the X-ray spectrum can be detected or suppressed. This allows material discrimination by dual-energy techniques or the reduction of image contributions of scattered radiation, which results in an enhanced contrast sensitivity. To use these advantages in an effective way, a special calibration procedure has to be developed, which considers also time dependent processes in the detection layer. This contribution presents some of these new properties of direct detecting digital detector arrays (DDAs) and shows first results on testing fiber reinforced composites as well as first approaches to dual energy imaging.

  17. The X-ray spectrum of QSO 0241+622. [OSO-8 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, D. M.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Proportional counters on the OsO-8 spacecraft measured the X-ray spectrum of QSR 0241+622 in the range 2-50 keV. The best power law fit has a proton spectral index and 90 percent errors gamma = 1.93 (+0.5, -0.3) and low energy absorption consistent with reported gas column densities, but a thermal bremsstrahlung form with temperature 13.1 keV cannot be excluded. No indication of spectral variability is found in three observations of the source with HEAO-A2, although a possible 15-30 percent intensity change over a period of 6 months was observed. The quasar is similar to 3C 273 in the proportion of energy emitted in various bands, excluding the radio, if reported radiation above 50 keV from its direction is indeed associated with QSO 0241+622. The two quasars are compared and possible energy generation scenarios are discussed. Implications concerning quasar contributions to the diffuse background are discussed.

  18. Multi-epoch analysis of the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus in NGC 5506

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shangyu; Guainazzi, Matteo; Ni, Qingling; Wang, Jingchun; Qian, Chenyang; Shi, Fangzheng; Wang, Yu; Bambi, Cosimo

    2018-05-01

    We present a multi-epoch X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nearby narrow-line Seyfert I galaxy NGC 5506. For the first time, spectra taken by Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR - covering the 2000-2014 time span - are analyzed simultaneously, using state-of-the-art models to describe reprocessing of the primary continuum by optical thick matter in the AGN environment. The main goal of our study is determining the spin of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The nuclear X-ray spectrum is photoelectrically absorbed by matter with column density ≃ 3 × 1022 cm-2. A soft excess is present at energies lower than the photoelectric cut-off. Both photo-ionized and collisionally ionized components are required to fit it. This component is constant over the time-scales probed by our data. The spectrum at energies higher than 2 keV is variable. We propose that its evolution could be driven by flux-dependent changes in the geometry of the innermost regions of the accretion disk. The black hole spin in NGC ,5506 is constrained to be 0.93± _{ 0.04 }^{0.04} at 90% confidence level for one interesting parameter.

  19. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  20. Neutrinos and ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei from blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Xavier; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Gao, Shan; Boncioli, Denise; Winter, Walter

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) nuclei and neutrinos from blazars. We compute the nuclear cascade in the jet for both BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), and in the ambient radiation zones for FSRQs as well. By modeling representative spectral energy distributions along the blazar sequence, two distinct regimes are identified, which we call ''nuclear survival'' - typically found in low-luminosity BL Lacs, and ''nuclear cascade'' - typically found in high-luminosity FSRQs. We quantify how the neutrino and cosmic-ray (CR) emission efficiencies evolve over the blazar sequence, and demonstrate that neutrinos and CRs come from very different object classes. For example, high-frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs) tend to produce CRs, and HL-FSRQs are the more efficient neutrino emitters. This conclusion does not depend on the CR escape mechanism, for which we discuss two alternatives (diffusive and advective escape). Finally, the neutrino spectrum from blazars is shown to significantly depend on the injection composition into the jet, especially in the nuclear cascade case: Injection compositions heavier than protons lead to reduced neutrino production at the peak, which moves at the same time to lower energies. Thus, these sources will exhibit better compatibility with the observed IceCube and UHECR data.

  1. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  2. Measurements of the low-energy gamma-ray continuum emission from the Galactic Center direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.; Jardim, J.O.D.

    1982-07-01

    The measurement of the gamma-ray continuum emission from the Galactic Center (GC) can provide us information about the physical processes taking place there at the site of emission. Using the data obtained with a balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope to measure gamma-rays in the energy interval between 0,3 and 3 MeV, which was launched on March 28, 1980 from Cachoeira Paulista (SP), we calculeted two points for the continuum spectrum in the range between 0,34 and 0,67 MeV. The points are related to the GC emission radiated in the longitude interval - 31 0 0 . The measurements are compatible with the observations in 1969 and 1972 by Haymes et alii and Johnson, respectively. The power law spectrum suggests that the main component for the gamma-ray continuum emission below 10 MeV is dominated by the bremsstrahlung due to relativistic electrons. (Author) [pt

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of X-ray spectrum with human tissue, in the energies range of diagnostic radiology; Simulacion Monte Carlo de la interaccion del espectro de rayos X con el tejido humano, en el rango de energias de diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayllahua Q, L. F.; Apaza V, G.; Vega R, J. L., E-mail: fredycayllahua@gmail.com [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin, Area de Fisica Medica, Av. Independencia s/n, Arequipa (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: This paper is an approach to an increasingly complete knowledge about the nature of the processes that occur during a simple examination of radiological diagnosis; know as X-rays are produced and how they will put their energy into the tissue of patients when they are subjected to an examination of radiological diagnosis. First, using the MCNP code an X-rays tube was simulated, where electrons are emitted from a filament (cathode) which travel a certain distance with a certain kinetic energy and then be stopped suddenly in the tungsten target. The X-rays emitted as a result of this interaction, are previously filtered through the inherent filter of Pyrex glass and then by a thin aluminum foil before quantification as an X-rays spectrum. 6 spectra (for 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 KeV) were obtained. Second, using the Penelope code was simulated the interaction of the X-rays spectrum, obtained in the first part with human tissue, putting as simile of human tissue water phantoms of different thicknesses. As final result: dose of energy deposited (in 2 and 3-dimensional) and reflected, absorbed and transmitted photons spectra. (Author)

  4. Operator's guide for VAXGAP, a gamma-ray spectrum analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, E.W.; Femec, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the gamma-ray analysis program VAXGAP, which has continually evolved at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory over a period of several years. It is an integrated suite of computer programs for performing analyses of pulse-height spectra from high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers and assorted support functions. VAXGAP programs operate on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX computers running the VMS operating system, and were written in VAX FORTRAN and DEC Digital Command Language (DCL). These programs make use of DEC GKS and ReGIS for graphical output on standard terminals and printers, and DEC windows for graphics on workstations and terminals that support the X Window System protocol. This report addresses the use of VAXGAP for data acquisition and control, energy scale calibration, and real-time analyses of background and sample pulse-height spectra. Also addressed are the creation and use efficiency tables and isotope libraries, manipulation of spectrum files and their contents, and graphical display of on-going acquisitions, saved spectra, and mathematical fits to spectral peaks

  5. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  6. Bose-type distribution and primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum from sea-level muon spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P; Roychowdhury, R K

    1976-01-01

    The recent CERN Intersecting Storage Ring cross section data on the p +p to pi /sup +or-/+X inclusive reactions have been analysed using the Bose-type distribution of the form E(d/sup 3/ sigma )/(d/sup 3/p)=(Axs /sup 1/2/)/(exp( epsilon ( lambda )/T)-1) proposed by Hoang (1973). This formula has been used to derive the cosmic ray primary nucleon spectrum from the sea-level muon spectrum. It is found that the primary spectrum obeys the following relation: N(E/sub p/)dE/sub p /=2.06E/sub p//sup -2.64/dE/sub p/. The result has been compared with the recent experimental data and theoretical predictions given by different authors. (11 refs).

  7. Is the primary energy spectrum around the knee a statistical game?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present state of research of the shape of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic ray nuclei and the chemical composition in the region of the so-called, knee, and beyond is highly unsatisfactory. It was not very successful when using extensive air showers. In the present paper an attempt is made to explain what is the cause of such a situation. The experimental results as to which there is no doubt that they were wrongly interpreted, will be indicated

  8. The influence of mammographic X-ray spectra on absorbed energy distribution in breast: Monte Carlo simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, H.; Spyrou, G.; Tzanakos, G.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is proposed for deriving absorbed energy and dose distribution in mammography utilizing a mathematical water-like phantom. The model was validated for its accuracy against experimental and published data. The main factor discriminating absorbed energy distribution characteristics among different mammographic techniques was considered the X-ray spectrum. The absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom was investigated via percentage depth dose and isodose curves. The influence of the factors affecting X-ray spectrum (tube voltage, anode material, filter material and thickness) on absorbed energy distribution was examined. The hardness of the beam, due to increase of tube voltage or filtration, was found to be the major factor affecting absorbed energy distribution inside the phantom. In general, Mo and W anode systems demonstrated superior dosimetric characteristics against those of W-Mo or Rh. The model presented can be used for estimating absolute and relative breast dose values and their spatial distributions

  9. Theoretical models for the muon spectrum at sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, M.S.; Benbrook, J.R.; Osborne, A.R.; Sheldon, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute vertical cosmic ray muon spectrum is investigated theoretically. Models of high energy interactions (namely, Maeda-Cantrell (MC), Constant Energy (CE), Cocconi-Koester-Perkins (CKP) and Scaling Models) are used to calculate the spectrum of cosmic ray muons at sea level. A comparison is made between the measured spectrum and that predicted from each of the four theoretical models. It is concluded that the recently available measured muon differential intensities agree with the scaling model for energies less than 100 GeV and with the CKP model for energies greater than 200 GeV. The measured differential intensities (Abdel-Monem et al.) agree with scaling. (orig.) [de

  10. Analysis of Residual Nuclide in a ACM and ACCT of 100-MeV proton beamline By measurement X-ray Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The proton beam is provides to users as various energy range from 20 MeV to 100 MeV. After protons generated from the ion source are accelerated to 100 MeV and irradiated to target through bending magnet and AC magnet. At this time, relatively high dose X-ray is emitted due to collision of proton and components of beamline. The generated X-ray is remaining after the accelerator is turned off and analyzing residual nuclides through the measurement of X-ray spectrum. Then identify the components that are the primary cause of residual nuclides are detected form the AC magnet(ACM) and associated components (ACCT). Analysis of the X-ray spectrum generated form the AC magnet(ACM) and AC current transformer(ACCT) of 100 MeV beamline according to the proton beam irradiation, most of the residual nuclides are identified it can be seen that emission in the stainless steel by beam loss.

  11. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is apparent that very high gamma-ray astronomy, at the very end of the electromagnetic spectrum, is just at the threshold of becoming an important channel of astronomical information. The author discusses how, to fully develop, it requires telescopes with improved minimum flux sensitivity; development of techniques that characterize the nature of the primary; more overlapping observations to remove any question of the reality of the detected phenomenon; more consistency in the application of statistics among experimenters and more openness about methods used; development of models that will predict the phenomenon to be expected rather than explain what has been observed; and more accurate calibrations to determine absolute fluxes and energies

  12. On the intrinsic shape of the gamma-ray spectrum for Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Yin, Yue; Song, Jia-Li; Zou, Hang; Feng, Jian-Chao; Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Zu; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Wu, Lin-Hui

    2018-05-01

    The curvature of the γ-ray spectrumin blazarsmay reflect the intrinsic distribution of emitting electrons, which will further give some information on the possible acceleration and cooling processes in the emitting region. The γ-ray spectra of Fermi blazars are normally fitted either by a single power-law (PL) or a log-normal (call Logarithmic Parabola, LP) form. The possible reason for this difference is not clear. We statistically explore this issue based on the different observational properties of 1419 Fermi blazars in the 3LAC Clean Sample.We find that the γ-ray flux (100MeV–100GeV) and variability index follow bimodal distributions for PL and LP blazars, where the γ-ray flux and variability index show a positive correlation. However, the distributions of γ-ray luminosity and redshift follow a unimodal distribution. Our results suggest that the bimodal distribution of γ-ray fluxes for LP and PL blazars may not be intrinsic and all blazars may have an intrinsically curved γ-ray spectrum, and the PL spectrum is just caused by the fitting effect due to less photons.

  13. Lifetime-broadening-suppressed X-ray absorption spectrum of β-YbAlB4 deduced from Yb 3d → 2p resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Naomi; Mizumaki, Masaichiro; Kanai, Noriko; Hayashi, Hisashi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Kuga, Kentaro; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Watanabe, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the Yb 3d → 2p (Yb Lα 1,2 ) resonant X-ray emission spectrum of β-YbAlB 4 was acquired using excitation energies around the Yb L 3 -edge, at 2 K. Subsequently, the lifetime-broadening-suppressed (LBS) X-ray absorption structure (XAS) spectrum was obtained using the SIM-RIXS program. This spectrum was found to exhibit clearly resolved pre-edge and shoulder structures. Resonant Lα 1 emission spectra were well reproduced from LBS-XAS profiles over wide ranges of excitation and emission energies. In contrast, noticeable discrepancies appeared between the experimental and simulated Lα 2 emission spectra, suggesting an effect resulting from M 4 M 5 O 1 Coster-Kronig transitions. LBS-XAS, in conjunction with partial fluorescence yield (PFY) XAS and transmission XAS, determined a value for the Yb valence (v) in β-YbAlB 4 of 2.76 ± 0.08 at 2 K. Despite this relatively large uncertainty in v, each method provided a consistent variation in valence (δv) as the temperature was raised from 2 to 280 K: 0.060 ± 0.004 (LBS-XAS), 0.061 ± 0.005 (PFY-XAS) and 0.058 ± 0.007 (transmission XAS). The smaller δv associated with LBS-XAS demonstrates the greater precision of this method. (author)

  14. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E δ , with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E −α with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the implications of

  15. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E{sup δ}, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E{sup −α} with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the

  16. The connection of the interplanetary magnetic field turbulence and rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease of the galactic cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrzynczak, A; Alania, M V

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the temporal changes in the rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease (Fd) of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity observed in November 2004. We compute the rigidity spectrum in two energy ranges based on the daily data from the worldwide network of neutron monitors and Nagoya ground muon telescope. We demonstrate that the changes in the rigidity spectrum of Fd are linked to the evolution/decay of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) turbulence during various phases of the Fd. We analyze the time-evolution of the state of the turbulence of the IMF in various frequency ranges during the Fd. Performed analysis show that the decrease of the exponent ν of the Power Spectral Density (PSD ∝ f −ν , where f is frequency) of the IMF turbulence with decreasing frequency lead to the soft rigidity spectrum of Fd for GCR particles with relatively higher energies. (paper)

  17. Structures in the primary spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Knurenko, S.P.; Malecki, R.

    2009-01-01

    Structures in the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' region and for energies higher than 1 EeV are obtained through studying extensive air showers (EAS). The main problem of the research is the fact that we work in the ranges of highly fluctuating parameters used to obtain the primary energy spectrum. In this paper the log-normal distribution for the error function has been used in convolution with the power spectrum to explain the Yakutsk experimental data. Similar results have been obtained for the gamma distribution as the error function. Using the power law primary spectrum in the energy region around 10 19 eV we will argue that the primary Yakutsk spectrum is overestimated. In the best case this overestimation is not less than 42%.

  18. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given

  19. X-ray spectrum local method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    General characteristic and bases of X-ray spectrum local method used for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the mineral chemical composition with volumetric locality of several cubic micrometers. The method is based on the excitation in a sample of characteristic and bremsstrahlung spectra by means of a narrow electron beam at 5-50 keV accelerating voltage. Application of the method when studying uranium minerals and ores is considered. The method allows to determine the uranium presence forms in the ores, morphological features of the minerals, mineral microstructure, UO 2 and UO 3 ratios for unhydrous uraninites and pitchblendes and also to determine mineralization age

  20. Prominent soft x-ray lines of Sr-like Au41+ in low-energy EBIT spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkas, Marius Jonas; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Traebert, Elmar

    2007-01-01

    Relativistic multireference Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory has been employed to calculate with high accuracy the energy levels and transition probabilities of Cu- to Sr-like gold ions. The many-body calculations were carried out to identify the unassigned blended lines in the 35-40 A region of the low-energy EBIT spectrum of the gold ions [Traebert et al 2001 Can. J. Phys.79153]. Most of the prominent lines in the 35-40 A region were identified as the emission lines in Sr-like gold

  1. Constraining sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and shear acceleration mechanism of particles in relativistic jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruoyu

    2015-06-10

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are extreme energetic particles from outer space. They have aroused great interest among scientists for more than fifty years. However, due to the rarity of the events and complexity of the process of their propagation to Earth, they are still one of the biggest puzzles in modern high energy astrophysics. This dissertation is dedicated to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from various aspects. Firstly, we discuss a possible link between recently discovered sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. If these two kinds of particles share the same origin, the observation of neutrinos may provide additional and non-trivial constraints on the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Secondly, we jointly employ the chemical composition measurement and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, and find a robust upper limit for distances of sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above ∝55 EeV, as well as a lower limit for their metallicities. Finally, we study the shear acceleration mechanism in relativistic jets, which is a more efficient mechanism for the acceleration of higher energy particle. We compute the acceleration efficiency and the time-dependent particle energy spectrum, and explore the feature of synchrotron radiation of the accelerated particles. The possible realizations of this mechanism for acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in different astrophysical environments is also discussed.

  2. The high energy X-ray spectrum of 4U 0900-40 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Ellison, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray source 4U 0900-40 (= Vela XR-1) was observed with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO 8 for one week in 1976 and three weeks in 1978. Spectra of the source are presented above 16 keV. No systematic difference exists between the X-ray eclipse centers and the eclipse centers predicted from optical ephermerides. Short period intrinsic variability in the system's X-ray intensity may be related to changes in the Compton scattering optical depth in the system and does not require sporadic mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow. The 282 s modulation in the source's X-ray flux above 21 keV consists of two essentially similar pulses per period, most easily interpreted as arising from the two different magnetic poles of a rotating neutron star. The secondary appears to be a spherically accreting, magnetic neutron star.

  3. Determining the primary cosmic ray energy from the total flux of Cherenkov light measured at the Yakutsk EAS array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Knurenko, S. P.; Sleptsov, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for determining the energy of the primary particle that generates an extensive air shower (EAS) of comic rays based on measuring the total flux of Cherenkov light from the shower. Applying this method to Cherenkov light measurements at the Yakutsk EAS array has allowed us to construct the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range 10 15 - 3 x 10 19 eV

  4. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-01

    To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81-100 ke

  5. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  6. Grating Oriented Line-Wise Filtration (GOLF) for Dual-Energy X-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Cong, Wenxiang; Harrison, Daniel; Wang, Ge

    2017-12-01

    In medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), the use of two distinct X-ray source spectra (energies) allows dose-reduction and material discrimination relative to that achieved with only one source spectrum. Existing dual-energy CT methods include source kVp-switching, double-layer detection, dual-source gantry, and two-pass scanning. Each method suffers either from strong spectral correlation or patient-motion artifacts. To simultaneously address these problems, we propose to improve CT data acquisition with the Grating Oriented Line-wise Filtration (GOLF) method, a novel X-ray filter that is placed between the source and patient. GOLF uses a combination of absorption and filtering gratings that are moved relative to each other and in synchronization with the X-ray tube kVp-switching process and/or the detector view-sampling process. Simulation results show that GOLF can improve the spectral performance of kVp-switching to match that of dual-source CT while avoiding patient motion artifacts and dual imaging chains. Although significant flux is absorbed by this pre-patient filter, the proposed GOLF method is a novel path for cost-effectively extracting dual-energy or multi-energy data and reducing radiation dose with or without kVp switching.

  7. Simulation study on unfolding methods for diagnostic X-rays and mixed gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Ara, Kuniaki; Kanno, Ikuo; Imamura, Ryo; Mikami, Kenta; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    A photon detector operating in current mode that can sense X-ray energy distribution has been reported. This detector consists of a row of several segment detectors. The energy distribution is derived using an unfolding technique. In this paper, comparisons of the unfolding techniques among error reduction, spectrum surveillance, and neural network methods are discussed through simulation studies on the detection of diagnostic X-rays and gamma rays emitted by a mixture of 137 Cs and 60 Co. For diagnostic X-ray measurement, the spectrum surveillance and neural network methods appeared promising, while the error reduction method yielded poor results. However, in the case of measuring mixtures of gamma rays, the error reduction method was both sufficient and effective. (author)

  8. Measurement of characteristic to total spectrum ratio of tungsten X-ray spectra for the validation of the modified Tbc model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A. H.; Costa, P. R.; Tomal, A.

    2014-08-01

    Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80 to 150 kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model for X-ray spectra evaluation(tbc and mod). The ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum was considered for comparing the simulated results and experimental data. The raw spectra measured by the Cd Te detector were corrected by the detector efficiency, Compton effects and characteristic Cd and Te X-rays escape peaks, using a software specifically developed. The software Origin 8.5.1 was used to calculate the spectra and characteristic peaks areas. The obtained result shows that the experimental spectra have higher effective energy than the simulated spectra computed with tbc and mod software. The behavior of the ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum for simulated data presents discrepancy with the experimental result. Computed results are in good agreement with theoretical data published by Green, for spectra obtained with 3.04 mm of additional aluminum filtration. The difference of characteristic to total spectrum ratio between experimental and simulated data increases with the tube voltage. (Author)

  9. Measurement of characteristic to total spectrum ratio of tungsten X-ray spectra for the validation of the modified Tbc model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A. H.; Costa, P. R. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Laboratory of Radiation Dosimetry and Medical Physics, Matao Street, alley R, 187, 66318 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomal, A., E-mail: ahlopezg@usp.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Physics Institute, Campus Samambaia, 131 Goiania, Goias (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80 to 150 kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model for X-ray spectra evaluation(tbc and mod). The ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum was considered for comparing the simulated results and experimental data. The raw spectra measured by the Cd Te detector were corrected by the detector efficiency, Compton effects and characteristic Cd and Te X-rays escape peaks, using a software specifically developed. The software Origin 8.5.1 was used to calculate the spectra and characteristic peaks areas. The obtained result shows that the experimental spectra have higher effective energy than the simulated spectra computed with tbc and mod software. The behavior of the ratio between the characteristic lines and total spectrum for simulated data presents discrepancy with the experimental result. Computed results are in good agreement with theoretical data published by Green, for spectra obtained with 3.04 mm of additional aluminum filtration. The difference of characteristic to total spectrum ratio between experimental and simulated data increases with the tube voltage. (Author)

  10. X-rays diagnostics of the hot electron energy distribution in the intense laser interaction with metal targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, O. F.; Andreev, N. E.; Rosmej, O. N.

    2018-03-01

    A two-temperature hot electron energy distribution has been revealed by modeling of bremsstrahlung emission, measured by the radiation attenuation and half-shade methods, and Kα emission from a massive silver cylinder irradiated by a subpicosecond s-polarized laser pulse with a peak intensity of about 2 × 1019 W/cm2. To deduce parameters of the hot electron spectrum, we have developed semi-analytical models of generation and measurements of the x-rays. The models are based on analytical expressions and tabulated data on electron stopping power as well as cross-sections of generation and absorption of the x-rays. The Kα emission from thin silver foils deposited on low-Z substrates, both conducting and nonconducting, has been used to verify the developed models and obtained hot electron spectrum. The obtained temperatures of the colder and hotter electron components are in agreement with the values predicted by kinetic simulations of the cone-guided approach to fast ignition [Chrisman et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 056309 (2008)]. The temperature of the low-energy component of the accelerated electron spectrum is well below the ponderomotive scaling and Beg's law. We have obtained relatively low conversion efficiency of laser energy into the energy of hot electrons propagating through the solid target of about 2%. It is demonstrated that the assumption about a single-temperature hot electron energy distribution with the slope temperature described by the ponderomotive scaling relationship, without detailed analysis of the hot electron spectrum, can lead to strong overestimation of the laser-to-electron energy-conversion efficiency, in particular, the conversion efficiency of laser energy into the high-temperature component of the hot electron distribution.

  11. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, John

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution

  12. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  13. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  14. A new type gamma-ray spectrum monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Jian Bin; Zhang Zhi Ming; Tong Yun Fu

    2002-01-01

    This new radiation monitoring system can be used to monitor the radiation of building materials and the radiation of atmosphere, to explore and evaluate rock for building in the field, and this system can be used to monitor the gamma irradiation near the nuclear establishments in the average situation and in the serious situation of the radiation incident have happened. The control core of this monitoring system is SCM-AT89C52, and gamma-ray sensing head consists of scintillator phi 50 mm x 50 mm NaI(Tl) and PMT GDB44. This system can be used to measure the whole gamma-ray spectrum of 256 channels

  15. X-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Sutherland, P.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the development of the X-ray spectrum of 1987A are presented using more realistic models for the supernova composition and density structure provided by Woosley. It is shown how the emergence of the X-ray spectrum depends on the parameters of the model and the nature of its central energy source. It is shown that the soft X-ray spectrum should be dominated by a 6.4 keV Fe K(alpha) emission line that could be observed by a sensitive X-ray telescope. 28 references

  16. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα 1 2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures

  17. Determination of personnel exposures in the lower energy ranges of X-ray by photographic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Kim, J.R.; Suk, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper described an improved technical method required for proper evaluation of personnel exposures by means of the photographic dosimeter developed by KAERI in lower gamma or X-ray energy regions, with which response of the dosimeter varies significantly. With calibration of the dosimeter in the energy range from 30 to 300 keV, the beam spectrum was carefully selected and specified it adequately. The absorber combinations and absorber thickness used to obtain the specified X-ray spectra from a constant potential X-ray machine were determined theoretically and also experimentally. A correlation between the density and exposure for the four separate energies, such as 49 keV eff , 154 keV eff 250 keV eff and 662 keV, is experimentally determined. As a result, it can be directly evaluated the exposure from the measured response of dosimeter. (Author)

  18. The end of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    We discuss the region of transition between galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays. The exact shapes and compositions of these two components contains information about important parameters of powerful astrophysical sources and the conditions in extragalactic space as well as for the cosmological evolution of the sources of high energy cosmic rays. Several types of experimental data, including the exact shape of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, their chemical composition and their anisotropy, and the fluxes of cosmogenic neutrinos have to be included in the solution of this problem.

  19. Transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review the main features of the observed Cosmic Rays spectrum in the energy range 10 17 eV to 10 20 eV. We present a theoretical model that explains the main observed features of the spectrum, namely the second Knee and Dip, and implies a transition from Galactic to Extra-Galactic cosmic rays at energy E ≅ 10 18 eV, with a proton dominated Extra-Galactic spectrum

  20. Time resolved energy spectrum of the axial ion beam generated in plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Kilic, H.; Nardi, V.; Powell, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the deuteron beam along the electrode axis (0 (degree) ) in a plasma focus discharge has been determined with a time of flight (TOF) method and with a differential filter method in the ion energy interval E = 0.3-9 MeV. The ion TOF method is applied to single-ion pulse events with an ion emission time t(E) that is only weakly dependent on the ion energy E for E > 0.3 MeV. The correlation of the ion beam intensity with the filling pressure, the neutron yield and the hard X-ray intensity is also reported. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs

  1. Dynamic energy spectrum and energy deposition in solid target by intense pulsed ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu; Xiao-Yun Le; Zheng Liu; Jie Shen; Yu I.Isakova; Hao-Wen Zhong; Jie Zhang; Sha Yan; Gao-Long Zhang; Xiao-Fu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A method for analyzing the dynamic energy spectrum of intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) was proposed.Its influence on beam energy deposition in metal target was studied with IPIB produced by two types of magnetically insulated diodes (MID).The emission of IPIB was described with space charge limitation model,and the dynamic energy spectrum was further analyzed with time-of-flight method.IPIBs generated by pulsed accelerators of BIPPAB-450 (active MID) and TEMP-4M (passive MID) were studied.The dynamic energy spectrum was used to deduce the power density distribution of IPIB in the target with Monte Carlo simulation and infrared imaging diagnostics.The effect on the distribution and evolution of thermal field induced by the characteristics of IPIB dynamic energy spectrum was discussed.

  2. Characterization of low energy X-rays beams with an extrapolation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Fernanda Martins

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories involving Radiological Protection practices, it is usual to use reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and to study their response in terms of energy dependence. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established four series of reference X-rays beams in the ISO- 4037 standard: the L and H series, as low and high air Kerma rates, respectively, the N series of narrow spectrum and W series of wide spectrum. The X-rays beams with tube potential below 30 kV, called 'low energy beams' are, in most cases, critical as far as the determination of their parameters for characterization purpose, such as half-value layer. Extrapolation chambers are parallel plate ionization chambers that have one mobile electrode that allows variation of the air volume in its interior. These detectors are commonly used to measure the quantity Absorbed Dose, mostly in the medium surface, based on the extrapolation of the linear ionization current as a function of the distance between the electrodes. In this work, a characterization of a model 23392 PTW extrapolation chamber was done in low energy X-rays beams of the ISO- 4037 standard, by determining the polarization voltage range through the saturation curves and the value of the true null electrode spacing. In addition, the metrological reliability of the extrapolation chamber was studied with measurements of the value of leakage current and repeatability tests; limit values were established for the proper use of the chamber. The PTW23392 extrapolation chamber was calibrated in terms of air Kerma in some of the ISO radiation series of low energy; the traceability of the chamber to the National Standard Dosimeter was established. The study of energy dependency of the extrapolation chamber and the assessment of the uncertainties related to the calibration coefficient were also done; it was shown that the energy dependence was reduced to 4% when the extrapolation technique was used. Finally, the first

  3. Electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Holovatsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire and elliptic semiconductor nanotubes are investigated within the effective mass approximation. The solution of Schrodinger equation based on the Mathieu functions is obtained in elliptic coordinates. The dependencies of the electron size quantization spectrum on the size and shape of the core-shell nanowire and nanotube are calculated. It is shown that the ellipticity of a quantum wire leads to break of degeneration of quasiparticle energy spectrum. The dependences of the energy of odd and even electron states on the ratio between semiaxes are of a nonmonotonous character. The anticrosing effects are observed at the dependencies of electron energy spectrum on the transversal size of the core-shell nanowire.

  4. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  5. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Experimental calibration and determination of the relative response for Lif: Mg, Ti(TLD-100) dosemeters at 60Co gamma and 60 kVp X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.L.; Gonzalez, L.; Delgado, V.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.

    1985-01-01

    The thermoluminescence efficiency of LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters has been determined for photon beams from 60 Co gamma rays and 60 kVp X-rays. It has been proven that light yield varies as a function of the photon energy. An experiment was performed using an X-ray beam whose spectrum has been determined by an X-ray fluorescence method. This enabled a direct calculation of the absorbed doses in the T1 material for the different operation conditions. These values and the experimental ones from measuring T1 intensities have been used to obtain the efficiency for energy X-ray spectrum. From the above values, the dosemeter T1 response, relative to 60 Co, has been evaluated. (author)

  7. The high-energy celestial X-ray instrument on board OSO-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Lencho, R.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 20 keV-3 MeV celestial X-ray detector on the eighth Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-8) is described. The primary objectives of this instrument are (i) to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic X-ray sources above 20 keV and (ii) to search for time variations, both periodic and irregular, in the intensity of the sources detected. The detector consists of two optically isolated CsI(Na) central crystals shielded by a large, active collimator also made of CsI(Na). The sensitive area is 27.5 cm 2 and the field-of-view is 5 0 FWHM. One of the two central crystals is completely shielded and serves as a monitor of the total internal detector background spectrum. The instrument is mounted in the wheel section of OSO-8 with the axis of its field of view offset by 5 0 from the negative spin axis of the wheel. The minimum detectable intensity of a point source which is brought to within 5 0 of the negative spin axis for greater than one day is approximately 10 -5 photons cm -2 s -1 keV -1 at 100 keV. This is determined from the background spectrum measured in orbit. (Auth.)

  8. X-ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the γ-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N H ) and radio (N HI ) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  9. The 4.8 hour variation of Cygnus X-3 at high X-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Trumper, J.

    1976-01-01

    During a balloon observation of Cygnus X-3 on 1975 February 20, an intensity variation has been found which is in phase with the low-energy X-ray 4.8 hour sinusoidal light curve. The measured relative amplitude in the range 32--64 keV is 0.37 (+0.31, -0.29). Compared with the results at lower energies there is no indication for an energy dependence of the relative amplitude up to 64 keV. The encountered low-intensity source spectrum is compared with previous measurements

  10. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku andNuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found...... also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than justNuSTAR alone: Ecut = 186±14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate...

  11. Contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays to the Moessbauer conversion electron spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.; Ruskov, R.; Paneva, D.; Lefterov, D.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of back-scattered electromagnetic rays in a 57 Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectrum is considered using proportional counter as a detector. A simplified method for measuring this contribution is described. The experimental results show that this contribution strongly depends on the construction of the counter and the selected fraction in the pulse-height spectrum

  12. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  13. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Moyers, Michael F.; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.; Schreuder, Andries N.

    2009-01-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to ±21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than ±3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  14. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  15. Dose conversion factors and linear energy transfer for irradiation of thin blood layers with low-energy X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Seuntjens, J.

    1994-01-01

    For irradiation of thin samples of biological material with low-energy X rays, conversion of measured air kerma, free in air to average absorbed dose to the sample is necessary. In the present paper, conversion factors from measured air kerma to average absorbed dose in thin blood samples are given for four low-energy X-ray qualities (14-50 kVp). These factors were obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of a practical sample holder. Data for different thicknesses of the blood and backing layer are presented. The conversion factors are found to depend strongly on the thicknesses of the blood layer and backing layer. In radiobiological work, knowledge of linear energy transfer (LET) values for the radiation quality used is often required. Track-averaged LET values for low-energy X rays are presented in this work. It is concluded that the thickness of the sample does not influence the LET value appreciably, indicating that for all radiobiological purposes this value can be regarded as a constant throughout the sample. Furthermore, the large difference between the LET value for a 50 kV spectrum found in this work and the value given in ICRU Report 16 is pointed out. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. The hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during the transition in November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, M.; Maurus, H.; Urbach, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during a transition to the high state in November 1975, made with a balloon-borne X-ray detector. The range covered was 25 to 150 keV. The data obtained appeared to confirm the characteristic spectral time variation, and suggested a single power law spectrum from 3 to 80 keV, with an increasing spectral index during the upward transition to the high state. A power spectrum is expected if it is assumed that the universe Compton effect is the basic mechanism that produces the hard X-ray tail of Cyg X-1. Spectral time variation may be caused by a varying intensity of an inner soft photon source within a stable hot cloud. (U.K.)

  17. Cosmic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    High-energy photons from pair annihilation of dark matter particles contribute to the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) observed in a wide energy range. The precise shape of the energy spectrum of CGB depends on the nature of dark matter particles. In order to discriminate between the signals from dark matter annihilation and other astrophysical sources, however, the information from the energy spectrum of CGB may not be sufficient. We show that dark matter annihilation not only contributes to the mean CGB intensity, but also produces a characteristic anisotropy, which provides a powerful tool for testing the origins of the observed CGB. We show that the expected sensitivity of future gamma-ray detectors such as GLAST should allow us to measure the angular power spectrum of CGB anisotropy, if dark matter particles are supersymmetric neutralinos and they account for most of the observed mean intensity. As the intensity of photons from annihilation is proportional to the density squared, we show that the predicted shape of the angular power spectrum of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation is different from that due to other astrophysical sources such as blazars, whose intensity is linearly proportional to density. Therefore, the angular power spectrum of the CGB provides a 'smoking-gun' signature of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation

  18. Radiation processing with high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Stichelbaut, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The physical, chemical or biological characteristics of selected commercial products and materials can be improved by radiation processing. The ionizing energy can be provided by accelerated electrons with energies between 75 keV and 10 MeV, gamma rays from cobalt-60 with average energies of 1.25 MeV or X-rays with maximum energies up to 7.5 MeV. Electron beams are preferred for thin products, which are processed at high speeds. Gamma rays are used for products that are too thick for treatment with electron beams. High-energy X-rays can also be used for these purposes because their penetration in solid materials is similar to or even slightly greater than that of gamma rays. Previously, the use of X-rays had been inhibited by their slower processing rates and higher costs when compared with gamma rays. Since then, the price of cobalt-60 sources has been increased and the radiation intensity from high-energy, high-power X-ray generators has also increased. For facilities requiring at least 2 MCi of cobalt-60, the capital and operating costs of X-ray facilities with equivalent processing rates can be less than that of gamma-ray irradiators. Several high-energy electron beam facilities have been equipped with removable X-ray targets so that irradiation processes can be done with either type of ionizing energy. A new facility is now being built which will be used exclusively in the X-ray mode to sterilize medical products. Operation of this facility will show that high-energy, high-power X-ray generators are practical alternatives to large gamma-ray sources. (author)

  19. Application of a Laplace transform pair model for high-energy x-ray spectral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, B R; Almond, P R; Wagner, L K

    1985-01-01

    A Laplace transform pair model, previously shown to accurately reconstruct x-ray spectra at diagnostic energies, has been applied to megavoltage energy beams. The inverse Laplace transforms of 2-, 6-, and 25-MV attenuation curves were evaluated to determine the energy spectra of these beams. The 2-MV data indicate that the model can reliably reconstruct spectra in the low megavoltage range. Experimental limitations in acquiring the 6-MV transmission data demonstrate the sensitivity of the model to systematic experimental error. The 25-MV data result in a physically realistic approximation of the present spectrum.

  20. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Space telescopes are among humankind’s greatest scientific achievements of the last fifty years. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored. Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.

  1. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: clustering, GUT scale and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 5 · 10 19 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. We present a statistical analysis on the source density based on the multiplicities. The propagation of UHECR protons is studied in detail. The UHECR spectrum is consistent with the decay of GUT scale particles and/or with the Z-burst. The predicted GUT mass is m x = 10 b GeV, where b 14.6 -1.7 +1.6 . Our neutrino mass prediction depends on the origin of the power part of the spectrum: m ν = 2.75 -0.97 +1.28 eV for halo and 0.26 -0.14 +0.20 eV for extragalactic (EG) origin

  2. THE SPECTRUM OF ISOTROPIC DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION BETWEEN 100 MeV AND 820 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: markus.ackermann@desy.de, E-mail: bechtol@kicp.uchicago.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2015-01-20

    The γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10{sup –6} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  3. Search for Very High-energy Gamma Rays from the Northern Fermi Bubble Region with HAWC

    OpenAIRE

    Abeysekara, AU; Albert, A; Alfaro, R; Alvarez, C; Alvarez, JD; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, JC; Ayala Solares, HA; Barber, AS; Bautista-Elivar, N; Becerril, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; BenZvi, SY; Berley, D; Braun, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a search for very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern Fermi Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern Fermi Bubble region, so upper limits above 1 TeV are calculated. The upper limits are between and . The upper limits disfavor a proton injection spectrum that exten...

  4. The x-ray spectrum of the Cygnus Loop measured with Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Manabe, Makoto; Yamashita, Koujun; Koyama, Katsuji.

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of an observation of the whole Cygnus Loop performed with the Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters (GSPC) on board the Tenma satellite. Line emissions around 1.9 keV and 2.5 keV, probably originating from silicon and sulfur Kα line blends, were detected. The continuum spectrum in the energy range 1-3 keV can be represented by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7 x 10 6 K. This is the highest value for the Cygnus Loop reported so far. The Tenma data were also combined with those from a sounding rocket flight performed previously, in which a similar detector system was employed. Thus, we obtain a wide-band X-ray spectrum for the whole Cygnus Loop with the best energy resolution reported so far. The combined data could not be fitted by a single temperature component in the thermal collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) model or a single-temperature nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) model. A good fit is obtained if at least two temperature components are included in both the CIE and NEI models. However, only the NEI model allows a self consistent interpretation. Taking into account the emission measures for both components, we can conclude that the low-temperature, high-density component arises mainly from the shell region and that the high-temperature, low-density component arises from the interior of the shell. (author)

  5. ON ESTIMATING THE HIGH-ENERGY CUTOFF IN THE X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLES VIA REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, Javier A.; Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Keck, Mason L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: javier@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jsteiner@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: keckm@bu.edu, E-mail: thomas.dauser@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.de [Dr. Karl Remeis-Observatory and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2015-08-01

    The fundamental parameters describing the coronal spectrum of an accreting black hole are the slope Γ of the power-law continuum and the energy E{sub cut} at which it rolls over. Remarkably, this latter parameter can be accurately measured for values as high as 1 MeV by modeling the spectrum of X-rays reflected from a black hole accretion disk at energies below 100 keV. This is possible because the details in the reflection spectrum, rich in fluorescent lines and other atomic features, are very sensitive to the spectral shape of the hardest coronal radiation illuminating the disk. We show that by fitting simultaneous NuSTAR (3–79 keV) and low-energy (e.g., Suzaku) data with the most recent version of our reflection model relxill one can obtain reasonable constraints on E{sub cut} at energies from tens of keV up to 1 MeV, for a source as faint as 1 mCrab in a 100 ks observation.

  6. The effect of absorber on scintillation spectrum of γ ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Ye Yunxiu; Chen Ziyu; Wang Dayong; Ye Zhenyu; Zheng Zhong

    2002-01-01

    The scattering of γ ray in absorber affects the shape of spectrum with decreased peak-to-total ratio and peak-to-Compton ratio. Calculation using a simplified model verified this trend. Several groups of experimental data yield an empirical formula. Its potential application is also discussed

  7. [Study on spectrum analysis of X-ray based on rotational mass effect in special relativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Quan; Xiao, Qing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    Based on special relativity, the formation mechanism of characteristic X-ray has been studied, and the influence of rotational mass effect on X-ray spectrum has been given. A calculation formula of the X-ray wavelength based upon special relativity was derived. Error analysis was carried out systematically for the calculation values of characteristic wavelength, and the rules of relative error were obtained. It is shown that the values of the calculation are very close to the experimental values, and the effect of rotational mass effect on the characteristic wavelength becomes more evident as the atomic number increases. The result of the study has some reference meaning for the spectrum analysis of characteristic X-ray in application.

  8. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  9. SB3. Experiment on secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for each of 13 different elements plus a stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental and calculational details for a CSEWG integral data testing shielding experiment are presented. This particular experiment measured the secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for iron, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, copper, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon, nickel, zinc, barium, sulfur, and a type 321 stainless steel. The gamma-ray production cross sections were binned into 0.5-MeV wide gamma-ray energy intervals. 29 tables, 1 figure

  10. Contribution of parsec-scale material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.; Dovčiak, M.; Kammoun, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    Type-1 radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen from the polar direction and offer a direct view of their central X-ray engine. If most of X-ray photons have traveled from the primary source to the observer with minimum light-matter interaction, a fraction of radiation is emitted at different directions and is reprocessed by the parsec-scale equatorial circumnuclear region or the polar outflows. It is still unclear how much the polarization expected from type-1 AGN is affected by radiation that have scattered on the distant AGN components. In this paper, we examine the contribution of remote material onto the polarized X-ray spectrum of type-1 Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer Monte Carlo codes. We find that the observed X-ray polarization strongly depends on the initial polarization emerging from the disk-corona system. For unpolarized and parallelly polarized photons (parallel to the disk), the contribution is negligible below 3 keV and tends to increase the polarization degree by up to one percentage points at higher energies, smoothing out the energy-dependent variations of the polarization angle. For perpendicularly polarized corona photons, the addition of the circumnuclear scattered (parallel) component adds to the polarization above 10keV, decreases polarization below 10 keV and shifts the expected 90° rotation of the polarization angle to lower energies. In conclusion, we found that simulations of Seyfert-1s that do not account for reprocessing on the parsec-scale equatorial and polar material are under- or over-estimating the X-ray polarization by 0.1 - 1 percentage points.

  11. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  12. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-01-01

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  13. Cosmic-ray anisotropy studies with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory detects tens of billions of energetic muons per year produced by cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere. The size of this sample has allowed IceCube to observe a significant anisotropy in arrival direction for cosmic rays with median energies between 20 and 400 TeV. This anisotropy is characterized by a large scale structure of per-mille amplitude accompanied by structures with smaller amplitudes and with typical angular sizes between 10° and 20°. IceTop, the surface component of IceCube, has observed a similar anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays, extending the study to PeV energies. The better energy resolution of IceTop allows for additional studies of the anisotropy, for example a comparison of the energy spectrum in regions of a cosmic-ray excess or deficit to the rest of the sky. We present an update on the cosmic-ray anisotropy observed with IceCube and IceTop and the results of first studies of the energy spectrum at locations of cosmic-ray excess or deficit.

  14. A model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented. (orig.)

  15. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  16. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  17. Interference Energy Spectrum of the Infinite Square Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordecai Waegell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain superposition states of the 1-D infinite square well have transient zeros at locations other than the nodes of the eigenstates that comprise them. It is shown that if an infinite potential barrier is suddenly raised at some or all of these zeros, the well can be split into multiple adjacent infinite square wells without affecting the wavefunction. This effects a change of the energy eigenbasis of the state to a basis that does not commute with the original, and a subsequent measurement of the energy now reveals a completely different spectrum, which we call the interference energy spectrum of the state. This name is appropriate because the same splitting procedure applied at the stationary nodes of any eigenstate does not change the measurable energy of the state. Of particular interest, this procedure can result in measurable energies that are greater than the energy of the highest mode in the original superposition, raising questions about the conservation of energy akin to those that have been raised in the study of superoscillations. An analytic derivation is given for the interference spectrum of a given wavefunction Ψ ( x , t with N known zeros located at points s i = ( x i , t i . Numerical simulations were used to verify that a barrier can be rapidly raised at a zero of the wavefunction without significantly affecting it. The interpretation of this result with respect to the conservation of energy and the energy-time uncertainty relation is discussed, and the idea of alternate energy eigenbases is fleshed out. The question of whether or not a preferred discrete energy spectrum is an inherent feature of a particle’s quantum state is examined.

  18. Composition of medium energy cosmic rays from silicon to nickel measured with nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrnetz, S.; Kristiansson, K.; Lindstam, S.; Soederstroem, K.

    1975-12-01

    The cosmic ray charge spectrum has been studied in three nuclear emulsion stacks exposed in balloon flights from Fort Churchill, Canada, in 1967 and 1970. The charge region is 14 <= Z < E 28 and the energy interval is about 400-800 MeV/Nucleon. The particles are identified by measurements with a nuclear track photometer which is described in some detail. The charge spectrum is extrapolated to the top of the atmosphere and comparisons with other measurements are made. Special emphasis is put on the abundance ratios (Sc-Mn)/Fe, (Sc+Ti)/(V+Cr) and Ni/Fe. (Auth.)

  19. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  20. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.c, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  1. Observation of gamma-ray bursts with GINGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshio; Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray Burst Detector System (GBD) on board the scientific satellite 'GINGA' which was launched on Feb. 5, 1987, was realized as an international cooperation between ISAS and LANL. It has recorded more than 40 Gamma-Ray Burst candidates during 20 months observation. Although many observational evidences were accumulated in past 20 years after the discovery of gamma-ray burst by LANL scientists, there are not enough evidence to determine the origin and the production mechanism of the gamma-ray burst. GBD consists of a proportional counter and a NaI scintillation counter so that it became possible to observe energy spectrum of the gamma-ray burst with high energy resolution over wide range of energy (1.5-380 keV) together with high time resolution. As the result of observation, the following facts are obtained: (1) A large fraction of observed gamma-ray bursts has a long X-ray tail after the harder part of gamma-ray emission has terminated. (2) Clear spectral absorption features with harmonic in energy was observed in some of the energy spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. These evidences support the hypothesis that the strongly magnetized neutron star is the origin of gamma-ray burst. (author)

  2. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt TeV gamma rays from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 789-792. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt. TeV gamma rays from gamma ray bursts ... The origin of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events with ... are proton and electron rest mass, respectively.

  3. Spectrum reconstruction with X rays and flat panel wedge PMMA by Monte Carlo codes and Penelope MCNPS; Reconstruccion del esptro de rayos X con flat panel y cuna de PMMa mediante los codigos de monte Carlo Penelope y MCNP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozuelo, F.; Querol, A.; Juste, B.; Gallardo, S.; Rodenas, J.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    Obtaining the primary spectrum of X-rays to determine the quality of a photon beam produced by an X-ray tube, since the dosimetric characteristics of a radiation beam to have a direct relation to the primary X-ray spectrum. In this work are studied, the depth dose curves obtained in the energy range of diagnostic radiology, between 40 and 130 keV.

  4. Possible existence of cosmological cosmic rays I. the framework for light-element and gamma-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of the existence of cosmological cosmic rays (CCR), in the framework of big-bang cosmology. The model assumes a total energy spectrum similar to that observed at Earth at high energies, a composition of protons and α-particles only, with α/p=0.1. Following Stecker, the CCR are assumed to be born in a burst at some (high) redshift z/sub s/. Gamma-rays originate from π 0 decay resulting from interactions of the high-energy part of the CCR, and light elements are produced via (pα)+(pα) reactions by the low-energy part, both of them by collisions with the ambient matter (of density corresponding to a deceleration parameter q 0 ).The 1--100 MeV γ-ray background spectrum and the lithium abundance are considered as observational constraints on the possible CCR flux intensity. To this end, a theoretical framework is set for simultaneous γ-ray and light-element production by solving a system of coupled time-dependent transport equations, taking ionization and expansion losses into account. The absolute lithium abundance is calculated by normalizing the CCR flux to the observed γ-ray background spectrum; numerical results will be given and discussed in a separate paper, as a function of q 0 and z/sub s/

  5. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  6. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi [Toyota Technical Development Corporation, 1-21 Imae, Hanamoto-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0334 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kato, Ryukou [The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  7. The anisotropy of cosmic ray particles in the energy range 1011-1019 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chunxian

    1985-01-01

    A study of the anisotropy of primary cosmic ray is presented. The expression of the anisotropy is derived in a model of statistical discrete sources in an infinite galaxy. Using these derived formulas, the amplitudes of the first harmonic anisotropies caused by eleven supernovea nearby the Earth are estimated individually and the trend of the resultant anisotropy is investigated. It is found that the expected results can account for the power law of Esup(0.5) of the anisotropy above the energy 5 x 10 15 eV. The Compton-getting effect can cause an additional anisotropy which is independent of energy and added to the resultant anisotropy of these discrete sources. It is apparent that the anisotropies available in the low energy range 10 11 - 10 14 eV are caused by the Compton-Getting effect. Taking the differential spectrum index γ = 2.67 measured in the same energy bound we get the streaming velocity of 35 km/s with respect to the cosmic ray background

  8. Response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for X-rays of low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    In diverse practical applications as the existent in radiological clinics, industrial facilities and research laboratories, the solid state dosimeters are used for the measure of the different types of ionizing radiations. At the present time dosimeters are manufactured with different types of materials that present thermoluminescent properties, to the effects of determining the absorbed radiation dose. Under these conditions, the radiation dose is determined integrated in all the range of energies of the beam of X-rays, since it assumes that the response of these dosimeters is lineal with the energy of the photons or radiant particles. Because interest exists in advancing in the development of a determination method in the way of the X-rays spectrum emitted by a tube of those used in diagnostic or therapy, we have measured the response of TLD-100 LiF dosimeters for low energies, minor at 60 keV, for a several group of these dosimeters. (Author)

  9. HAWC Observations Strongly Favor Pulsar Interpretations of the Cosmic-Ray Positron Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Cholis, Ilias [Johns Hopkins U.; Linden, Tim [Ohio State U., CCAPP; Fang, Ke [Maryland U.

    2017-11-17

    Recent measurements of the Geminga and B0656+14 pulsars by the gamma-ray telescope HAWC (along with earlier measurements by Milagro) indicate that these objects generate significant fluxes of very high-energy electrons. In this paper, we use the very high-energy gamma-ray intensity and spectrum of these pulsars to calculate and constrain their expected contributions to the local cosmic-ray positron spectrum. Among models that are capable of reproducing the observed characteristics of the gamma-ray emission, we find that pulsars invariably produce a flux of high-energy positrons that is similar in spectrum and magnitude to the positron fraction measured by PAMELA and AMS-02. In light of this result, we conclude that it is very likely that pulsars provide the dominant contribution to the long perplexing cosmic-ray positron excess.

  10. Variability in fluence and spectrum of high-energy photon bursts produced by lightning leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Celestin , Sebastien; Xu , Wei; Pasko , Victor P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we model the production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons during negative corona flash stages of stepping lightning leaders and the corresponding terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) or negative cloud-to-ground (−CG) lightning-produced X-ray bursts in a unified fashion. We show how the source photon spectrum and fluence depend on the potential drop formed in the lightning leader tip region during corona flash and how the X-ray burst spectrum ...

  11. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuan; Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    spectra from the clinical system across a range of angular trajectories [−15°, 15°] and spectrum settings (80, 100, 120, 140 kVp). Results: At 140 kVp, the proposed technique was comparable to the conventional technique in terms of the mean energy difference (MED, −0.29 keV) and the normalized root mean square difference (NRMSD, 0.84%) from the comparison standard compared to 0.64 keV and 1.56%, respectively, with the conventional technique. The average absolute MEDs and NRMSDs across kVp settings and angular trajectories were less than 0.61 keV and 3.41%, respectively, which indicates a high level of estimation accuracy and stability. Conclusions: An angle-dependent estimation technique of CT x-ray spectra from rotational transmission measurements was proposed. Compared with the conventional technique, the proposed method simplifies the measurement procedures and enables incident spectral estimation for a wide range of angular trajectories. The proposed technique is suitable for rigorous research objectives as well as routine clinical quality control procedures

  12. Instrumental aspects of tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Nullens, H.; Espen, P. van

    1983-01-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an attractive and widely used method for sensitive multi-element analysis. The method suffers from the extreme density of spectral components in a rather limited energy range which implies the need for computer based spectrum analysis. The method of iterative least squares analysis is the most powerful tool for this. It requires a systematic and accurate description of the spectral features. Other important necessities for accurate analysis are the calibration of the spectrometer and the correction for matrix absorption effects in the sample; they can be calculated from available physical constants. Ours and similar procedures prove that semi-automatic analyses are possible with an accuracy of the order of 5%. (author)

  13. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaauw, M

    1993-11-15

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  14. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauw, M.

    1993-01-01

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on γ-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a γ-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the γ-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A γ-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the γ-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a γ-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all γ-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this 'holistic' approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of γ-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP)

  15. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  16. ON NEUTRAL ABSORPTION AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Reis, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Current X-ray observatories make it possible to follow the evolution of transient and variable X-ray binaries across a broad range in luminosity and source behavior. In such studies, it can be unclear whether evolution in the low-energy portion of the spectrum should be attributed to evolution in the source, or instead to evolution in neutral photoelectric absorption. Dispersive spectrometers make it possible to address this problem. We have analyzed a small but diverse set of X-ray binaries observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer across a range in luminosity and different spectral states. The column density in individual photoelectric absorption edges remains constant with luminosity, both within and across source spectral states. This finding suggests that absorption in the interstellar medium strongly dominates the neutral column density observed in spectra of X-ray binaries. Consequently, evolution in the low-energy spectrum of X-ray binaries should properly be attributed to evolution in the source spectrum. We discuss our results in the context of X-ray binary spectroscopy with current and future X-ray missions.

  17. Full Spectrum Diffused and Beamed Solar Energy Application Using Optical Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, M. R. Dutta; Das, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Existing solar energy application systems use small fraction of full spectrum of solar energy. So attempts are made to show how full spectrum solar energy can be used for diffused and beamed form of incident solar energy. Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) principle with optical fibre in diffused sun light and dielectric mirror separation technique with optical fibre in beamed form are discussed. Comparison of both the cases are done. Keywords: full spectrum, solar photonics, diffused solar...

  18. Limits for an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the diffuse Galactic soft gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    origin of the soft Galactic gamma-ray continuum through inverse bremsstrahlung. A flux of low-energy cosmic rays strong enough to produce the observed spectrum of gamma-rays implies substantial gamma-ray emission at a few MeV through nuclear de-excitation. It is shown that the existing limits on excess 3......-7 MeV emission from the Galactic plane, in concert with the constraints from pi(0)-decay gamma-ray emission at higher energies, are in serious conflict with an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the Galactic soft gamma-ray emission for any physically plausible low-energy cosmic ray spectrum. While...

  19. The X-Ray Reflection Spectrum of the Radio-Loud Quasar 4C 74.26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Ann M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ballantyne, David R.; Boggs, S. E.; Boorman, Peter; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, Duncan; Garcia, Javier; Hailey, C. J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The relativistic jets created by some active galactic nuclei are important agents of AGN feedback. In spite of this, our understanding of what produces these jets is still incomplete. X-ray observations, which can probe the processes operating in the central regions in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black hole, the presumed jet launching point, are potentially particularly valuable in illuminating the jet formation process. Here, we present the hard X-ray NuSTAR observations of the radio-loud quasar 4C 74.26 in a joint analysis with quasi-simultaneous, soft X-ray Swift observations. Our spectral analysis reveals a high-energy cutoff of -183+3551 keV and confirms the presence of ionized reflection in the source. From the average spectrum we detect that the accretion disk is mildly recessed, with an inner radius of Rin4180 Rg. However, no significant evolution of the inner radius is seen during the three months covered by our NuSTAR campaign. This lack of variation could mean that the jet formation in this radio-loud quasar differs from what is observed in broad-line radio galaxies.

  20. Calibration of the Nustar High-Energy Focusing X-Ray Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    We present the calibration of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray satellite. We used the Crab as the primary effective area calibrator and constructed a piece-wise linear spline function to modify the vignetting response. The achieved residuals for all off-axis angles...... and energies, compared to the assumed spectrum, are typically better than +/- 2% up to 40 keV and 5%-10% above due to limited counting statistics. An empirical adjustment to the theoretical two-dimensional point-spread function (PSF) was found using several strong point sources, and no increase of the PSF half-power...

  1. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m2 array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O'C.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2001-01-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon -1 during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of ∼150 m 2 sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74≤Z≤87), is reported

  2. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  3. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  4. Boxes, Boosts, and Energy Duality: Understanding the Galactic-Center Gamma-Ray Excess through Dynamical Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Boddy, Kimberly K.

    2017-03-28

    Many models currently exist which attempt to interpret the excess of gamma rays emanating from the Galactic Center in terms of annihilating or decaying dark matter. These models typically exhibit a variety of complicated cascade mechanisms for photon production, leading to a non-trivial kinematics which obscures the physics of the underlying dark sector. In this paper, by contrast, we observe that the spectrum of the gamma-ray excess may actually exhibit an intriguing "energy-duality" invariance under $E_\\gamma \\rightarrow E_\\ast^2/E_\\gamma$ for some $E_\\ast$. As we shall discuss, such an energy duality points back to a remarkably simple alternative kinematics which in turn is realized naturally within the Dynamical Dark Matter framework. Observation of this energy duality could therefore provide considerable information about the properties of the dark sector from which the Galactic-Center gamma-ray excess might arise, and highlights the importance of acquiring more complete data for the Galactic-Center exce...

  5. Redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R H; Hughes, J P

    1987-01-01

    X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 +- 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 +- 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 +- 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 +- 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature.

  6. Optimum filter selection for Dual Energy X-ray Applications through Analytical Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukou, V; Martini, N; Sotiropoulou, P; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kalyvas, N; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G

    2015-01-01

    In this simulation study, an analytical model was used in order to determine the optimal acquisition parameters for a dual energy breast imaging system. The modeled detector system, consisted of a 33.91mg/cm 2 Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb scintillator screen, placed in direct contact with a high resolution CMOS sensor. Tungsten anode X-ray spectra, filtered with various filter materials and filter thicknesses were examined for both the low- and high-energy beams, resulting in 3375 combinations. The selection of these filters was based on their K absorption edge (K-edge filtering). The calcification signal-to-noise ratio (SNR tc ) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) were calculated. The total mean glandular dose was constrained to be within acceptable levels. Optimization was based on the maximization of the SNR tc /MGD ratio. The results showed that the optimum spectral combination was 40kVp with added beam filtration of 100 μm Ag and 70kVp Cu filtered spectrum of 1000 μm for the low- and high-energy, respectively. The minimum detectable calcification size was 150 μm. Simulations demonstrate that this dual energy X-ray technique could enhance breast calcification detection. (paper)

  7. Fundamentals of energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Russ, John C; Kiessling, R; Charles, J

    1984-01-01

    Fundamentals of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of dispersive X-ray analysis. It presents descriptions, equations, and graphs to enable the users of these techniques to develop an intuitive and conceptual image of the physical processes involved in the generation and detection of X-rays. The book begins with a discussion of X-ray detection and measurement, which is accomplished by one of two types of X-ray spectrometer: energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive. The emphasis is on energy dispersive spectrometers, given their rather wid

  8. High energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays at mountain altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    The diffusion equations describing the unidimensional propagation of .the high energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays throughout the atmosphere are sol"V'ed under two assumptions: (l) The nucleon-nucleon collisions are described according to Fermi's therlnOdynamical model involving completely inelastic pion and.nucleon-antinucleon pair production. (2) A somewhat opposite assumption is made assuming partially elastic collisions without nucleon-anti.nucleon pair production. Due to the present inaccuracy of experiments, we are able to derive only tentati v.e conclusions. The values computed under both hypotheses for the absorption mean free path and the charged to neutral particles ratio are found in acceptable ranges when compared to experimental data. The diffeential energy spectrum at a given depth is always found steeper than the primary, and steeper than indicated by experimental values if the primary is taken proportional to the 2.5 inverse power of energy.

  9. A New Observation of the Quiet Sun Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Stone, Jordan

    2013-03-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable with solar activity. While this is particularly true during solar flares, when emission can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude up to gamma-ray energies, even the so-called "quiet Sun" is bright in soft X-rays (SXRs), as the 1-2 MK ambient plasma of the corona emits significant thermal bremsstrahlung up to 5 keV. However, the actual solar SXR (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include ultra-high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystral spectrometers (e.g. Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g. GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with fair energy resolution ( 0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and XRS on MESSENGER, although they did not extend below 1 keV. We present observations of the quiet Sun SXR emission obtained using a new SXR spectrometer flown on the third SDO/EVE underflight calibration rocket (NASA 36.286). The commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123 silicon drift detector, with an 8-micron Be window and custom aperture, measured the solar SXR emission from 0.5 to >10 keV with 0.15 keV FWHM resolution (though, due to hardware limitations, with only 0.12 keV binning) and 2-sec cadence over 5 minutes on 23 June 2012. Despite the rising solar cycle, activity on 23 June 2012 was abnormally low, with no visible active regions and GOES XRS emission near 2010 levels; we measured no solar counts above 4 keV during the observation period. We compare our X123 measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including the SphinX observations during the deep solar minimum of 2009, and with upper limits of >3 keV quiet Sun emission

  10. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  11. HIGH ENERGY, HIGH BRIGHTNESS X-RAYS PRODUCED BY COMPTON BACKSCATTERING AT THE LIVERMORE PLEIADES FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremaine, A M; Anderson, S G; Betts, S; Crane, J; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Jacob, J S; Frigola, P; Lim, J; Rosenzweig, J; Travish, G

    2005-01-01

    PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser Electron Interaction for the Dynamic Evaluation of Structures) produces tunable 30-140 keV x-rays with 0.3-5 ps pulse lengths and up to 10 7 photons/pulse by colliding a high brightness electron beam with a high power laser. The electron beam is created by an rf photo-injector system, accelerated by a 120 MeV linac, and focused to 20 (micro)m with novel permanent magnet quadrupoles. To produce Compton back scattered x-rays, the electron bunch is overlapped with a Ti:Sapphire laser that delivers 500 mJ, 100 fs, pulses to the interaction point. K-edge radiography at 115 keV on Uranium has verified the angle correlated energy spectrum inherent in Compton scattering and high-energy tunability of the Livermore source. Current upgrades to the facility will allow laser pumping of targets synchronized to the x-ray source enabling dynamic diffraction and time-resolved studies of high Z materials. Near future plans include extending the radiation energies to >400 keV, allowing for nuclear fluorescence studies of materials

  12. Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-07-01

    We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because (a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and (b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space - unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

  13. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  14. Fast scattering simulation tool for multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, A., E-mail: artur.sossin@cea.fr [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Tabary, J.; Rebuffel, V. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-01

    A combination of Monte Carlo (MC) and deterministic approaches was employed as a means of creating a simulation tool capable of providing energy resolved x-ray primary and scatter images within a reasonable time interval. Libraries of Sindbad, a previously developed x-ray simulation software, were used in the development. The scatter simulation capabilities of the tool were validated through simulation with the aid of GATE and through experimentation by using a spectrometric CdTe detector. A simple cylindrical phantom with cavities and an aluminum insert was used. Cross-validation with GATE showed good agreement with a global spatial error of 1.5% and a maximum scatter spectrum error of around 6%. Experimental validation also supported the accuracy of the simulations obtained from the developed software with a global spatial error of 1.8% and a maximum error of around 8.5% in the scatter spectra.

  15. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m{sup 2} array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J. E-mail: jd@cp.dias.ie; Thompson, A.; O' Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O' C.; Wenzel, K.-P

    2001-06-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon{sup -1} during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of {approx}150 m{sup 2} sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74{<=}Z{<=}87), is reported.

  16. Very high-energy gamma-ray signature of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration in Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jagdish C.; Miranda, Luis Salvador; Razzaque, Soebur; Yang, Lili

    2018-04-01

    The association of at least a dozen ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) events with energy ≳ 55 EeV detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) from the direction of Centaurus-A, the nearest radio galaxy, supports the scenario of UHECR acceleration in the jets of radio galaxies. In this work, we model radio to very high energy (VHE,≳ 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from Cen A, including GeV hardness detected by Fermi-LAT and TeV emission detected by HESS. We consider two scenarios: (i) Two zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) and external-Compton (EC) models, (ii) Two zone SSC, EC and photo-hadronic emission from cosmic ray interactions. The GeV hardness observed by Fermi-LAT can be explained using these two scenarios, where zone 2 EC emission is very important. Hadronic emission in scenario (ii) can explain VHE data with the same spectral slope as obtained through fitting UHECRs from Cen A. The peak luminosity in cosmic ray proton at 1 TeV, to explain the VHE γ-ray data is ≈2.5 × 1046 erg/s. The bolometric luminosity in cosmic ray protons is consistent with the luminosity required to explain the origin of 13 UHECR signal events that are correlated with Cen A.

  17. Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Spectrum at Solar Minimum with a Long-Duration Balloon Flight over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic-ray antiprotons (p-bar's) from 0.17 to 3.5 GeV has been measured using 7886 p-bar's detected by BESS-Polar II during a long-duration flight over Antarctica near solar minimum in December 2007 and January 2008. This shows good consistency with secondary p-bar calculations. Cosmologically primary p-bar's have been investigated by comparing measured and calculated p-bar spectra. BESS-Polar II data.show no evidence of primary p-bar's from the evaporation of primordial black holes.

  18. Method for quantifying the uncertainty with the extraction of the raw data of a gamma ray spectrum by deconvolution software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigineix, Thomas; Guillot, Nicolas; Saurel, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry is a passive non destructive assay most commonly used to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in complex huge objects such as nuclear waste packages. The treatment of spectra from the measurement of nuclear waste is done in two steps: the first step is to extract the raw data from the spectra (energies and the net photoelectric absorption peaks area) and the second step is to determine the detection efficiency of the measuring scene. Commercial software use different methods to extract the raw data spectrum but none are optimal in the treatment of spectra containing actinides. Spectra should be handled individually and requires settings and an important feedback part from the operator, which prevents the automatic process of spectrum and increases the risk of human error. In this context the Nuclear Measurement and Valuation Laboratory (LMNE) in the Atomic Energy Commission Valduc (CEA Valduc) has developed a new methodology for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the extraction of the raw data over spectrum. This methodology was applied with raw data and commercial software that need configuration by the operator (GENIE2000, Interwinner...). This robust and fully automated methodology of uncertainties calculation is performed on the entire process of the software. The methodology ensures for all peaks processed by the deconvolution software an extraction of energy peaks closed to 2 channels and an extraction of net areas with an uncertainty less than 5 percents. The methodology was tested experimentally with actinides spectrum. (authors)

  19. The origins of cosmic rays and quantum effects on gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays is explained by particles emitted during a thermal expansion of explosive objects inside and near the galaxy, remnants of which may be supernova and/or active talaxies, or even stars or galaxies that disappeared from our sight after the explosion. A power law energy spectrum for cosmic rays, E to the (-alpha -1, is obtained from an expansion rate T is proportional to R to the alpha. Using the solution of the Einstein equation, we obtain a spectrum which agrees very well with experimental data. The implication of an inflationary early universe on the cosmic ray spectrum is also discussed. It is also suggested that the conflict between this model and the singularity theorem in classical general relativity may be eliminated by quantum effects.

  20. Recent improvements in plutonium gamma-ray analysis using MGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1992-06-01

    MGA is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program for determining relative plutonium isotopic abundances. It can determine plutonium isotopic abundances better than 1% using a high-resolution, low-energy, planar germanium detector and measurement times ten minutes or less. We have modified MGA to allow determination of absolute plutonium isotopic abundances in solutions. With calibration of a detector using a known solution concentration in a well-defined sample geometry, plutonium solution concentrations can be determined. MGA can include analysis of a second spectrum of the high-energy spectrum to include determination of fission product abundances relative to total plutonium. For the high-energy gamma-ray measurements we have devised a new hardware configuration, so that both the low- and high-energy gamma-ray detectors are mounted in a single cryostat thereby reducing weight and volume of the detector systems. We describe the detector configuration, and the performance of the MGA program for determining plutonium concentrations in solutions and fission product abundances

  1. Optimization of a spectrometry for energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis by x-ray tube in combination with secondary target for multielements determination of sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi Embong; Husin Wagiran

    1997-01-01

    The design of an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer equipped with a conventional X-ray tube and secondary target is described. The spectrometer system constructed in our laboratory consists of a semiconductor detector system, irradiation chamber and X-ray tube. Primary source from X-ray tube was used to produced secondary X-ray from selenium, molybdenum and cadmium targets. The fluorescence X-ray from the sample was detected using Si(Li) detector with resolution of 0. 175 keV (Mn-K(x). The spectrometer was used for determination of multi-elements with atomic number between 20 to 44 in river sediment samples. The X-ray spectrum, from the samples were analysed using computer software which was developed based on Marquardt method. Optimal conditions and detection limits are determined experimentally by variation of excitation parameters for each combination of secondary target and tube voltage

  2. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haungs, Andreas

    Investigations of the energy spectrum as well as the mass composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of PeV to EeV are important for understanding both, the origin of the galactic and the extragalactic cosmic rays. Recently, three modern experimental installations (KASCADE-Grande, IceTop, Tunka-133), dedicated to investigate this primary energy range, have published new results on the all-particle energy spectrum. In this short review these results are presented and the similarities and differences discussed. In addition, the effects of using different hadronic interaction models for interpreting the measured air-shower data will be examined. Finally, a brief discussion on the question if the present results are in agreement or in contradiction with astrophysical models for the transition from galactic to extragalactic origin of cosmic rays completes this paper.

  3. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  4. Measurements of the radiation energy distribution in the soft X-ray region in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.

    1985-10-01

    The soft X-ray radiation power with 400 eV <= E <= 100 eV originating from resonance lines of C-, O-, Fe-, Cr-, Mo-impurities contributes the major part of the total radiation losses from the plasma centre. A coarse discrimination between the most important impurity species can be obtained by using an array of filters consisting of different material. Different energy windows are defined by the energies of the corresponding L-line absorption edges of the filter materials. The radiation power of each energy band is monitored by a set of surface barrier diodes during the plasma discharges. Information about the energy spectrum is also provided by a two filter method giving an estimation of the mean radiation energy. In addition, X-ray pulse height analysis measurements are presented. The results are correlated with spectroscopic measurements. (orig.)

  5. A redetermination of the X-ray spectrum of SN 1006 and excess diffuse emission from the Lupus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Becker, R.H.; Hughes, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray from SN 1006 and from the adjacent Lupus region were separately observed with the Tenma gas scintillation proportional counters. The spectrum of the local excess emission from the Lupus region can be consistently fitted with either a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 7.5 ± 2.6 keV or a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.1 ± 0.1. The x-ray emission from SN 1006, after subtraction of this local excess, has a spectrum which can be described as a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 3.3 ± 0.1 or a thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with a temperature of 1.9 ± 0.1 keV which is much softer than the previously reported spectrum. No significant iron line emission was observed in the SN 1006 spectrum. The 90 % upper limit for the equivalent width of the iron line was reduced to 400 eV. The observed spectrum can also be interpreted in terms of a nonequilibrium ionization model of about 2-keV electron temperature. (author)

  6. Simulation and evaluation of the absorption edge subtraction technique in energy-resolved X-ray radiography applied to the cultural heritage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Pernia, Diana; Cabal Rodriguez, Ana E.; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Espen, Piet Van

    2011-01-01

    In this work the mathematical simulation of photon transport in the matter was used to evaluate the potentials of a new energy-resolved X-ray radiography system. The system is intended for investigations of cultural heritage object, mainly painting. The radiographic system uses polychromatic radiation from an X-ray tube and measures the spectrum transmitted through the object with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Manipulation of the data-set obtained allows constructing images with enhanced contrast for certain elements. Here the use of the absorption edge subtraction technique was emphasized. The simulated results were in good agreement with the experimental data.(author)

  7. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  8. Effective Energy Determination Of Radiodiagnostic X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumarni; Mart, Terry

    2000-01-01

    X-rays have been used for diagnostic radiology to produce image on film that give anatomy information. Effective energy should be known to get benefit exposure. Half value layer (HVL) as shown as monoenergetic x-rays has similar spectra of energy x-rays. It has been done measurement with x-ray machine Tanka at P3KRBIN-Batan for 40 kVp to 119 kVp of potential found of Aluminium HVL are 0.115 cm to 0.385 cm and energy effective between 23.24 keV to 37.5 keV

  9. Energy spectrum structure and ''trap'' effects in a three-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.; Sitnichenko, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Investigation is made of the threshold energy spectrum structure in a system of three spinless particles depending on the form of two-particle interaction. The correlation dependence of the spectrum and low-energy scattering parameters are shown. A new phenomenon of ''traps'' for the spectrum in a three-particle system with interaction involving components of considerably different ranges is established

  10. Technical Note: SPEKTR 3.0—A computational tool for x-ray spectrum modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, J.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A computational toolkit (SPEKTR 3.0) has been developed to calculate x-ray spectra based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) algorithm, updating previous work based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) spectral model. The toolkit includes a MATLAB (The Mathworks, Natick, MA) function library and improved user interface (UI) along with an optimization algorithm to match calculated beam quality with measurements. Methods: The SPEKTR code generates x-ray spectra (photons/mm{sup 2}/mAs at 100 cm from the source) using TASMICS as default (with TASMIP as an option) in 1 keV energy bins over beam energies 20–150 kV, extensible to 640 kV using the TASMICS spectra. An optimization tool was implemented to compute the added filtration (Al and W) that provides a best match between calculated and measured x-ray tube output (mGy/mAs or mR/mAs) for individual x-ray tubes that may differ from that assumed in TASMICS or TASMIP and to account for factors such as anode angle. Results: The median percent difference in photon counts for a TASMICS and TASMIP spectrum was 4.15% for tube potentials in the range 30–140 kV with the largest percentage difference arising in the low and high energy bins due to measurement errors in the empirically based TASMIP model and inaccurate polynomial fitting. The optimization tool reported a close agreement between measured and calculated spectra with a Pearson coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The computational toolkit, SPEKTR, has been updated to version 3.0, validated against measurements and existing models, and made available as open source code. Video tutorials for the SPEKTR function library, UI, and optimization tool are available.

  11. Technical Note: spektr 3.0—A computational tool for x-ray spectrum modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, J.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A computational toolkit (spektr 3.0) has been developed to calculate x-ray spectra based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) algorithm, updating previous work based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) spectral model. The toolkit includes a matlab (The Mathworks, Natick, MA) function library and improved user interface (UI) along with an optimization algorithm to match calculated beam quality with measurements. Methods: The spektr code generates x-ray spectra (photons/mm2/mAs at 100 cm from the source) using TASMICS as default (with TASMIP as an option) in 1 keV energy bins over beam energies 20–150 kV, extensible to 640 kV using the TASMICS spectra. An optimization tool was implemented to compute the added filtration (Al and W) that provides a best match between calculated and measured x-ray tube output (mGy/mAs or mR/mAs) for individual x-ray tubes that may differ from that assumed in TASMICS or TASMIP and to account for factors such as anode angle. Results: The median percent difference in photon counts for a TASMICS and TASMIP spectrum was 4.15% for tube potentials in the range 30–140 kV with the largest percentage difference arising in the low and high energy bins due to measurement errors in the empirically based TASMIP model and inaccurate polynomial fitting. The optimization tool reported a close agreement between measured and calculated spectra with a Pearson coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The computational toolkit, spektr, has been updated to version 3.0, validated against measurements and existing models, and made available as open source code. Video tutorials for the spektr function library, UI, and optimization tool are available. PMID:27487888

  12. Analytical investigation of energy spectrums of beta rays emitted from 90Sr and 204Tl radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectra of beta rays emitted from 90 Sr and 204 Tl radioisotopes were obtained by using a silicon surface barrier detector with a 1000 μm depleted layer and 50 mm 2 effective area. The detector response function is interpreted by making use of range distributions of mono-energetic electrons in matter and by assuming a linear energy loss along the range in the depleted layer of the detector. An analytical expression is given for pulse height distribution obtained in the surface barrier detector. A good agreement is observed between the experimental results and theoretical interpretation. (author)

  13. Determination of coal ash content by the combined x-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, I. F.; Baturin, A. A.; Mikhailov, A. I.; Borisova, S. S.; Fomina, L. P.

    2018-02-01

    An alternative method is proposed for the determination of the inorganic constituent mass fraction (ash) in solid fuel by the ratio of Compton and Rayleigh X-ray scattering peaks IC/IR subject to the iron fluorescence intensity. An original X-ray optical scheme with a Ti/Mo (or Sc/Cu) double-layer secondary radiator allows registration of the combined fluorescence-and-scattering spectrum at the specified scattering angle. An algorithm for linear calibration of the Compton-to-Rayleigh IC/IR ratio is proposed which uses standard samples with two certified characteristics: mass fractions of ash (Ad) and iron oxide (WFe2O3). Ash mass fractions have been determined for coals of different deposits in the wide range of Ad from 9.4% to 52.7% mass and WFe2O3 from 0.3% to 4.95% mass. Due to the high penetrability of the probing radiation with energy E > 17 keV, the sample preparation procedure is rather simplified in comparison with the traditional method of Ad determination by the sum of fluorescence intensities of all constituent elements.

  14. On the Energy Spectrum of Strong Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Perez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence attracts interest due to its fundamental importance and its relevance for interpreting astrophysical data. Here we present measurements of the energy spectra from a series of high-resolution direct numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence with a strong guide field and for increasing Reynolds number. The presented simulations, with numerical resolutions up to 2048^{3} mesh points and statistics accumulated over 30 to 150 eddy turnover times, constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the largest statistical sample of steady state magnetohydrodynamics turbulence to date. We study both the balanced case, where the energies associated with Alfvén modes propagating in opposite directions along the guide field, E^{+}(k_{⊥} and E^{-}(k_{⊥}, are equal, and the imbalanced case where the energies are different. In the balanced case, we find that the energy spectrum converges to a power law with exponent -3/2 as the Reynolds number is increased, which is consistent with phenomenological models that include scale-dependent dynamic alignment. For the imbalanced case, with E^{+}>E^{-}, the simulations show that E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2} for all Reynolds numbers considered, while E^{+} has a slightly steeper spectrum at small Re. As the Reynolds number increases, E^{+} flattens. Since E^{±} are pinned at the dissipation scale and anchored at the driving scales, we postulate that at sufficiently high Re the spectra will become parallel in the inertial range and scale as E^{+}∝E^{-}∝k_{⊥}^{-3/2}. Questions regarding the universality of the spectrum and the value of the “Kolmogorov constant” are discussed.

  15. Comparative study on γ energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise γ energy spectrum of 60 Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for γ energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to γ energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  16. Continuous gamma-ray spectrometry in the fast flux test facility (FFTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Kaiser, B.J.; Moore, F.S. Jr.; Bunch, W.L.; McElroy, W.N.; Sheen, E.M.

    1980-03-01

    In-core Compton-recoil γ-ray spectrometry was carried out in FFTF at very low power in the In-Reactor Thimble (IRT). The lower-energy electron spectrum at the FFTF-IRT midplane and the unfolded γ-ray spectrum are shown. 2 figures

  17. Quantum analysis of the background in X-ray appearance potential spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bowen; Zhang Nailing

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical expression of X-ray continuous spectrum is derived from the quantum theory, from which a more exact integral formula of continuous currents has been established. And expressions of first-derivative and second-derivative integrations are derived from continuous currents. A numerical integration pack of CUMSS is employed, from which numerical quadratures are calculated

  18. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  19. A color display device recording X ray spectra, especially intended for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulch, J.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a color display recording device for X ray spectra intended for medical radiography. The video signal of the X ray camera receiving the radiation having passed through the patient is amplified and transformed into a color coding according to the energy spectrum received by the camera. In a first version, the energy spectrum from the camera gives directly an image on the color tube. In a second version the energy spectrum, after having been transformed into digital signals, is first sent into a memory, then into a computer used as a spectrum analyzer, and finally into the color display device [fr

  20. Formation of a superhigh energy electron spectrum in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaronyan, F.A.; Ambartsumyan, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of superhigh energy electron spectrum in the disk of the galaxy and halo is considered. A different behaviour of the electron spectrum within the framework of capture models in disk or halo, in the energy region E> or approximately 10 5 GeV is revealed due to the account of relativistic corrections ir the energy losses of electrons during the inverse Compton scattering. A comparison with the existing experimental data is carried out

  1. High-energy emissions from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hui, C. Y., E-mail: takata@hku.hk, E-mail: gene930@connect.hku.hk, E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-20

    We study mechanisms of multi-wavelength emissions (X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-rays) from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039. This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we report on results of observational analysis using 4 yr data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Due to the improvement of instrumental response function and increase of the statistics, the observational uncertainties of the spectrum in the ∼100-300 MeV bands and >10 GeV bands are significantly improved. The present data analysis suggests that the 0.1-100 GeV emissions from LS 5039 contain three different components: (1) the first component contributes to <1 GeV emissions around superior conjunction, (2) the second component dominates in the 1-10 GeV energy bands, and (3) the third component is compatible with the lower-energy tail of the TeV emissions. In the second part, we develop an emission model to explain the properties of the phase-resolved emissions in multi-wavelength observations. Assuming that LS 5039 includes a pulsar, we argue that emissions from both the magnetospheric outer gap and the inverse-Compton scattering process of cold-relativistic pulsar wind contribute to the observed GeV emissions. We assume that the pulsar is wrapped by two kinds of termination shock: Shock-I due to the interaction between the pulsar wind and the stellar wind and Shock-II due to the effect of the orbital motion. We propose that the X-rays are produced by the synchrotron radiation at the Shock-I region and the TeV gamma-rays are produced by the inverse-Compton scattering process at the Shock-II region.

  2. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich, E-mail: phongphaeth.p@chula.ac.th; Nares, Chankow [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hao, Quang Nguyen [Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Ministry of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-01-22

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  3. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method

  4. X-ray studies of BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejski, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents spectral x-ray data for BL Lac objects observed by the IPC and MPC aboard the Einstein Observatory and interprets that data in a context of their overall radiation spectra using synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton models. The objects considered are: OJ 287, PKS 0735 + 178, I Zw 186, PKS 0548-322, Mkn 180, BL Lacertae, PKS 2155-304, H 0414-009 and H 0323 + 022. X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects are well described by a power law model with a low energy cutoff due to absorption within the own Galaxy. The best fit values of the energy spectral index α in the IPC (0.2-4.0 keV) band range from 0.73 to 2.35, with a mean of 1.2 and rms spread of 0.51. No single, universal index can fit the spectra of all objects. For all objects except PKS 0735 + 178, the x-ray spectrum is an extrapolation of the infrared/optical UV spectrum; in PKS 0735 + 178, the x-ray spectrum lies significantly below such an extrapolation. The overall electromagnetic distribution in those objects is interpreted as arising due to the synchrotron process in at least two spatial regions, with sizes respectively ∼10 18 cm for the radio component and ∼10 16 cm for the optical component. In objects where the x-ray spectrum lies on the extrapolation of the infrared-optical-ultraviolet spectrum, the x-ray emission is interpreted also to be due to the synchrotron process

  5. Flash X-Ray Apparatus With Spectrum Control Functions For Medical Use And Fuji Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, H.; Sato, E.; Hayasi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Arima, H.; Hoshino, F.

    1985-02-01

    Flash radiographic bio-medical studies at sub-microsecond intervals were performed by using both a new type of flash X-ray(FX) apparatus with spectrum control functions and Fuji Computed Radiography(FCR). This single flasher tends to have a comparatively long exposure time and the electric pulse width of the FX wave form is about 0.3,usec. The maximum FX dose is about 50mR at 1m per pulse, and the effective focal spot varies according to condenser charging voltage, A-C distance, etc., ranging from 1.0 to 3.0mm in diameter, but in the low dose rate region it can be reduced to less than 1.0mm in diameter. The FX dose is determined by the condenser charging voltage and the A-C distance, while the FX spectrum is determined by the average voltage of the FX tube and filters. Various clear FX images were obtained by controlling the spectrum and dose. FCR is a new storage medium for medical radiography developed by the Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd. and this apparatus has various image forming functions: low dose radiography, film density control, image contrast control, subtraction management and others. We have used this new apparatus in conjunction with our FX radiography and have obtained some new and interesting biomedical radiograms: the edge enhancement image, the instantaneous enlarged image, and the single exposure energy subtraction image using the FX spectrum distribution.

  6. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P.A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S.W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P.S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S.J.; Focke, W.B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J.E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M.N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M.E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J.F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Sgrò, C.; Reposeur, T.; Siskind, E.J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J.B.; Thompson, D.J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first 7 years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  7. The theoretical study of full spectrum analysis method for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Weichong

    2011-01-01

    Spectra of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was found to be the synthesis of spectral components of radioelement sources by analyzing the constitution of radioactive sources for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and establishing the models of gamma-ray measurement. The mathematical equation for analysising airborne gamma-ray full spectrometric data can be expressed into matrix and related expansions were developed for the mineral resources exploration, environmental radiation measurement, nuclear emergency monitoring, and so on. Theoretical study showed that the atmospheric radon could be directly computed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data with full spectrum analysis without the use of the accessional upward-looking detectors. (authors)

  8. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  9. X-ray microanalysis with microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: cisaila@ph.tum.de; Feilitzsch, F. von [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hoehne, J. [VeriCold Technologies GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 21, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Hollerith, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Infineon Technologies AG, Failure Analysis FA5, Munich (Germany); Phelan, K. [VeriCold Technologies GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 21, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Simmnacher, B. [Infineon Technologies AG, Failure Analysis FA5, Munich (Germany); Weiland, R. [Infineon Technologies AG, Failure Analysis FA5, Munich (Germany); Wernicke, D. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); VeriCold Technologies GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 21, 85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The combination of high-energy-resolution spectrometers with high-spatial-resolution scanning electron microscopes provides a powerful tool for material analysis. X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting transition edge sensors combine the advantages of commonly used energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, i.e. a fast spectrum acquisition and a high-energy-resolution over a wide energy range. While the energies of the characteristic lines present in a spectrum contain the qualitative composition of the analyzed material, the corresponding mass fractions can be obtained from their intensities. In this work first quantitative measurements performed with the POLARIS spectrometer system are presented.

  10. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 [Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, B.; Lott, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a γ-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares were observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid γ-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the γ-ray emission region in the source. The γγ-opacity constrains the Doppler factor δ_γ ≥ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6 × 10"1"5 cm. The γ-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in the 1–2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the γ-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the γ-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad line region (< 1.6 pc). As a result, the spectral behavior and temporal characteristics of the individual flares indicate the presence of multiple shock scenarios at the base of the jet.

  11. On the cause of variability of the cosmic ray spectrum in the knee region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) energy spectra for H, He, Si, and Fe nuclei with energy-to-charge number ratios ℰ/ Z in the range from 10 to 5 × 107 GeV are studied using observational data obtained at different times in different energy ranges: AMS-02, CREAM, Tibet ASγ, Tibet (hybrid), GRAPES-3, KASCADE, and KASCADE-Grande. Comparison of the H and He CR fluxes according to the KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande data (for different models of deconvolving CR spectra) with the Tibet ASγ and Tibet (hybrid) data obtained at another time in the range of ℰ/ Z ˜ 3 × 106 GeV demonstrates space weather-caused variability of the CR flux. This feature of CR energy spectra in the Tibet ASγ data is most clearly observed in the spectra of heavier nuclei (Si and Fe) according to the KASCADE-Grande and GRAPES-3 data. The variability in the energy spectra of all CRs in the vicinity of the "knee" is shown in the data of Yakutsk EAS, CASA-BLANCA, and Tibet-III experiments. The variability of the CR flux on a time scale on the order of several years exists only if the source corresponding to the peak in the energy spectrum is situated at a distance of no more than 1 pc from the Sun. Rapid surfatron acceleration of CRs may result from colliding interstellar clouds nearest to the Sun (LIC and G). This acceleration mechanism allows one to explain the variability of the CR spectrum in the range 103 GeV < ℰ/ Z < 108 GeV. Conditions for the trapping of strongly relativistic Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle velocity and momentum, and the dependence of the particle acceleration rate on the initial parameters of the problem are analyzed using numerical calculations. The structure of the phase plane of the accelerated Fe nuclei is examined. Optimal conditions for the implementation of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration of Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave are formulated.

  12. Low-energy cosmic rays in the Orion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed nuclear gamma-ray line emission from the Orion complex implies a high flux of low-energy cosmic rays (LECR) with unusual abundance. This cosmic ray component would dominate the energy density, pressure, and ionising power of cosmic rays, and thus would have a strong impact...

  13. Low energy spectral index and Ep evolution of quasi-thermal photosphere emission of gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations by the Fermi satellite suggest that a photosphere emission component is contributing to the observed spectrum of many gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One important question is whether the photosphere component can interpret the typical 'Band' function of GRBs with a typical low energy photon spectral index α ∼ –1. We perform a detailed study of the photosphere emission spectrum by progressively introducing several physical ingredients previously not fully incorporated, including the probability distribution of the location of a dynamically evolving photosphere, superposition of emission from an equal arrival time 'volume' in a continuous wind, the evolution of optical depth of a wind with finite but evolving outer boundary, as well as the effect of different top-hat wind luminosity (L w ) profiles. By assuming a comoving blackbody spectrum emerging from the photosphere, we find that for an outflow with a constant or increasing L w , the low-energy spectrum below the peak energy (E p ), can be modified to F ν ∼ ν 1.5 (α ∼ +0.5). A softer (–1 < α < +0.5) or flat (α = –1) spectrum can be obtained during the L w decreasing phase or high-latitude-emission-dominated phase. We also study the evolution of E p as a function of wind and photosphere luminosity in this photosphere model. An E p – L tracking pattern can be reproduced if a certain positive dependence between the dimensionless entropy η and L w is introduced. However, the hard-to-soft evolution pattern cannot be reproduced unless a contrived condition is invoked. In order to interpret the Band spectrum, a more complicated photosphere model or a different energy dissipation and radiation mechanism is needed.

  14. Optimization of breast cancer detection in Dual Energy X-ray Mammography using a CMOS imaging detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukou, V; Martini, N; Sotiropoulou, P; Nikiforidis, G; Fountos, G; Michail, C; Kalyvas, N; Valais, I; Kandarakis, I; Bakas, A; Kounadi, E

    2015-01-01

    Dual energy mammography has the ability to improve the detection of microcalcifications leading to early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this simulation study, a prototype dual energy mammography system, using a CMOS based imaging detector with different X-ray spectra, was modeled. The device consists of a 33.91 mg/cm 2 Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb scintillator screen, placed in direct contact with the sensor, with a pixel size of 22.5 μm. Various filter materials and tube voltages of a Tungsten (W) anode for both the low and high energy were examined. The selection of the filters applied to W spectra was based on their K- edges (K-edge filtering). Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was used to simulate microcalcifications. Calcification signal-to-noise ratio (SNR tc ) was calculated for entrance surface dose within the acceptable levels of conventional mammography. Optimization was based on the maximization of SNR tc while minimizing the entrance dose. The best compromise between SNR tc value and dose was provided by a 35kVp X-ray spectrum with added beam filtration of 100μm Pd and a 70kVp Yb filtered spectrum of 800 μm for the low and high energy, respectively. Computer simulation results show that a SNR tc value of 3.6 can be achieved for a calcification size of 200 μm. Compared with previous studies, this method can improve detectability of microcalcifications

  15. Derivation of muon range spectrum under rock from the recent primary spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The muon range spectra under Mont Blanc Tunnel and Kolar Gold Field rocks have been calculated from the recently measured primary cosmic ray spectrum. The scaling hypothesis of Feynman has been used for the calculation of pion and kaon spectra in the atmosphere. The meson atmospheric diffusion equation has been solved by following the method of Bugaev et al. The derived muon energy spectrum has been found to be in good agreement with the measured data of the Kiel, Durham, DEIS, and Moscow University groups. The calculated muon energy spectra at large polar angles have been compared with the different experimental results. The integral muon spectrum up to 20 TeV supports the MARS burst data favourably. Using the procedure of Kobayakawa, the muon energy loss in rock due to ionization, pair production, and bremsstrahlung and nuclear interactions from Bezrukov and Bugaev, we have constructed the range-energy relation in Mont Blanc and Kolar Gold Field rocks. The estimated range spectra have been corrected for range fluctuations and have been compared with the Mont Blanc Tunnel data of Castagnoli et al., Bergamasco et al., and Sheldon et al. and the Kolar Gold Field data compilation by Krishnaswamy et al

  16. Multislot Simultaneous Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive radio (CR, the spectrum sensing of the primary user (PU may consume some electrical power from the battery capacity of the secondary user (SU, resulting in a decrease in the transmission power of the SU. In this paper, a multislot simultaneous spectrum sensing and energy harvesting model is proposed, which uses the harvested radio frequency (RF energy of the PU signal to supply the spectrum sensing. In the proposed model, the sensing duration is divided into multiple sensing slots consisting of one local-sensing subslot and one energy-harvesting subslot. If the PU is detected to be present in the local-sensing subslot, the SU will harvest RF energy of the PU signal in the energy-harvesting slot, otherwise, the SU will continue spectrum sensing. The global decision on the presence of the PU is obtained through combining local sensing results from all the sensing slots by adopting “Or-logic Rule”. A joint optimization problem of sensing time and time splitter factor is proposed to maximize the throughput of the SU under the constraints of probabilities of false alarm and detection and energy harvesting. The simulation results have shown that the proposed model can clearly improve the maximal throughput of the SU compared to the traditional sensing-throughput tradeoff model.

  17. Cosmic Ray Physics with the KASCADE-Grande Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kang, D.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Mitrica, B.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schröder, F. G.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.

    The existence of a knee at a few PeV in the all-particle cosmic ray energy spectrum has been well established by several experiments but its physical origin has eluded researches for a long time. It is believed that keys to disentangle the mystery could be found in the spectrum and the composition of cosmic rays between 1 PeV and 1 EeV. A first detailed look into the elemental chemical abundances of cosmic rays in this energy regime was provided by both the KASCADE and the KASCADE-Grande experiments. Their measurements opened the door to a wealth of new data on the subject, which led to the discovery of new structures in the all-particle energy spectrum and the confirmation of knee-like features in the spectra of individual mass groups, as well as the observation of an unexpected ankle-like structure at around 100 PeV in the flux of the light component of cosmic rays. In this contribution, early findings with the KASCADE-Grande experiment will be reviewed and then a short update on the analyses currently performed with the data of the observatory will be presented.

  18. Radio emission, cosmic ray electrons, and the production of γ-rays in the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, W.R.; Simpson, G.A.; Cane, H.V.

    1980-01-01

    Using a perspective based on new radio data, we have reexamined the traditional derivation of the interstellar electron spectrum using the galactic nonthermal radio spectrum. The radio spectrum derived in the polar directions is now used as a base for this derivation rather than the anticenter spectrum. The interstellar electron spectrum between 70 and 1200 MeV is found to have an exponent -2.14 +- 0.06, steeper than previously determined, and leading to electron fluxes at low energies up to a factor of 10 larger than previously predicted. The electron spectrum below approx.20 MeV measured at Earth is used along with solar modulation arguments to suggest that this interstellar electron spectrum flattens to an exponent of -1.6 +- 0.1 between 5 and 70 MeV. We then use radio maps to predict the γ-ray fluxes produced by the bremsstrahlung process to be expected from these electrons. Using the radio maps, we fiest define L/sub eff/, the effective path length for radio emission in various directions, to predict the effective path length for γ-ray emission. The spectral shapes of γ-rays predicted when the contribution from π 0 decay is included, show little evidence of a pion-decay bump and agree well with those observed, indicating that large changes in the cosmic-ray electron to proton ratio from that observed locally are unlikely along a line of sight. The differences in the predicted and observed γ-ray intensities in the galactic plane are small. However, in the polar direction, the predicted γ-ray flux using the radio data is approx.6 times larger than that actually observed. This is indicative of the fact that the radio emissivity is considerably thicker than the γ-ray emissivity disk, and the cosmic-ray electron population extends beyond the gaseous disk of the Galaxy. This technique of estimating the γ-ray intensity using the radio data is compared with the usual technique which employs estimates of the column density of hydrogen

  19. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration

  20. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user's transmission power and media access frame

  1. The influence of the observatory latitude on the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rita C. dos [Departamento de Engenharias e Exatas, Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Pioneiro, 2153, Palotina, PR, 85950-000 Brazil (Brazil); De Souza, Vitor [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 Brazil (Brazil); De Almeida, Rogerio M. [EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Edivaldo M., E-mail: ritacassia@ufpr.br, E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br, E-mail: rmenezes@id.uff.br, E-mail: emoura@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão trav. R 187, São Paulo, 05508-090 Brazil (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Recent precision measurements of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) arrival directions, spectrum and parameters related to the mass of the primary particle have been done by the HiRes, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array (TA) Observatories. In this paper, distributions of arrival directions of events in the nearby Universe are assumed to correlate with sources in the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey, Palermo Swift-BAT and Swift-BAT catalogs, and the effect of the latitude of the observatory on the measurement of the energy spectrum and on the capability of measuring anisotropy is studied. The differences between given latitudes on the northern and southern hemispheres are quantified. It is shown that the latitude of the observatory: a) has an influence on the total flux measured and b) imposes an important limitation on the capability of measuring an anisotropic sky.

  2. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  3. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  4. X-Rays spectrum and air kerma during a mammography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J.; Hernandez V, R.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2009-10-01

    The X-rays spectrum produced in a mammography has been calculated by means of Monte Carlo methods. In this calculation series it is modeled the electrons source, the target and the filter. The spectra were calculated for an energy of the electrons of 28 keV and for targets of W, Mo and Rh. The calculations extended to analyze the effect that produces the filters inclusion in the spectra; the spectra of W-A1, Rh-Rh, Mo-Mo, Mo-Rh and Mo-Be were calculated this way. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters of ZrO 2 +PTFE the air kerma was measured in five points located on a phantom made with acrylic and water when it is was exposed to a X-rays beam produced by electrons of 24 keV and 10 m A of current that it produces a mammography. The values of the air kerma on the entrance surface of the phantom were compared with the calculated values by means of Monte Carlo methods. The calculated spectra present a continuous component and another discreet and its form is similar to the reported spectra in the literature. The filters inclusion allows the elimination of the low energy photons that do not have utility in the obtaining of the mammography image and only they contribute to deposit a dose in the mamma. The values of the measured air kerma indicate that the five points receive the same air kerma approximately, what means that the beam is homogeneous, of the Monte Carlo calculations we find that the center receives a bigger dose which implies that the beam is not uniform, the explanation on this fact it is attributed to that a simple model was used in the calculations, nevertheless, the average of the air kerma measured on the entrance surface of the phantom was of 0.96 ± 0.03 m G, while the obtained by means of the calculations was of 0.96 ± 0.06 mGy, when comparing both significant differences do not exist. (Author)

  5. The origin of blueshifted absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of PG 1211+143: outflow or disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L. C.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    In some radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGN), high-energy absorption features in the X-ray spectra have been interpreted as ultrafast outflows (UFOs) - highly ionized material (e.g. Fe XXV and Fe XXVI) ejected at mildly relativistic velocities. In some cases, these outflows can carry energy in excess of the binding energy of the host galaxy. Needless to say, these features demand our attention as they are strong signatures of AGN feedback and will influence galaxy evolution. For the same reason, alternative models need to be discussed and refuted or confirmed. Gallo and Fabian proposed that some of these features could arise from resonance absorption of the reflected spectrum in a layer of ionized material located above and corotating with the accretion disc. Therefore, the absorbing medium would be subjected to similar blurring effects as seen in the disc. A priori, the existence of such plasma above the disc is as plausible as a fast wind. In this work, we highlight the ambiguity by demonstrating that the absorption model can describe the ˜7.6 keV absorption feature (and possibly other features) in the quasar PG 1211+143, an AGN that is often described as a classic example of a UFO. In this model, the 2-10 keV spectrum would be largely reflection dominated (as opposed to power law dominated in the wind models) and the resonance absorption would be originating in a layer between about 6 and 60 gravitational radii. The studies of such features constitute a cornerstone for future X-ray observatories like Astro-H and Athena+. Should our model prove correct, or at least important in some cases, then absorption will provide another diagnostic tool with which to probe the inner accretion flow with future missions.

  6. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  7. The self-absorption effect of gamma rays in 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiaohua Hsu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials assay with gamma-ray spectrum measurement is a well-established method for safeguards. However, for a thick source, the self-absorption of characteristic low-energy gamma rays has been a handicap to accurate assay. The author has carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study this effect using the 239 Pu α-decay gamma-ray spectrum as an example. The thickness of a plutonium metal source can be considered a function of gamma-ray intensity ratios. In a practical application, gamma-ray intensity ratios can be obtained from a measured spectrum. With the help of calculated curves, scientists can find the source thickness and make corrections to gamma-ray intensities, which then lead to an accurate quantitative determination of radioactive isotopes in the material

  8. Thermal x-rays from SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, K.; Shigeyama, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Itoh, H.; Masai, K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how the x-ray spectrum of SN 1987A observed with the Ginga satellite may be explained by the ejecta-circumstellar matter collision model at photon energies below 15 keV. The harder x-rays may be ascribed to Compton degradation of the gamma-rays from 56 Co

  9. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF A HIGH COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indriolo, Nick; Fields, Brian D.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse interstellar clouds show large abundances of H + 3 which can only be maintained by a high ionization rate of H 2 . Cosmic rays are the dominant ionization mechanism in this environment, so the large ionization rate implies a high cosmic-ray flux, and a large amount of energy residing in cosmic rays. In this paper, we find that the standard propagated cosmic-ray spectrum predicts an ionization rate much lower than that inferred from H + 3 . Low-energy (∼10 MeV) cosmic rays are the most efficient at ionizing hydrogen, but cannot be directly detected; consequently, an otherwise unobservable enhancement of the low-energy cosmic-ray flux offers a plausible explanation for the H + 3 results. Beyond ionization, cosmic rays also interact with the interstellar medium by spalling atomic nuclei and exciting atomic nuclear states. These processes produce the light elements Li, Be, and B, as well as gamma-ray lines. To test the consequences of an enhanced low-energy cosmic-ray flux, we adopt two physically motivated cosmic-ray spectra which by construction reproduce the ionization rate inferred in diffuse clouds, and investigate the implications of these spectra on dense cloud ionization rates, light-element abundances, gamma-ray fluxes, and energetics. One spectrum proposed here provides an explanation for the high ionization rate seen in diffuse clouds while still appearing to be broadly consistent with other observables, but the shape of this spectrum suggests that supernovae remnants may not be the predominant accelerators of low-energy cosmic rays.

  11. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, N

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also shown as a function of the Òvertical surface energyÓ Eμ cos !. A Þt to a simpliÞed model of muon pro- duction in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  12. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, B.; Rachen, J. P.; Merten, L.; van Vliet, A.; Becker Tjus, J.

    2018-02-01

    Radio galaxies are intensively discussed as the sources of cosmic rays observed above about 3 × 1018 eV, called ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). We present a first, systematic approach that takes the individual characteristics of these sources into account, as well as the impact of the extragalactic magnetic-field structures up to a distance of 120 Mpc. We use a mixed simulation setup, based on 3D simulations of UHECRs ejected by observed, individual radio galaxies taken out to a distance of 120 Mpc, and on 1D simulations over a continuous source distribution contributing from beyond 120 Mpc. Additionally, we include the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A at a distance of about 250 Mpc, as its contribution is so strong that it must be considered as an individual point source. The implementation of the UHECR ejection in our simulation setup, both that of individual radio galaxies and the continuous source function, is based on a detailed consideration of the physics of radio jets and standard first-order Fermi acceleration. This allows to derive the spectrum of ejected UHECR as a function of radio luminosity, and at the same time provides an absolute normalization of the problem involving only a small set of parameters adjustable within narrow constraints. We show that the average contribution of radio galaxies taken over a very large volume cannot explain the observed features of UHECRs measured at Earth. However, we obtain excellent agreement with the spectrum, composition, and arrival-direction distribution of UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory, if we assume that most UHECRs observed arise from only two sources: the ultra-luminous radio galaxy Cygnus A, providing a mostly light composition of nuclear species dominating up to about 6 × 1019 eV, and the nearest radio galaxy Centaurus A, providing a heavy composition dominating above 6 × 1019 eV . Here we have to assume that extragalactic magnetic fields out to 250 Mpc, which we did not

  13. What is the correct Fe L{sub 23} X-ray absorption spectrum of magnetite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaohui; Kalirai, Samanbir S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Hitchcock, Adam P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Bazylinski, Dennis A. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Fe L{sub 3} X-ray absorption spectra of biological (MV-1 magnetotactic bacteria) and abiotic (Sigma–Aldrich) nano-magnetite are reported. • An inconsistency in the literature for this spectrum is documented. • Powder diffraction shows the abiotic sample is partly oxidized, toward maghemite. • H{sub 2} thermal reduction converts the Fe L{sub 3} spectrum of the abiotic sample to that of the biotic. • Strong oxidation (air, 600 °C) is needed to convert the spectrum of the biotic magnetite to that of maghemite; magnetosome chains are protected by an air-impervious membrane. - Abstract: Various groups have reported Fe L{sub 23} X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), each claiming to be that of magnetite, but which contradict each other. Here we report an XAS study of two kinds of magnetite: one is biogenic magnetite nanocrystals extracted from the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetovibrio blakemorei strain MV-1; the other is synthetic, abiogenically produced nano-magnetite. We see significantly different XAS spectra of these two materials. Only when the abiogenic magnetite was reduced under H{sub 2} did it give the same spectrum as the biogenic sample. Extensive heating of the biogenic magnetite in air produced spectra similar to that of the abiogenic magnetite. These two spectra are typical of the range of published Fe L{sub 23} spectra of magnetite. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the biogenic material is stoichiometric Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and showed that the as-received or partly reduced abiogenic material is a non-stoichiometric oxide, intermediate between magnetite and maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). When the membrane which surrounds magnetosome chains was intact, the biotic magnetite single crystals were surprisingly resistant to oxidation. This study clarifies a significant confusion existing in the literature as to the correct Fe L{sub 23} X-ray absorption spectra of magnetite and maghemite.

  14. Energy detection for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio

    CERN Document Server

    Atapattu, Saman; Jiang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief focuses on the current state-of-the-art research on spectrum sensing by using energy detection, a low-complexity and low-cost technique. It includes a comprehensive summary of recent research, fundamental theories, possible architectures, useful performance measurements of energy detection and applications of energy detection. Concise, practical chapters explore conventional energy detectors, alternative forms of energy detectors, performance measurements, diversity techniques and cooperative networks. The careful analysis enables reader to identify the most efficient techn

  15. Spectrum of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission derived from first-year Fermi Large Area Telescope data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-03-12

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse gamma-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse gamma-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar gamma-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index gamma = 2.41 +/- 0.05 and intensity I(>100 MeV) = (1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  16. The electromagnetic spectrum: current and future applications in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Ron R

    2013-05-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum is composed of waves of various energies that interact with matter. When focused upon and directed at tumors, these energy sources can be employed as a means of lesion ablation. While the use of x-rays is widely known in this regard, a growing body of evidence shows that other members of this family can also achieve oncologic success. This article will review therapeutic application of the electromagnetic spectrum in current interventions and potential future applications.

  17. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  18. Dual structure in the charge excitation spectrum of electron-doped cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejas, Matías; Yamase, Hiroyuki; Greco, Andrés

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the recent resonant x-ray scattering (RXS) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments for electron-doped cuprates, we study the charge excitation spectrum in a layered t -J model with the long-range Coulomb interaction. We show that the spectrum is not dominated by a specific type of charge excitations, but by different kinds of charge fluctuations, and is characterized by a dual structure in the energy space. Low-energy charge excitations correspond to various types of bond-charge fluctuations driven by the exchange term (J term), whereas high-energy charge excitations are due to usual on-site charge fluctuations and correspond to plasmon excitations above the particle-hole continuum. The interlayer coupling, which is frequently neglected in many theoretical studies, is particularly important to the high-energy charge excitations.

  19. Superiority of Low Energy 160 KV X-Rays Compared to High Energy 6 MV X-Rays in Heavy Element Radiosensitization for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Palmer, Alycia; Turro, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    High energy X-rays in the MeV range are generally employed in conventional radiation therapy from linear accelerators (LINAC) to ensure sufficient penetration depths. However, lower energy X-rays in the keV range may be more effective when coupled with heavy element (high-Z or HZ) radiosensitizers. Numerical simulations of X-ray energy deposition for tumor phantoms sensitized with HZ radiosensitizers were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The results showed enhancement in energy deposition to radiosensitized phantoms relative to unsensitized phantoms for low energy X-rays in the keV range. In contrast, minimal enhancement was seen using high energy X-rays in the MeV range. Dose enhancement factors (DEFs) were computed and showed radiosensitization only in the low energy range nitrate, was initially used because it was 7x less toxic that an equivalent amount of carboplatin in vitro studies. This would allow us to separate the radiotoxic and the chemotoxic effects of HZ sensitizers. Results from this study showed a 10-fold dose dependent reduction in surviving fractions (SF) of radiosensitized cells treated with low energy 160 kV X-rays compared to those treated with 6 MV X-rays. This is in agreement with our simulations that show an increase in dose deposition in radiosensitized tumors for low energy X-rays. Due to unforeen in vivo toxicity, however, another in vitro study was performed using the commonly used, Pt-based chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin which confirmed earlier results. This lays the ground work for a planned in vivo study using F98 glioma bearing rats. This study demonstrates that while high energy X-rays are commonly used in cancer radiotherapy, low energy keV X-rays might be much more effective with HZ radiosensitization.

  20. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X-ray

  1. Characterizing X-Ray and Radio Emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni During Quiescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broadband (0...

  2. Nuclear collisions in measurements of the cosmic ray charge spectrum with a counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstam, S.

    1975-06-01

    The importance of nuclear collisions of cosmic ray particles in a counter detector telescope is studied by simple Monte Carlo techniques. The interest concentrates on the charge region just below iron and the calculations are restricted to fully relativistic cosmic rays. It is found that it is difficult to avoid a blurring in the charge spectrum from nuclear collisions leading to considerable systematic errors in some abundance ratios. (Auth.)

  3. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A.; Archambault, S.; Feng, Q.; Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Falcone, A.; Fleischhack, H.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10 −4 Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  4. A SEARCH FOR SPECTRAL HYSTERESIS AND ENERGY-DEPENDENT TIME LAGS FROM X-RAY AND TeV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Archambault, S.; Feng, Q. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are variable emitters across all wavelengths over a wide range of timescales, from months down to minutes. It is therefore essential to observe blazars simultaneously at different wavelengths, especially in the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, where the broadband spectral energy distributions usually peak. In this work, we report on three “target-of-opportunity” observations of Mrk 421, one of the brightest TeV blazars, triggered by a strong flaring event at TeV energies in 2014. These observations feature long, continuous, and simultaneous exposures with XMM-Newton (covering the X-ray and optical/ultraviolet bands) and VERITAS (covering the TeV gamma-ray band), along with contemporaneous observations from other gamma-ray facilities (MAGIC and Fermi -Large Area Telescope) and a number of radio and optical facilities. Although neither rapid flares nor significant X-ray/TeV correlation are detected, these observations reveal subtle changes in the X-ray spectrum of the source over the course of a few days. We search the simultaneous X-ray and TeV data for spectral hysteresis patterns and time delays, which could provide insight into the emission mechanisms and the source properties (e.g., the radius of the emitting region, the strength of the magnetic field, and related timescales). The observed broadband spectra are consistent with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. We find that the power spectral density distribution at ≳4 × 10{sup −4} Hz from the X-ray data can be described by a power-law model with an index value between 1.2 and 1.8, and do not find evidence for a steepening of the power spectral index (often associated with a characteristic length scale) compared to the previously reported values at lower frequencies.

  5. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoya, Kaoru; Chen, Pisin

    1989-03-01

    The final electron energy spectrum under multi-photon beamstrahlung process is derived analytically in the classical and the intermediate regimes. The maximum disruption angle from the low energy tail of the spectrum is also estimated. The results are then applied to the TLC and the CLIC parameters. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. High-energy gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    '. A compact sources model hints at an origin in pulsars. While the spectrum suggests middle-aged pulsars like Vela, too many are required to produce the observed flux. The only detected very young pulsar, the Crab pulsar, has an incompatible spectrum. However, it is not proven that the Crab spectrum...... is characteristic for all young pulsars: thus, a single or a few very young pulsars (at the GC not detectable in radio emission), provided their gamma-ray emission is larger than that of the Crab pulsar by a factor of 13, are likely candidates. Alternatively, more exotic scenarios, related to the postulated central...

  7. A Multi-Variate Fit to the Chemical Composition of the Cosmic-Ray Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, Jonathan

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays over a century ago, evidence of their origins has remained elusive. Deflected by galactic magnetic fields, the only direct evidence of their origin and propagation remain encoded in their energy distribution and chemical composition. Current models of galactic cosmic rays predict variations of the energy distribution of individual elements in an energy region around 3x1015 eV known as the knee. This work presents a method to measure the energy distribution of individual elemental groups in the knee region and its application to a year of data from the IceCube detector. The method uses cosmic rays detected by both IceTop, the surface-array component, and the deep-ice component of IceCube during the 2009-2010 operation of the IC-59 detector. IceTop is used to measure the energy and the relative likelihood of the mass composition using the signal from the cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower reaching the surface. IceCube, 1.5 km below the surface, measures the energy of the high-energy bundle of muons created in the very first interactions after the cosmic ray enters the atmosphere. These event distributions are fit by a constrained model derived from detailed simulations of cosmic rays representing five chemical elements. The results of this analysis are evaluated in terms of the theoretical uncertainties in cosmic-ray interactions and seasonal variations in the atmosphere. The improvements in high-energy cosmic ray hadronic-interaction models informed by this analysis, combined with increased data from subsequent operation of the IceCube detector, could provide crucial limits on the origin of cosmic rays and their propagation through the galaxy. In the course of developing this method, a number of analysis and statistical techniques were developed to deal with the difficulties inherent in this type of measurement. These include a composition-sensitive air shower reconstruction technique, a method to model simulated event

  8. Cosmic-ray world with gamma-ray astronomy: a wealth on information, an even more open issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardillo Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since from their discovery in 1912, Cosmic-Rays (CRs are one of the most debated issues of the high energy astrophysics. Their origin is still a fundamental problem and is the subject of very intense research. Until now, the best candidate sources of Galactic CR component are Supernova Remnants (SNRs but final proof for the origin of CRs up to the knee can only be obtained through two fundamental signatures, the detection of a clear gamma-ray signature of π0 decay in Galactic sources and the identification of sources emitting a photon spectrum up to PeV energies. Both indications are quite difficult to obtain. The two gamma-ray satellites, AGILE and Fermi, together with ground telescopes operating in the TeV energy range (HESS, VERITAS and MAGIC, collected a great amount of data from SNRs. In spite of the recent discovery of the neutral pion spectral signature in the SNR W44 spectrum by AGILE (and confirmed by Fermi-LAT, all gamma-ray data collected at GeV and TeV energies for several young and middle-aged SNRs provide interesting challenges to current theoretical models. The emerging view from gamma-ray and particle detection is intriguing and lead to revisit the CR-SNR paradigm, considering also the contribution of other kind of sources.

  9. Vibrational interference effects in x-ray emission of a model water dimer: implications for the interpretation of the liquid spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, M P; Pettersson, L G M; Nilsson, A

    2011-01-28

    We apply the Kramers-Heisenberg formula to a model water dimer to discuss vibrational interference in the x-ray emission spectrum of the donor molecule for which the core-ionized potential energy surface is dissociative but bounded by the accepting molecule. A long core-hole lifetime leads to decay from Zundel-like, fully delocalized vibrational states in the intermediate potential without involvement of a specific dissociated component. Comparison is made to a model with an unbound intermediate state allowing dissociation to infinity which gives a sharp, fully dissociated feature, and a broad molecular peak at long core-hole life time. The implications of the vibrational interference effect on the liquid water spectrum are discussed and it is proposed that this mainly gives rise to an isotope-dependent asymmetrical broadening of the lone pair peak.

  10. Development of a new method to characterize low-to-medium energy X-ray beams (E≤150 keV) used in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloule, Sybelle

    2014-01-01

    In the field of dosimetry, the knowledge of the whole photon fluence spectrum is an essential parameter. In the low-to-medium energy range (i.e. E≤150 keV), the LNHB possess 5 X-ray tubes and iodine-125 brachytherapy seeds, both emitting high fluence rates. The performance of calculation (either Monte Carlo codes or deterministic software) is flawed by increasing uncertainties on fundamental parameters at low energies, and modelling issues. Therefore, direct measurement using a high purity germanium is preferred, even though it requires a time-consuming set-up and mathematical methods to infer impinging spectrum from measured ones (such as stripping, model-fitting or Bayesian inference). Concerning brachytherapy, the knowledge of the seed's parameters has been improved. Moreover, various calculated X-ray tube fluence spectra have been compared to measured ones, after unfolding. The results of all these methods have then be assessed, as well as their impact on dosimetric parameters. (author) [fr

  11. Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Zhang Chuanfei; Hu Mengchun; Peng Taiping; Wang Zhentong; Tang Dengpan; Zhao Guangjun

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal, which is important for pulsed γ-ray measurement, was studied in this work.The Ce: YAG crystal, which was developed at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was aligned point by point with γ-rays scattered from an industrial 60 Co line source. The γ-ray relative energy response was calculated using the mass attenuation coefficient. The results show that the numerical calculation method of γ-ray relative energy response is reliable, and the experimental method with multi-energy point γ-ray by Compton scattering is also feasible, that can be used for checking up correctness of the numerical calculation results. (authors)

  12. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  13. The technique of obtaining single-energy γ-rays in calibrating energy response of detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rurong; Peng Taiping; Hu Mengchun; Li Zhongbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the principle of transforming γ-rays from 60 Co into a series of single-energy γ-rays and stresses the technique of shielding radiation-interfere and reducing energy-dispersion. The Single-energy γ-rays of any energy in the range of 0.36-1.02 MeV may be obtained by means of this technique. (authors)

  14. An on-line identification device for coal and gangue based on dual-energy γ-ray transmission and microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guojie; Zhu Xing

    2004-01-01

    The operating principle, hardware design, software design and stabled-spectrum method of on-line identification device for coal and gangue based on dual-energy γ-ray transmission and microcontroller are introduced. The integrated linear amplifier and integrated single channel pulse height analyzer are analyzed. The on-line identification device has advantages of small size, low cost as well stabilization. (authors)

  15. High energy physics in cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-02-07

    In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

  16. THE NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRUM OF HERCULES X-1: A RADIATION-DOMINATED RADIATIVE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Michael T.; Wood, Kent S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Becker, Peter A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States); Gottlieb, Amy M.; Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja [Department of Physics and Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Fürst, Felix [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hemphill, Paul B. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr, 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2016-11-10

    We report on new spectral modeling of the accreting X-ray pulsar Hercules X-1. Our radiation-dominated radiative shock model is an implementation of the analytic work of Becker and Wolff on Comptonized accretion flows onto magnetic neutron stars. We obtain a good fit to the spin-phase-averaged 4–78 keV X-ray spectrum observed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array during a main-on phase of the Her X-1 35 day accretion disk precession period. This model allows us to estimate the accretion rate, the Comptonizing temperature of the radiating plasma, the radius of the magnetic polar cap, and the average scattering opacity parameters in the accretion column. This is in contrast to previous phenomenological models that characterized the shape of the X-ray spectrum, but could not determine the physical parameters of the accretion flow. We describe the spectral fitting details and discuss the interpretation of the accretion flow physical parameters.

  17. Optimization of the Penelope code in F language for the simulation of the X-ray spectrum in radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballon P, C. I.; Quispe V, N. Y.; Vega R, J. L. J.

    2017-10-01

    The computational simulation to obtain the X-ray spectrum in the range of radio-diagnosis, allows a study and advance knowledge of the transport process of X-rays in the interaction with matter using the Monte Carlo method. With the obtaining of the X-ray spectra we can know the dose that the patient receives when he undergoes a radiographic study or CT, improving the quality of the obtained image. The objective of the present work was to implement and optimize the open source Penelope (Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport of electrons and photons in the matter) 2008 version programming extra code in functional language F, managing to double the processing speed, thus reducing the simulation time spent and errors when optimizing the software initially programmed in Fortran 77. The results were compared with those of Penelope, obtaining a good concordance. We also simulated the obtaining of a Pdd curve (depth dose profile) for a Theratron Equinox cobalt-60 teletherapy device, also validating the software implemented for high energies. (Author)

  18. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2002-01-01

    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  19. Rapid assay of plutonium in soils by passive L x-ray counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Putnam, M.H.; Goodwin, S.G.; Kynaston, R.L.

    1992-05-01

    A technique has been developed to rapidly measure the presence of plutonium in soils, filters, smears, and glass waste forms by measuring the uranium L-shell x-ray emissions associated with the decay of plutonium. In addition, the technique can simultaneously acquire spectra of samples and automatically analyze them for the amount of americium, and gamma-ray emitting activation and fission products present. The samples are counted with a large area, thin-window, n-type Ge spectrometer which is equally efficient for the detection of low energy x-rays (>10 key), as well as high-energy gamma rays (>1 MeV). A 8192-channel analyzer is used to acquire the entire photon spectrum at one time. A dual-energy, time-tagged pulser, that is injected into the test input of the preamplifier to monitor the energy scale, detector resolution, and pulse pile-up will be installed in FY-92. The L x-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a linear least-squares spectral fitting technique originally developed for the analysis of spectra from NaI(Tl) detectors. The gamma-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a standard Ge gamma-ray analysis package. Detection limits (also referred to as lower limits of detection) for plutonium in contaminated soils that have been achieved by this technique are reported

  20. X-ray and. gamma. -ray sources: a comparison of their characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, A K [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1979-11-01

    A comparison of the various source characteristics, in particular the available fluxes of radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region from (1) high power rotary anode X-ray generators, (2) radioactive ..gamma..-ray sources and (3) high energy electron storage rings is presented. Some of the specific characteristics and possible applications of synchrotron radiation as a source are discussed in detail, together with problems associated with the monochromatization of the continuous radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region. The new high energy machines PEP at Stanford, the 8 GeV storage ring CESR at Cornell and the PETRA storage ring in Hamburg, which will soon come into operation provide a spectrum of high intensity radiation reaching well above h..gamma..sub(photon)=100 keV. The possibilities of using ondulators (wigglers), and laser-electron scattering for constructing high repetition rate tunable ..gamma..-ray sources are also discussed. Finally the potentials of using the powerful spontaneous emission of ..gamma..-quanta by relativistic channeled particles are mentioned.

  1. The ultraviolet to X-ray continua of BL Lac objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, I.M.; Warwick, R.S.; McHardy, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    The results from EXOSAT observations of three X-ray bright BL Lacertae objects, Mrk 501, 1218 + 304 and Mrk 180 are presented. All three sources have soft power-law X-ray spectra with low-energy cut-offs consistent with absorption in the line-of-sight gas column density through our own galaxy. The three objects also exhibit significant spectral variability in the X-ray band on time-scales ranging from a few days to a year. In each case, X-ray flux and spectral index appear to be correlated, in the sense that the X-ray spectrum hardens as the source brightens. The intrinsic ultraviolet to X-ray spectrum of these and several other X-ray bright BL Lac objects can be modelled as a power-law continuum of energy index ∼1.0 below about 0.1 keV, above which the spectral slope steepens. (author)

  2. Can X-ray spectrum imaging replace backscattered electrons for compositional contrast in the scanning electron microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2011-01-01

    The high throughput of the silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SDD-EDS) enables X-ray spectrum imaging (XSI) in the scanning electron microscope to be performed in frame times of 10-100 s, the typical time needed to record a high-quality backscattered electron (BSE) image. These short-duration XSIs can reveal all elements, except H, He, and Li, present as major constituents, defined as 0.1 mass fraction (10 wt%) or higher, as well as minor constituents in the range 0.01-0.1 mass fraction, depending on the particular composition and possible interferences. Although BSEs have a greater abundance by a factor of 100 compared with characteristic X-rays, the strong compositional contrast in element-specific X-ray maps enables XSI mapping to compete with BSE imaging to reveal compositional features. Differences in the fraction of the interaction volume sampled by the BSE and X-ray signals lead to more delocalization of the X-ray signal at abrupt compositional boundaries, resulting in poorer spatial resolution. Improved resolution in X-ray elemental maps occurs for the case of a small feature composed of intermediate to high atomic number elements embedded in a matrix of lower atomic number elements. XSI imaging strongly complements BSE imaging, and the SDD-EDS technology enables an efficient combined BSE-XSI measurement strategy that maximizes the compositional information. If 10 s or more are available for the measurement of an area of interest, the analyst should always record the combined BSE-XSI information to gain the advantages of both measures of compositional contrast. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Long-term variability in the X-ray emission of RX J0720.4-3125

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C.P.; Vink, J.; Méndez, R.M.; Verbunt, F.

    2004-01-01

    We detect a gradual, long-term change in the shape of the X-ray spectrum of the isolated neutron star RX J0720.4-3125, such that the spectrum of the source can no longer be described as a blackbody spectrum. The change is accompanied by an energy-dependent change in the pulse profile. If the X-ray

  4. C IV EMISSION AND THE ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH X-RAY SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF RADIO-QUIET QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruczek, Nicholas E.; Richards, Gordon T.; Deo, Rajesh P.; Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Gallagher, S. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Hewett, Paul C.; Leighly, Karen M.; Proga, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), two of the parameters that best characterize the range of emission-line properties in quasar broad emission-line regions are the equivalent width and the blueshift of the C IV λ1549 line relative to the quasar rest frame. We explore the connection between these emission-line properties and the UV through X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) for radio-quiet (RQ) quasars. Our sample consists of a heterogeneous compilation of 406 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (at z > 1.54) and Palomar-Green survey (at z < 0.4) that have well-measured C IV emission-line and X-ray properties (including 164 objects with measured Γ). We find that RQ quasars with both strong C IV emission and small C IV blueshifts can be classified as 'hard-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) strong in the X-ray as compared to the UV. On the other hand, RQ quasars with both weak C IV emission and large C IV blueshifts are instead 'soft-spectrum' sources that are (relatively) weak in the X-ray as compared to the UV. This work helps to further bridge optical/soft X-ray 'eigenvector 1' relationships to the UV and hard X-ray. Based on these findings, we argue that future work should consider systematic errors in bolometric corrections (and thus accretion rates) that are derived from a single mean SED. Detailed analysis of the C IV emission line may allow for SED-dependent corrections to these quantities.

  5. Secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Tisue, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    A secondary-source energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer has been built and tested. In this instrument the primary source of x rays is a tungsten-target tube powered by a high-voltage (75 kV), a high-power (3.7 kW) generator from a wavelength spectrometer (G.E. XRD-6). The primary polychromatic x rays irradiate an elemental foil, the secondary source. Its characteristic essentially monochromatic x rays are used to irradiate the sample. Fluorescent x rays from the sample are detected and resolved by a lithium-drifted silicon detector, multichannel-analyzer system. The design of the instrument provides a convenient means for changing the secondary, and hence, the energy of the excitation radiation

  6. Energy and spectrum efficiency in rural areas based on cognitive radio technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available spectrum scarcity in the most energy efficient manner. In this paper, researchers present the proposed work to be carried out as part of a doctoral thesis to address the spectrum scarcity and transmission power in energy constrained rural areas....

  7. Sequential measurements of cosmic-ray neutron spectrum and dose rate at sea level in Sendai, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nunomiya, Tomoya; Abe, Shigeru; Terunuma, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic-ray neutron energy spectrum and dose rate were measured sequentially for two years from April 2001 up to March 2003 by using three neutron detectors, a 3 He-loaded multi-moderator detector (Bonner ball), 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm long NE213 organic liquid scintillator, and high-sensitivity rem (dose equivalent) counter at the Kawauchi campus of Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan of geomagnetic latitude, 29degN, and cutoff rigidity, 10.43 GV. The neutron spectrum has three major peaks, thermal energy peak, evaporation peak around 1 MeV and cascade peak around 100 MeV. The ambient neutron dose equivalent rates measured by the rem counter, and the Bonner ball keep almost constant values of 4.0 and 6.5 (nSv/h), respectively, throughout this time period, after atmospheric pressure correction, and it often decreased about 30% after a large Solar Flare, that is called as the Forbush decrease. The total neutron flux was also obtained by the Bonner ball measurements to be 7.5x10 -3 (ncm -2 ·s -1 ) in average. The altitude variation of neutron flux and dose was also investigated by comparing the measured results with other results measured at Mt. Fuji area and aboard an airplane, where the cutoff rigidities are similar. (author)

  8. Recent Results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays from the Telescope Array

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    TA's recent results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) are reported. The energy spectrum based on 20k events above 10^18.2 eV demonstrates a clear dip at 10^18.7 eV and a cutoff at 10^19.7 eV , the shape and the energies of which are well described by the GZK process: energy loss of extra-galactic protons by the interaction with the CMB and IR background. The primary composition obtained from the shower maximum analysis using the hybrid technique is consistent with 100% proton or light nuclei, and inconsistent with 100% iron up to 10^19.3 eV. Above the GZK cutoff energy, a large flux enhancement of medium size (radius=20deg) is observed in the direction of Ursa-Major. The chance probability of this hotspot appearing from the isotropic flux is 4.0sigma. The center of the hotspot is 19 deg off from the Super-Galactic Plane, and no obvious candidate of UHECRs is known in this direction.

  9. Identification of radionuclides in γ ray spectrum with half life fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodaye, Suparna; Sudarshan, K.; Tomar, B.S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    The peak shape analysis software PHAST developed by Electronic Division, BARC has been tested for identification of the radio nuclides using the least square fitting of the time correlated peak areas of the γ lines. The half lives fitted by the software were found to be in agreement with the library data within 10%. Thus the software was able to unambiguously identify the radionuclides in the γ ray spectrum. (author)

  10. GSAP: FORTRAN code for gamma-spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowicz, V.; Kozma, P.; Ilyushchenko, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The GSAP program performs fully automatic evaluation of gamma-ray energy spectra measured with semiconductor detectors. After the input data comprising experimental spectrum, energy and FWHM calibrations and parameters controlling the peak search are supplied, the program starts peak searching from the spectrum beginning. The detected peaks are arranged into multiplets which are unfolded by standard non-linear least-squares-fit assuming Gaussian peak and linear background. The program proceeds until all multiplets are processed. The determined peak parameters are printed and the result of each particular fit is shown in the graphical form. 6 refs

  11. Performance analysis of fusion nuclear-data benchmark experiments for light to heavy materials in MeV energy region with a neutron spectrum shifter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Iida, Toshiyuki; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear data are indispensable for development of fusion reactor candidate materials. However, benchmarking of the nuclear data in MeV energy region is not yet adequate. In the present study, benchmark performance in the MeV energy region was investigated theoretically for experiments by using a 14 MeV neutron source. We carried out a systematical analysis for light to heavy materials. As a result, the benchmark performance for the neutron spectrum was confirmed to be acceptable, while for gamma-rays it was not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, a spectrum shifter has to be applied. Beryllium had the best performance as a shifter. Moreover, a preliminary examination of whether it is really acceptable that only the spectrum before the last collision is considered in the benchmark performance analysis. It was pointed out that not only the last collision but also earlier collisions should be considered equally in the benchmark performance analysis.

  12. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A.S.; Beers, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper

  13. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

  14. Feasibility of kilovoltage x-ray energy modulation by gaseous media and its application in contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facundo-Flores, E. L.; Garnica-Garza, H. M. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Monterrey, Vía del Conocimiento 201 Parque PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a method to modulate the energy contents of a kilovoltage x-ray beam that makes use of a gas as the modulating medium. The method is capable of producing arbitrary x-ray spectra by varying the pressure of the modulating gas and the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of the x-ray beams whose energy is being modulated.Methods: An aluminum chamber was machined with a 0.5 cm wall thickness, designed to withstand pressures of more than 80 atm. A pressure sensor and electrovalves were used to monitor and regulate the gas pressure. Argon was used as the modulating gas. A CdTe spectrometer was used to measure x-ray spectra for different combinations of kVp and gas pressure, thus obtaining a set of basis x-ray functions. An arbitrary x-ray spectrum can then be formed by the linear combination of such basis functions. In order to show one possible application of the modulation method, a contrast-enhanced radiotherapy prostate treatment was optimized with respect to the x-ray beam energy, without restrictions on the possible shape of the resultant x-ray spectra.Results: The x-ray spectra basis functions obtained display a smooth and gradual variation of their average energy as a function of the gas pressure for a given kVp, sometimes in the order of 1 or 2 keV. This gradual variation would be difficult to obtain with a conventional aluminum or copper filters, as the change in thickness necessary to reproduce the data presented would be in the order of micrometers, making necessary the use of a large number of such filters. Using the modulation method presented here, the authors were able to reconstruct the optimized x-ray spectra from the measured basis functions, for different optimization objectives.Conclusions: A method has been developed that allows for the controlled modulation of the energy contents of kilovoltage x-ray spectra. The method has been shown to be able to reproduce spectra of arbitrary shape, such as those obtained from the optimization of contrast

  15. Cosmic very high-energy {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article gives a brief overview, aimed at nonspecialists, about the goals and selected recent results of the detection of very-high energy {gamma}-rays (energies above 100 GeV) with ground based detectors. The stress is on the physics questions, specially the origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays and the emission of TeV {gamma}-radiation from active galaxies. Moreover some particle-physics questions which are addressed in this area are discussed.

  16. High energy radiation from black holes gamma rays, cosmic rays, and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray flares observed from sources far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy are best explained if enormous amounts of energy are liberated by black holes. The highest- energy particles in nature--the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays--cannot be confined by the Milky Way's magnetic field, and must originate from sources outside our Galaxy. Understanding these energetic radiations requires an extensive theoretical framework involving the radiation physics and strong-field gravity of black holes. In High Energy Radiation from Black Holes, Charles Dermer and Govind Menon present a systemat

  17. High energy gamma ray response of liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigyo, N.; Ishibashi, K.; Matsufuji, N.; Nakamoto, T.; Numajiri, M.

    1994-01-01

    We made the experiment on the spallation reaction. NE213 organic liquid scintillators were used for measuring neutrons and γ rays. To produce the γ ray emission cross section, we used the response functions by EGS4 code. The response functions look like uniform above γ ray energies of 60 MeV. The experimental data of the γ ray emission cross section are different from the data of High Energy Transport Code. (author)

  18. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  19. Energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in sheared background field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Yi-Min

    2018-06-01

    The energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in a sheared background magnetic field is studied in this work. We consider the scenario where the nonlinear interaction of overlapping large-scale modes excites a broad spectrum of small-scale modes, generating tearing mode turbulence. The spectrum of such turbulence is of interest since it is relevant to the small-scale back-reaction on the large-scale field. The turbulence we discuss here differs from traditional MHD turbulence mainly in two aspects. One is the existence of many linearly stable small-scale modes which cause an effective damping during the energy cascade. The other is the scale-independent anisotropy induced by the large-scale modes tilting the sheared background field, as opposed to the scale-dependent anisotropy frequently encountered in traditional critically balanced turbulence theories. Due to these two differences, the energy spectrum deviates from a simple power law and takes the form of a power law multiplied by an exponential falloff. Numerical simulations are carried out using visco-resistive MHD equations to verify our theoretical predictions, and a reasonable agreement is found between the numerical results and our model.

  20. Spectacular X-ray Jet Points Toward Cosmic Energy Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed a spectacular luminous spike of X rays that emanates from the vicinity of a giant black hole in the center of the radio galaxy Pictor A. The spike, or jet, is due to a beam of particles that streaks across hundreds of thousands of light years of intergalactic space toward a brilliant X-ray hot spot that marks its end point. Pictor A Image Press Image and Caption The hot spot is at least 800 thousand light years (8 times the diameter of our Milky Way galaxy) away from where the jet originates. It is thought to represent the advancing head of the jet, which brightens conspicuously where it plows into the tenuous gas of intergalactic space. The jet, powered by the giant black hole, originates from a region of space no bigger than the solar system. "Both the brightness and the spectrum of the X rays are very different from what theory predicts," Professor Andrew Wilson reported today at the 196th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Rochester, New York. Wilson, of the University of Maryland, College Park, along with Dr. Patrick Shopbell and Dr. Andrew Young, also of the University of Maryland, are submitting an article on this research to the Astrophysical Journal. "The Chandra observations are telling us that something out there is producing many more high-energy particles than we expected," said Wilson. One possible explanation for the X rays is that shock waves along the side and head of the X-ray jet are accelerating electrons and possibly protons to speeds close to that of light. In the process the electrons are boosted to energies as high as 100 million times their own rest mass energy. These electrons lose their energy rapidly as they produce X rays, so this could be the first direct evidence of this process so far outside a galaxy. The hot spot has been seen with optical and radio telescopes. Radio telescopes have also observed a faint jet. Jets are thought to be produced by the extreme

  1. Characterizing high energy spectra of NIF ignition Hohlraums using a differentially filtered high energy multipinhole x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Dewald, E D; Glenzer, S; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; MacGowan, B J; Maddox, B R; Milovich, J L; Prasad, R R; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Thomas, C A

    2010-10-01

    Understanding hot electron distributions generated inside Hohlraums is important to the national ignition campaign for controlling implosion symmetry and sources of preheat. While direct imaging of hot electrons is difficult, their spatial distribution and spectrum can be deduced by detecting high energy x-rays generated as they interact with target materials. We used an array of 18 pinholes with four independent filter combinations to image entire Hohlraums with a magnification of 0.87× during the Hohlraum energetics campaign on NIF. Comparing our results with Hohlraum simulations indicates that the characteristic 10-40 keV hot electrons are mainly generated from backscattered laser-plasma interactions rather than from Hohlraum hydrodynamics.

  2. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnac, S [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Povinec, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). MEL; Ragan, R [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  3. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnac, S.; Povinec, P.

    1995-01-01

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  4. Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puget, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

  5. Multiple Beta Spectrum Analysis Method Based on Spectrum Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Jung, Yun Song; Kim, Hee Reyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the sample of several mixed radioactive nuclides is measured, it is difficult to divide each nuclide due to the overlapping of spectrums. For this reason, simple mathematical analysis method for spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source has been studied. However, existing research was in need of more accurate spectral analysis method as it has a problem of accuracy. The study will describe the contents of the separation methods of the mixed beta ray source through the analysis of the beta spectrum slope based on the curve fitting to resolve the existing problem. The fitting methods including It was understood that sum of sine fitting method was the best one of such proposed methods as Fourier, polynomial, Gaussian and sum of sine to obtain equation for distribution of mixed beta spectrum. It was shown to be the most appropriate for the analysis of the spectrum with various ratios of mixed nuclides. It was thought that this method could be applied to rapid spectrum analysis of the mixed beta ray source.

  6. 2 years of integral monitoring of GRS 1915+105. II. X-ray spectro-temporal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Shaw, S.E.; Hannikainen, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    -ray emission. In the steady state observation, the X-ray spectrum is indicative of the hard-intermediate state, with the presence of a relatively strong emission at 15 GHz. The X-ray spectrum is the sum of a Comptonized component and an extra power law extending to energies > 200 keV without any evidence...

  7. Measurement of X-ray for the dose area product and spectrum by the added filtration in Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The most important point in the medical use of radiation is to minimize the patient entrance dose while maintaining the diagnostic information. Low-energy photons (long-wave X-ray) are unnecessary among diagnostic X-ray because they are mostly absorbed and increase the patient's entrance dose. The most effective method to eliminate the low-energy photon is use of a filtering plate. Using a filter appropriate for the image will maintain diagnostic value. Obtaining an effective image allows comparison of the resulting images in a logical objective way. This experiment was performed to determine the quality of image dosimeter when there is no filter, and when 2 mm Al, 0.1 mm Cu + 1 mm Al, 0.2 mm Cu + 1 mm Al filters are used. Using TORECK PD-8100 dose area products meter placed on top of an abdominal phantom, we measured the dose when the filter changes in this condition 85 kVp, 40 mAs, anode angle 13, source image distance 100 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm. We used the SRS-78 program for accurate comparison because we could not evaluate the difference in the image optically. The spectrum changed due to the emission of X-rays as the filter changed. We observed that the use of a filter eliminated the low-energy photons and revealed continuous X-ray and special X-ray. Therefore, the experiment highlighted the advantages of filters and confirmed that there are no changes in the quality of image through signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error comparison. We found that the use of filter did not lead to distortions in the image or drop in diagnostic value while minimizing the radiation dose. This means that it can help manage long-term patient dose. We conclude that we need to recommend the use of the filter as it reduces the area of dose.

  8. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 × 10{sup 18} eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×10{sup 18} eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×10{sup 18} eV, the ''ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E{sup −γ} with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (E{sub s}) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find E{sub s}=(5.12±0.25 (stat){sup +1.0}{sub −1.2} (sys))×10{sup 19} eV.

  9. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  10. High-energy cosmic ray nuclei from tidal disruption events: Origin, survival, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Murase, Kohta; Oikonomou, Foteini; Li, Zhuo

    2017-09-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) by supermassive or intermediate mass black holes have been suggested as candidate sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and high-energy neutrinos. Motivated by the recent measurements from the Pierre Auger Observatory, which indicates a metal-rich cosmic-ray composition at ultrahigh energies, we investigate the fate of UHECR nuclei loaded in TDE jets. First, we consider the production and survival of UHECR nuclei at internal shocks, external forward and reverse shocks, and nonrelativistic winds. Based on the observations of Swift J 1644 +57 , we show that the UHECRs can survive for external reverse and forward shocks, and disk winds. On the other hand, UHECR nuclei are significantly disintegrated in internal shocks, although they could survive for low-luminosity TDE jets. Assuming that UHECR nuclei can survive, we consider implications of different composition models of TDEs. We find that the tidal disruption of main sequence stars or carbon-oxygen white dwarfs does not successfully reproduce UHECR observations, namely the observed composition or spectrum. The observed mean depth of the shower maximum and its deviation could be explained by oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarfs, although they may be too rare to be the sources of UHECRs.

  11. Radiography simulation on single-shot dual-spectrum X-ray for cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Oh, Youngdo; Cho, Moohyun; Namkung, Won

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to identify materials in the dual energy X-ray (DeX) inspection system. This method identifies materials by combining information on the relative proportions T of high-energy and low-energy X-rays transmitted through the material, and the ratio R of the attenuation coefficient of the material when high-energy are used to that when low energy X-rays are used. In Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) simulations using the same geometry as that of the real container inspection system, this T vs. R method successfully identified tissue-equivalent plastic and several metals. In further simulations, the single-shot mode of operating the accelerator led to better distinguishing of materials than the dual-shot system.

  12. Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy in Dy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Okada, Kozo; Kotani, Akio.

    1994-01-01

    The excitation spectrum of the L 3 -M 5 X-ray emission of Dy compounds in the pre-edge region of Dy L 3 X-ray absorption near edge structure (L 3 -XANES) is theoretically investigated based upon the coherent second order optical formula with multiplet coupling effects. The spectral broadening of the excitation spectrum is determined by the M 5 core hole lifetime, being free from the L 3 core hole lifetime. The fine pre-edge structure of the L 3 edge due to the 2p→4f quadrupole transition can be seen in the excitation spectrum, while this structure is invisible in the conventional XANES, in agreement with the recent experimental results. We clarify the conditions for the excitation spectrum to be regarded as the absorption spectrum with a smaller width. The resonant X-ray emission spectra for various incident photon energies around the L 3 edge are also calculated. (author)

  13. Estimation of the effective energy for the diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogama, Noboru; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    2001-01-01

    Because X-ray exposure doses to patients during X-ray diagnoses have been increasing with recent advances in medical technology, it is important that optimum control of the radiation dose be maintained during diagnoses. For an evaluation of an exposure dose, the effective energy of the X-ray must be determined, but this is difficult to accomplish during the diagnosis. Here we propose a new method to estimate the effective energy of an X-ray. The magnitude of energy released from an X-ray generator (2 peaks, 12 peaks, inverter, and constant potential) depends on various parameters, including tube voltage, tube current, tube voltage waveform, and total filtration of the X-ray tube. Therefore the measurement of an X-ray's effective energy was conducted by the half-value layer measurement method, which changes the values of these parameters. The data obtained by this method were analyzed to clarify the relationships between X-ray effective energy and the respective parameters. It was thus demonstrated that these relationships could be expressed by a simple linear approximation formula. For the calculation of X-ray effective energy by use of this approximation formula, errors were found to be within a range of -2.11% to 10.4%. Therefore, this method is considered usable for an accurate estimation of an X-ray's effective energy without the need for its direct determination during diagnosis. (author)

  14. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I. [Yatsushiro National College of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  15. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  16. Searching for Exoplanet Effects on the X-ray Spectrum of τ Boo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian; Laming, J. Martin

    2018-01-01

    We study the X-ray spectrum of the exoplanet host star τ Boo A (F7 V), in order to explore the possibility that its very close-in, massive exoplanet (Porb=3.31 days, m sin i=3.9 MJ) may be affecting the coronal emissions of this star. The star was observed recently by Chandra/LETGS for 92 ksec in three pieces between 2017 February 27 and 2017 March 5; and was previously observed by XMM for 65 ksec in 2003 June 24. The new Chandra observations allow us to resolve τ Boo A from its stellar companion, τ Boo B (M2 V), for the first time. The companion accounts for 21% of the system's total X-ray emission at the time of the Chandra observation. Nevertheless, our measurements of τ Boo A emission measures and coronal abundances from Chandra are reasonably consistent with previous measurements from XMM by Maggio et al. (2011, A&A, 527, A144), in which τ Boo A and B are not resolved. Covering planetary orbital phases 0.21-0.31, 0.44-0.49, and 0.69-0.86, the Chandra data show that τ Boo A's coronal X-ray spectrum does not vary significantly with planetary orbital phase. However, our analysis suggests that coronal abundances for τ Boo A are somewhat anomalous, with a significantly weaker "FIP effect" compared to similar stars without close-in exoplanets, particularly π3 Ori (F6 V).

  17. High energy particles from {gamma}-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, E [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-11-15

    A review is presented of the fireball model of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs), and of the production in GRB fireballs of high energy protons and neutrinos. Constraints imposed on the model by recent afterglow observations, which support the association of GRB and ultra-high energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) sources, are discussed. Predictions of the GRB model for UHECR production, which can be tested with planned large area UHECR detectors and with planned high energy neutrino telescopes, are reviewed. (author)

  18. H.E.S.S. discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from PKS 0625-354

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morâ, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-05-01

    PKS 0625-354 (z = 0.055) was observed with the four High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) telescopes in 2012 during 5.5 h. The source was detected above an energy threshold of 200 GeV at a significance level of 6.1σ. No significant variability is found in these observations. The source is well described with a power-law spectrum with photon index Γ = 2.84 ± 0.50stat ± 0.10syst and normalization (at E0 = 1.0 TeV) N0(E0) = (0.58 ± 0.22stat ± 0.12syst) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. Multiwavelength data collected with Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, Swift-UVOT, ATOM and WISE are also analysed. Significant variability is observed only in the Fermi-LAT γ-ray and Swift-XRT X-ray energy bands. Having a good multiwavelength coverage from radio to very high energy, we performed a broad-band modelling from two types of emission scenarios. The results from a one zone lepto-hadronic and a multizone leptonic models are compared and discussed. On the grounds of energetics, our analysis favours a leptonic multizone model. Models associated to the X-ray variability constraint support previous results, suggesting a BL Lac nature of PKS 0625-354 with, however, a large-scale jet structure typical of a radio galaxy.

  19. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  20. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  1. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for fusion x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The filter-fluorescer spectrometer (FFS) is a powerful tool for measuring x-ray spectrum from high fluence x-ray sources. However, this technique is limited to energies less than 120 keV, because there are no practical absorption edges available above this energy. In this paper, we present a new method of utilizing the filter-fluorescer system for x-ray spectral measurement above 120 keV. The new apparatus is called hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer

  2. Measurement of the ν _{μ } energy spectrum with IceCube-79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2017-10-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory deployed in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. The ν _μ energy unfolding described in this paper is based on data taken with IceCube in its 79-string configuration. A sample of muon neutrino charged-current interactions with a purity of 99.5% was selected by means of a multivariate classification process based on machine learning. The subsequent unfolding was performed using the software Truee. The resulting spectrum covers an E_ν -range of more than four orders of magnitude from 125 GeV to 3.2 PeV. Compared to the Honda atmospheric neutrino flux model, the energy spectrum shows an excess of more than 1.9 σ in four adjacent bins for neutrino energies E_ν ≥ 177.8 {TeV}. The obtained spectrum is fully compatible with previous measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux and recent IceCube measurements of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  3. Measurement of the νμ energy spectrum with IceCube-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Kyriacou, A.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J.; Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bradascio, F.; Bretz, H.P.; Franckowiak, A.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stasik, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Adams, J.; Bagherpour, H.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C.; Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Rossem, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Bron, S.; Carver, T.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Weiss, M.J.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Momente, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K.; Argueelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, T.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Waza, A.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F.; Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Soldin, D.; BenZvi, S.; Cross, R.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Besson, D.Z.; Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Palczewski, T.; Tatar, J.; Boerner, M.; Fuchs, T.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Pieloth, D.; Rhode, W.; Ruhe, T.; Sandrock, A.; Schlunder, P.

    2017-01-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory deployed in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. The ν μ energy unfolding described in this paper is based on data taken with IceCube in its 79-string configuration. A sample of muon neutrino charged-current interactions with a purity of 99.5% was selected by means of a multivariate classification process based on machine learning. The subsequent unfolding was performed using the software Truee. The resulting spectrum covers an E ν -range of more than four orders of magnitude from 125 GeV to 3.2 PeV. Compared to the Honda atmospheric neutrino flux model, the energy spectrum shows an excess of more than 1.9σ in four adjacent bins for neutrino energies E ν ≥ 177.8 TeV. The obtained spectrum is fully compatible with previous measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux and recent IceCube measurements of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. (orig.)

  4. TEV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RIDGE BY VERITAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fortson, L., E-mail: asmith44@umd.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-04-20

    The Galactic Center ridge has been observed extensively in the past by both GeV and TeV gamma-ray instruments revealing a wealth of structure, including a diffuse component and the point sources G0.9+0.1 (a composite supernova remnant) and Sgr A* (believed to be associated with the supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy). Previous very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment have also detected an extended TeV gamma-ray component along the Galactic plane in the >300 GeV gamma-ray regime. Here we report on observations of the Galactic Center ridge from 2010 to 2014 by the VERITAS telescope array in the >2 TeV energy range. From these observations we (1) provide improved measurements of the differential energy spectrum for Sgr A* in the >2 TeV gamma-ray regime, (2) provide a detection in the >2 TeV gamma-ray emission from the composite SNR G0.9+0.1 and an improved determination of its multi-TeV gamma-ray energy spectrum, and (3) report on the detection of VER J1746-289, a localized enhancement of >2 TeV gamma-ray emission along the Galactic plane.

  5. X-Ray Spectro-Polarimetry with Photoelectric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, T. E.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a generalization of forward fitting for X-ray spectroscopy to include linear polarization of X-ray sources, appropriate for the anticipated next generation of space-based photoelectric polarimeters. We show that the inclusion of polarization sensitivity requires joint fitting to three observed spectra, one for each of the Stokes parameters, I(E), U(E), and Q(E). The equations for StokesI (E) (the total intensity spectrum) are identical to the familiar case with no polarization sensitivity, and for which the model-predicted spectrum is obtained by a convolution of the source spectrum, F (E), with the familiar energy response function,(E) R(E,E), where (E) and R(E,E) are the effective area and energy redistribution matrix, respectively. In addition to the energy spectrum, the two new relations for U(E) and Q(E) include the source polarization fraction and position angle versus energy, a(E), and 0(E), respectively, and the model-predicted spectra for these relations are obtained by a convolution with the modulated energy response function, (E)(E) R(E,E), where(E) is the energy-dependent modulation fraction that quantifies a polarimeters angular response to 100 polarized radiation. We present results of simulations with response parameters appropriate for the proposed PRAXyS Small Explorer observatory to illustrate the procedures and methods, and we discuss some aspects of photoelectric polarimeters with relevance to understanding their calibration and operation.

  6. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of tetragonal Mn72Ge28 epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyeok; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ueno, Tetsuro; Ueda, Shigenori; Takanashi, Koki

    2018-04-01

    An epitaxially grown Mn72Ge28 film with a tetragonal crystal structure was fabricated. It was clarified that the film had a perpendicular magnetization and a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy of 14.3 Merg/cm3. The electronic structure was investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum revealed that the Mn orbital magnetic moment governed the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Mn72Ge28 film. A doublet structure was observed for the Mn 2p3/2 peak of hard X-ray photoelectron spectrum, indicating the spin exchange interaction between the 2p core-hole and 3d valence electrons.

  7. Energy weighted x-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Georg; Zang, Andrea; Anton, Gisela; Bayer, Florian; Horn, Florian; Kraus, Manuel; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, Andre; Wandner, Johannes; Weber, Thomas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Wong, Winnie S; Campbell, Michael; Meiser, Jan; Meyer, Pascal; Mohr, Jürgen; Michel, Thilo

    2014-10-06

    The dark-field image obtained in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide information about the objects' microstructures on a scale smaller than the pixel size even with low geometric magnification. In this publication we demonstrate that the dark-field image quality can be enhanced with an energy-resolving pixel detector. Energy-resolved x-ray dark-field images were acquired with a 16-energy-channel photon-counting pixel detector with a 1 mm thick CdTe sensor in a Talbot-Lau x-ray interferometer. A method for contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) enhancement is proposed and validated experimentally. In measurements, a CNR improvement by a factor of 1.14 was obtained. This is equivalent to a possible radiation dose reduction of 23%.

  8. Analysis of agricultural soils by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2000-03-01

    In this work, we describe an Energy Dispersive x-ray Fluorescence System with a x-ray tube excitation for trace analysis of environmental samples (soil). The system was used to analyze the contamination of metals in treated soils with doses of 10, 20 and 30 ton/ha of compound organic of urban garbage of the type Fertilurb and 10 ton/ha of aviary bed (manure of birds). Samples of roots and foliages of plant radishes cultivated in these soils were also analyzed. The soil samples were collected in five different depths of 0,5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. The experimental set-up is composed by an OXFORD X-ray (30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray spectrum tube is quasi-monochromatic by using of Ti filter. Samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. It was possible to determine the concentrations of thirteen elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb in the treated soils with compounds organic. The results indicate that the values found for K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb are significantly above the upper confidence limits for the control soil (α = 0.05). There is a real different between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, (α=0,05). There is a real difference between these elements compared to their relationship in the control soils, confirming the influence of the organic compounds in the soil. (author)

  9. Measurements of the energy spectrum of backscattered fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Y.

    1976-03-01

    Experimental measurements have been made of the energy spectra of neutrons transmitted through slabs of iron, lead and perspex for incident neutron energies of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 MeV. The neutron energy measurements were made using a He-3 spectrometer. The dependence of the neutrons energy spectrum as a function of scattering thickness was determined. The neutrons source used was a 3MeV Van de Graaff accelerator with a tritium target using the H 3 (p,n) He 3 reaction. The results obtained by the investigator on energy dependence of transmitted neutrons as a function of thickness of scattering material were compared, where possible, with the results obtained by other workers. The comparisons indicated good agreement. The experiment's results are compared with MORSE Monte Carlo calculated values. It is worthwhile to note that direct comparison between measured cross section values and the recommended ones are very far from satisfactory. In almost all cases the calculated spectrum is harder than the experimental one, a situation common to the penetrating and the back-scattered flux

  10. The optical spectrum and morphology of the probable X-ray galaxy NGC 5506 (3U 1410-03)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.S.; Penston, M.V.; Fosbury, R.A.E.; Boksenberg, A.

    1976-01-01

    Spectra of the nucleus and plates of the galaxy NGC 5506, suggested by Bahcall et al. as the identification of the X-ray source 3U 1410-03, have been obtained with the Isaac Newton and Anglo-Australian Telescopes. The photographs show it to be a highly elongated system, crossed by dust lanes and possessing a prominent nucleus. It appears to be of irregular Type II and superficially resembles M 82. The nuclear spectrum is dominated by intense emission lines of [O III], [O I], [N II], [S II] and the Balmer series. Lines of high ionized species (e.g. He II, [Ne V], [Fe VII]) are also found, implying that the object is active and greatly enhancing the probability of association with the X-ray source. Numerous weak lines of [Fe II] emission are observed. The strong lines are narrower than is characteristic of Seyfert galaxies, and have widths (FWHM) of about 400 km s -1 . The measured Balmer decrement indicates the nucleus is significantly reddened, from which a visual absorption Asub(v) approximately equal to 4.5 mag is deduced. The dereddened line intensities are remarkably similar to those derived for the radio galaxy Cyg A by Osterbrock and Miller. The forbidden lines from NGC 5506 are emitted in a region with log 10 Tsub(e) =4.2 and log 10 Nsub(e) = 3.4. The observed continuum may be described by a power law S varies as νsup(+α) with α = - 3.6 +- 0.5; after correction for reddening the spectral index becomes α = - 1.3 +- 0.6. If the X-ray source is associated with the nucleus, the high visual absorption implies a low energy cut-off in its spectrum near 0.9 keV. (author)

  11. Multi-resolution anisotropy studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D' Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D' Olivo, J. C.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlín, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rogozin, D.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.

    2017-06-01

    We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80(o) and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 1018 eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured, while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p-values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10-5 in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10-3 in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.

  12. Multi-resolution anisotropy studies of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aab, A. [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas—LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico—IST, Universidade de Lisboa—UL (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); Samarai, I. Al [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo (Brazil); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET) (Argentina); Almela, A.; Andrada, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Anastasi, G.A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Anchordoqui, L., E-mail: auger_spokespersons@fnal.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York (United States); and others

    2017-06-01

    We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80{sup o} and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 10{sup 18} eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured; while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p -values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10{sup −5} in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10{sup −3} in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.

  13. The Need for Direct High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frank C.; Streitmatter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the chemical composition of the cosmic rays in the energy region of greater than or equal to 10(exp 12)eV would be highly useful in settling several nagging questions concerning the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy. In particular an accurate measurement of secondary to primary ratios such as Boron to Carbon would gibe clear evidence as to whether the propagation of cosmic rays is determined by a diffusion coefficient that varies with the particle's energy as E(sup 0.5) or E(sup 0.3). This would go a long ways in helping us to understand the anistropy (or lack thereof) of the highest energy cosmic rays and the power requirements for producing those particles at approximately equal to 10(exp 18) eV which are believed to be highest energy particles produced in the Galaxy. This would be only one of the benefits of a mission such as ACCESS to perform direct particle measurements on very high energy cosmic rays.

  14. Off-axis holographic lens spectrum-splitting photovoltaic system for direct and diffuse solar energy conversion.