Sample records for raw source water

  1. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...


    Oct 5, 2015 ... Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding ... must suffice to meet basic human needs in terms of drinking, ..... the years, maintenance of the pipelines and the treatment plant.

  2. Modelling geosmin concentrations in three sources of raw water in Quebec, Canada.

    Parinet, Julien; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sérodes, Jean-Baptiste


    The presence of off-flavour compounds such as geosmin, often found in raw water, significantly reduces the organoleptic quality of distributed water and diverts the consumer from its use. To adapt water treatment processes to eliminate these compounds, it is necessary to be able to identify them quickly. Routine analysis could be considered a solution, but it is expensive and delays associated with obtaining the results of analysis are often important, thereby constituting a serious disadvantage. The development of decision-making tools such as predictive models seems to be an economic and feasible solution to counterbalance the limitations of analytical methods. Among these tools, multi-linear regression and principal component regression are easy to implement. However, due to certain disadvantages inherent in these methods (multicollinearity or non-linearity of the processes), the use of emergent models involving artificial neurons networks such as multi-layer perceptron could prove to be an interesting alternative. In a previous paper (Parinet et al., Water Res 44: 5847-5856, 2010), the possible parameters that affect the variability of taste and odour compounds were investigated using principal component analysis. In the present study, we expand the research by comparing the performance of three tools using different modelling scenarios (multi-linear regression, principal component regression and multi-layer perceptron) to model geosmin in drinking water sources using 38 microbiological and physicochemical parameters. Three very different sources of water, in terms of quality, were selected for the study. These sources supply drinking water to the Québec City area (Canada) and its vicinity, and were monitored three times per month over a 1-year period. Seven different modelling methods were tested for predicting geosmin in these sources. The comparison of the seven different models showed that simple models based on multi-linear regression provide sufficient




    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  4. Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water--First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds.

    Pekar, Heidi; Westerberg, Erik; Bruno, Oscar; Lääne, Ants; Persson, Kenneth M; Sundström, L Fredrik; Thim, Anna-Maria


    Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1 μg/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5 μg/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  6. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W


    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

  7. Assessing Raw and Treated Water Quality Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Bridgeman, J.; Baker, A.


    To date, much fluorescence spectroscopy work has focused on the use of techniques to characterize pollution in river water and to fingerprint pollutants such as, inter alia, treated and raw sewage effluent. In the face of tightening water quality standards associated with disinfection byproducts, there exists the need for a surrogate THM parameter which can be measured accurately and quickly at the water treatment works and which will give a satisfactory indication of the THM concentration leaving the water treatment works. In addition, water treatment works and distribution system managers require tools which are simple and quick, yet robust, to monitor plant and unit process performance. We extend the use of fluorescence techniques from raw water quality monitoring to (1) the monitoring of water treatment works intakes and the assessment of water treatment works performance by (2) assessing the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through the unit process stages of various water treatment works treating different raw waters and (3) examining the prevalence of microbiological activity found at service reservoirs in the downstream distribution system. 16 surface water treatment works were selected in the central region of the UK and samples taken at works' intakes, downstream of each unit process, and in the distribution systems. The intakes selected abstract water from a broad range of upland and lowland water sources with varying natural and anthropogenic pollutant inputs and significantly different flows. The treatment works selected offer a range of different, but relatively standard, unit processes. The results demonstrate that raw waters exhibit more fluorescence than (partially) treated waters. However, noticeable differences between each site are observed. Furthermore, differences in unit process performance between works are also identified and quantified. Across all sites, treatment with Granular Activated Carbon is found to yield a significant

  8. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner


    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  9. The River Ruhr - an urban river under particular interest for recreational use and as a raw water source for drinking water: The collaborative research project "Safe Ruhr" - microbiological aspects.

    Strathmann, Martin; Horstkott, Marina; Koch, Christoph; Gayer, Uta; Wingender, Jost


    Along the intense industrialization of the Ruhr valley (Germany), the River Ruhr became increasingly polluted. Over time, using it for recreational purposes became a serious health hazard and bathing was banned due to chemical and microbiological risks. The purpose of the collaborative project "Safe Ruhr" was to verify the current status and to provide a scientific basis for lifting the bathing ban. As the river also provides a raw water source for drinking water production, it was investigated how well the treatment procedures control possible hygienic risks. As study area, the barrier Lake Baldeney was chosen as it embraces earlier bathing sites and tributes to river bank filtration water for drinking water treatment plants. The hygienic condition of the river water was determined over 18 months by measuring general physical, chemical and microbiological water quality parameters including fecal indicators, bacterial obligate and facultative pathogens, parasitic protozoa, enteric viruses and schistosome parasites (Trichobilharzia). Samples were taken at eight locations including sites before and after receiving the discharge of stormwater and treated wastewater, potential future bathing sites and a raw water abstraction point for potable water production. In summary, for all investigated physico-chemical parameters no significant difference between the eight investigated sampling locations on a distinct sampling date were observed. This study focused on hygienically relevant bacteria and parasitic protozoa. Fecal indicators, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and Clostridium perfringens as well as coliform bacteria were detected in 94-100% of the water samples. Enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella enterica, were isolated from 33% and 28% of the samples, respectively, in relatively low concentrations. Among the environmental facultative pathogens, P. aeruginosa was detected at a high frequency of 82% of all samples, but in low

  10. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G


    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  11. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de


    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  12. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de


    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  13. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  14. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.


    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  15. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  16. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang


    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  17. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal


    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  18. Molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in raw water.

    Ruecker, Norma J; Bounsombath, Niravanh; Wallis, Peter; Ong, Corinne S L; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Neumann, Norman F


    The emerging concept of host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. was exploited to characterize sources of fecal contamination in a watershed. A method of molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium oocysts on microscope slides prepared from raw water samples processed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 was developed. The method was based on a repetitive nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-DNA sequencing approach that permitted the resolution of multiple species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium in a single water sample.

  19. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Gianfranco Piva


    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  20. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong


    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

  1. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence


    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of arcobacter species in drinking water, spring water, and raw milk as determined by multiplex PCR.

    Ertas, Nurhan; Dogruer, Yusuf; Gonulalan, Zafer; Guner, Ahmet; Ulger, Ismail


    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Arcobacter species in water sources and raw milk from healthy animals in Kayseri, Turkey. A total of 175 samples of drinking water (n = 100), spring water (n = 25), and raw milk (n = 50) were examined. Arcobacter species were isolated using the membrane filtration technique. Overall, 7 (4%) of the 175 samples yielded Arcobacter spp.: 3 (3%) drinking water samples, 1 (4%) spring water sample, and 3 (6%) raw milk samples. Two species of Arcobacter were recovered from the seven positive samples: Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, and A. butzleri plus A. skirrowii found in 3 (1.7%), 2 (1.1%), and 2 (1.1%) samples, respectively. Our study is the first to report the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. skirrowii together from drinking water and is the first report of Arcobacter in milk from healthy cows in Turkey. Based on these findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in environmental waters and raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health.

  3. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G


    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  4. Molecular Forensic Profiling of Cryptosporidium Species and Genotypes in Raw Water

    Ruecker, Norma J.; Bounsombath, Niravanh; Wallis, Peter; Ong, Corinne S.L.; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Neumann, Norman F.


    The emerging concept of host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. was exploited to characterize sources of fecal contamination in a watershed. A method of molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium oocysts on microscope slides prepared from raw water samples processed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 was developed. The method was based on a repetitive nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-DNA sequencing approach that permitted the resolution of multiple sp...

  5. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Marisa Di Bari


    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  6. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    Shord, A.L.


    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  7. Public Water Sources

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This GIS layer consists of the geographic location of active and inactive public (Community, non-transient non-community and transient non-community) water sources...

  8. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Sehlke, Gerald


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Ingun Tryland


    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  10. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie


    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  11. Water Resources Management In Support Of Raw Region Based On Decoupling Effect

    Lesin, Yu V.; Fedulova, E. A.; Akulov, A. O.; Vik, S. V.; Korchagin, R. L.


    It determines the presence of the decoupling effect in the Russians raw regions materials by using water. Developed models that explain the relationship between the gross regional product and water intake. It proved no effect on the growth of water consumption in most regions of the reference commodity. Recommendations for the decoupling effect development in support of Russians raw regions.

  12. THM and HAA formation from NOM in raw and treated surface waters.

    Golea, D M; Upton, A; Jarvis, P; Moore, G; Sutherland, S; Parsons, S A; Judd, S J


    The disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential (FP) of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water sources has been studied with reference to the key water quality determinants (WQDs) of UV absorption (UV254), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. The data set used encompassed raw and treated water sampled over a 30-month period from 30 water treatment works (WTWs) across Scotland, all employing conventional clarification. Both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) FPs were considered. In addition to the standard bulk WQDs, the DOC content was fractionated and analysed for the hydrophobic (HPO) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions. Results were quantified in terms of the yield (dDBPFP/dWQD) and the linear regression coefficient R(2) of the yield trend. The NOM in the raw waters was found to comprise 30-84% (average 66%) of the more reactive HPO material, with this proportion falling to 18-63% (average 50%) in the treated water. Results suggested UV254 to be as good an indicator of DBPFP as DOC or HPO for the raw waters, with R(2) values ranging from 0.79 to 0.82 for THMs and from 0.71 to 0.73 for HAAs for these three determinants. For treated waters the corresponding values were significantly lower at 0.52-0.67 and 0.46-0.47 respectively, reflecting the lower HPO concentration and thus UV254 absorption and commensurately reduced precision due to the limit of detection of the analytical instrument. It is concluded that fractionation offers little benefit in attempting to discern or predict chlorinated carbonaceous DBP yield for the waters across the geographical region studied. UV254 offered an adequate estimate of DBPFP based on a mean yield of ∼2600 and ∼2800 μg per cm(-1) absorbance for THMFP for the raw and treated waters respectively and ∼3800 and2900 μg cm(-1) for HAAFP, albeit with reduced precision for the treated waters.

  13. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...



    Jul 31, 2017 ... Objectives: To appraise the amount of sustainable bark stripped and time to complete bark recovery as basis ... in pharmaceutical shops worldwide for the treatment ..... factors such as rainfall, soil nutrient or water soil.

  14. Chilean Euphorbiaceae species as sources of fuels and raw chemicals

    Gnecco, S.; Bartulin, J.; Marticorena, C.; Ramirez, A.


    The potential of some species of Chilean Euphorbiaceae as sources of hydrocarbon-like materials was evaluated. Samples of plants excluding roots, were analyzed for CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ extractives, resins and hydrocarbons. The presence of waxes and natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) was confirmed using spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. C/H values for representative fractions were calculated and extracted samples from selected species analyzed for apparent protein contents. Results suggested that at least two species, Euphorbia lactiflua and Euphorbia copiapina might have an industrial potential.

  15. Optimization of the Clarification System for Raw Water from the Pakra Reservoir Lake

    Zečević, N.


    Full Text Available The first step in processing raw water from the Pakra lake for use in fertilizer production at Petrokemija is oxidation of total organic carbon matter with gaseous chlorine, Cl2. Thereupon it is clarified and filtered with the help of a clarification reactor and sand filters. Construction of the clarification reactor and process sand filters enables only the removal of the suspended matter from the raw water, without affecting its overall hardness. Process control of the clarification reactor and removal of the suspended matter from the raw water is achieved by adding corresponding mass concentration water solutions of aluminum sulphate, Al2(SO43 · 18 H2O and organic polyelectrolyte. The effectiveness of flocculation is carried out by laboratory determination of the m-alkalinity difference between inlet and outlet of raw water from the clarification reactor. For the most effective clarification of raw water, the optimal empirical value of the m-alkalinity difference is 0.65 mmol L-1 in the pH range of raw water from 7.0 to 8.0. Prior to processing clarified water by ionic decarbonatisation and demineralisation for protection of the ionic exchange resin from excess free Cl2, a corresponding mass concentration of a sodium bisulfite water solution, NaHSO3, is added. An improved system is proposed for continuous measurement of mass concentrations of free Cl2 in raw and clarified water, and pH difference value at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor. The proposed system can achieve optimal dosage of gaseous Cl2 in the raw water, improving the clarification process in the reactor as well as optimal dosage of water solution of NaHSO3. It is shown that the average pH difference from 0.65 to 0.75 at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor in the pH range of the raw water from 7.0 to 8.0 is an equally effective replacement for the laboratory determination of m-alkalinity. Also shown is the connection between dosage mass of the

  16. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E


    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  17. Formation of a raw starch-hydrolyzing -amlyase by Clostridium 2021: effect of carbon sources

    Avendano, M.C.; Cornejo, I.


    Clostridium 2021 was found to produce -amylase effective at hydrolyzing raw starch. Of the carbohydrates examined, starch at 3% concentration was found to be the best carbon source for enzyme production. The products of -amylase action on starch were: maltose, glucose and higher dextrins.

  18. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus


    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  19. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H


    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  20. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool.

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A


    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.

  1. The quality of raw water for drinking water unit in Jakarta-Indonesia

    Sidabutar, Noni Valeria; Hartono, Djoko M.; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi; Hutapea, Reynold C.


    Water problems, i.e quality, quantity, continuity of clean water faced by the mostly urban area. Jakarta also faces similar issues, because the needs of society higher than the number of water fulfilled by the government. Moreover, Jakarta's water quality does not meet the standard set by the Government and heavily polluted by anthropogenic activities along its rivers. This research employs a quantitative research approach with the mix-method. It examines the raw water quality status for drinking water in West Tarum Canalin 2011-2015. The research results show water quality with this research, using water quality of with the water categorized as heavily-polluted category based on the Ministry of Environment's Decree No 115/2003 regarding the Guidelines for Determination of Water Quality Status. This present research also shown the water quality (parameters pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) from Jatiluhur Dam to the intake drinking water unit. In thirteen points of sampling also, the results obtained the parameters DO, COD, and BOD are fluctuating and exceed the standard.

  2. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Singh, G.


    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  3. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    Singh, G.


    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe.

  4. Comparative study of water quality of rivers used for raw water supply & ex-mining lakes in Perak, Malaysia

    Orji, K. U.; Sapari, N.; Yusof, K. W.; Asadpour, R.; Olisa, E.


    Ex-mining lakes are seldom used as sources of raw water for the treatment of public water supply due to the general view that they are highly polluted. This study examined the water quality of these lakes, compared and contrasted them to the water quality of the rivers used for Perak drinking water supply. Ten water samples were analyzed from different ex-mining lakes. Two water samples were from Kinta and Perak rivers. They were analyzed for physico-chemical properties such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, SO42- COD, Cl- Na+ Fe, As, and Pb. The results showed that temperature varied from 28.1°C to 34.1°C, pH 6.2 to 9.0, EC 55 to 400 μs/cm, turbidity 5.6 to 74.2 NTU, TDS 36.8 to 268mg/l, Cl- 0.483 to 3.339mg/l, SO42- 0.051 to 15.307mg/l, Na 0.669 to 3.668mg/l, Fe 0 to 0.14mg/l, As 0 to 0.004mg/l, and Pb 0.019 to 0.075mg/l. All the samples were highly turbid, had slightly high concentration of Pb, and had common water quality problem. The ex-mining lakes can also be used to supply water after treatment since these rivers are already being used by the Metropolitan Utilities Corporation for water treatment. The ex-mining pools can be used as alternative sources of drinking water supply to the people of Perak.

  5. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh


    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  6. Improvement of organics removal by bio-ceramic filtration of raw water with addition of phosphorus.

    Sang, Junqiang; Zhang, Xihui; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhansheng


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphorus addition on biological pretreatment of raw water. Experiments were conducted in pilot-scale bio-ceramic filters with raw water from a reservoir located in Beijing, China. The results demonstrated that phosphorus was the limiting nutrient for bacterial growth in the raw water investigated in this study. The measured values of bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) of the raw water increased by 50-65% and 30-40% with addition of 50 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1), respectively. Addition of 25 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1) to the influent of bio-ceramic filter enhanced the percent removal of organics by 4.6, 5.7 and 15 percentage points in terms of COD(Mn), TOC and BDOC, respectively. Biomass in terms of phospholipid content increased by 13-22% and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased by 35-45%. The ratio of C:P for bacteria growth was 100:1.6 for the raw water used in this study. Since change of phosphorus concentrations can influence the performance of biological pretreatment and the biological stability of drinking water, this study is of substantial significance for waterworks in China. The role of phosphorus in biological processes of drinking water should deserve more attention.

  7. Development of toxicity tolerant water hyacinth `(Eichhornea crassipes)` for effective treatment of raw sewage

    Ayade, B.B. [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology


    Pioneering research efforts in the handling of municipal sewage in developing countries have involved the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornea crassipes) to purify sewage for possible re-use of the effluent water for domestic purposes. The ability of water hyacinth to remove pollution from raw sewage has been found to be impaired by sewage toxicity. Trials were therefore carried out to adapt water hyacinth to toxicity and thereby increase its ability to remove pollutants from raw sewage. The plants were adapted using an active bio-degrader consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaenae, Klebsiella edwardsiella and Baccillus subtilis. The adaption progressed through 20, 40, 60 and 80% sewage dilution until plants capable of growth in 100% raw sewage were obtained. Plants were observed for morphological growth and at four weeks, samples wer collected for tissue analysis. The plants progressively absorbed nutrients from sewage up to the fourth week, when signs of toxicity were observed through wilting, loss of turgidity and reduction in leaf number. However, plants that survived through a series of adaptations under various sewage dilutions exhibited luxuriant growth on raw sewage. In synergy with the active bio-degrader, the efficiency of the adapted water hyacinth to remove pollutants (nutrients) from raw sewage was enhanced by 93%. (orig.)

  8. Raw materials exploitation in Prehistory of Georgia: sourcing, processing and distribution

    Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz; Oqrostsvaridze, Avthandil


    Study of raw materials has a big importance to understand the ecology, cognition, behavior, technology, culture of the Paleolithic human populations. Unfortunately, explorations of the sourcing, processing and distribution of stone raw materials had a less attention until the present days. The reasons of that were: incomplete knowledge of the archaeologists who are doing the late period archaeology (Bronze Age-Medieval) and who are little bit far from the Paleolithic technology and typology; Ignorance of the stone artifacts made on different kind of raw-materials, except flint and obsidians. Studies on the origin of the stone raw materials are becoming increasingly important since in our days. Interesting picture and situation have been detected on the different sites and in different regions of Georgia. In earlier stages of Middle Paleolithic of Djruchula Basin caves the number of basalt, andesite, argillite etc. raw materials are quite big. Since 130 000 a percent of the flint raw-material is increasing dramatically. Flint is an almost lonely dominated raw-material in Western Georgia during thousand years. Since approximately 50 000 ago the first obsidians brought from the South Georgia, appeared in Western Georgia. Similar situation has been detected by us in Eastern Georgia during our excavations of Ziari and Pkhoveli open-air sites. The early Lower Paleolithic layers are extremely rich by limestone artifacts while the flint raw-materials are dominated in the Middle Paleolithic layers. Study of these issues is possible to achieve across chronologies, the origins of the sources of raw-materials, the sites and regions. By merging archaeology with anthropology, geology and geography we are able to acquire outstanding insights about those populations. New approach to the Paleolithic stone materials, newly found Paleolithic quarries gave us an opportunities to try to achieve some results for understanding of the behavior of Paleolithic populations, geology and

  9. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing


    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area.

  10. Olive black water as raw material for butanol production

    Waehner, R.S.; Giulietti, A.M.; Mendez, B.A.


    Solventogenic Clostridium spp. were used for butanol production from olive black water considering also the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Butanol yields ranging from 0.09 to 0.29 g per g of sugar content and COD removals as high as 85% were achieved in small-scale experiments.

  11. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.


    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  12. Pentachlorophenol reduction in raw Cauca river water through activated carbon adsorption in water purification

    Camilo Hernán Cruz Vélez


    Full Text Available Reducing chemical risk in raw water from the River Cauca (caused by the presence of pentachlorophenol and organic matter (real color, UV254 absorbance was evaluated at bench scale by using three treatment sequences: adsorption with powdered ac-tivated coal (PAC; adsorption – coagulation; and, adsorption – disinfection – coagulation. The results showed that although PAC is appropriate for pentachlorophenol removal, and its use together with the coagulant (aluminium sulphate significantly impro-ved phenolic compound and organic matter removal (promoting enhanced coagulation, the most efficient treatment sequence was adsorption – disinfection - coagulation, achieving minor pentachlorophenol levels than detection (1.56 μg/l and WHO li-mits (9μg/l due to the effect of chloride on PAC.

  13. [Removal of DON in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption using activated carbon].

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Guo-Zhong; Gu, Li; Zhao, Cheng-Mei; Li, Qing-Fei; Zhai, Hui-Min


    Dissolved organic nitrogen as a precursor of new type nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water attracted gradually the attention of scholars all over the world. In order to explore the mechanism of DON removal in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption, water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N, UV254, pH and dissolved oxygen, were determined in raw water and the molecular weight distribution of the DON and DOC was investigated. The variations in DON, DOC and UV254 in the coagulation and adsorption tests were investigated, and the changes of DON in raw water were characterized using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that DON, DOC and UV254 were 1.28 mg x L(-1), 8.56 mg x L(-1), 0.16 cm(-1), and DOC/DON and SUVA were 6.69 mg x mg(-1), 1.87 m(-1) x (mg x L(-1))(-1) in raw water, respectively. The molecular weight distribution of the DON in raw water showed a bimodal distribution. The small molecular weight ( 20 000) fractions accounted for about 22%. The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 20%, 26% and 70%, respectively, in the coagulation test and the dosage of coagulant was 10 mg x L(-1). The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 60%, 35% and 100%, respectively, in the adsorption test and the dosage of activated carbon was 1.0 g. In the combination of coagulation and adsorption, the removal of DON and DOC reached approximately 82% and 64%, respectively. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON in the coagulation and adsorption tests depended intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.

  14. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Blaženka Šebečić


    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not changeessentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  15. Raw Materials in Fibre Enriched Biscuits Production as Source of Total Phenols

    Blaženka Šebečić


    Full Text Available Due to scientifically well documented health beneficial effects of dietary fibres and recommendations for an every day intake on an average of 30 g by food (DRI 2005, the confectionery industry has been increasingly engaged in the production of fibre enriched biscuits with the aim to offer such a product as a valuable constituent of proper nutrition and dietetic functional food intended for risky populations. Thereby, commercially available pure fibres or fibre-rich raw materials have been used for the enrichment of biscuits, prevalently pure fibres. To evaluate such products as functional food it is of interest to know how the choice of raw material for biscuit fibre enrichment influences the content of other health protecting compounds which commonly accompany fibres in plant material. With the aim of evaluating fibre rich biscuits as a source of total phenols depending on the origin of fibres, total phenols were determined spectrophotometrically by a modified Folin-Ciocalteau method (Gao et al. 2002 in ten experimentally baked biscuits based on wheat flour type 500 and type 1700 with or without different dietary fibres or fibre rich raw materials added instead of definite amount of white fl our. Results show that shares of total phenols and fibres in biscuits based on the wheat fl our depend on the type of the fl our. Biscuits with pure wheat and oats fibres added were the lowest in phenol content regardless on the highest amount of fibres (0.96 g kg-1 and 1.09 g kg-1, respectively; inulin and amaranth do not change essentially phenol content; apple fibres, soya fl our, and carob fl our enhance phenol content thereby carob fl our being the most effective giving biscuits 5.53 g total phenols kg-1.

  16. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS in Raw Water Treatment in Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Aho, I.M.


    Full Text Available Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment. Preliminary engineering properties such as jar test, speeds of flocculation; 98, 196 and 260rpm; detention and setting times were conducted to determine the integrity of moringa extract as a natural coagulant. The results shows that at the speed of 98rpm and settling time of 1 hour, 85 – 89% removal of solids was achieved, while 41 – 59%, 63 – 80% removal of solids were possible at 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. Similarly, after 2 hours of settling time, 93 – 96%, 64 – 75%, 65 – 80% removal of solids were obtained at 98rpm, 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. The treatment suggests optimum performance at low and medium speeds better than maximum speed of flocculation. It is suggested that further investigation be carried out on particle sizes of moringa oleifera seeds powder.

  17. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail:; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)


    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  18. [Algae-removal effect of AS/PDM composite coagulants to winter Taihu Lake raw water].

    Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Ling-Ling


    The series of stable AS/PDM composite coagulants prepared by polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDM) and aluminium sulphate (AS) were used to research the algae-removal effect to winter Taihu Lake raw water. The effects of dosage of composite coagulants, composite mass ratios (20:1-5:1) of AS and PDM, intrinsic viscosity values (0.55-3.99 dL/g) of PDM on algae-removal rates were studied through coagulation and algae-removal experiments. The feasibility of using composite coagulants to substitute prechlorination process was analysed. The results show that when residual turbidity of 2 NTU to water after coagulation and sediment is required by water plant, the dosage (based on Al2O3) of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 4.24 mg/L, 3.96-1.87 mg/L, and the algae-removal rates are 83.00%, 87.52%-90.93% respectively. When dosage to raw water are 4.24 mg/L, the algae-removal rates of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 83.00%, 88.29%-97.66%, and the residual turbidities are 2.00 NTU, 1.76-0.43 NTU respectively. When dosage to chlorine-added water are 4.50 mg/L, the treatment effect of AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS to chlorine-added water, and the treatment effect of AS/PDM (3.99/5:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1) and AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulants to chlorine-added water. So using AS/PDM composite coagulants can enhance evidently the treatment effect of AS to winter Taihu Lake raw water. Compared with using AS solely, the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are saved when the residual turbidities are required in same level, and the treatment effect of AS is enhanced when the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are same as that of using AS solely. Moreover, using composite coagulants can replace the part chlorine-added function on increasing coagulation and algae-removal in prechlorination process and profitably increases

  19. A Numerical Comparison of Spray Combustion between Raw and Water-in-Oil Emulsified Fuel

    D. Tarlet


    Full Text Available Heavy fuel-oils, used engine oils and animal fat can be used as dense, viscous combustibles within industrial boilers. Burning these combustibles in the form of an emulsion with water enables to decrease the flame length and the formation of carbonaceous residue, in comparison with raw combustibles. These effects are due to the secondary atomization among the spray, which is a consequence of the micro-explosion phenomenon. This phenomenon acts in a single emulsion droplet by the fast (< 0.1 ms vaporization of the inside water droplets, leading to complete disintegration of the whole emulsion droplet. First, the present work demonstrates a model of spray combustion of raw fuel. Secondly, the spray combustion of water-in-oil emulsified fuel is exposed to the same burning conditions, taking into account the micro-explosion phenomenon. Finally, the comparison between the results with and without second atomization shows some similar qualitative tendencies with experimental measurements from the literature.

  20. [Detection of viruses in raw water as a basic tool for risk assessment].

    Selinka, H-C; Botzenhart, K; Feuerpfeil, I; Puchert, W; Schmoll, O; Szewzyk, R; Willmitzer, H


    Human pathogenic viruses may end up in surface waters by fecal contamination. However, the German drinking water ordinance requests that pathogens in drinking water should not be present in concentrations constituting a potential danger to human health. Since many viruses do have a very low dose of infection, they have to be sufficiently eliminated in the process of drinking water purification. Waterborne virus outbreaks in Europe, over the last few decades, were mostly linked to noncompliance with the generally accepted codes of practice for drinking water production. The aimed level of protection of drinking water supplies in Germany, however, exceeds prevention of outbreaks by even protecting against sporadic virus infections. Documentation of such a high level of protection is not achieved by end product control alone but requires a process analysis with risk assessment. To do such an analysis, information regarding the presence of viruses in the raw water used for drinking water production, as well as data of virus elimination rates during purification processes, are of major importance. This paper presents suggestions for implementation of such a risk assessment, focusing on the evaluation of raw water quality.

  1. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter


    : - the filter comprises a filter material (4) including a porous filter material and a microbial biomass, the filter material is either stationary relative to the volume or comprises a particulate material, the filter material (4) is inserted in a fluid flow path generated by water flowing in direction from...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  2. [Removal effect of organics in Yangtze River raw water by MIEX resin pretreatment].

    Liu, Cheng; Chen, Wei; Li, Lei; Sheng, Yu


    Jar-tests were used to study the removal effect of organics by MIEX pre-treatment from Yangtze River raw water, in which molecular weight, fractionation, UV scan, disinfection by-products, DOC and UV254 were used to estimate the removal effect. The results showed that organics in raw water were mainly composed of low-molecular weight and hydrophilic fraction, which accounted for above 50% of total organics. Above 35% DOC was removed by MIEX pretreatment with a dosage of 10 mL/L and contact time of 15 min, which due to the removal of low molecular weight and hydrophilic organics. The results of UV scan showed that organics which had high adsorption between 190 nm and 250 nm were significantly removed by MIEX pretreatment, while the part that had high adsorption on wavelength above 250 nm could be removed similar to coagulation alone.

  3. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J; Evans, T M


    Nearly 700 standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. Actinomycetes and Aeromonas species were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in raw water. Identification of bacterial populations before and after contact with chlorine (1 to 2 mg/liter) for 1 h revealed that chlorination selected for gram-positive bacteria. Water that contained high densities of bacteria known to be antagonistic to coliforms had low coliform isolation rates. The membrane filtration technique for enumerating SPC bacteria recovered significantly higher numbers (P standard pour plate technique.

  4. Evolution of Pretreatment Methods for Nanofiltration Membrane Used for Dissolved Organic Matter Removal in Raw Water Supply

    Sirikul Siriraksophon


    Full Text Available Coagulation and microfiltration using polyaluminium chloride (PACl were investigated as a pretreatment process by nanofiltration to reduce dissolved organic matter in both raw water and treated water at water treatment plants. The dissolved organic matter in the raw water supply may be a precursor of carcinogens produced during the disinfection process. Raw water from pumping stations and treated water from Hat Yai Provincial Waterworks Authority, Songkhla Province, Thailand were used as samples for this study. Fractionation of raw water samples by DAX-8 and XAD-4 resin revealed that they contained hydrophilic, transphilic and hydrophobic groups with hydrophilic the major organic component. PACl coagulation resulted in a higher dissolved organic matter removal than microfiltration techniques. A hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process was studied. This effectively reduced dissolved organic matter as dissolved organic carbon and UV-254 by 86% and 94% respectively. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced dissolved organic carbons of the hydrophobic group more effectively than the hydrophilic group. Chloroform and bromodichloroform were the two major species of the trihalomethane group produced when raw water reacted with chlorine. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP in raw water samples by up to 90%

  5. Occurrence of cyanobacteria and microcystin toxins in raw and treated waters of the Nile River, Egypt: implication for water treatment and human health.

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Deyab, Mohamed Ali; Abou-Dobara, Mohamed I; El-Sayed, Ahmad K; El-Raghi, Wesam M


    Monitoring of cyanobacteria and their associated toxins has intensified in raw water sources of drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) in most countries of the world. However, it is not explored yet for Egyptian WTPs. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of cyanobacteria and their microcystin (MC) toxins in the Nile River source water of Damietta WTP during warm months (April-September 2013) and to evaluate the removal efficiency of both cyanobacterial cells and MCs by conventional methods used in this plant as a representative of Egyptian drinking WTPs. The results showed that the source water at the intake of Damietta WTP contained dense cyanobacterial population (1.1-6.6 × 107 cells L(-1)) dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa. This bloom was found to produce MC-RR and MC-LR. Both cyanobacterial cell density and intracellular MCs in the intake source water increased with the increase in temperature and nutrients during the study period, with maximum values obtained in August. During treatment processes, cyanobacterial cells were incompletely removed by coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation (C/F/S; 91-96.8%) or sand filtration (93.3-98.9%). Coagulation/flocculation induced the release of MCs into the ambient water, and the toxins were not completely removed or degraded during further treatment stages (filtration and chlorination). MCs in outflow tank water were detected in high concentrations (1.1-3.6 μg L - 1), exceeding WHO provisional guideline value of 1 μg L - 1 for MC-LR in drinking water. Based on this study, regular monitoring of cyanobacteria and their cyanotoxins in the intake source water and at different stages at all WTPs is necessary to provide safe drinking water to consumers or to prevent exposure of consumers to hazardous cyanobacterial metabolites.

  6. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.


    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  7. Globalization and its influence to the availability of the Raw material sources

    Vodzinský Vladimír


    Full Text Available Process of globalization does not lead only to concentration of physical and financial capital, and to centralization of its managing, what can be considered as its main signs, but at same time it gives whole raw of new claims to realization of technologies and their material basis.One of very important claims is also change in structure and volume of raw materials, that is gradually viewing in increased change from consumption of so-called classical raw materials, without which it is not possible to create basic components of information technologies.Information technologies are then creating important basis for quickly developed new branches of economy.

  8. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V


    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Ptallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; Ptallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.



    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308



    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  11. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)


    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  12. Washery wastes as a source of raw materials for ceramic products

    Burmistrov, V.N.; Tambovtseva, N.A.


    The rapid expansion of the output of walling products and the exhaustion of raw material sources for brickmaking have brought to the fore the urgency of devising methods of utilizing coal-mining wastes in the production of rough ceramics, i.e., ceramic walling products, and sewage pipes. The method developed in the VNIIstrom Institute for the production of walling products from washery wastes has now been approved by the Joint Authorities Commission and recommended for commercial exploitation. However, these wastes can only be used (like the traditional clay materials) provided they are uniform in composition and properties. Significant variations lead to a lower product quality and reduced cost effectiveness. The composition and properties of washery wastes vary to an extent which depends on the composition variations in the rock over- and under-lying the coal seam, the proportions of rock included in the mined product, the production rhythm in the washery and the labor organizations at the mining, transportation, and cleaning stages. A survey of the variations in composition of the rocks over- and under-lying coal seams in the Donbas has shown that the average ashes are 88% above and 83% below the seam; the variability coefficients are comparatively low (13 and 16.3%, respectively). Correspondingly, the long-term average variability of the ash of the tailings from half the washeries is below 15%. The construction of modern washeries attached to the large pits will further reduce the variability in the ash of the washery wastes. We took samples from No. 1 and No. 2 washeries at the Cherevopets I and SW to investigate the variability of the tailings composition and properties.

  13. Changes in water binding during ripening of cheeses made from raw, pasteurized or high-pressure-treated goat milk

    Buffa, Martín; Guamis, Buenaventura; Saldo, Jordi; Trujillo, Antonio


    International audience; The different types of water contained in the matrix of cheeses made from raw (RA), pasteurized (PA; 72 °C, 15 s) or pressure-treated (PR; 500 MPa, 15 min, 20 °C) goat milk were studied throughout ripening. Water content was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by thermogravimetry. Thermogravimetric curves showed that water is lost in two successive steps (W$_1$ and W$_2$), depending on the temperature required for water to leave the cheese network. Although water...

  14. Simulated Experiment of Emergency Treatment for Raw Water with Exfoliated Graphite Adsorption Process while the Accidental Diesel Oil Pollution of Drinking Water Source%饮用水源突发性柴油污染的吸附法应急处理模拟试验

    刘学卿; 王新刚; 唐玉斌; 吕锡武; 申一尘


    Simulated experiments were performed in laboratory. Exfoliated graphite adsorption method was used as emergency treatment technology of drinking source water which was suddenly polluted by diesel oil. The effect of shaking time, pH, exfoliated graphite dosage and temperature on the adsorption were investigated. The adsorption isotherms were determined and the thermal adsorption law was also discussed. The results show that exfoliated graphite can diminish unexpected diesel oil pollution quickly and efficiently. Under this research conditions, shaking rate, pH and temperature have no influence on the adsorption. When exfoliated graphite dosage is 5g/L, the removal rate of diesel oil can reach more than 97 % during 5 s, with regard to 1 000 mg/L of diesel oil in water. The isothermal adsorption law can be well described by Freundlich model. The acquired linear equation may supply instrumental model to emergency treatment of drinking source water suddenly polluted by diesel oil.%通过室内模拟实验,研究了膨胀石墨对饮用水源水突发性柴油污染的应急消减性能.考察了振荡速率、水体pH、膨胀石墨投加量和水温对吸附效果的影响,测定了吸附等温线,对吸附规律进行了探讨.结果表明,膨胀石墨可快速高效地消减突发性柴油污染.在本研究条件下,振荡速率、水体pH和水温对柴油的吸附无显著性影响.当膨胀石墨投加量为5g/L时,历时5s即可将1 000 mg/L的柴油去除97%以上.等温吸附规律可用Freundlich模型较好的拟合,拟合得到的线性方程可为应急处理水源地突发柴油污染提供基础模型.

  15. Valorization of Drinking Water Treatment Sludges as Raw Materials to Produce Concrete and Mortar

    R. M.R. Zamora


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the technical feasibility to valorize sludges, generated and stored at the Los Berros drinking water facility (PPLB, as raw material to produce building products (mortar and concrete for the construction industry. The experimental study was divided into three stages: 1 sampling and characterization of PPLB sludges to determine their potential as raw material (sand substitute and supplementary cementing materials to produce mortar and concrete; 2 production and characterization of specimens, using sludge in different weight ratios of mixtures with cement, lime, commercial mortar and plaster to prepare mortars and concretes and 3 comparison of compressive strength and drying contraction values between each specimen and the Mexican criteria to build mortars and concretes. The characterization results of the PPLB sludges showed that these residues could be used as a sand substitute in mortar and concrete formulations, since they were mainly comprised of this material (46.83%. The specimens prepared with a the binary formulations, sludge-cement and sludge-mortar (90-10% and b the ternary formulation, sludge-lime-cement (90-5-5%, gave the best results (ranging from 130 to 150 kg cm-2 of the compressive strength test. The compressive strength values of these formulations were higher than those of equivalent mortar (types I, II and III and cement mixtures (125 kg cm-2 prepared according to the Mexican complementary technical criteria to design and build masonry. These cementing properties exhibited by the PPLB sludges might be associated to their high content of aluminum and silicon oxides, 31.98 and 33.23%, respectively. Thus, calcium silicate (the main carrier strength in hardened cement can be produced from lime hydration of cement with the active silica present in the sludge. Considering all these results, the PPLB sludges present a high feasibility for being valorized as raw materials (supplementary cementing

  16. Coal Gangue Water Instead of Raw Water Desalination System Water Test Ssummary%煤矸水代替原水制脱盐水试验



      To ensure that my company in 0# line raw water water off the water desalination water under standing for water, reduce the risk of parking system plan,using the phase ii desalination water station for coal gangue instead of raw water from water desalination water test. Through the of the original water and coal bottles of water quality analysis, part of the use of coal gangue until all water desalination is water, and prove the second phase water desalination using coal gangue is standing water desalination the feasibility of the water, and put forward the improvement measures.%  为保证神木化工公司在原水中断的情况下脱盐水站有原水供应,减少系统非计划停车的风险,利用二期脱盐水站进行了煤矸水代替原水制取脱盐水的试验研究。通过对原水和煤矸水水质的分析,部分利用直至全部利用煤矸水制取脱盐水,证明了二期脱盐水站用煤矸水制取脱盐水的可行性,并提出改进措施。

  17. Removal of aniline and phenol from water using raw and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite.

    Wu, C D; Zhang, J Y; Wang, L; He, M H


    The feasibility of using raw diatomite and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite (Al-diatomite) for removal of aniline and phenol from water was investigated. Their physicochemical characteristics such as pHsolution, point of zero charge (pHPZC), surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy was determined. After the raw diatomite was modified, the surface area of Al-diatomite increases from 26.67 to 82.65 m(2) g(-1). The pHPZC and pHsolution (10%) occurred around pH 5.2 and pH 8.6, respectively. The removal rates of aniline and phenol on diatomite and Al-diatomite decreased with increasing solution pH, while surface charge density decreased. The adsorption of aniline and phenol on diatomite presented a good fit to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, but the models are not fit to forecast the adsorption of aniline and phenol on Al-diatomite. The study indicated that electrostatic interaction was a dominating mechanism of aniline and phenol sorption onto Al-diatomite.

  18. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in Scottish raw and drinking waters during a one-year monitoring period.

    Nichols, R A B; Connelly, L; Sullivan, C B; Smith, H V


    We analyzed 1,042 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive slides (456 from raw waters and 586 from drinking waters) of which 55.7% contained 1 or 2 oocysts, to determine species/genotypes present in Scottish waters. Two nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays targeting different loci (1 and 2) of the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene were used for species identification, and 62.4% of samples were amplified with at least one of the PCR assays. More samples (577 slides; 48.7% from raw water and 51.3% from drinking water) were amplified at locus 1 than at locus 2 (419 slides; 50.1% from raw water and 49.9% from drinking water). PCR at loci 1 and 2 amplified 45.4% and 31.7% of samples containing 1 or 2 oocysts, respectively. We detected both human-infectious and non-human-infectious species/genotype oocysts in Scottish raw and drinking waters. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype (now Cryptosporidium ubiquitum) were most commonly detected in both raw and drinking waters, with C. ubiquitum being most common in drinking waters (12.5%) followed by C. parvum (4.2%) and C. andersoni (4.0%). Numerous samples (16.6% total; 18.9% from drinking water) contained mixtures of two or more species/genotypes, and we describe strategies for unraveling their identity. Repetitive analysis for discriminating mixtures proved useful, but both template concentration and PCR assay influenced outcomes. Five novel Cryptosporidium spp. (SW1 to SW5) were identified by RFLP/sequencing, and Cryptosporidium sp. SW1 was the fourth most common contaminant of Scottish drinking water (3%).

  19. Effect of raw material source, processing systems, and processing temperatures on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M


    Experiments were conducted to evaluate amino acid digestibility of 32 commercial meat and bone meals (MBM) varying in raw material source and produced in seven different commercial cooking systems and at two processing temperatures (low vs high) that differed by 15 to 20 C. Raw material sources included all beef, all pork, mixed species, and high bone MBM. True digestibilities of amino acids were determined using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) of six MBM varying greatly in amino acid digestibility was determined with chicks fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the sole source of dietary protein. The 32 MBM samples averaged 53.2% CP, 2.73% Lys, 0.6% Cys, and 0.75% Met on a DM basis. True digestibility averaged 82% for Lys, 87% for Met, and 47% for Cys. True digestibilities of amino acids varied substantially among processing systems and temperatures, particularly for Lys and Cys. For example, Lys and Cys digestibility ranged from 68 to 92% and from 20 to 71%, respectively, among different MBM. The higher processing temperature generally yielded lower amino acid digestibility than did the low processing temperature. A smaller, less consistent, effect was observed for raw material source. The PER values of the six selected MBM varied from 0.97 to 2.68 and were highly correlated with amino acid digestibility. These results indicated that very high amino acid digestibility MBM can be produced in commercial rendering systems. However, differences in processing systems and temperatures can cause substantial variability in amino acid digestibilities.

  20. Removal of disinfection by-products in raw water using a biological powder-activated carbon system.

    Lou, Jie C; Tseng, Wei B; Wu, Ming C; Han, Jia Y; Chen, Bi H


    This study investigates the removal efficiency of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in raw water at a water treatment plant using a biological powder-activated carbon system (BPACS). The presence of an excessive amount of DBPs has a large impact on the water quality of drinking water treated from the purification process. This study collected rapidly filtered water from an advanced water treatment plant for use in experiments on raw water. The removal efficiency of the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acids formation potential (HAAFP) was studied under various hydraulic retention times and under organic DOC loadings. The results showed that the BPACS lowered the average concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV(254) and the SUVA value (equivalent to UV(254)/DOC) in raw water. The system efficiently removed the THMFP and HAAFP during the treatment of the three primary organic carbon items. These results highlight the importance of the BPACS for efficiently treating disinfection by-products. These discoveries provide important information on biological degradation behaviors that can remove excessive amounts of disinfection by-products from drinking water.

  1. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    A. Moosavi


    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  2. Water: Source of Future Conflict


    domestic purposes.6 In addition, another two-thirds of the world population could be under conditions of water stress . Water stress is defined as engaging in better water management practices. For example, growing tomatoes with traditional irrigation systems requires far more water than...growing tomatoes that use drip systems. This example suggests that even our daily diet has an effect on our overall water needs.21 Growing a pound of

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated waste paper--source of raw material for production of liquid biofuels.

    Brummer, Vladimir; Jurena, Tomas; Hlavacek, Viliam; Omelkova, Jirina; Bebar, Ladislav; Gabriel, Petr; Stehlik, Petr


    Enzymatic hydrolysis of waste paper is becoming a perspective way to obtain raw material for production of liquid biofuels. Reducing sugars solutions that arise from the process of saccharification are a precursors for following or simultaneous fermentation to ethanol. Different types of waste paper were evaluated, in terms of composition and usability, in order to select the appropriate type of the waste paper for the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Novozymes® enzymes NS50013 and NS50010 were used in a laboratory scale trials. Technological conditions, which seem to be the most suitable for hydrolysis after testing on cellulose pulp and filter paper, were applied to hydrolysis of widely available waste papers - offset paper, cardboard, recycled paper in two qualities, matte MYsol offset paper and for comparison again on model materials. The highest yields were achieved for the cardboard, which was further tested using various pretreatment combinations in purpose of increasing the hydrolysis yields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C


    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  5. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.


    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  6. A method for making artificial raw petroleum-from animal fat, vegetable oil, chemical reagents and water

    Furusye, K.; Avadzu, F.


    A method is proposed for making raw petroleum from sulfur, MgO, HnO3, H3PO4, HCl (acids), aminoacides, arsenic, glycerin, NH3 of alums, benzene, pork fat, vegetable oil and water, and from a material obtained by mixing the product of annealing of pork fat and arsenic, benzene and boiled water for 1 hour. The mixture of chemical components and the obtained material is left without mixing for 24 hours and is then mixed.

  7. Evaluation of coagulation sludge from raw water treated with Moringa oleifera for agricultural use

    Jhon Jairo Feria


    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is a physical-chemical process responsible for producing the largest amount of sludge in the purification of natural raw water. Conventionally, aluminum sulfate or alum has been used as a coagulant. However, disposal of the sludge produced has been problematic for the environment due to excess aluminum. Currently, the convenience of using natural coagulants such as seed extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO is being studied, although, the properties of sewage sludge produced and its possible reuse are unknown. In this paper the physical-chemical, nutritional and dangerous characteristics from MO sludge were evaluated by using standard methods to verify its potential use in agricultural soils. Results indicated that pH, electrical conductivity, ion exchange capacity, organic matter and micronutrients from sludge were suitable for application to soils with agricultural potential; but deficiency of macronutrients and presence of fecal coliforms limits it to be used as soil improver and not as fertilizer. Sludge stabilization with hydrated lime at doses greater than or equal to 3 % was effective to ensure the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and to obtain a Class A sludge, unrestricted for agricultural use and suitable for acid soils.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC_023 isolated from raw fish storage water.

    Chung, Han Young; Na, Eun Jung; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Yoon, Hyunjin; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, Heebal; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo


    Vibrio parahaemolyticusis a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes food-borne gastroenteritis in humans who consumeV. parahaemolyticus-contaminated seafood.The FORC_023 strain was isolated from raw fish storage water, containing live fish at a sashimi restaurant. Here, we aimed to sequence and characterize the genome of the FORC_023 strain. The genome of the FORC_023 strain showed two circular chromosomes, which contained 4227 open reading frames (ORFs), 131 tRNA genes and 37 rRNA genes. Although the genome of FORC_023 did not include major virulence genes, such as genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), it contained genes encoding other hemolysins, secretion systems, iron uptake-related proteins and severalV. parahaemolyticusislands. The highest average nucleotide identity value was obtained between the FORC_023 strain and UCM-V493 (CP007004-6). Comparative genomic analysis of FORC_023 with UCM-V493 revealed that FORC_023 carried an additional genomic region encoding virulence factors, such as repeats-in-toxin and type II secretion factors. Furthermore,in vitrocytotoxicity testing showed that FORC_023 exhibited a high level of cytotoxicity toward INT-407 human epithelial cells. These results suggested that the FORC_023 strain may be a food-borne pathogen.

  9. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    H. T. El-Zanfaly


    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  10. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  11. Algae consumption and nitrate removal in a raw water transport system by Limnoperna fortunei and its associated microorganisms.

    Zhang, Ruijian; Cui, Bin; Huang, Shaobin


    This laboratory-scale study investigated the effect of Limnoperna fortunei on chlorophyll a, phosphates, ammonia, and nitrates in a simulated raw water transport system, with a special focus on the isolation and identification of microbes in the biofilm attached to the shell surface. These microbes appear to be involved in the decreased concentration of nitrates observed in the water. The microbial communities in the raw water and on the surface of the mussel's shell were investigated through various methods, including a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, which revealed significant diversity in terms of the structure and abundance of microbial species present. Two aerobic denitrifying bacteria (I-N38 and I-N45) were identified in shell biofilm that were capable of removing 95.5 and 100% of nitrates, respectively, within 24 hours.

  12. Investigating the dynamics of two herbicides at a karst spring in Germany: Consequences for sustainable raw water management.

    Hillebrand, Olav; Nödler, Karsten; Geyer, Tobias; Licha, Tobias


    While karst aquifers are considered as rapid flow and transport systems, their high potential for long-term storage is often ignored. However, to achieve a sustainable raw water quality for drinking water production, the understanding of this potential is highly essential. In this study, the transport dynamics of the two herbicides metazachlor and atrazine as well as a degradation product of the latter (desethylatrazine) were investigated at a karst spring over 1 year. Even 20 years after its ban in Germany, atrazine and its degradation product were almost always detectable in the spring water in the low ng L(-1) range (up to 5.2ng L(-1)). Metazachlor could only be detected after precipitation events, and the observed concentrations (up to 82.9ng L(-1)) are significantly higher than atrazine or desethylatrazine. Comparing the dynamics of the herbicides with the inorganic ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and electrical conductivity, a positive correlation of atrazine with these parameters could be observed. From this observation, atrazine is concluded to be located within the aquifer matrix. To achieve a sustainable raw water management at karst springs, the rapidness of these systems needs to be highlighted as well as their long-term storage potential. Persistent substances or transformation products are prone to deteriorate the raw water quality for decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Lophelia pertusa) from Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean: raw data

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The files in this data release are the raw deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Christina A. Kellogg, Dawn B....

  14. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Lophelia pertusa) from Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean: raw data

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The files in this data release are the raw deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Christina A. Kellogg, Dawn B....

  15. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Neila de Paula Pereira


    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  16. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    Wilkes, James W.


    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)


    A. B. Rema Shree et al.


    Full Text Available According to classical texts Paederia foetida is used as the genuine source plant of the drug Prasarini, it posses properties like astringent, aphrodisiac, laxative, bitter etc. In Ayurvedic practitioners Merremia tridentata ssp. tridentata and Merremia tridentata ssp. hastata are used as the source plant of this drug. However no conclusive pharmacognostic study of these plants has been performed yet. The present investigation deals with the comparative study of morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical characters of these three plants. Three plants show similarities and differences between them at morphological, anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical levels. Anatomically these three plants show differences in many characters. But phytochemical studies revealed that these plants show much similarity. - sitosterol was present in all the three plants but their concentrations shows differences. The parameters used in this study will help to identify the genuine and substitute source plants of the drug prasarini for the preparation of ayurvedic medicines and to ensure the quality of formulations.

  18. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas


    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  19. Characterization and anti-fouling performance of nano-Al₂O₃/PVDF membrane for Songhua river raw water filtration.

    Yu, S L; Shi, W X; Lu, Y; Yang, J X


    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat ultrafiltration membranes modified by nano-sized alumina (Al₂O₃) particles were prepared by phase inversion process and their properties and anti-fouling performances were examined. The influence of three types of natural organic matters on the modified membrane fouling was also studied. Raw water was taken from two different locations, i.e., Harbin and Zhaoyuan, of Songhua River. Dissolved organic compounds in the raw water were fractionated using XAD resins into three fractions, i.e., hydrophobic fraction, transphilic fraction, and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). The three adsorbed compounds were further eluted and dissolved into distilled water respectively to prepare the feed for the fouling tests. All solutions were adjusted to a concentration of 10.6 mg C/L, which equals to the total organic carbon (TOC) of the raw water. Results show that the addition of nano-Al₂O₃ particulars did not affect the inherent traits of the PVDF membranes, however, its surface hydrophilic properties were improved significantly with the addition of nanoparticles and anti-fouling performance was enhanced as well. The HPIs in the Songhua River were the main foulant, causing more fouling to membrane than hydrophobic and transphilic matters.

  20. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.


    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw mat

  1. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.


    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw

  2. Performance and enhanced mechanism of a novel bio-diatomite biofilm pretreatment process treating polluted raw water.

    Yang, Guang-feng; Feng, Li-juan; Wang, Sha-fei; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang


    A lab-scale novel bio-diatomite biofilm process (BDBP) was established for the polluted raw water pretreatment in this study. Results showed that a shorter startup period of BDBP system was achieved under the completely circulated operation mode, and the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and disinfection by-product precursor were effective at low hydraulic retention time of 2-4 h due to high biomass attached to the carrier and diatomite. A maximum NH4(+)-N oxidation potential predicted by modified Stover-Kincannon model was 333.3 mg L(-1) d(-1) in the BDBP system, which was 4.7 times of that in the control reactor. Results demonstrated that the present of bio-diatomite favors the accumulation of functional microbes in the oligotrophic niche, and the pollutants removal performance of this novel process was enhanced for polluted raw water pretreatment.

  3. SurfaceWater Source Protection Areas (SPAs)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Source Protection Area (SPA) boundaries have been located on RF 24000 & RF 25000 scale USGS topographic maps by Water Supply Division (DEC) and VT Dept of Health...

  4. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  5. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Paramuricea placomus) from Baltimore Canyon: raw and processed data

    Kellogg, Christina A.


    The files in this data release are the raw and processed DNA sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Kellogg et. al. titled "Bacterial Community Diversity of the Deep-Sea Octocoral Paramuricea placomus." They represent a 16S rRNA gene amplicon survey of the coral's microbiome completed using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium reagents. Baltimore Canyon is in the Atlantic Ocean and the samples were collected in 2012-2013. The raw data files associated with this study have also been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under Bioproject number PRJNA297333. For more information, please see the README file.

  6. Fatty acids: a versatile and sustainable source of raw materials for the surfactants industry

    Pel Axel


    Full Text Available Fatty acids have been used as a major source for the hydrophobic part of surfactants since the discovery of soap, more than 4,500 years ago. Despite the wide variety of different hydrophobes that have become available during recent decades, fatty acids are still playing a significant role in the surfactants industry thanks to their versatility, natural origin and reliable supply. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of the developments and trends in the use of fatty acids in the surfactants industry, the properties of fatty acids related to their application in surfactants and detergents and the underlying influencing trends in the oils and fats industry.

  7. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.


    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  8. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia


    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    高正耀; 赵维娟; 李国霞; 谢建忠; 韩国河; 冯松林; 范东宇; 张颖; 柴之芳; 李融武; 张仲立; 朱君孝


    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracottawarriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical.We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their claysources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to theloam layer near Qin's Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. Arational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin's Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin's Mausoleum, it could be deductedthat the kiln sites might be located in around Qin's Mausoleum.

  10. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    Parazin, R.J.


    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  11. A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

    L. B. Menchaca


    Full Text Available A method to determine the stable isotope ratio of a plant's water source using the plant's transpired water is proposed as an alternative to standard xylem extraction methods. The method consists of periodically sampling transpired waters from shoots or leaves enclosed in sealed, transparent bags which create a saturated environment, preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental waters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree and Genista monspessulana (shrub using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with groundwater and soil water respectively. In addition, tritium concentrations indicate that pine trees (Pinus sylvestris switch water source from soil water in the winter to groundwater in the summer. The method proposed is particularly useful in remote or protected areas and in large scale studies related to water management, environmental compliance and surveillance, because it eliminates the need for destructive sampling and greatly reduces costs associated with laboratory extraction of xylem waters from plant tissues for isotopic analyses.

  12. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao


    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  13. Cold-water coral microbiomes (Anthothela spp.) from Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons: raw and processed data

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Lawler, Stephanie N.


    The files in this data release are the raw and processed DNA sequence files referenced in the submitted journal article by Lawler et. al. titled “Coral-associated bacterial diversity is conserved at the host-genus level in deep-sea Anthothela spp." They represent a 16S rRNA gene amplicon survey of the coral's microbiome completed using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with titanium reagents. Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons are in the Atlantic Ocean and the samples were collected in 2012-2013. The raw data files associated with this study have also been submitted to the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under Bioproject number PRJNA296835. For more information, please see the README file.

  14. Removal Characteristics of Organic Pollutants from Eutrophic Raw Water by Biological Pretreatment Reactors

    Guangcan Zhu


    Full Text Available Two biological contact oxidation reactors, cascade biofilm reactor (CSBR and one-step biofilm reactor (OSBR, were used in this paper for pretreatment of eutrophic water from Lake Taihu in China. The CSBR was more effective and stable for eutrophic water treatment than OSBR, in terms of extracellular microcystin-LR, chlorophyll-a, DOC, and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC removal. Removal efficiencies of extracellular microcystin-LR and chlorophyll-a were 75.8% and 59.7% in CSBR and 60.5% and 53.0% after 2 h in OSBR. CSBR had much higher removal efficiency (34.3% than OSBR (22.7% for DOC, and CSBR could remove 67% BDOC, accounting for 34% of total DOC in source water. 11.5% of DOC was removed through means other than biological degradation, such as biofilm adsorption and bioflocculation. In CSBR at 5.5~13°C, 57.5% of atrazine was removed at 2 h hydraulic retention time, with background concentration of 136.5 ng/L. Meanwhile, removal efficiencies of three phthalic acid esters (PAEs (dimethyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate were 78.7%, 52.4%, and 85.3%, respectively. Only 35.2% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs could be removed by CSBR with initial concentration of 21.5 μg/L. The results indicated that CSBR is effective in low-molecular-weight organic pollution pretreatment and provides benefits in terms of effluent quality.

  15. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.


    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  16. Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.

    Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh


    The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 μg/L of THMs and 1140.6 μg/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively.

  17. 原料乳生产过程中微生物污染的来源追溯研究%Study on the microbial contaminants source traceability of raw milk processing

    刘潇忆; 张彧; 陈历俊; 姜铁民


    为研究原料乳微生物污染的来源,2011-2012年间,研究者对北京市原料乳产地的牛乳、牛体涂抹、挤乳设备涂抹等及生活用水、卧床土壤、饲料等进行了大量采样分析和调查,并针对采集样品中分离出的目的菌株进行了生化鉴定及分析.研究结果表明,该地区原料乳中的特征病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌,对后期加工乳品质影响较大的微生物种类为嗜冷菌和芽孢杆菌属.在此基础上,研究者对原料乳和其他来源样品中的这三种菌利用16S rRNA分子生物学技术建立了目的菌株来源系统发育树,以此来进行基因序列比对分析,确定了原料乳中这三种菌的主要来源,为有效减少和控制该地区原料乳污染提供了参考.%To study the microbial contaminants source of raw milk,researchers analyzed and investigated the raw milk,surface of cow body,milking equipments,water resource,soil environment,feed etc.,which were collected from raw milk producing area in Beijing from 2011 to 2012.And the target bacteria from raw milk samples were determined.The results showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogenic bacteria of the raw milk producing area and Psychrophilic bacteria,Bacillus were closely to the quality of milk products.Researchers also analyzed gene of these three bacteria from the raw milk samples and other source samples by using 16S rRNA of molecular methods for building phylogenetic tree,moreover,ascertain the marn source of these bacteria in raw milk.Furthermore,the researchers established the methods to usefully reduce and control this pollution.

  18. Characterization of haloacetic acid precursors in source water.

    Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Marhaba, Taha F; Pavasant, Prasert; Panyapinyophol, Bunyarit


    Raw water from the Bangkok (Thailand) main municipal water supply canal was examined for its natural organic composition by fractionation with adsorption resins. DAX-8 resin was the first resin employed to fractionate the hydrophobic fractions. Fractionation at neutral pH resulted in the separation of the hydrophobic neutral components; at a high pH level (approx. 10) separation of the hydrophobic base components occurred; and at a low pH level (approx. 2) the hydrophobic acid components were separated. AG-MP-50 cationic resin was then used to separate the hydrophilic base components, and WA-10, a weak anionic resin, was applied finally to fractionate the hydrophilic acid and neutral components. Subsequently, each fraction was tested for its chlorine disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential. The HAA formation tests demonstrated that the various organic fractions had different reactivity levels for the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). For this source water, the hydrophilic neutral fraction dominated over the other five fractions in being the main organic component and the most significant precursor of HAAs formation. On the other hand, in terms of specific HAA formation potential (FP), the hydrophobic and hydrophilic base fractions were the most reactive precursors to the formation of HAAs. In all cases, the quantity of HAAs formed depended linearly upon the amount of organic constituents in the water sample.

  19. Water defluoridation using Malawi’s locally sourced gypsum

    Masamba, W. R. L.; Sajidu, S. M.; Thole, B.; Mwatseteza, J. F.

    Free fluoride levels above the WHO guideline maximum value of 1.5 mg/l have been reported in several parts of Malawi. Dental fluorosis has also been observed in the same areas such that search for local defluoridation techniques has become important in the country. The present research intended to determine the potential of using Malawi gypsum in defluoridation, identify the best pre-treatment of the gypsum and optimum conditions under which effective water defluoridation with the gypsum may be obtained. Laboratory experiments were carried out to explore defluoridation of drinking water using locally sourced gypsum and gypsum calcined at high temperatures. A 400 °C calcined phase of gypsum gave the highest defluoridation capacity of 67.80% compared to raw (uncalcined) gypsum, 200, 300 and 500 °C calcined phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of the 400 °C phase revealed existence of less crystalline CaSO 4 that was thought to be responsible for such relatively high defluoridation capacity. The dependence of the fluoride removal by the 400 °C calcined phase on other drinking water quality parameters was assessed by simple correlation analysis. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of fluoride removal by the materials were also investigated. It was found that ion exchange was the dominant mechanism through which fluoride was removed from water by the materials.

  20. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P


    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  1. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  2. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...


    Jan 1, 2013 ... 1Durban University of Technology, Institute for Water and Wastewater Technology, PO Box 1334, 4000, .... The actual application of the models is beyond ..... of Water Affairs and the Water Boards, Rand Water (co-fund- ... industrial effluents. ... WQ2000 Salinity Model: enhancement, technology transfer and.

  3. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting source water monitoring... Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.706 Reporting source water monitoring results. (a) Systems must report results from the source water monitoring required under § 141.701 no later than 10...

  4. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring... sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period. (b) Second round of source water...

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Farias Eveline Wilma Coutinho


    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important contaminants of water, causing waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To monitor and understand the public health significance of this pathogen in environmental samples, several methods have been developed to isolate and detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. The purpose of this study was to perform the first investigation on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The oocysts were concentrated by flocculation and membrane filtration. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in all wastewater samples analyzed, indicating a possible risk for dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic environment and in the community.

  6. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja


    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  7. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C


    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  8. Performance of pond-wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources.

    Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Rongbin; Chen, Qinghua; Yu, Xinfeng; Yin, Chengqing


    Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (110 hm(2)) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond-wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.

  9. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - purification of rare earth elements by liquid/liquid extraction

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick; Gasser, Christoph; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus


    BACKGROUND: Critical raw materials (CRM) are crucial to Europe's economy and essential to maintaining and improving our quality of life due to their usage for production of many devices. Red mud is generated from alumina production where bauxite is digested in hot sodium hydroxide solution during

  10. Linking nitrifying biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance in moving-bed biofilm reactors for polluted raw water pretreatment.

    Zhang, Shuangfu; Wang, Yayi; He, Weitao; Xing, Meiyan; Wu, Min; Yang, Jian; Gao, Naiyun; Sheng, Guangyao; Yin, Daqiang; Liu, Shanhu


    Biofilm physiology was characterized by four biofilm constituents, i.e., polysaccharides, proteins (PN), humic-like substances and phospholipids (PL), for the first time to explore the relationships between biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance in moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) designed for pretreatment of polluted raw surface water for potable supply. The biofilm compositions depended highly on the balance of microbial decay and nitrification processes. The increased ammonia loading greatly regulated the community structure, promoting the dominance of nitrifiers and their proportions in the nitrifying biofilm. Nitrification rate and activity correlated linearly with the fractions of volatile solids (VS), PN and PL, which were related to nitrification processes in the biofilm. The specific biofilm activity demonstrated an exponential-asymptotic relationship with ratios of PN/VS and PL/VS. Thus, analyzing biofilm characteristics can be valid for estimating nitrification performance in MBBRs, and may offer engineers with basis to optimize MBBR design and operation.

  11. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements... water treatment requirements. Systems shall complete the applicable source water monitoring and... monitoring (§ 141.88(d)). (b) Description of source water treatment requirements—(1) System...

  12. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian


    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters endotoxin contamination and control in treated water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments.


    Ľuboš Jurik; Dušan Húska; Klaudia Halászová; Anna Bandlerová


    The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than th...

  14. 山西科技创新城引黄原水直供研究%Research on the Direct Supply of the Raw Water Diverted from the Yellow River for Shanxi Sci-tech Innovation City



    为了合理利用多种水资源,山西科技创新城采用分质供水,以达到优质水优用、低质水低用的目的。通过对山西省科技创新城的用水结构和用水水质以及周边引黄原水水源等情况进行的分析研究,提出了山西省科技创新城引黄水直供的最佳解决方案。%In order to make reasonable use of different kinds of water resources, Shanxi Sci-tech Innovation City adopts the quality-divided water supply for achieving the goal of higher use of high-quality water and lower use of low-quality water. Through the analytic research on water consumption structure and water quality of Shanxi Sci-tech Innovation City and surrounding raw water sources diverted from Yellow River, this paper puts forward s optimal solution for the direct supply of the raw water diverted from the Yellow River for Shanxi Sci-tech Innovation City.

  15. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the

  16. Analysis on the source of raw material of the celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by PIXE

    ZHAO Weijuan; GUO Musen; JIN Wenqing; LI Guoxia; XIE Jianzhong; Guo Min; Lu Xiaoke; GAO Zhengyao; CHEN Huansheng; Zhang Bin; SUN Xinmin


    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is used to measure the chemical ingredients of seven main elements of each sample of celadon body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City.The PIXE data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method,and the trend cluster diagram is obtained to determine their relation of classification and provenance. The result shows that the producing area of raw material of Ru porcelain bodies is concentrated in Qingliangsi kiln, while that of celadon bodies is slightly scattered in Zhanggongxiang kiln. The raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng County is different from that of Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou City. The materials of Ru Guan porcelain bodies and Ru Civil porcelain bodies in Qingliangsi kiln are basically the same.

  17. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.


    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  18. Decay of Bacteroidales genetic markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators for water quality modeling of drinking water sources.

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte


    The implementation of microbial fecal source tracking (MST) methods in drinking water management is limited by the lack of knowledge on the transport and decay of host-specific genetic markers in water sources. To address these limitations, the decay and transport of human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers in a drinking water source (Lake Rådasjön in Sweden) were simulated using a microbiological model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The microbiological model was calibrated using data from outdoor microcosm trials performed in March, August, and November 2010 to determine the decay of BacH and BacR markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators. The microcosm trials indicated that the persistence of BacH and BacR in the microcosms was not significantly different from the persistence of traditional fecal indicators. The modeling of BacH and BacR transport within the lake illustrated that the highest levels of genetic markers at the raw water intakes were associated with human fecal sources (on-site sewers and emergency sewer overflow). This novel modeling approach improves the interpretation of MST data, especially when fecal pollution from the same host group is released into the water source from different sites in the catchment.


    Ľuboš Jurik


    Full Text Available The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than those which had been designed and built. The safety overflows no longer answer the purpose of the contemporary flows. The problems with the Framework Directive are also important – small water reservoirs are not resolved in the Directive as the water bodies of stagnant water because they have an area of less than 0.5 km2. The same problem is also with the preservation of continuity of the flow and the fact that they should let the fish pass. Unfortunately, the state, administrators of small dams, operators and nature conservationists have different points of view on the above-mentioned problems. The article elaborates these problems and suggests possible solutions to the problems.

  20. Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in an aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment.

    Qin, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Ren, Hong-Qiang; Li, Dao-Tang; Yang, Hong


    Population dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a full-scale aerated submerged biofilm reactor for micropolluted raw water pretreatment was investigated using molecular techniques for a period of 1 year. The ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene fragments were amplified from DNA and RNA extracts of biofilm samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile based on the amoA messenger RNA approach exhibited a more variable pattern of temporal dynamics of AOB communities than the DNA-derived approach during the study. Phylogenetic analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed three AOB groups affiliated with the Nitrosomonas oligotropha lineage, Nitrosomonas communis lineage, and an unknown Nitrosomonas group. The population size of betaproteobacterial AOB, quantified with 16S ribosomal RNA gene real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, ranged from 6.63 x 10(5) to 2.67 x 10(9) cells per gram of dry biofilm and corresponded to 0.23-1.8% of the total bacterial fraction. Quantitative results of amoA gene of the three specific AOB groups revealed changes in competitive dominance between AOB of the N. oligotropha lineage and N. communis lineage. Water temperature is shown to have major influence on AOB population size in the reactor by the statistic analysis, and a positive correlation between AOB cell numbers and ammonia removal efficiency is suggested (r = 0.628, P < 0.05).

  1. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka


    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety.

  2. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi


    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management.

  3. A three step approach for removing organic matter from South African water sources and treatment plants

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W. M.; Haarhoff, J.; Mamba, B. B.

    The high variability in the levels and composition of natural organic matter (NOM) in South-African water sources in different regions means that no single treatment process can be prescribed for each water treatment plant operating in the country. In order to remove NOM from water in a water treatment train, the composition of the NOM in the source water must be taken into account, especially as it may not necessarily be uniform since the composition is dependent on local environmental situation. The primary objective of this study was to characterise the NOM present in South African source waters through an extensive sampling of representative water types across the country and then develop a rapid NOM characterisation protocol. Water samples were thus collected from eight different water treatment plants located throughout the country at different sites of their water treatment trains. Raw water samples, the intermediate samples before filtration and water samples before disinfection were collected at these drinking water treatment plants. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), ultraviolet (UV) characterisation (200-900 nm) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis were used to characterise the NOM in the water samples. The FEEM and UV results revealed that the samples were composed mainly of humic substances with a high UV-254 absorbance, while some samples had marine humic substances and non-humic substances. The sample’s DOC results were within the range of 3.25-21.44 mg C/L, which was indicative of the varying nature of the NOM composition in the regions where samples were obtained. The BDOC fraction of the NOM, on the other hand, ranged from 20% to 65%, depending on the geographical location of the sampling site. It is evident from the results obtained that the NOM composition varied per sampling site which would eventually have a bearing on its treatability. The various water treatment

  4. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa en agua y leche cruda: informe preliminar Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and raw milk: preliminary report

    M. S Iramain


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en el agua utilizada en las tareas relacionadas al ordeño y en leche de tanque, para establecer una posible vinculación entre la contaminación del agua y de la leche cruda con esta bacteria, en tambos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se muestrearon y analizaron 122 tambos, obteniéndose muestras de 111 perforaciones, 92 tanques de almacenamiento de agua y 122 de leche de tanque según normas de referencia. En todos los casos se determinó la presencia de P. aeruginosa, hallándose en el 27% de las muestras de perforaciones y en el 34% de los tanques de almacenamiento. Solamente 4 establecimientos presentaron P.aeruginosa en leche de tanque, pudiéndose constatar que en tres de ellos se realizaban prácticas operativas que ponían en contacto la leche con el agua contaminada. Una vez eliminadas éstas prácticas no fue posible hallar P. aeruginosa en la leche de los tanques.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water used in milking practices and in bulk tank milk, to establish a possible relationship between water and raw bulk tank milk contamination with this bacteria, in dairy farms of Buenos Aires province. Samples from 122 dairy farms were analyzed for P. aeruginosa according to reference methods, getting 111 underground water samples and 92 water storage tank samples and 122 bulk tank milk samples. Twenty seven per cent of underground water samples were positive for P. aeruginosa as well as 34 % of storage tank samples. The bacteria was present in only 4 dairy farms bulk tanks. It was determined that in 3 of them milking management practices allowed the milk to get in contact with contaminated water. Once these practices were eliminated, no P. aeruginosa was found in bulk tank milk samples


    M. Malakootian


    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation was conducted in order to evaluate the quality of the groundwater in Zarand plain of Chatrood region which supplies drinking water of Zarand city. Zarand plain with longitude of 55°, 46َ- 57°,7َ and latitude of 30°,20َ -31°,44َ is one of Iran's plains located in sub-basin of Daranjir desert. Groundwater of Zarand plain supplies drinking water of many cities and villages located in and near the plain. Samples were collected from 11 water wells used as drinking water sources in Zarand plain "Chatrood region", at least once at the middle of each month. By means of the standard methods, a number of parameters were analyzed for each sample for the period of 7 years from 1996 to 2003. Tests included measuring pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride, and nitrate ions. Data analysis was done by using t and Z-Test. Results indicated that water quality of water wells during studied period did not show any undesireable change. The quality of each parameter in drinking water wells of Zarand plain was within permissible limit and did not exceed neither the Iran's standards nor WHO guidelines. Meanwhile, the quality of raw water resources of the plain in the final year of experiment was within "good" potability limit based on Schuller's diagram; it means raw water resources still kept its quality. Although the quality of Zarand plain water resources comply with Iran's standards and WHO guidelines increasing trend of water consumption and consecutive droughts in the studied region as well as severe water shortage, ask for conservation, preservation and monitoring of water resources.

  7. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Yu Liu


    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  8. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K


    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  9. Combination of powdered activated carbon and powdered zeolite for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water.

    Liao, Zhen-Liang; Chen, Hao; Zhu, Bai-Rong; Li, Huai-Zheng


    Even zeolite is promising in ammonia pollution disposing, its removal efficiency is frequently interfered by organics. As activated carbon has good removal efficiency on organic contaminants, combination of two adsorbents may allow their respective adsorption characteristics into full play. This paper provides a performance assessment of the combination for enhancing ammonium removal in micro-polluted raw water. Gel-filtration chromatography (GFC) was carried out to quantify the molecular weight (MW) range of organic contaminants that powdered activated carbon (PAC) and powdered zeolite (PZ) can remove. The polydispersity difference which also calculated from GFC may indicate the wider organic contaminants removal range of PAC and the relatively centralized removal range of PZ. The jar tests of combination dosing confirm a synergistic effect which promotes ammonium removing. Nevertheless, it also shows an antagonism hindering the due removal performance of the two adsorbents on CODMn, while it is not much evident on UV254. Furthermore, a comparison study with simulated coagulation-sedimentation process was conducted to evaluate the optimum dosing points (spatial and temporal) of PAC and PZ among follows: suction well, pipeline mixer, early and middle phase of flocculation. We suggest to dose both two adsorbents into the early phase of flocculation to maximize the versatile removal efficiency on turbidity, ammonium and organic contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu


    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  11. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming


    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  12. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa


    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  13. Stable isotope techniques in plant water sources:a review


    The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes widely exist in various kinds of natural water.Plants have to cope with various water sources:rainwater,soil water,groundwater,sea water,and mixtures.These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios).Because there are relative abundance variations in water,and plant roots do not discriminate against specific water isotopes during water uptake,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water within plants provide new information on water sources,interactions between plant species and water use patterns under natural conditions.At present,the measurement of δD,δ18O composition of various potential water sources and stem water has become significant means to identify plant water sources.Based on previous studies,this review highlights recent advances such as theory basis,methodology,as well as different spatial and temporal scales,and existed questions and prospects.Stable isotope techniques for estimating plant water sources have provided valuable tools for conducting basic and applied research.Future studies emphasize the modification of preparing methods,isotope technique combined with other measurements,and aerial organs of plant water source should be en-couraged.

  14. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross-Sectional survey of a ... of Primary Health Care (PHC) necessitating the World Health Organization to ... seen to source domestic water from the municipal pipe-borne water supply, ...

  15. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke


    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  16. Effect of drinking water source on associations between gastrointestinal illness and heavy rainfall in New Jersey.

    Gleason, Jessie A; Fagliano, Jerald A


    Gastrointestinal illness (GI) has been associated with heavy rainfall. Storm events and periods of heavy rainfall and runoff can result in increased microbiological contaminants in raw water. Surface water supplies are open to the environment and runoff can directly influence the presence of contaminants. A time-stratified bi-directional case-crossover study design was used to estimate associations of heavy rainfall and hospitalizations for GI. Cases of GI were identified as in-patient hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of infectious disease associated diarrhea [ICD-9 codes: specified gastrointestinal infections 001-009.9 or diarrhea 787.91] among the residents of New Jersey from 2009 to 2013 resulting in a final sample size of 47,527 cases. Two control days were selected on the same days of the week as the case day, within fixed 21-day strata. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios controlling for temperature and humidity. To determine potential effect modification estimates were stratified by season (warm or cold) and drinking water source (groundwater, surface water, or 'other' category). Stratified analyses by drinking water source and season identified positive associations of rainfall and GI hospitalizations in surface water systems during the warm season with no lag (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.19) and a 2-day lag (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Positive associations in 'Other' water source areas (served by very small community water systems, private wells, or unknown) during the warm season with a 4-day lag were also found. However, there were no statistically significant positive associations in groundwater systems during the warm season. The results suggest that water systems with surface water sources can play an important role in preventing GI hospitalizations during and immediately following heavy rainfall. Regulators should work with water system providers to develop system specific prevention techniques to limit the impact

  17. Biomass as a raw material for energy: a future potential energy source; Biomasse als Energierohstoff: Ein zukunftstraechtiger Energietraeger

    Bestebroer, S.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands); Smakman, G.J.J. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwant, K.W. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Growing interest in the utilization of biomass in energy production in the Netherlands had led to the foundation of a commission, in which all partners participating in electricity supply in the Netherlands work collectively on evaluating the further development of converting biomass to energy and also on formulating the arrangement solutions. The commission has come to the conclusion that the combined combustion of organic residues and the operation of smaller independent plants for biomass processing are, at the present time, realistic options. After the year 2000, the introduction of wood as a raw material for energy on a larger scale will be taken into consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das wachsende Interesse an der Nutzung von Biomasse in der Energieerzeugung fuehrte in den Niederlanden zur Gruendung einer Kommission, in der alle an der niederlaendischen Energieversorgung beteiligten Partner gemeinsam an der Bewertung der weiteren Entwicklung der Umwandlung von Biomasse in Energie sowie an der Formulierung von Loesungsansaetzen arbeiteten. Die Kommission kam zu dem Schluss, dass die Mitverbrennung organischer Rueckstaende und der Betrieb kleinerer eigenstaendiger Anlagen zur Biomasse-Verstromung zum heutigen Zeitpunkt realistische Optionen sind. Nach dem Jahre 2000 wird die Einfuhr von Holz als Energierohstoff im groesseren Massstab in Erwaegung gezogen. (orig.)


    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  19. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Jun Yang; Xu Luo


    The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments final...

  20. Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...


    The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.

  1. Maintaining Water Supplies to a Remote Island Population When Source Water Becomes Contaminated


    water source – Rain Water • Rain water collected via water catchments (23 acres) (reference 3) •Daily Water Demand on Roi-Namur is...Lenswell Reliance • What are lenswells? - Fresh water less dense than salt water - Replenished by rain water (recharge) - Lenswells are shallow and...removal • 20/80 lenswell to rain water mixture recommended - PCE value of 3 ug/L (EPA MCL = 5 ug/L) - Extended water usage by

  2. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan


    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  3. Microelement analysis of source of raw materials of terracotta warriors and horses of Qin's Mausoleum in pits No. 1 and No. 2


    In order to search for sources of the raw material of the Qin's terracotta warriors and horses, we selected 20 samples of pottery warriors and pottery horses of the Qin's Mausoleum from pit No. 1, 19 samples of pottery warriors and brick from pit No. 2, 20 samples of clays near the Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. The 32 kinds of element content of each sample were measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). These data were analyzed by fu zzy cluster analysis, the trend cluster analysis diagram was obtained. The results showed that samples of terracotta warriors and horses from pits No.1 and No. 2 were closely related to the loam layer near Qin's Mausoleum, but their relations with the loess layers were not so close, and they were out of all relation to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. Thus, it could be deduced that the Li Mountain clay may be considered as the original place of the raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses, the kiln sites might be located nearby the Qin's Mausoleum.

  4. Astaxanthin hyperproduction by Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) with raw coconut milk as sole source of energy.

    Domíguez-Bocanegra, A R; Torres-Muñoz, J A


    Natural carbon sources, such as those present in cane sugar molasses and grape juice, promote the synthesis of astaxanthin in different Phaffia rhodozyma yeasts. One of these, coconut milk, has a very rich nutrient composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the utility of coconut milk as sole source of energy for astaxanthin pigment production by P. rhodozyma strains. Currently, coconut pulp is widely used in industrial processes in Mexico for the production of shampoos, candies, food, etc. However, coconut milk is a waste product. We show that coconut milk enhances astaxanthin production. The fermentation yielded 850 microg/g yeast with the NRRL-10921 wild-type strain and 1850 microg/g yeast with the mutated R1 strain. Production was better than reported results employing other natural carbon sources.

  5. A New Furostanol Saponin from the Water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the Raw Material of the Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Wei Ao Xin

    Cheng Bin CUI; Chi XU; Qian Qun GU; Shi Dong CHU; Hai Hong JI; Gang JING


    26-O-β-D-Glucopyranosyl-furost-5(6),20(22)-dien-3β,26-diol 1, a new furostanol saponin, was isolated from the water-extract of Dioscorea nipponica Mak., the raw material of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Wei Ao Xin. The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of its spectral data especially by NMR spectroscopy. The result provides the first example of naturally occurring furostanol saponins with a single saccharide chain at the C-26 position.

  6. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...... for each source was calculated in relation to the total mass flow into the waste water plant, making it possible to evaluate the absolute and relative importance of each type of source. The sources investigated accounted for about 12% of the influx of DEHP, the predominating phthalate, to the waste water...... sample. The deposition concentrations were very low compared to the waste water. The deposition rates showed a seasonal variation with a minimum occurring two month after the winter temperature minimum. Surprisingly, no influence of the wind speed and direction was indicated. The concentration...

  7. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía


    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  8. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang


    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules ( 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F.

  9. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Oscar Pablo Diaz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  10. Estimation of arsenic intake from drinking water and food (raw and cooked) in a rural village of northern Chile. Urine as a biomarker of recent exposure.

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam


    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8-92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day⁻¹) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL⁻¹. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  11. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    C. Stumpp


    Full Text Available Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL, which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl- and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater. Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95% was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of

  12. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng


    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.


    Pavel Tcvetkov


    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to find ecologically and economically reasonable method of biomass processing to produce electricity and thermal energy. The major causes of the annual increase in the volume of consumed electricity and thermal energy are the current pace of scientific and technological progress, the overcrowding of cities and industrial agglomeration. Traditional energy sources (coal, oil, gas have a significant negative impact on the environment, which leads to the deterioration of sanitary-hygienic indicators of the human environment. Besides, prices for traditional energy resources are increasing due to the decline of easy produced stocks. The goal of this article is the investigation and evaluation of environmental and economic efficiency of biomass fast pyrolysis methods for as modern energy resources. The result of the review is the choice of biomass fast pyrolysis as the most environmentally reasonable and economically viable local method of producing electricity and thermal energy in Russia. This method is more eco-friendly, compared to other alternative energy sources, for example using peat as solid fuel.

  14. Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina


    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types.

  15. Research of mine water source identification based on LIF technology

    Zhou, Mengran; Yan, Pengcheng


    According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to the mine water source identification takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification system of mine water inrush based on the technology of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Emphatically analyzes the basic principle of LIF technology. The hardware composition of LIF system are analyzed and the related modules were selected. Through the fluorescence experiment with the water samples of coal mine in the LIF system, fluorescence spectra of water samples are got. Traditional water source identification mainly according to the ion concentration representative of the water, but it is hard to analysis the ion concentration of the water from the fluorescence spectra. This paper proposes a simple and practical method of rapid identification of water by fluorescence spectrum, which measure the space distance between unknown water samples and standard samples, and then based on the clustering analysis, the category of the unknown water sample can be get. Water source identification for unknown samples verified the reliability of the LIF system, and solve the problem that the current coal mine can't have a better real-time and online monitoring on water inrush, which is of great significance for coal mine safety in production.

  16. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Gianfranco Piva


    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  17. Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed  Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland

    Petri Jokela


    Full Text Available The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions.

  18. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh


    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  19. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.


    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  20. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  1. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo


    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  2. Calculation of ecological compensation for water sources for water diversion projects

    Su, H. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Hu, C. Y.; Long, L. Y.


    This study considers the compensation of water diversion projects for the values of the terrestrial biological resources, water environment, and aquatic biological resources in water sources. An analysis of capital dynamics was conducted, and the economic development coefficient was used to correct the current method for calculating ecological compensation. A model was constructed to calculatethe ecological compensation for the water sources for water diversion projects. This model was used to calculate the ecological compensation for the Niulanjiang River provided by the Niulanjiang River to the Dianchi Lake water diversion project, which was calculated to be 136,799,400 RMB. As long as we know the occupying area of the project, the change of the river net flow after diversion and the local average GDP, the ecological compensation for water sources could be calculated by the model. The proposed model for calculating the ecological compensation for water sources is simple and incorporates the compensation provided by water diversion projects for the various environmental effects on water sources. It provides a guarantee for the capital to be used for the environmental protection of water sources and facilitates the sustainable development of the ecological environments of water sources.

  3. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle


    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  4. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Sehlke, G.


    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  5. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N


    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  6. Songpan:Water Source for Sichuan



    The Mingjiang River originates on the southern slope of Gonggangling Peak of MingshanMountain, at the meeting place of Songpan and Jiuzaigou counties. It bisects Songpan, with a total length of 735 km, including 341 km within Aba Prefecture. The river has helped cultivate many generations in the province of Sichuan.The source of Mingjiang River features majestic peaks, lush grazing grass, deep forests, grotesque rocks, rare animals and a pleasant climate.In the summer and autumn, this part of the world turns into a shining lady whose hair and tender complexion merge with the blue skies and beckoning world of ancient pine trees and firs decorated by blossoming flowers.When winter comes, the shining lady dons a white robe as snow and ice take over.The area where the Mingjiang originates has the most sensitive ecosystem in Sichuan. To its north are

  7. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey.

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza; Wagner, David M


    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey.

  8. Characterisation of sources and pathways of microbiological pollutants to protect remote private water supplies

    Neill, Aaron; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Strachan, Norval; Hough, Rupert; Soulsby, Chris


    In order to comply with legislation such as the Water Framework Directive and to safeguard public health, there is a critical need to maintain the quality of water sources that are used to supply drinking water. Private water supplies (PWS) are still common in many rural areas in the UK, and are especially vulnerable to poor water quality, owing to the limited treatment they often receive and variable raw water quality in groundwater and surface water sources. A significant issue affecting PWS quality is contamination by faecal pathogens derived from grazing animals or agricultural practices. In Scotland, approximately 20,000 PWS serve around 200,000 people, with a number of these PWS consistently failing to meet water quality targets relating to coliform bacteria and E. coli, both of which can be indicative of faecal contamination (faecal indicator organisms - FIOs). The purpose of our study was to employ integrated empirical and modelling approaches from hydrology and microbiology to elucidate the nature of the still poorly-understood interplay between hydrological flow pathways which connect sources of pathogens to PWS sources, antecedent conditions, seasonality and pathogen transfer risk, for two catchments with contrasting land uses in Scotland: an agricultural catchment (Tarland Burn) and a montane catchment (Bruntland Burn). In the Tarland Burn, 15 years of spatially-distributed samples collected at the catchment-scale of FIO counts were analysed alongside hydrometric data to identify "hot spots" of faecal pathogen transfer risk and possible spatial and temporal controls. We also used a combination of tracer-based and numerical modelling approaches to identify the relationship between hydrological connectivity, flow pathways, and the mobilisation of faecal pathogens from different sources. In the Bruntland Burn, we coupled a pathogen storage, mobilisation and transport scheme to a previously developed tracer-informed hydrological model for the catchment to

  9. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  10. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú


    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  11. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp


    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  12. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Shang-Lien Lo


    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  13. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien


    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  14. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    Sanches, S. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Leitao, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Aguas Livres, S.A., Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); Crespo, M.T. Barreto [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)


    Highlights: {yields} Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. {yields} Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. {yields} Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. {yields} The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  15. Modeling Source Water Threshold Exceedances with Extreme Value Theory

    Rajagopalan, B.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.


    Variability in surface water quality, influenced by seasonal and long-term climate changes, can impact drinking water quality and treatment. In particular, temperature and precipitation can impact surface water quality directly or through their influence on streamflow and dilution capacity. Furthermore, they also impact land surface factors, such as soil moisture and vegetation, which can in turn affect surface water quality, in particular, levels of organic matter in surface waters which are of concern. All of these will be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. While some source water quality parameters, particularly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and bromide concentrations, are not directly regulated for drinking water, these parameters are precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are regulated in drinking water distribution systems. These DBPs form when a disinfectant, added to the water to protect public health against microbial pathogens, most commonly chlorine, reacts with dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as TOC or dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and inorganic precursor materials, such as bromide. Therefore, understanding and modeling the extremes of TOC and Bromide concentrations is of critical interest for drinking water utilities. In this study we develop nonstationary extreme value analysis models for threshold exceedances of source water quality parameters, specifically TOC and bromide concentrations. In this, the threshold exceedances are modeled as Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) whose parameters vary as a function of climate and land surface variables - thus, enabling to capture the temporal nonstationarity. We apply these to model threshold exceedance of source water TOC and bromide concentrations at two locations with different climate and find very good performance.

  16. Risk of Illness with Salmonella due to Consumption of Raw Unwashed Vegetables Irrigated with Water from the Bogotá River.

    Henao-Herreño, Laura X; López-Tamayo, Ana M; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Haas, Charles N; Husserl, Johana


    The Bogotá River receives untreated wastewater from the city of Bogotá and many other towns. Downstream from Bogotá, water from the river is used for irrigation of crops. Concentrations of indicator organisms in the river are high, which is consistent with fecal contamination. To investigate the probability of illness due to exposure to enteric pathogens from the river, specifically Salmonella, we took water samples from the Bogotá River at six sampling locations in an area where untreated water from the river is used for irrigation of lettuce, broccoli, and cabbage. Salmonella concentrations were quantified by direct isolation and qPCR. Concentrations differed, depending on the quantification technique used, ranging between 10(7.7) and 10(9.9) number of copies of gene invA per L and 10(5.3) and 10(8.4) CFU/L, for qPCR and direct isolation, respectively. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model that estimates the daily risk of illness with Salmonella resulting from consuming raw unwashed vegetables irrigated with water from the Bogotá River was constructed using the Salmonella concentration data. The daily probability of illness from eating raw unwashed vegetables ranged between 0.62 and 0.85, 0.64 and 0.86, and 0.64 and 0.85 based on concentrations estimated by qPCR (0.47-0.85, 0.47-0.86, and 0.41-0.85 based on concentrations estimated by direct isolation) for lettuce, cabbage, and broccoli, respectively, which are all above the commonly propounded benchmark of 10(-4) per year. Results obtained in this study highlight the necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in the region, and emphasize the importance of postharvest practices, such as washing, disinfecting, and cooking.

  17. Assessment of source water contamination by estrogenic disrupting compounds in China

    Weiwei Jiang; Ye Yan; Mei Ma; Donghong Wang; Qian Luo; Zijian Wang; Senthil Kumaran Satyanarayanan


    Detection of estrogenic disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking waters around China has led to rising concerns about health risks associated with these compounds.There is,however,a paucity of studies on the occurrence and identification of the main compounds responsible for this pollution in the source waters.To fill this void,we screened estrogenic activities of 23 source water samples from six main river systems in China,using a recombinant two-hybrid yeast assay.All sample extracts induced significant estrogenic activity,with E2 equivalents (EEQ) of raw water ranging from 0.08 to 2.40 ng/L.Additionally,16 samples were selected for chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The EDCs of most concern,including estrone (El),17β-estradiol (E2),17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2),estriol (E3),diethylstilbestrol (DES),estradiol valerate (EV),4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP),4-nonylphenols (4-NP) and bisphenol A (BPA),were determined at concentrations of up to 2.98,1.07,2.67,4.37,2.52,1.96,89.52,280.19 and 710.65 ng/L,respectively.Causality analysis,involving comparison of EEQ values from yeast assay and chemical analysis identified E2,EE2 and 4-NP as the main responsible compounds,accounting for the whole estrogenic activities (39.74% to 96.68%).The proposed approach using both chemical analysis and yeast assay could be used for the identification and evaluation of EDCs in source waters of China.

  18. Preparation of modified waterworks sludge particles as adsorbent to enhance coagulation of slightly polluted source water.

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Xiaohong; Xu, Hang; Wang, Kang; Chen, Taoyuan


    Without treatment, waterworks sludge is ineffective as an adsorbent. In this study, raw waterworks sludge was used as the raw material to prepare modified sludge particles through high-temperature calcination and alkali modification. The feasibility of using a combination of modified particles and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as a coagulant for treatment of slightly polluted source water was also investigated. The composition, structure, and surface properties of the modified particles were characterized, and their capabilities for removing ammonia nitrogen and turbidity were determined. The results indicate that the optimal preparation conditions for the modified sludge particles were achieved by preparing the particles with a roasting temperature of 483.12 °C, a roasting time of 3.32 h, and a lye concentration of 3.75%. Furthermore, enhanced coagulation is strengthened with the addition of modified sludge particles, which is reflected by reduction of the required PAC dose and enhancement of the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and turbidity by over 80 and 93%, respectively. Additional factors such as pH, temperature, dose, and dosing sequence were also evaluated. The optimum doses of modified particles and PAC were 40 and 15 mg/L, respectively, and adding modified particles at the same time as or prior to adding PAC improves removal efficiency.

  19. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng


    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  20. Downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators by a water extract of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill fruit in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Seungheon; Park, Sang Rul; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Seo, Yong Taek; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Gi-Young


    Schisandra chinensis has a long-standing history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, an anti-tussive, and an anti-aging drug. Nevertheless, the antagonistic effects of S. chinensis against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated responses have not yet been studied. In this study, we investigated whether water extract of S. chinensis fruit (WESC) has the ability to attenuate the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. WESC inhibited the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, namely, NO, PGE2, and TNF-α. Furthermore, gene expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and TNF-α was inhibited both at mRNA and protein synthesis levels, without any cytotoxic effect. Moreover, WESC significantly suppressed LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκBα. It was found that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulates the expression of these pro-inflammatory genes to be closely regulated by NF-κB activity. Furthermore, we found that WESC retains dephosphorylation of Akt in response to LPS, and consequently suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LY294002, a specific Akt inhibitor, attenuated LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression via suppression of NF-κB activity. Taken together, our results indicate that WESC downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory genes involved in the synthesis of NO, PGE2, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells by suppressing Akt-dependent NF-κB activity.

  1. Spatio-temporal distribution of cell-bound and dissolved geosmin in Wahnbach Reservoir: Causes and potential odour nuisances in raw water.

    Jähnichen, Sabine; Jäschke, Kathrin; Wieland, Falk; Packroff, Gabriele; Benndorf, Jürgen


    In many lakes and reservoirs, problems caused by off-flavours are known to be particularly associated with the occurrence of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria. Frequently observed objectionable taste and odorous products of cyanobacteria are geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. Investigations focused on the littoral zone of Wahnbach Reservoir (Germany) revealed that benthic cyanobacteria were present in this oligotrophic drinking water reservoir. Benthic cyanobacteria were found in the depth horizon between 1.75 m and 11 m, particularly on south-exposed slopes. This spatial distribution indicates a possible key role of the underwater light climate. Moreover, cell-bound and dissolved geosmin were detected in corresponding littoral samples. Both fractions were subjected to spatial and primarily temporal variations with maximum concentrations at the end of summer. However, a substantial lowering of the water level caused a diminution of cyanobacterial growth. Due to the drawdown of the water level concentrations of cell-bound geosmin and pigments (as a proxy of cyanobacterial biomass) were remarkably reduced, and dissolved geosmin was never detected during this phase. Except for the influence of water level fluctuation no other abiotic variables had a significant influence on pigment and geosmin concentrations. From geosmin concentrations detected in the littoral zone, the probability of serious episodes of odour events in the raw water of the Wahnbach Reservoir was estimated. Hence, the probability that the raw water was affected by geosmin was minor, which was supported by routine flavour profiles. Nevertheless, the study shows that odorous episodes caused by benthic cyanobacteria are likely to develop even in an oligotrophic lake or reservoir when these cyanobacteria, and consequently odorous production, proliferate. In principle, such a proliferation cannot be excluded as nutrients are available from the sediment pore water, and underwater light at the sediment

  2. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz


    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  3. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.


    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  4. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C


    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  5. Robust Source Localization in Shallow Water Based on Vector Optimization

    SONG Hai-yan; SHI Jie; LIU Bo-sheng


    Owing to the multipath effect,the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest.However,most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty,which limit their further application in practical engineering.In this paper,a new method of source localization in shallow water,based on vector optimization concept,is described,which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization,such as the channel depth,the bottom reflection coefficients,and so on.Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom,the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation.It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints.It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method,such as the software tool,SeDuMi.Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  6. Robust source localization in shallow water based on vector optimization

    Song, Hai-yan; Shi, Jie; Liu, Bo-sheng


    Owing to the multipath effect, the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest. However, most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty, which limit their further application in practical engineering. In this paper, a new method of source localization in shallow water, based on vector optimization concept, is described, which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization, such as the channel depth, the bottom reflection coefficients, and so on. Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom, the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation. It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints. It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method, such as the software tool, SeDuMi. Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  7. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.


    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  8. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M


    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  9. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe


    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  10. Isotopic Characterization of River Waters and Water Source Identification in an Inland River, Central Asia

    Yuting Fan


    Full Text Available Understanding runoff generation and dynamics is the basis for water resource management, while water isotopic ratios are a potential tool for studying the mechanism on a large scale. In this paper, spatial variations of δ18O and δD of river water and their sources within a large region of the Tarim River were investigated. The results showed obvious spatial variations of both water isotope values along the river flow direction, and significant seasonal variation occurred within the river water isotopes. This indicated that different proportions of rain and melt water entering river water should lead to spatial variation, and for mid-stream and downstream regions, the transformation relationship between surface water and groundwater should consider less input of melt water. Furthermore, we quantitatively determine the ratio of different water sources using the stable isotope mass balance method and other stable tracer elements. Results showed the contribution of ice-snowmelt water varied from 14.97% to 40.85%, that of rain varied from 9.04% to 54.80%, and that of groundwater varied from 15.34% to 58.85%, and they also showed that baseflow is a factor connecting melt water and groundwater, which meant the Hotan River and the Yarkand River are melt water–dependent rivers, and seasonal precipitation is the main water supply source of baseflow in the Aksu River and the Kaidu River.

  11. Chemical and Physical Indicators in Drinking Water and Water Sources of Boroujerd Using Principal Components Analysis

    Darabi , M. (MSC


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality control of drinking water is important for maintaining health and safety of consumers, and the first step is to study the water quality variables. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical indicators, water quality variables and qualitative classification of drinking water stations and water sources in Boroujerd. Material and Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted on 70 samples of drinking water and 10 samples from sources in 2011-2012. Nine Water quality variables were measured and coded using STATISTICA10 Software. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed for qualitative classification of water samples and determination of water quality variables. Results: Based on PCA, chemical variables such as fluoride, nitrate, total hardness and iron, and physical variables such as pH and TDS were paramount importance to water quality. According to T-test, the average concentration of fluoride and iron, and the turbidity in all samples were significantly less than the standard. But other variables were up to standard. Conclusion: For the large water quality data, the use of PCA to identify the main qualitative variables and to classify physical and chemical variables can be used as an effective way in water quality management. Keywords: Physical and Chemical Indicators, Drinking Water and Sources, Boroujerd, Principal Component Analysis

  12. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don


    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  13. Near-Earth water sources: Ethics and fairness

    Schwartz, James S. J.


    There is a small finite upper bound on the amount of easily accessible water in near-Earth space, including water from C-type NEAs and permanently shadowed lunar craters. Recent estimates put this total at about 3.7 ×1012kg . Given the non-renewable nature of this resource, we should begin thinking carefully about the regulation of near-Earth water sources (NEWS). This paper discusses this issue from an ethical vantage point, and argues that for the foreseeable future, the scientific use of NEWS should be prioritized over other potential uses of NEWS.

  14. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland


    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  15. Causes analysis of raw water pipeline booster damage in Shanghai%上海市原水管道爆管破坏的原因分析



    The paper analyzes raw water pipeline booster causes in Shanghai city,collects data,and points out three main causes of violated soil piling,temperature stress and welding joint quality,and carries out simulation computation with finite element,and concludes that:calculated results conform to actual result.%针对上海市原水管道发生爆管现象进行原因分析,通过资料收集整理得出违章堆土、温度应力和焊缝质量是原水管道爆管的三个主要原因,进而通过有限元进行了模拟计算,得到的计算结果与事实相符合。


    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  17. Robust Source Localization in a Random Shallow Water Channel

    Sazontov, Alexander; Matveyev, Alexander


    This paper addresses source localization problem in a random shallow water channel. We present an extension of the generalized MUSIC method to the case, %in which when the signal correlation matrix is imprecisely known. The algorithm is validated by %simulations and its application to the experimental data observed in the Barents Sea. It has been found that the approach proposed demonstrates its excellent performance.

  18. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Nagham Elsaidy


    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  19. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.


    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  20. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  1. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V


    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  2. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail:; Criss, Robert E.


    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  3. The Recreational Water Cycle: From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectants and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    The current study investigates the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, complete water pathway samples (untreated source waters ->fi...

  4. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  5. Characteristics of DOM and Removal of DBPs Precursors across O3-BAC Integrated Treatment for the Micro-Polluted Raw Water of the Huangpu River

    Xiwu Lu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact upon dissolved organic matter (DOM and removal of disinfection by-product (DBP precursors of adding an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC process after the conventional treatment process (CTP using water from the Huangpu River in Shanghai, east China. Several metrics, including size fractionation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP, were employed to accomplish this goal. In the raw water collected from the Huangpu River, the low molecular weight (MW molecules (MW 10 kDa by 61% and the low MW molecules (MW <3 kDa by only 8%. The O3-BAC presented an accumulated DOC removal efficiency of approximately 50%, in particular, showing a high degree of the removal effectiveness of low MW molecules. Samplings from the CTP, ozone and BAC were subjected to excessive chlorination to determine the THMFP, and the measured concentrations were 211.89 ± 4.58 µg/L, 169.52 ± 4.55 µg/L, and 124.42 ± 4.27 µg/L, respectively. Therefore, coupled with the THMFP removal rate of 74%, the addition of the O3-BAC process after an existing CTP improved the water quality of the effluent, particularly, in terms of the improved reduction in the precursors of DBPs.

  6. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.


    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, Atrazine concentrations were, on average, atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  7. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin


    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  8. From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream

    LR. Rörig

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.

  9. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique


    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  10. Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Elshazly, Attef M; Elsheikha, Hany M; Soltan, Doaa M; Mohammad, Khairy A; Morsy, Tosson A


    Water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of Dakahlia G., from September 2005 to August 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. Water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stains for Giardia sp. cysts, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. In the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. Prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%), autumn 27/ 120 (22.5%), spring 20/ 120 (16.6%) and lastly winter 9/120 (7.5%). Protozoa were less common in treated potable water tanks 15/120 (12.5%), followed by River Nile (Demiatta branch) 22/120 (18.3%) and sub-branch Bahr-El-Saghear 24/120 (20%). The highest prevalence was in water of the main local draining 33/120 (27.5%). In the 2nd survey, 840 potable water samples from seven districts were examined. Prevalence in descending order was C. parvum (3.1%), G. intestinalis (2.1%), E. histolytica (1%), Blastocystis homi-nis (1%), Iodamoeba sp, (0.5%), Isospora belli (0.47%), E. coli (0.36%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.24%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (0.12%). Data suggested that C. parvum and G. intestinalis were the commonest disease-agent. The implementation of preventive measures to protect water system from protozoa contamination was given.

  11. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min


    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  12. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan


    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke


    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  14. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.


    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

  15. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.


    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  16. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.


    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  17. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  18. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.


    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  19. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  20. The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.

    Makovcova, Jitka; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Slana, Iva; Kralik, Petr


    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related facilities including fish ponds, storage ponds, drinking water reservoirs and an experimental recirculation system. Altogether, 396 samples of water, sediment and aquatic plants were collected and analysed. All samples were examined using conventional culture methods. Suspected microbial isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis and identified using partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The culture revealed 94/396 samples (23.7%) that contained mycobacteria. Among known NTM we identified potentially pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from the fresh water environment for the first time: Mycobacterium asiaticum, M. chimaera, M. interjectum, M. kumamotonense, M. lentiflavum, M. montefiorense, M. nebraskense, M. paraffinicum and M. simiae. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the natural water environment is the principal source of human exposure. Our results indicate that besides the well-known potentially pathogenic mycobacteria it is important to observe occurrence, proliferation and persistence of newly discovered mycobacterial species.

  1. Microbial Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015

    Abdol Kazem Neisi


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables are useful for humans as they contain minerals, vitamins, fiber and other nutrients. Eating raw vegetables are a nutritional habit in Iranian families. Raw eating vegetables is the main source of parasitic infections. The aim of this study was to determine microbial contamination of raw vegetables in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 samples collected from markets of Ahvaz. Average weight of collecting raw vegetables was 1 to 2 kilograms. Then, raw vegetables were washed by 4 to 5 liter tap water. For parasitic ova washed water leaved for 24 hours for sedimentation and then the supernatant poured and about 50 to 100 milliliter of settled water transferred to 15 ml centrifugal tubes. After centrifugation, pellet floated and finally parasitic ova were observed microscopically (corrected Bailenger method. The multiple tube method used for Coliform bacteria (Total & Faecal examination. Results: Maximum Coliform bacteria was in Kootabdullah samples (total Coliform was 25893319.52 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform was 15054572.83 MPN/100ml. Maximum Ascaris ova in Hamidieh was 43.3 per liter and Sheiban 36.66 per litter. Conclusion: Microbial contamination of raw vegetables, especially in Kootabdullah, possibly was due to Karoon river water pollution by sewage discharge of Ahvaz city, and also in Hamidieh possibly due to Karkheh river water pollution by sewage discharge of Hamidieh city. Thus, sewage treatment of these cities before discharging in rivers is necessary.

  2. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz


    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  3. Quality characteristics of raw and canned goat meat in water, brine, oil and Thai curry during storage

    Yoottana Polpara


    Full Text Available The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P0.05 during storage. The influence of groups of goat meat on TBARS value was significantly observed (P<0.05 when processed in water and brine. Massaman curry could reduce the change in TBARS value of canned goat meat during storage. The results based on texture, color and lipid oxidation suggested that there were no significant differences between the groups of goat meat from 3 years Anglonubian crossed native and 7 years Saanen crossed native for being processed in canned goat meat curry products.

  4. Consumers Preferences to Sweet Potato Flakes (Spf from Sweet Potato Pasta as A Raw Material, with Enrichment Mung Bean Flour as Source Protein

    Noveria Sjafrina


    Full Text Available Sweet potato flakes as an alternative food and a source of carbohydrates as breakfast cereals food. To meet the nutritional needs of sweet potato flakes contained in the primarily source of protein. The purpose of the research was a source of enrichment of protein contained in sweet potato flakes (SPF with the addition of mung bean flour.  And to get an optimal result of consumer preferences with the addition of mung bean flour optimal still be accepted by consumers based on organoleptic test. This study consists of several stages, namely the stage of making sweet potato pasta base material, formulation, manufacture flakes and organoleptic product. Experimental design using a completely randomized design, 5 treatment composition of sweet potato pasta and mung bean flour were (95 : 5%, (90 : 10%,(85 : 15%,(80: 20% and(75: 25% with 3 replications. The best formula will be determined by organoleptic and physical and chemical analysis. Data were collected for chroma color, moisture content, proximat, crispness (texture and resistance crisp during the presentation of the milk solution. Sweet potato flakes was getting a balanced nutritional content and better nutrional content after enrichment with mung bean flour protein content  Sweet potato flakes which become water content 5.6713% - 6.2435%, ash content 2.7501% - 3.0858%, 4.4765% protein content up to 9,0908%, carbohydrate content of 80.2744% - 85.7119%. The level of enrichment of proteins by the addition of mung bean flour to sweet potato flakes most preferred and acceptable panelists as consumer to the addition of 10% mung bean flour.

  5. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  6. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  7. Nonlinear programming strategies for source detection of municipal water networks.

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Biegler, Lorenz T. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Laird, Carl Damon (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)


    Increasing concerns for the security of the national infrastructure have led to a growing need for improved management and control of municipal water networks. To deal with this issue, optimization offers a general and extremely effective method to identify (possibly harmful) disturbances, assess the current state of the network, and determine operating decisions that meet network requirements and lead to optimal performance. This paper details an optimization strategy for the identification of source disturbances in the network. Here we consider the source inversion problem modeled as a nonlinear programming problem. Dynamic behavior of municipal water networks is simulated using EPANET. This approach allows for a widely accepted, general purpose user interface. For the source inversion problem, flows and concentrations of the network will be reconciled and unknown sources will be determined at network nodes. Moreover, intrusive optimization and sensitivity analysis techniques are identified to assess the influence of various parameters and models in the network in a computational efficient manner. A number of numerical comparisons are made to demonstrate the effectiveness of various optimization approaches.

  8. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water ...

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10–500 ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered. Journal Article Highlights • The most important sources of fipronil in

  9. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  10. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita


    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P BHT (387.7%), BPE (370.6%) and SPE (383.7%). Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly decreased the TBARS. The average decrease in TBARS values during 8 days of storage was 56.8%, 38.3% and 37.2% values in BHT, BPE and SPE treatments respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  11. Unexpected Sources of Reactive Oxygen Species in Natural Water

    Kahan, T.; Grossman, J. N.


    We report novel formation methods of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) relevant to surface waters and aqueous aerosols. In one set of studies, we demonstrate that 1O2 can be produced photochemically in aqueous solutions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halide ions under environmentally relevant conditions. This process may be important to oxidizing capacity and pollutant fate in saline waters including oceans and aqueous aerosols. In a second set of studies, we present a potentially important dark radical source. The Fenton reaction is a major dark radical source in natural waters, but it is negligibly slow at neutral pH due to the insolubility of Fe(III). We demonstrate that OH production rates from the dark Fenton reaction at pH 7 can be greatly increased by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis (SO). Our results suggest that OH production (and therefore oxidizing capacity) may be much greater than currently expected in dark circumneutral waters containing iron-reducing bacteria.

  12. Drinking water in Michigan: source, quality, and contaminants.

    Nathan, Vincent R


    The Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act (Act 399) was enacted in 1976 and enables the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to maintain the state's authority over drinking water in the state. The DEQ also contracts with local health departments to maintain non-community programs in each county. Private water wells throughout the state are clearly the most troublesome for users and regulators. An abundant array of contaminants (e.g., pesticides, metals, etc.) may impact wells without the user's knowledge. Most private wells are only inspected when they are installed and have no further regulatory requirements. With regards to contaminants in public systems, lead is problematic. Irregardless of the source or treatment, the piping infrastructure leading to and inside the home can be a source affecting the quality. Thus, the problem of lead in drinking water can be from the service lines, the pipes inside the home, the solder connecting the pipes, or in some case the treatment chemicals used for disinfection.

  13. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.


    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  14. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk ...

  15. Adsorption properties of kaolinite-based nanocomposites for Fe and Mn pollutants from aqueous solutions and raw ground water: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Shaban, Mohamed; Hassouna, Mohamed E M; Nasief, Fadya M; AbuKhadra, Mostafa R


    Raw kaolinite was used in the synthesis of metakaolinite/carbon nanotubes (K/CNTs) and kaolinite/starch (K/starch) nanocomposites. Raw kaolinite and the synthetic composites were characterized using XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The synthetic composites were used as adsorbents for Fe and Mn ions from aqueous solutions and natural underground water. The adsorption by the both composites is highly pH dependent and achieves high efficiency within the neutral pH range. The experimental adsorption data for the uptake of Fe and Mn ions by K/CNTs were found to be well represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the intra-particle diffusion model or Elovich model. For the adsorption using K/starch, the uptake results of Fe ions was well fitted by the second-order model, whereas the uptake of Mn ions fitted well to the Elovich model rather than pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models The equilibrium studies revealed the excellent fitting of the removal of Fe and Mn ions by K/CNTs and Fe using K/starch with the Langmuir isotherm model rather than with Freundlich and Temkin models. But the adsorption of Mn ions by K/starch is well fitted with Freundlich rather than Temkin and Langmuir isotherm models. The thermodynamic studies reflected the endothermic nature and the exothermic nature for the adsorption by K/CNTs and K/starch nanocomposites, respectively. Natural ground water contaminated by 0.4 mg/L Fe and 0.5 mg/L Mn was treated at the optimum conditions of pH 6 and 120 min contact time. Under these conditions, 92.5 and 72.5% Fe removal efficiencies were achieved using 20 mg of K/CNTs and K/starch nanocomposites, respectively. Also, K/CNTs nanocomposite shows higher efficiency in the removal of Mn ions as compared to K/starch nanocomposite.

  16. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro


    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  17. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Smith, Kirk P.


    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  18. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen


    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  19. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong


    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  20. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing


    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  1. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  2. Responses of biofilm characteristics to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading in a moving-bed biofilm reactor treating micro-polluted raw water.

    Zhang, Shuangfu; Wang, Yayi; He, Weitao; Wu, Min; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Gao, Naiyun; Yin, Daqiang


    A pilot-scale moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for biological treatment of micro-polluted raw water was operated over 400days to investigate the responses of biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. The mean removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in the MBBR reached 71.4±26.9%, and batch experiments were performed to study nitrification kinetics for better process understanding. Seven physical-chemical parameters, including volatile solids (VS), polysaccharides (PS) and phospholipids (PL) increased firstly, and then rapidly decreased with increasing temperature and NH4(+)-N loading, and properly characterized the attached biomass during biofilm development and detachment in the MBBR. The biofilm compositions were described by six ratios, e.g., PS/VS and PL/VS ratios showed different variation trends, indicating different responses of PS and PL to the changes in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increased NH4(+)-N loadings caused an enrichment of the nitrifying biofilm.

  3. Research on Treatment of Micro.polluted Yellow River Raw Water by O3%O3预氧化处理微污染黄河水源水研究

    王锐; 刘彩霞; 靳朝喜


    [目的]为净化微污染黄河水源水寻求一种较好的工艺.[方法]研究不同浓度O投加量和反应时间对微污染黄河水源水中的主要污染物质如色度、COD、UV、NO-N 和 NH-N 的去除效果.[结果]色度明显下降,COD降低了 10%,UV下降了 58.9%,NO-N降低了 42.69%,NH-N 略有增加.处理该微污染黄河水源水,最佳预氧化时间为 2min,臭氧投加量为 2.7mg/L.[结论]O预氧化技术对黄河微污染水源水有良好的处理效果.%[ Objective] The aim of the study was to seek an efficient treatment process of micro-polluted raw drinking water. [ Method ] The impacts of pollutant such as chromaticity、CODMn 、UV254 、NO2-N and NH4 +-N under the conditions of different ozone dosages and different ozone adding time was analyzed. [ Result] Under this Process, The reductions of CODMn and UV254 were respectively 10% and 58%. And the amount of pollutants such as organic materials was greatly reduced and the drinking water quality was greatly improved. The optimum reaction time was 2 min; the best O3 dose was 2.7 mg/L. [ Conclusion] The process of ozone pre-oxidation was found to be efficient in treatment of the micro-polluted source water from the Yellow River.

  4. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise


    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  5. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie


    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  6. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida


    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  7. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran


    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  8. Optimization of a Water Window Capillary Discharge Radiation Source

    M. Stefanovič


    Full Text Available Computer modeling of a fast electrical discharge in a nitrogen-filled alumina capillary was performed in order to discover discharge system parameters that lead to high radiation intensity in the so-called water window range of wavelengths (2–4 nm. The modeling was performed by means of the two-dimensional RMHD code Z*. The time and spatial distribution of plasma quantities were used for calculating the ion level populations and for estimating the absorption of the 2.88 nm radiation line in the capillary plasma, using the FLYCHK code. Optimum discharge parameters for the capillary discharge water window source are suggested. The heating of the electrodes and the role of capillary channel shielding were analyzed according to the Z* code.

  9. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.


    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  10. Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China.

    Wang, Wanfeng; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min


    The occurrence of multiple nitrosamines was investigated in 54 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) from 30 cities across major watersheds of China, and the formation potential (FP) and cancer risk of the dominant nitrosamines were studied for profiling purposes. The results showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) were the most abundant in DWTPs, and the concentrations in source water and finished water samples were not detected (ND) -53.6ng/L (NDMA), ND -68.5ng/L (NDEA), ND -48.2ng/L (NDBA). The frequencies of detection in source waters were 64.8%, 61.1% and 51.8%, and 57.4%, 53.7%, and 37% for finished waters, respectively. Further study indicated that the FPs of the three main nitrosamines during chloramination were higher than those during chlorination and in drinking water. The results of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that ammonia was the most closely associated factor in nitrosamine formation in the investigated source water; however, there was no significant correlation between nitrosamine-FPs and the values of dominant water-quality parameters. The advanced treatment units (i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon) used in DWTPs were able to control the nitrosamine-FPs effectively after disinfection. The target pollutants posed median and maximum cancer risks of 2.99×10(-5) and 35.5×10(-5) to the local populations due to their occurrence in drinking water.

  11. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  12. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming


    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.




    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  14. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I


    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh(-1)/NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure.

  15. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke


    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  16. Removal of natural organic matter in a typical south-China source water during enhanced coagulation with IPF-PACl

    LIU Hai-long; WANG Dong-sheng; XIA Zhong-huan; TANG Hong-xiao; ZHANG Jin-song


    Systematic investigation on enhancing removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using inorganic polymer flocculant (IPF),polyaluminum chloride(PACI) and polyacrylamide (PAM) was performed in a typical south-China source water. Enhanced coagulation and applying polymer flocculant-aid were compared through jar tests and pilot tests. Raw water and settled water were characterized and fractionated by resin adsorption. The results show that DOC composes major part of TOC. The DOC distribution keeps relatively stable all around the year with typical high amounts of the hydrophilic matter around 50%. The distribution between HoB, HoA and HoN varies and undergoes fluctuation with the year round. During the summer season, the HoN becomes gradually the major part in hydrophobic parts.PACl with the species being tailor-made shows little pH effect during coagulation. The enhanced coagulation dosage for PACl could be 4.5mg/L for the typical source water. The highest TOC removal achieved 31%. To be economically, 3 mg/L dose is the optimum dosage.Although hydrophilic fractions of NOM of both treatment strategies are removed about 30%, NOM causing UV254 absorbance were well removed(about 90% ). Hydrophobic bases and acids fractions are much more removed under enhanced conditions. The hydrophilic fraction could be better removed using PAM, the polymer coagulant aid.

  17. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.


    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  18. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.


    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water... underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of...

  19. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Smith, Kirk P.


    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  20. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya


    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  1. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W


    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  2. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    H. Timonen


    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  3. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution.

    Mayer, R E; Bofill-Mas, S; Egle, L; Reischer, G H; Schade, M; Fernandez-Cassi, X; Fuchs, W; Mach, R L; Lindner, G; Kirschner, A; Gaisbauer, M; Piringer, H; Blaschke, A P; Girones, R; Zessner, M; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H


    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml(-1)) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2-6.5 ME 100 ml(-1)), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53-65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3-3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7-4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support

  4. Powdered activated carbon adsorption for water works to cope with the sudden pollution of ethylbenzene in raw water%粉末炭吸附处理给水厂原水突发乙苯污染研究

    林明利; 赵志伟; 崔福义; 牛畅; 汪艳


    In order to improve waterworks' ability of emergency response to ethylbenzene pollution,the efficiency of ethylbenzene adsorption onto PAC was experimentally studied.Bench experiments were conducted to estimate the removal of chlorbenzene by conventional water treatment process and to determine isotherm and kinetics for ethylbenzene adsorption onto powdered activated carbon(PAC).A theoretical formula of PAC dose with initial concentration of ethylbenzene and adsorption time was established and verified by experimental results.The results show that it is difficult for conventional water treatment process to remove ethylbenzene effectively;PAC can adsorb ethylbenzene in raw water rapidly with 80% and 95% of the equilibrium adsorption capacity at 5 min and 30 min,respectively;PAC adsorption is an effective emergency drinking water treatment technology for water works to cope with ethylbenzene sudden pollution in raw water.%为提高城市给水厂应对原水突发乙苯污染的应急处理能力,进行粉末炭(PAC)对水中乙苯的吸附效能研究.通过小试,考察了常规工艺对水中乙苯的去除效果,测定了粉末炭(PAC)对水中乙苯的吸附等温线和吸附动力学曲线.在此基础上,建立了PAC投量与乙苯初始质量浓度和吸附时间之间的数学模型,并通过PAC吸附小试进行了验证.结果表明:常规工艺难以有效去除水中乙苯,向原水投加PAC可快速去除水中乙苯,可作为给水厂应对原水突发乙苯污染的一种有效应急处理技术.

  5. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R


    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  6. Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source ...

    Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source water quality: ... with the South African National Standard (SANS) 241:2015 for drinking water. ... this process was confirmed during a brief maintenance shutdown during 2015.




    Full Text Available Water quality in natural lagoons that are located within close proximity to human settlements is generally at contamination risk due to increasing anthropogenic activities. The Negombo lagoon situated in the Gampaha District in Sri Lanka is a lagoonal estuary. It receives surface water runoff mainly from Dandugamoya, Ja-ela, Hamilton and Dutch canals. During the recent past, it has been noted by several researches that there is increasing evidence in anthropogenic activities in Negombo lagoon and surrounding areas. The present study was carried out to assess the contamination levels of heavy metals of water in the Negombo lagoon and interconnected water sources. Sampling was carried out in 19 locations; 6 in the Negombo lagoon and 13 from the interconnected sources (5 samples from Hamilton canal, 2 samples each from Dutch canal, Dandugamoya and Ja-Ela and one sample each from Kelani estuary and Ocean-Negombo. The data collection was conducted during relatively wet (May and relatively dry (September months in 2013. Water samples were analysed in the laboratory as per the standards methods of American Public Health Association (APHA manual by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The tests were carried out to detect heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, Lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn in water. Data analysis was accomplished using ArcGIS (version 9.3 software package along with Microsoft Excel. Standards for inland water and drinking water of Sri Lanka were used to determine the threshold levels of heavy metals. The results show that concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of all water bodies were below the threshold level of human consumption and quality standards for inland waters in Sri Lanka. The Cd and Pb levels of water in Negombo lagoon and Hamilton canal were comparatively high. Furthermore the Cd and Pb levels of Dandugamoya, Ja-ela and Dutch canals were below the maximum permissible levels in both relatively wet

  8. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    Fu, Guo-Wei


    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  9. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Smith, Kirk P.


    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  10. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis


    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  11. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo


    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m(2), with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m(2). The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm(2) month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  12. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Patricia Torres


    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  13. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien


    .... For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans...

  14. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Š. Vilamová; P. Besta; R. Kozel; K. Janovská; M. Piecha; Levit, A; Straka, M.; Šanda, M.


    Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly differ...

  15. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China


    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.


    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  17. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.


    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  18. Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as a raw material substitute

    Phisit Seesuriyachan


    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW was used as a complex nitrogen source for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 to reduce the cost of fermentation medium. EPS production was carried out in a bioreactor using (0.5× modified MRS-sucrose-CW medium, in which three relatively expensive complex nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract and beef extract were halved relative to those present in (1× modified MRS-sucrose medium. Fermentation parameters (pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed were varied in the process of optimisation. Under an optimised condition (pH 5.5, sucrose concentration of 100 g/L and agitation rate of 50 rpm, the maximum EPS level of 38.2 g/L was produced at 35C after 30 h of cultivation. This EPS concentration (38.2 g/L from the (0.5× medium was higher than those produced in the (1× modified MRS-sucrose and (1× modified MRS-sucrose-CW media (21.3 and 31.5 g/L respectively, both having the original concentration of all three complex nitrogen sources. Thus, in a bioreactor where the pH level was properly controlled, the EPS production was greatly enhanced. Sugar concentration also played an important role in the production of EPS.

  19. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Smith, Kirk P.


    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  20. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z


    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  1. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing


    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  2. Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks.

    Zhitkovich, Anatoly


    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor-dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10-20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  3. [Pesticide pollution of groundwater and drinking water by the processes of artificial groundwater enrichment or coastal filtration: underrated sources of contamination].

    Mathys, W


    The research objective of this study is to monitor the degree of pesticide pollution in public drinking waters and to characterise the pathways by which these substances get into potable waters. Public drinking waters, raw waters, ground waters, and surface waters in an area with intensive agriculture were analysed for pesticides and nitrate during the years 1987-1992. The monitoring reveals that only potable waters of water works using the process of artificial ground water recharge are polluted by pesticides. The very influence of surface water on the degree of pesticide contamination can be shown up to the wells. Wells that are influenced by bank filtration or infiltration contain significantly (P water wells. Most often triazines and phenylureas are analysed. Among the tested water works the artificial ground water recharge is the main factor for the input of pesticides into the aquifer and the drinking water. Percolation experiments, and parallel seasonal changes of pesticides and nitrate in raw and infiltration water document a high mobility during the subsoil passage and an easy vulnerability of the aquifer. There is no correlation between pesticides and nitrate. So nitrates are not suited as an indicator for pesticide pollution. Almost all tested surface waters, including channels, contain pesticides in highly varying concentrations during the whole year and are thus always a possible source for an input into the recharged ground water. In addition to agricultural runoffs a remarkable contamination of rivers with the herbicide diuron caused by municipal waste waters can be observed in the summer. Because of insufficient elimination of herbicides like triazines and phenylureas during bank filtration or infiltration and because of the high loads of surface waters with pesticides a minimisation of pesticide losses within the whole catchment area, especially of runoffs into surface waters, and the abstention from the use of slowly degradable herbicides in

  4. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R


    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  5. Retention and mitigation of metals in sediment, soil, water, and plant of a newly constructed root-channel wetland (China) from slightly polluted source water.

    Wang, Baoling; Wang, Yu; Wang, Weidong


    Constructed root-channel wetland (CRCW) is a term for pre-pond/wetland/post-pond complexes, where the wetland includes plant-bed/ditch landscape and root-channel structure. Source water out of pre-ponds flows through alternate small ditches and plant beds with root-channels via a big ditch under hydraulic regulation. Then source water flows into post-ponds to finish final polishing. This article aims to explore the potential of components of a pilot CRCW in China on mitigating metals in micro-polluted source water during its initial operation stage. We investigated six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb) in surface sediment, plant-bed subsurface soil, water, and aquatic plants during 2012-2013. Monitoring results showed that pond/ditch sediments and plant-bed soil retained a significant amount of Cr, Ni, and Zn with 93.1%, 72.4%, and 57.5% samples showing contamination factor above limit 1 respectively. Remarkably the high values of metal enrichment factor (EF) occurred in root-channel zones. Water monitoring results indicated that Ni, Zn, and Pb were removed by 78.5% (66.7%), 57.6% (59.6%), and 26.0% (7.5%) in east (west) wetland respectively. Mass balance estimation revealed that heavy metal mass in the pond/ditch sediments accounted for 63.30% and that in plant-bed soil 36.67%, while plant uptake occupied only 0.03%. The heavy metal accretion flux in sediments was 0.41 - 211.08 μg · cm(-2) · a(-1), less than that in plant-bed soil (0.73 - 543.94 μg · cm(-2) · a(-1)). The 1.83 ha wetland has retained about 86.18 kg total heavy metals within 494 days after operation. This pilot case study proves that constructed root-channel wetland can reduce the potential ecological risk of purified raw water and provide a new and effective method for the removal of heavy metals from drinking water sources.

  6. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.


    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  7. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...


    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...

  8. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E


    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  9. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei


    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  10. Practical technic improvement for raw water heat exchanger system in power plant%发电厂生水换热器系统的实用化改进

    汤自强; 戴云飞; 王刚


    Aiming at the problems of raw water heat exchanger system in Jingneng Group Ningxia Ningdong Power Generation Co., Ltd., makes practical technic improvement for raw water heat ex⁃changer system. Affter optimization design, the composite heat exchanger is changed to plate type heat exchanger and the thermal resource supplying come from house service auxiliary steam is replaced by circulating return water of auxiliary equipment. The improvement result shows that the operating rate of raw water heat exchanger increases greatly,the low temperature from circulating return water of aux⁃iliary equipment can be reuse, the effect of energy saving improvement is prominent, the improvement creates a new way of using low temperature thermal resource for power plant in the north of China.%  针对宁夏京能宁东发电有限责任公司生水换热系统存在的问题,对传统的生水换热器进行了实用性改造,经优化设计后,将混合式换热器换为板式换热器,热源由厂用辅助蒸汽改为辅机循环水回水。改造结果表明:生水换热器投运率大幅度提高,辅机循环水回水的低温热能得到了回收利用,节能效果明显,为北方发电厂利用低温热源开创了一条新途径。

  11. 基于PSO-RBF神经网络模型的原水水质评价方法及应用%Assessment method of raw water quality based on PSO-RBF neural network model and its application

    王冬生; 李世华; 周杏鹏


    针对自来水生产过程的原水水质评价问题,提出了一种基于PSO-RBF神经网络模型的原水水质评价方法.首先,根据水厂生产经验和历史数据分析,制定面向自来水生产过程的原水水质评价标准.然后,采用粒子群优化(PSO)算法训练的RBF神经网络模型,对苏州市相城水厂的进厂原水水质实施在线评价.最后,将进厂原水水质在线评价结果作为前馈量,增加相城水厂药剂(矾和臭氧)投加过程的前馈控制环节,使得药剂投加量能够根据原水水质的变化及时做出调整.实际应用效果表明,与改进前的反馈控制过程相比,过程出水水质更加平稳,提高了自来水生产过程应对原水水质变化的能力.%In consideration of the assessment problem of raw water quality oriented to drinking water treatment process, an assessment method of raw rater quality based on the PSO-RBF neural network model is proposed. First, on the basis of productive experiences and analysis of historical data in the waterworks, an assessment standard oriented to the process of drinking water treatment is established. Then, the radial basis function (RBF) neural network model trained by the particle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm is used for the on-line assessment of raw water quality in the Xiangcheng Waterworks of Suzhou city. Finally, feed-forward control elements are added to the pharmaceutical (alum and ozone) dosing control processes of Xiangcheng Waterworks, using the online assessment result as the feed-forward compensation. The results of the practical operation show that the produced water quality becomes more stable, and the adaptation ability of drinking water treatment to the variation of raw water quality is improved.

  12. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Sahoo S


    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  13. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Š. Vilamová


    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  14. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  15. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus


    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  16. Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff


    February 2015 METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF Edwin Chiang P.E. Naval Facilities Engineering...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...This page intentionally left blank. v Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff NESDI Project Number

  17. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Leslie Collins; Deborah McGregor; Stephanie Allen; Craig Murray; Chris Metcalfe


    After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP) plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006), thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands...

  18. Satellite Monitoring of Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Frequency in Recreational Waters and Drinking Water Sources

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.


    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and sh kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 x 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 x 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organizations (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells m/L. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  19. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: connecting health and place through source water protection.

    Patrick, Robert J


    Source water protection has gained considerable attention in the water resources literature particularly after several well publicized (non-First Nations) water contamination events in Canada. This short report explores health and place through an examination of access to safe drinking water in a developed country. For First Nations in Canada, safe drinking water remains a serious, albeit under-reported, problem. The incidence of contaminated drinking water is pervasive in many First Nations communities. Attempts to "fix" water quality problems using technology alone have produced only limited success. It will be shown that greater attention to source water protection has potential for both to improve drinking water quality as well as to re-connect health and place for First Nations in Canada.

  20. The occurrence of methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinking water and sources for drinking water; De aanwezigheid van methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen

    Morgenstern, P.P.; De Korte, G.A.L.; Hogendoorn, E.A.; Versteegh, J.F.M.


    In 2001 the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands conducted a drinking water measurement programme in co-operation with the Netherlands Waterworks Association (VEWIN) for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. This study, consisting of two sampling periods, shows a generally low concentration of MTBE in drinking water at the selected drinking water plants. The selection of sampling locations was based on the vulnerability of the water catchment area. Measurements in the June/July period showed a concentration of <0.01 {mu}g/l in 22 samples of raw water; the average concentration was 0.07 {mu}g/l and the highest 0.42 {mu}g/l. The average concentration in drinking water in September/October was 0.09 {mu}g/l and the maximum 2.9 {mu}g/l. This maximum concentration was unusual, considering that the second highest value was 0.14 {mu}g/l MTBE. The raw water (both groundwater and surface water) samples registered a concentration of <0.5 {mu}g/l; the highest concentration in surface water was 3.2 {mu}g/l. However, at one location a relatively high concentration (11.9 {mu}g/l) was found in an individual groundwater well. This contamination could be attributed to a local source. The main conclusion here is that MTBE occurs in drinking water, although the concentrations are generally very low (<0.14 {mu}g/l), with a maximum value of 2.9 {mu}g/l. There are no effects on health expected. It is, however, recommended to screen for MTBE in groundwater at locations with a history of or experience with soil contamination. Taking precautions for future spills at petrol stations remains priority number one. [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft in samenwerking met VEWIN in 2001 een meetprogramma uitgevoerd voor de stof methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen. In de periode juni/juli 2001 is een orieenterend meetprogramma uitgevoerd. De concentratie MTBE in ruwwater van 22 pompstations (in

  1. Detection of water masers in a sample of 84 IRAS sources

    WU YueFang; ESIMBEK Jarken; WANG JunZhi; LIU Xiang; QIN ShengLi; ZHANG Jin


    Using a newly installed system on the 25 m telescope of Urumqi Observatory, we searched for H2O maser emission towards 84 IRAS sources including young stellar objects (YSOs) and candidates for OH/IR stars. Water masers were detected in four star formation regions and one envelope of late type of stars for the first time. New water maser components were measured in two sources. In a maser source with no water maser emission detected six years ago, strong maser emission was found at different velocities, showing that there was a new explosion of water maser in this source.

  2. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G


    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology.

  3. Behavior of turbidity, pH, alkalinity and color in Sinú River raw water treated by natural coagulants/Comportamiento de la turbidez, pH, alcalinidad y color del agua del río Sinú tratada con coagulantes naturales

    Jhon Jairo Feria-Díaz; Johana Paola Rodiño-Arguello; Guillermo Enrique Gutiérrez-Ribon


      Natural coagulants were evaluated in saline Hylocereus cf. trigonus stems, gum exudate of Albizia saman, bark and seeds of Moringa oleifera and bark of Guazuma ulmifolia in raw water samples from the Sinú...

  4. investigation of factors affecting drinking water quality from source to ...


    2Addis Ababa City Administration, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... access to improved supply of clean water. ..... Jimma University for funding the research. REFERENCES. 1. WHO. Small community water supplies, Technical paper series 18,.

  5. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  6. Application of the second theory of quantification in identifying gushing water sources of coal mines

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Peng, S. [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering


    Mathematical model for identifying the source of water burst was established using the second theory of quantification and based on 35 water samples form the main aquifers in Jiaozuo mine area. The newly burst water samples were tested using the identification software developed by VC + 6.0 and the 3D discrimination method. The result indicates that the test effect is good which has provided a convenient tool for discriminating the new sources of water burst. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl


    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  8. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N


    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  9. 物质依数性在掺水原料乳质量检测中的应用研究%Application of Colligative Properties in Quality Detection of Watering Raw Milk

    林芳栋; 蒋珍菊; 曹蕊


    [ Objective ] To investigate the effects of water amount on freezing point of raw milk. [ Method] The freezing point of raw milk added water at different proportions was detected by SWC-LG freezing point detector. The linear regression equation was obtained. The reproducibility was checked. The water content in raw milk was calculated according to the standard regression curve. [ Result ] When the water content changed from 0 to 10% ,the freezing point of raw milk increased linearly. As evidenced by the reproducibility test, the standard deviation and relative standard deviation were less than 1%. The milk concentration obtained by detecting the freezing point of blind milk samples had an absolute error of no more than 0.5% ,compared with actual watering milk concentration.%[目的]研究不同加水量对原料乳凝固点的影响.[方法]采用SWC-LG 凝固点测定仪测定不同含水量的原料乳凝固点,得出线性回归方程,进行重复性试验,并根据标准回归曲线计算原料乳的含水量.[结果]含水量在0~10%的原料乳,其凝固点呈线性上升变化.重复性试验结果显示,利用该方法测得的牛乳凝固点的标准偏差和相对标准偏均小于1%.且牛乳盲样凝固点测得的牛奶浓度与实际掺水牛奶浓度相比,绝对误差不超过0.5%.[结论]可根据凝固点来测定原料乳的含水量,且该方法可靠、重复性好.

  10. Dangerous Raw Oysters


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  11. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting


    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  12. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne


    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.




    Full Text Available A new public health issue: contamination with arsenic of private water sources. Known since the early ‘40s, the natural contamination with arsenic of depth water in Bihor and Arad areas continues to incite interest, especially since the rural localities still use depth water as the main source of drinking water. Arsenic concentrations measured in the water sources in the area range between 0-176 μg/L, and it is estimated that over 45,000 people are exposed via drinking water to arsenic concentrations above 10 μg/L. The present study proposed the measurement of arsenic concentrations from old public sources and individual private water sources from recent wells located in five localities in Arad County, samples being collected during 2010-2011. The results showed that public water sources declared or not non-potable contain arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration of 10 μg/L. Individual water sources recently drilled as an alternative for the population to the lack of access to safe water from public water systems, presented high concentrations of arsenic in most cases, even higher than the concentrations of the public sources declared by authorities as non-potable. In the absence of informing and counseling the population regarding the natural uneven distribution of arsenic in the depth water and its potential carcinogenicity, human exposure continues and it is even more intense. The significance of the problem in terms of public health becomes even more important as for the private water sources quality is not monitored by the authorities according to law, water analysis being performed on request and for a fee.

  14. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza


    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  15. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)


    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  16. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic; Proposta metodologica de selecao de materias primas para compor massas ceramicas: aplicacao a ceramica vermelha

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (DPM/IGCE/UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)


    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  17. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Amos Olutola Fadiran


    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  18. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

    Karmalov, A. I.; Dutova, E. M.; Vologdina, I. V.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.


    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found.




    Radioactive sealed sources are used extensively throughout the world in different field and various activities such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research, education military applications, as well as nuclear facilities. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation sources [1] defines a sealed source as ''radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in capsule or (b) closely bounded and in a solid form. The capsule or material of sealed source shall be strong enough to maintain remain leak free under the conditions of use and wear for which the source was designed, also under foreseeable mishaps''. When a radioactive sealed source is no longer needed, or becomes unfit for the intended application it is considered spent. A spent sealed source is not necessarily a waste because it can be used in other applications. If for any technical or economic reason (decay, obsolete equipment and technique, worn out equipment) no further use is foreseen, the spent sealed source is considered spent and becomes radioactive waste [2] [3]. In addition, a source may be taken out of service temporarily or indefinitely. In this case the source is out of used (''disused'') but not considered spent [4]. Sources that are not in active use and have not being declared as spent are considered as disused sealed sources [4]. Considering the potential radiation hazards associated with such waste it has to be managed and disposed of in a way that will ensure that the potential radiation hazards are adequately managed and controlled in compliance with the appropriate safety principles and criteria. It is recognized that there exists today experience and means for all steps in the management of disused sealed sources, except disposal of [2]. In many countries, disused sealed sources represent a part of the radioactive waste inventory being characterized generally with high

  20. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A


    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  1. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam


    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  2. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.


    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a) The..., except where exempted under paragraph (b) of this section, as an underground source of drinking...

  3. Oil spill sorption using raw and acetylated sugarcane bagasse

    Reza Behnood; Bagher Anvaripour; Nematollah Jaafarzadeh; Masoome Farasati


    In the recent decades oil spills in the aquatic environments are one of the major sources of environmental pollutions, which are steadily growing with the increase in oil consumption. Adsorption is a rapid and cost effective processto minimize the environmental impacts of oil spills andcleanup these pollutants. In this work, the crude oil sorption capacity was examined with raw sugarcane bagasse and acetylated sugarcane bagasse. Results show that the acetylated bagasse was significantly more oleophilic than the raw bagasse and acetylation reaction can increase bagasse oil sorption ability by about 90%. The maximum sorption capacities of acetylated bagasse were obtained about 11.3 g and 9.1 g in dry system (crude oil sorption) and oil layer sorption, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the sorbents such as composition, water solubility, moisture content and density were measured according to ASTM standard methods. Also Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of raw and acetylated bagasse was performed to investigate the effect of acetylation on sugarcane bagasse structure.

  4. 海门市农村集中式饮用水源水质现状调查%Investigation on the Water Quality of Drinking Water Sources in the Rural Areas of Haimen



    对海门市24座乡镇水厂的水源水质现状进行了调查。结果表明,地表水水源地达标,地下水水源地89.6%达标。全市地下水中主要污染物为氨氮、氯化物、总硬度和铁。提出,严格划定饮用水源地保护区;提高认识,加强领导;科学规划,加大投入,加快区域供水建设;强化服务,严格管理,保障农村地区的饮水安全。%The investigation on the situation of raw water quality of drinking water plants was made in 24 towns of Haimen. The results indicated that the water quality of drinking water sources all met the requirements of the national standards, but groundwater only 89.6%. The main pollutants in groundwater were ammonia nitrogen, chloride, total hardness and iron. This paper put forward that strictly defined potable water source protection area, improving the understanding, strengthening the leadership, and scientific planning, increasing investment, speeding up the construction of regional water supply, strengthening the service, and strict man- agement, so that the safety of drinking water in the rural areas could be ensured.

  5. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.


    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  6. Using Dual Isotopes and a Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model to Evaluate Nitrate Sources of Surface Water in a Drinking Water Source Watershed, East China

    Meng Wang


    Full Text Available A high concentration of nitrate (NO3− in surface water threatens aquatic systems and human health. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental to making effective water management strategies. However, nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mix land use watersheds remain unclear. In this study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years’ monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, China. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (ranging from 0.02 to 8.57 mg/L were spatially heterogeneous that were influenced by hydrogeological and land use conditions. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage, M & S; soil nitrogen, NS; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall were estimated by using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. The results showed that nitrate sources contributions varied significantly among different rainfall conditions and land use types. As for the whole watershed, M & S (manure and sewage and NS (soil nitrogen were major nitrate sources in both wet and dry seasons (from 28% to 36% for manure and sewage and from 24% to 27% for soil nitrogen, respectively. Overall, combining a dual isotopes method with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offered a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as quantitatively estimate the contributions of potential nitrate sources in drinking water source watersheds, Jianghuai hilly region, eastern China.

  7. Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy

    A. E. Olajuyigbe


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the urban core, transitional zone and urban periphery. A sample size of 1,200 amounting to 4.0% of the total number of households in Ado-Ekiti, was chosen. Specific areas referred to as Data Delineation Areas (DDAs were identified in each zone. Based on the estimated population of each DDA, the number of households to be interviewed was estimated. In consonance with some assumptions, 600 (50.0% questionnaires were administered in the city core while 420 (35.0% and 180 (15.0% questionnaires were administered in the transitional zone and urban periphery, respectively. Subsequently, systematic sampling procedure was adopted in the choice of households to be interviewed. Some of the attributes investigated included the main source of domestic water used by household, access to improved source of water, distance from improved source to residence, average time spent to fetch from main source, average number of trips per person per day, quantity of water used per person per day and attack by water-borne diseases. Results: Households in Ado-Ekiti had access to diverse sources of domestic water including wells, boreholes, streams/rivers/springs, tanker-drawn water and rainwater. However, most households (59.8% depended on wells. Nevertheless, 84.3% had access to improved sources. Only 10.0% of these households obtained supplies from piped water while piped network is largely restricted to the city core. The research showed that distance, time, number of trips and adequacy of supplies

  8. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  9. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.


    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  10. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno


    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  11. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin


    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  12. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.


    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  13. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.


    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  14. Water vapor: An extraordinary terahertz wave source under optical excitation

    Johnson, Keith [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, PO Box 380792, Cambridge, MA 02238-0792 (United States); HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada)], E-mail:; Price-Gallagher, Matthew [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Mamer, Orval; Lesimple, Alain [Mass Spectroscopy Unit, 740 Dr. Penfield, Suite 5300, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1A4 (Canada); Fletcher, Clark [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Chen Yunqing; Lu Xiaofei; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Zhang, X.-C. [W.M. Keck Laboratory for Terahertz Science, Center for Terahertz Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)


    In modern terahertz (THz) sensing and imaging spectroscopy, water is considered a nemesis to be avoided due to strong absorption in the THz frequency range. Here we report the first experimental demonstration and theoretical implications of using femtosecond laser pulses to generate intense broadband THz emission from water vapor. When we focused an intense laser pulse in water vapor contained in a gas cell or injected from a gas jet nozzle, an extraordinarily strong THz field from optically excited water vapor is observed. Water vapor has more than 50% greater THz generation efficiency than dry nitrogen. It had previously been assumed that the nonlinear generation of THz waves in this manner primarily involves a free-electron plasma, but we show that the molecular structure plays an essential role in the process. In particular, we found that THz wave generation from H{sub 2}O vapor is significantly stronger than that from D{sub 2}O vapor. Vibronic activities of water cluster ions, occurring naturally in water vapor, may possibly contribute to the observed isotope effect along with rovibrational contributions from the predominant monomers.

  15. Wetlands as a large carbon source for inland waters

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Deborde, Jonathan; Lima Souza, Edivaldo; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio


    Recent estimates suggests that up to 3 PgC y-1 could be emitted as CO2 from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis and subsequently transported downstream with runoff. But the observed carbon fluxes from first-order streams do not account for all of the CO2 outgassing at the scale of entire watersheds. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land are temporary wetlands. However, the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Based on observations in rivers and floodplains of the central Amazon, we suggest that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters. Indeed, the magnitude of CO2 outgassing in Amazonian waters is spatially and temporally related to their connection with the semi-aquatic vegetation that performs aerial photosynthesis (Flooded forests and floating macrophytes). These wetlands export half of their gross primary production to waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared to only a few percent of gross primary production in upland ecosystems. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, as these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with a large and fast carbon export capacity, potentially supporting a significant fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  16. Usefulness of raw bagasse for oil absorption: a comparison of raw and acylated bagasse and their components.

    Said, Abd El-Aziz A; Ludwick, Adriane G; Aglan, Heshmat A


    Raw bagasse or sugar cane cellulosic residues were modified using acylation grafting with fatty acid. The capability of the grafted bagasse to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the raw bagasse. It was found that the grafted material was significantly more hydrophobic than the raw bagasse. This grafted bagasse had little affinity for water and good affinity for oil. It was also found that bleaching of raw bagasse did not enhance its oil absorptivity. The grafted raw bagasse would be most suitable for applications where oil is to be removed from an aqueous environment. For oil absorbing applications in the absence of water, the raw bagasse was an excellent material.

  17. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay

    WU Yulin; CHEN Haigang; LI Zhaoli; SUN Liwei; QU Mengmeng; LI Mei; KONG Zhiming


    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100×; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62±6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64±2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  18. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    Howard, Meredith D. A.


    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  19. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...



    Feb 5, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (3), pp. 282-285, 5 ... Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment of Ekpan Creek of the Warri River ... contaminated with industrial PAHs wastes have directly.

  20. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?


    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and... contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other...

  1. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE...

  2. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    N. ELSaidy


    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  3. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.


    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  4. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.


    water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Data from on-going field tests as well as sensitivity and specificity testing of the system will be presented at the conference.......Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  5. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  6. Establishment of a Practical Approach for Characterizing the Source of Particulates in Water Distribution Systems

    Seon-Ha Chae


    Full Text Available Water quality complaints related to particulate matter and discolored water can be troublesome for water utilities in terms of follow-up investigations and implementation of appropriate actions because particulate matter can enter from a variety of sources; moreover, physicochemical processes can affect the water quality during the purification and transportation processes. The origin of particulates can be attributed to sources such as background organic/inorganic materials from water sources, water treatment plants, water distribution pipelines that have deteriorated, and rehabilitation activities in the water distribution systems. In this study, a practical method is proposed for tracing particulate sources. The method entails collecting information related to hydraulic, water quality, and structural conditions, employing a network flow-path model, and establishing a database of physicochemical properties for tubercles and slimes. The proposed method was implemented within two city water distribution systems that were located in Korea. These applications were conducted to demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for providing solutions to customer complaints. The results of the field studies indicated that the proposed method would be feasible for investigating the sources of particulates and for preparing appropriate action plans for complaints related to particulate matter.

  7. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.


    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions (SC

  8. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.


    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas product

  9. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.


    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  10. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi


    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on Preparation of Water Soluble Polyester Insulation Electrophoretic Coating by Using Waste Polyester Bottle as Raw Material%废聚酯瓶制取水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆的研究

    陈玉滨; 吴津成; 陈文波


    Water soluble polyester resin for insulation electrophoretic coating was prepared by using waste polyester bottle as raw materials and a series of chemical reactions. The influence factors such as catalyst, dosage and kinds of polyol and anhydride on water soluble polyester insulation electrophoretic coating were studied.%采用废聚酯瓶为原材料,经一系列化学反应,制得漆包线用水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆树脂。考察了催化剂、多元醇和酸酐的种类及用量对水溶性聚酯绝缘电泳漆的影响。

  12. A new morphospecies of Microcystis sp. forming bloom in the Cheffia dam (Algeria): seasonal variation of microcystin concentrations in raw water and their removal in a full-scale treatment plant.

    Nasri, Hichèm; Bouaïcha, Noureddine; Harche, Merieme Kaid


    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are an increasing problem in Algeria. The production of cyanotoxins (microcystins) and their presence in drinking water represent growing hazards to human health. In this study, seasonal variations in the concentrations of total microcystins and physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll-a) were analyzed in the Cheffia dam (Algeria), mainly used to supply drinking water. The removal of cyanobacterial cells and microcystins was also evaluated in full-scale plant associated with the Cheffia reservoir. The levels of microcystins (MCYSTs) in both raw and drinking water were evaluated using the protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibition test as MCYST-LR equivalents. Identification of microcystin variants was achieved by LC/MS/MS. During the period of study (March-December 2004), microscopic observation showed the dominance in the autumn months (September-November) of a new morphospecies of Microcystis sp. The MCYST-LR equivalent concentrations in raw water varied between 50.8 and 28,886 ng L(-1). The highest level of toxins was observed in October 2004 and was significantly correlated with the chlorophyll-a. Three variants of microcystins assigned as microcystin-YR (MCYST-YR), microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR), and 6Z-Adda stereoisomer of MCYST-LR were observed in the crude extract of the Microcystis sp. bloom sample. During the bloom period, total elimination of Microcystis sp. and toxins were achieved through a classical treatment plant comprised of coagulation and flocculation, powdered activated carbon at 15 mg L(-1), slow sand filtration and chlorination before storage.

  13. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin


    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  14. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott


    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  15. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.


    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  16. The impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait:numerical results

    ZHANG Wenzhou; ZHUANG Xuefen; CHEN Chentung Arthur; HUANG Tinghsuan


    Model output from a Pacific basin-wide three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model during the period of 1991 to 2008 was used to investigate the impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Based on the characteristic salinities of both Kuroshio water and the South China Sea water, a Kuroshio impact index (KII) was designed to measure the degree of impact. The KII correlates significantly with the northeast-southwest component of wind stress, but the former lags the latter by approximately two months. The correlation coefficient between them increases from 0.267 4 to 0.852 9, with a lag time increasing from 0 to 63 days. The impact of Kuroshio Water is greater in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. At the interannual time scale, El Niño and La Niña events play an important role in impacting the KII. During El Niño events, more Kuroshio water contributes to the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Conversely, during La Niña events, less Kuroshio water contributes to the source water.

  17. Molecular detection of Fasciola hepatica in water sources of District Nowshehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali


    Fascioliasis is spread through contamination of water sources and cause morbidity throughout the world. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by PCR for detection of Fasciola hepatica. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 9.66 % (29/300). Highest prevalence was recorded in drain water16 % (16/100) followed by tube well water 10% (4/40), open well water 8 % (8/100) and the lowest was recorded in tap water 1.66 %(1/60). The significant difference P < 0.05 was recorded during data analysis. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. It was concluded from the study that cleaning and filtration should be adopted to avoid the health hazards against water borne zoonotic parasites.

  18. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

    khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran


    Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

  19. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao


    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  20. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent


    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  1. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.


    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  2. Experiment on Application of Treatment for Raw Water From Dongjiang River with Immersion-Type Flat Ceramic Membrane%采用浸没式平板陶瓷膜处理东江原水的应用试验

    范小江; 盛德洋; 张建国; 加藤秀生; 李泰日; 张锡辉


    采用过滤面积0.5712 m2,孔径为60~70 nm的平板陶瓷膜,对东江原水进行过滤试验,研究在不同渗透通量、原水浊度、原水有机物浓度下陶瓷膜对浊度和有机物的去除效果,以及陶瓷膜跨膜压差的变化.结果表明,渗透通量、原水浊度和有机物浓度的升高都会引起跨膜压差的升高,其中有机物浓度的影响大于浊度的影响;膜出水水质分析表明陶瓷膜出水浊度稳定在0.1 NTU以下,各项指标除氨氮外都满足新的国家饮用水水质标准;陶瓷膜过滤能将病原微生物有效去除,从而提高水体的微生物安全保障水平;陶瓷膜能显著去除水中分子量大于2 000 Da的有机物,但对小分子有机物和无机离子基本没有去除效果.膜清洗试验表明,使用单种化学清洗剂时NaOH的效果最好.%A comprehensive filtration experiment for Dongjiang raw water was conducted by adopting flat ceramic membrane with filtration area of 0.571 2 nr and aperture of 60-70 nm to analysis the water quality and transmembrane pressure (TMP) under various filtration flux, turbidity as well as organic matter concentration of raw water. Research results indicate that the TMP is increased with the increasing of filtration flux, turbidity and organic matter concentration of raw water. The influence of organic matter concentration of raw water is greater than that of turbidity. The analysis results of effluent water indicate that the turbidity is less than 0.1 NTU stably, every index except ammonia nitrogen meets the latest national drinking water quality standards. The results also show that the pathogenic microorganisms are removed effectively by ceramic membrane so that the biological safety of effluent is improved. The organic matter whose molecular weight is more than 2 000 Da can be marked removed by the ceramic membrane as well. However, organic matter with smaller molecular weight and inorganic ions can be hardly removed by the ceramic

  3. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    Wilson, Alexander


    . The concepts of raw art and outsider art were typical of a time when oppositional politics still infused artistic and academic discourses. But modernity seems to have ‘grown out’ of its adolescence, so to speak: out of politics of opposition and absolutes. Of course, it is neither desirable nor possible...... to return to the oppositional dynamics and binary divisions of yesterday, now that we have crossed this paradigmatic threshold. But the schizoanalytic stance may offer us another view of the emerging paradigm. It affords different tools of interpretation and suggests ways artists may grow out of modernity...

  4. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)


    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  5. Uranium in Hot Water Tanks: A Source of Tenorm


    geologic timescale evaluations (McCall et al., 2001), and for actinide characterization ( Havrilla , 1997). Drinking Water Regulations The EPA has...L.J., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1957). (As quoted from IAEA Tech. Report Series No. 15, 1963.) Havrilla

  6. Partitioning evapotranspiration into green and blue water sources in the conterminous United States

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel


    In this study, we combined two actual evapotranspiration datasets (ET), one obtained from a root zone water balance model and another from an energy balance model, to partition annual ET into green (rainfall-based) and blue (surface/groundwater) water sources. Time series maps of green water ET (GWET) and blue water ET (BWET) are produced for the conterminous United States (CONUS) over 2001–2015.

  7. Natural convection heat transfer and fresh water yield in vertical plate cavity with film evaporation and raw water reservoir%竖壁自储水式蒸馏器空腔自然对流换热及产水特性

    谢果; 郑宏飞; 熊建银


    A triple-effect regeneration solar distiller with raw water reservoir is designed and its operation principle is introduced. Experiments with different heating power were carried out with chrome steel strip heater for 6. 5 h. In each stage, the temperature and fresh water yield of distiller were measured. The total fresh water yield of each stage in one day and the relation between evaporation rate per unit area and temperature in the vertical distiller were obtained. The experimental results with constant heating power shows that the performance ratio of the evaporation can reach 1. 81 with 600 W heating power and its optimal heating energy per day is about 14 MJ. Therefore, it is suggested the area of matched solar collector is 1. 5 m2 when the equipment is operated in general weather. A theoretical model is proposed in this study, which can be used for natural convection heat and mass transfer with film evaporation and raw water reservoir inside the vertical cavity. An empirical formula between Nusselt number and Rayleigh number is obtained, which is suitable for calculation of vertical plate cavity with film evaporation and raw water reservoir.

  8. Water Quality Deterioration in Artificial Lake: Their Impact and Sources

    Nor Azlina Abd Aziz


    Full Text Available Seven sampling stations were identified to determine the status of water quality in Cempaka Lake, Bandar Baru Bangi within two sampling periods of June 2010 and August 2010. The objectives of the study are to identify and classify the current water quality in the lake. A total of twelve water quality parameters have been analyzed in-situ and ex-situ and classified under WQI and NWQS classifications, four parameters were analyzed using HYDROLAB meter DataSonde, eight parameters were analyzed under the standard of the HACH and APHA methods. The results are pH  between 6.13 to 6.92, DO 1.63 to 4.94 mg/L, temperature 26.02 to 28.37 ºC, conductivity of 94 to 213mS/cm, BOD  0.38 up to 2.4 mg/L, NH3-N  2.00 to 2.84 mg/L, phosphate 0.21 to 0.56 mg/L, sulphate 21 to 35 mg/L, COD 9.3 to 69 mg/L, TSS of 1.8 to 33.3 mg/L, oil and grease 5.7 to 11.8 mg/L  and hardness 13.89 to 35.57 mg/L. Based on this classification, the water quality of Cempaka Lake was classified as Class II and III. The results are clearly shown that the majority of the water quality parameters in the study area are more polluted during the first sampling compared to the second sampling. Cempaka Lake has been contaminated due to residential activities, clinic centres, restaurants, petrol pump stations that release discharge into streams, rivers and eventually the lake become a brownish color and a smell of ammonia.

  9. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Ottesen Andrea R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  10. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Shinjiro Yano


    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  11. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping


    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.

  12. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk


    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality.

  13. Qualitative Assessment Of Bottled Water In The Middle East

    Ahmad, S.; Saleem, Abdul


    Many brands of bottled water are being produced in the Middle East including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Over fourteen brands of bottled water could be found in the market of Doha. Use of bottled water has kept on increasing in this region. Reasons for the increase in use of bottled water for drinking have been discussed. The raw water source for the bottled water is groundwater. Most of the manufacturers of the bottled water claim bottled water as "Natural Mineral Water...

  14. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A


    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  15. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    Xu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Changbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Du, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Luo, Yi [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water.

  16. Distributed modelling of water resources in the Lower Jordan River Basin - from present day variability to suitability for new water sources

    Gunkel, Anne; Lange, Jens


    The Middle East is characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall. As a result, water resources are not reliable and severe drought events are frequent, worsening the natural water scarcity. Single high magnitude events may dominate the water balance of entire seasons - a fact that is poorly represented in the assessments of available water resources that are normally based on long term averages. Therefore, a distributed hydrological model with a high temporal and spatial resolution is applied to the Lower Jordan River basin (LJRB). The focus is hereby to capture the variability of rainfall and to investigate how this signal is amplified in the hydrological cycle in this arid and semi arid environment. Rainfall variability is addressed through a volume scanning rainfall radar providing precipitation data with a resolution of 5 minutes for entire seasons that serves as input to a conceptual hydrological model. The raw radar data recorded by a C-Band system was pre-corrected by a multiple regression approach prior to regionalization to the LJRB, ground truthing with rainfall station data and conditional merging. Despite certain uncertainties, the data documents the accentuated rainfall variability in the entire LJRB. In order to include the full range of present rainfall variability, one average and two extreme seasons (wet and dry) are studied. Hydrological modelling is undertaken with a new modelling tool created by coupling two hydrological models, TRAIN and ZIN, complementing each other in respect to the addressed processes and water fluxes. The resulting modelling tool enables conceptual modelling of the processes relevant for semi-arid / arid environments with a high temporal and spatial resolution. The model is applied to the large scale LJRB (16,000 km²) in order to simulate all components of the water balance for three rainy seasons representing the present climate variability. Under given conditions of low data availability, the

  17. Carbon Sequestration through Sustainably Sourced Algal Fertilizer: Deep Ocean Water.

    Sherman, M. T.


    Drawing down carbon from the atmosphere happens in the oceans when marine plants are growing due to the use of carbon dioxide for biological processes and by raising the pH of the water. Macro- and microscopic marine photosynthesizers are limited in their growth by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.) Deep ocean water (DOW), oceanic water from bellow about 1000m, is a natural medium for marine algae, which contains all (except in rare circumstances) necessary components for algal growth and represents over 90% of the volume of the ocean. The introduction of DOW to a tropical or summer sea can increase chlorophyll from near zero to 60 mg per M3 or more. The form of the utilization infrastructure for DOW can roughly be divided into two effective types; the unconstrained release and the open pond system. Unconstrained release has the advantage of having relatively low infrastructure investment and is available to any area of the ocean. The open pond system has high infrastructure costs but enables intensive use of DOW for harvesting macro- and microalgae and sustainable mariculture. It also enables greater concomitant production of DOW's other potential products such as electricity or potable water. However, unlike an unconstrained release the open pond system can capture much of the biomaterial from the water and limits the impact to the surrounding ecosystem. The Tidal Irrigation and Electrical System (TIESystem), is an open pond that is to be constructed on a continental shelf. It harnesses the tidal flux to pump DOW into the pond on the rising tide and then uses the falling tide to pump biologically rich material out of the pond. This biomaterial represents fixed CO2 and can be used for biofuel or fertilizers. The TIESystem benefits from an economy of scale that increases at a rate that is roughly equal to the relationship of the circumference of a circle (the barrier that creates the open pond) to the area of the pond

  18. Sub-annual variability in historical water source use by Mediterranean riparian trees.

    Sargeant, Christopher; Singer, Michael


    The seasonal availability of water within a tree's rooting zone may be an important determinant for individual tree growth and overall forest health, particularly in riparian corridors of Mediterranean climate zones that are vulnerable to water stress. Here, we present a new method that combines dendro-isotopes and isotope-modelling for determining how water source use varies over 10 consecutive growing seasons (2000-2010) for co-occurring species P. nigra and F. excelsior, along the Rhône River, south-eastern France. We conducted highly resolved cellulose δ18O analysis of micro-slices within tree rings and back-calculated the δ18O signature of source water available at the time of growth using a biochemical fractionation model. We related these patterns to inferred seasonal hydrological partitioning through comparison with δ18O of waters from the vadose and phreatic zones, precipitation, and streamflow. The shallowly rooted Fraxinus displayed greater sub-annual source water variability, as well as greater isotopic enrichment, reflecting use of precipitation-derived vadose moisture. Its earlywood component was formed mainly from winter rainfall (depleted) whilst the latewood relied on growing season precipitation (enriched). In Populus, the sub-annual source water use was relatively depleted, suggesting use of hyporheic water and regional groundwater. From 2007, both species converged in their pattern of water source uptake which was attributed to a decline in phreatic water access for Populus. These results demonstrate that the seasonal variability in source water use can be identified retrospectively, a method which may prove important for anticipating the future consequences of climatic driven changes to the hydrological cycle.

  19. Agricultural phosphorus and water quality: sources, transport and management



    Full Text Available Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P. To identify critical sources of P export from agricultural catchments we investigated hydrological and chemical factors controlling P export from a mixed land use (30% wooded, 50% cultivated, 20% pasture 39.5-ha catchment in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Mehlich-3 extractable soil P, determined on a 30-m grid over the catchment, ranged from 7 to 788 mg kg-1. Generally, soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (

  20. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    study. Water Research 38:3980–3992. Stevens, J. 1986. Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Science, Hillsdale, NJ: Thurston, G. D., and Spengler, J. D. 1985. A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter...

  1. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia


    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  2. Affinity adsorption for the removal of organic micropollutants in drinking water sources; proof of principle

    Hofman-Caris, R.C.M.; Bäuerlein, P.S.; Siegers, W.G.; Ziaie, J.; Tolkamp, H.H.; de Voogt, P.


    Sources for drinking water (DW) production contain increasing concentrations of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Traditional purification processes are not suitable for their removal or conversion, but even sophisticated technologies, like advanced oxidation processes

  3. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test...

  4. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.


    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  5. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H;


    was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.93). This indicates that good quality drinking water provides additional health benefits only when...... and have a continuous water supply for sanitation and hygiene. Irrigation water management clearly has an impact on health and bridging the gap between the irrigation and drinking water supply sectors could provide important health benefits by taking into account the domestic water availability when......BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...

  6. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel


    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  7. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping


    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  8. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  9. Sources and fate of perfluorinated compounds in the aqueous environment and in drinking water of a highly urbanized and industrialized area in Italy.

    Castiglioni, Sara; Valsecchi, Sara; Polesello, Stefano; Rusconi, Marianna; Melis, Manuela; Palmiotto, Marinella; Manenti, Angela; Davoli, Enrico; Zuccato, Ettore


    Perfluorinated substances are listed among emerging contaminants because they are globally distributed, environmentally persistent, bioaccumulative and potentially harmful. In a three-year monitoring campaign (2010-2013) we investigated the occurrence, sources and fate of nine perfluoroalkylcarboxylic acids and three perfluoroalkylsulfonic acids, in the most industrialized region of Italy. Composite samples were collected in influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), in the main rivers flowing through the basin, and in raw groundwater and finished drinking water. Samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorinated substances were not removed in WWTPs and those receiving industrial wastes discharged up to 50 times the loads of WWTPs receiving municipal wastes. The mass balance of the emissions in the River Lambro basin showed continuously increasing contamination from north to south and differences in the composition of homologues in the west and east sides of the basin. Ground and drinking water were contaminated in industrial areas, but these substances were removed well in Milan. Contamination from industrial sources was prevalent over urban sources, contributing to 90% of the loads measured at the closure of the basin. The River Lambro was confirmed as one of the main sources of contamination in the Po River.

  10. Uranium mine waste water: potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico

    Hiss, W.L.


    Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area.

  11. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John


    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most......The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants...

  12. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko


    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur


    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season.

  14. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger


    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  15. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.


    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  16. Source Water Protection in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: Limitations and Promising Actions

    Seth Bomangsaan Eledi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to exemplify through recent research in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL the extent of the current limitations for source water protection and potential opportunities for improvement in the province, particularly for rural communities. The findings of this paper draw from the results of four related studies led by the co-authors. These four studies took place in NL between 2012 and 2016, and derived data through a mixed-method approach using literature reviews, key informant interviews, surveys, and consultations. The article provides an overview of the state of source water protection in NL and the challenges faced, with case examples to illustrate key points. Findings indicate there is currently a source water protection gap in NL limiting local governments in implementing their source water protection obligations under provincial policy and regulations. This implementation gap has been attributed to a lack of capacity for watershed monitoring, a lack of awareness of the need for source water protection and of municipal responsibilities, conflicts over multi-use watersheds and a lack of watershed planning and management. Greater education and collaboration in source water protection efforts amongst all watershed users, watershed groups, local governments and the provincial government could offer promise to fill this gap.


    Verification testing of the Basin Water System was conducted over a 54-day period between April 4, 2005 and May 28, 2005. The test was conducted at the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD) Corydon Street Well in Lake Elsinore, California. The source water was a raw gr...


    Several library independent Microbial Source Tracking methods have been developed to rapidly determine the source of fecal contamination. Thus far, none of these methods have been tested in tropical marine waters. In this study, we used a Bacteroides 16S rDNA PCR-based...

  19. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  20. Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ


    Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with

  1. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.


    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  2. Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared ...

    Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared periwinkles from brackish water earthen pond Buguma, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ...

  3. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.


    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...


    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...


    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  6. Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources

    Kannan Subbaram


    Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.


    罗丽; 陆少鸣; 尹超


    Based on the new process of"mid-positioned BAC filter-disinfection-sand filtration",the comparison experiment of purification efficiency on Beijiang raw water by three different operation mode (ozone mid-positioned BAC filter,aerated mid-positioned BAC filter,ozone-aerated mid-positioned BAC filter) were conducted to obtain an optimized designed process.Results showed that ozone has superiority in removing refractory organic.Aeration,with less cost,can keep the similar organic removal efficiency and improve the NH3-N nitrification efficiency since low content of refractory organic in the tested raw water.In addition,ozone united with aeration was not recommended because no obvious improvement was observed in the test by this way.%针对新型中置炭滤池-消毒-砂滤工艺,对比研究臭氧-中置炭滤池、中置曝气炭滤池和臭氧-中置曝气炭滤池对北江水源的净化效果,为南方某水厂提供工艺优化设计方案.结果表明,臭氧对难降解有机物去除较有优势;对于难降解有机物含量较少的北江水源,采用曝气活性炭滤池可以保持对有机物的去除效果,同时可提高氨氮的硝化效率,并降低成本;臭氧-曝气-中置炭滤池工艺对净水效果并无明显改善,不推荐使用.

  8. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun


    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  9. Sources of variability in livestock water quality over 5 years in the Northern Great Plains.

    Petersen, M K; Muscha, J M; Mulliniks, J T; Waterman, R C; Roberts, A J; Rinella, M J


    Concentrated dissolved minerals in naturally occurring water accessible to livestock grazing semiarid landscapes can negatively influence animal productivity and well-being. Twelve indicators of water quality (Ca, Cl, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, nitrate N, pH, SO4, total dissolved solids [TDS], and temperature) were measured at 45 livestock water sites over 5 yr from 2009 through 2013 at the 22,257-ha USDA-ARS Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT) to estimate variation. Water was sampled from 4 sources: 1) flowing surface water, 2) groundwater, 3) reservoirs, and 4) springs. The sampled area was classified by 3 cardinal compass bearings (locations): 1) north, 2) southeast, and 3) southwest of the Yellowstone River. Samples were collected twice yearly in 2 seasons, May (wet) and September (dry). Year, location, source, and season and their interactions were analyzed as a 5 × 3 × 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A location × year interaction (P < 0.04) was found for Mg, Na, SO4, and TDS. The southwest location had the greatest concentrations in 2012 of Na, SO4, and TDS. A source × year interaction (P < 0.02) was found for Ca, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, SO4, TDS, and temperature. Iron, Mg, and Mn had the greatest concentrations in flowing surface water in 2012. Greater and then lower precipitation in 2011 followed by below-average precipitation in 2012 was associated with elevated mineral concentrations in sources in the southwest location and flowing surface water sources demonstrating sources of water quality variability within time and space at the study site. Average concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, and nitrate N and pH levels across sources and locations did not exceed the upper maximum intake level for beef cattle. In contrast, concentrations of F, Fe, Na, SO4, and TDS at times exceeded the upper maximum level for beef cattle, indicating these minerals may negatively impact range beef cattle performance.

  10. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3)...

  12. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  13. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin


    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O3-biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  14. O3-BAC工艺处理太湖原水的技术研究和生产实践%Technical study and production practice of the O3-BAC to treat the raw water from Taihu lake

    蒋福春; 张雪; 李琴; 陈玲瑚; 周洵


    以苏州相城水厂臭氧—生物活性炭(O3-BAC)工艺的应用情况为基础,分析和探讨该工艺实际应用效果和运行管理要求.结果表明:在常规工艺基础上,有机物去除率可提高20%~40%,氯消毒副产物降低近40%,出厂水水质稳定;O3-BAC工艺能有效应对藻类暴发和原水水质短暂突变等事件;水温对生物活性炭的处理效果影响较大,夏季较冬季理想;运行管理中应重点关注和解决活性炭寿命、溴酸盐、水质生物安全性及冬季高氨氮的处理等问题;针对太湖原水而言,O3-BAC工艺具有一定技术优势.%Based on the application of Ozone-Bilological Activated Carbon (O3 - BAC) in the Xiangcheng Water Treatment Plant of Suzhou, this paper analyzed and studied the practical application effects and operation requirements of this process. The results showed: based on conventional treatment, the organic removal efficiency would be improved by 20%~40%, chlorine disinfection byproducts would be reduced by 40%, and the effluent water quality was stable; O3 -BAC could handle the unexpected accidents, such as algae outbreak, and raw water quality temporal sudden deterio-ration; water temperature had a significant effects on BAC treatment, and the winter treatment was better than summer; during the operation, attention should be paid on the problems such as BAC lifetime, bromated, aqua-organism safety, and high ammonian nitrogen concentration in winter; according to the Taihu lake raw water, the O3 - BAC process had some technical advantages.

  15. Legionella and other gram-negative bacteria in potable water from various rural and urban sources.

    Stojek, Nimfa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek


    A total of 107 potable water samples were collected from various rural and urban sources located in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). 54 samples from rural sources comprised 32 samples of untreated well water and 22 samples of treated (chlorinated) tap water from rural dwellings distributed by the municipal water supply system (MWSS). 53 samples of treated water from urban sources were supplied by the city of Lublin MWSS. They comprised: 11 samples of tap water from offices and shops, 8 samples of tap water from dwellings, 19 samples from showerheads in health care units, and 15 samples from the outlets of medical appliances used for hydrotherapy in a rehabilitation centre. Water samples were examined for the presence and species composition of Legionella, Yersinia, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-E) and Gram-negative bacteria not belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-NE), by filtering through cellulose filters and culture on respectively GVPC, CIN, EMB and tryptic soya agar media. Legionella was recovered from samples of well water, tap water from rural dwellings, tap water from urban dwellings, and water from medical appliances - with the isolation frequency of 27.8-50.0 %, and the low concentrations ranging from 0.7-13.3 x 10 (1) cfu/l. No Legionella strains were detected in tap water from offices and shops, and in water from showerheads in health care units. Strains of the Legionella pneumophila types 2-14 predominated, forming 89.9 % of total Legionella isolates, while other species of Legionella formed 10.1 %. Neither Legionella pneumophila type 1 strains nor Yersinia strains were isolated from the examined water samples. The isolation frequency and mean concentration of GNB-E in water samples from rural sources was significantly greater than in water samples from urban sources (respectively 61.1 % vs. 20.8 %, 17.1 vs. 3.4 x 10(1) cfu/l, p spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Pantoea agglomerans were most common

  16. Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions

    Tsukerman, V. A.; Gudkov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    The paper discusses problems associated with the existing crisis of water scarcity in the modern conditions of the global water use. Available alternative sources of fresh water may be underground and surface waters of the North and the Arctic. Investigated the current situation and condition of fresh water resources in the technological and industrial development of the North and Arctic. The necessity of developing and using green technologies and measures to prevent pollution of surface and ground water from industrial sectors of the Northern regions is shown. Studied modern technologies and techniques for monitoring groundwater and determination of their age in order to avoid and prevent the effects of environmental contaminants. The ways of use of innovative production technologies of fresh and clean water of north Russia for sustainable development, and delivery of water in the needy regions of the world are investigated.

  17. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G


    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  18. Production of Algal-based Biofuel from Non-fresh Water Sources

    Sun, A. C.; Reno, M. D.


    A system dynamics model is developed to assess the availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual framework is based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The simulation framework contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil and gas produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  19. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Bosilovich, Michael G.


    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  20. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)


    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  1. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Yan Chen


    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  2. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  3. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  4. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)


    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  5. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze


    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced.

  6. Study of Arsenic Presence in Drinking Water Sources: A Case Study

    Z Kamali


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Conducted studies about arsenic have shown that consumption of water contaminated with arsenic can causes different adverse health effects in consumers. World Health Organization (WHO has enacted 10µg/L arsenic in drinking water as a guideline value. Regarding some reports about arsenic presence in a village of Hashtrood county and related health effects and also considering this fact that determination of arsenic as a poisoning chemical is not included in routine monitoring of water by responsible organizations, in present study all of drinking water sources in Hashtrood county in East Azerbaijan province were studied for arsenic presence."nMaterials and Methods: Water supply and its sanitation situation were studied in all of cities and residential villages (200 villages by field visiting. Arsenic content of water samples were determined using Ez arsenic test kit, a product of Hach Company. For assurance of the kit results, 20 water samples with different concentration of arsenic were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP method and then achieved results was compared together."nResults: Arsenic was present in drinking water of 50 villages that in 9 villages its level was higher than Iranian standard (50µg/L. During the study totally 11087 persons (21.96% of rural areas population in Hashtrood county were exposed to different levels of arsenic via drinking water. Correlation between kit and ICP results was significant (R2 = 0.9715"nConclusion: Studied region in present study is a polluted area to arsenic by geogenic sources. It is necessary to replace water source of villages with higher level than national standard with safe drinking water. Annually measurement of arsenic in drinking water of all villages spatially polluted villages should be considered by responsible organization e.g. Health Network and Rural Water and Wastewater Company. Used kit in our study is recommendable for this purpose.

  7. Identification and contribution of water sources to the extent of floods

    Berezowski, Tomasz; Partington, Daniel; Chormański, Jarosław; Batelaan, Okke


    The extent of floods is the result of the discharge of various water sources in the floodplain. These water sources originate from upstream river discharge, direct rainfall on the floodplain, snowmelt or groundwater discharge. The differentiation between these water sources, including the spatial delineation of their contributing areas is an important issue for flood protection, ecohydrology and hydrological modelling. So far the most reliable method for differentiation and spatial delineation of the water sources in the overall flood extent is extensive hydrochemical analysis involving numerous sampling points. In this study we compare results from such an analysis with a coupled groundwater-surface water simulation approach. The comparison is performed for the Lower Biebrza Basin, north-eastern Poland (453 km2). This study area is a natural wetland river valley dominated by peat soils with extensive agriculture. Floods in this area occur yearly and are considered of major importance for the ecology of the basin. The hydrochemical analysis was conducted for the 2002 spring flood and consisted of sampling 538 points for 19 parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and concentration of 16 ions). The identification of spatial water sources was further conducted by means of dimensionality reduction and cluster analysis. The hydrological modelling of different water sources was conducted with a HydroGeoSphere (HGS) model for the whole Biebrza catchment (7000 km2). HGS is a finite element, fully integrated physically based hydrological model, which simulates unsaturated/saturated groundwater flow, surface flow, evapotranspiration, snowmelt, etc. Hence, it offers coupled groundwater-surface water interaction and an important new feature that allows to calculate the composition of different water sources in each computational node of the model. Results of this mixing-cell methodology are compared with the hydrochemical analysis and show good agreement for

  8. Change in drinking water quality from source to point-of-use and storage: a case study from Guwahati, India.

    Khadse, Gajanan Kisan; Kalita, Moromi D; Labhsetwar, Pawan K


    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied and maintained at Guwahati, the study was conducted on the status of water supply in city through surveillance of drinking water quality for consecutive 7 days at various treatment stages, distribution network and consumer ends. The performance of five water treatment plants (WTPs), viz. Panbazar WTP, Satpukhuri WTP, Kamakhya WTP, PHED WTP and Hegrabari WTP were assessed for summer, piost-post-monsoon and winter seasons. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/L in the treated water. During post-monsoon, winter, and summer seasons the thermotolerent TC and FC counts ranged between Nil to 168 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 84 CFU/100 ml; Nil to 3356 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 152 CFU/100 ml; and Nil to 960 CFU/100 ml and Nil to 108 CFU/100 ml respectively. There was variation in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends, which may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicate that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physico-chemical characteristics.

  9. Identification of sources of pollution and contamination in water distribution networks based on pattern recognition

    Tao TAO; Ying-jun LU; Xiang FU; Kun-lun XIN


    An intrusion of contaminants into the water distribution network (WDN) can occur through storage tanks (via animals.dust-carrying bacteria,and infiltration) and pipes.A sensor network could yield useful observations that help identify the location of the source,the strength,the time of occurrence.and the duration of contamination.This paper proposes a methodology for identifying the contamination sources in a water distribution system,which identifies the key characteristics of contamination.such as location,starting time.and injection rates at different time intervals.Based on simplified hypotheses and associated with a high computational efficiency.the methodology is designed to be a simple and easy-to-use tool for water companies to ensure rapid identification of the contamination sources,The proposed methodology identifies the characteristics of pollution sources by matching the dynamic patterns of the simulated and measured concentrations.The application of this methodology to a literature network and a real WDN are illustrated with the aid of an example.The results showed that if contaminants are transported from the sources to the sensors at intervals,then this method can identify the most possible ones from candidate pollution sources.However,if the contamination data is minimal,a greater number of redundant contamination source nodes will be present.Consequently,more data from different sensors obtained through network monitoring are required to effectively use this method for locating multi-sources of contamination in the WDN.

  10. Removal of Organic Matter from Micro-polluted Raw Water by Zeolite%沸石用于水中有机微污染物质的去除

    谭万春; 王云波; 孙士权; 吴方同


    以湘江微污染水为原水,以沸石作为媒质,研究沸石对有机物的去除效果.试验结果表明,经过酸法改性后的沸石对有机物的去除效果明显提高,pH值、搅拌时间、沸石粒径对吸附效果都有影响,在pH值6~8,搅拌时间为110min吸附效果较好,沸石粒径越小吸附效果也越好.在沸石柱上挂膜形成生物沸石,生物膜成熟后运行20天,原水CODMn为6.2~7.2mg/L,有机物的平均去除率为33.6%,且可以较长时间稳定运行.在生物沸石柱前增加臭氧接触后,可提高对有机物的去除效果,CODMn去除率平均为45.5%.为天然沸石的开发利用开辟了一条新的途径.%The removal efficiency of zeolite to organic matters was studied by using micro-polluted water from Xiangjiang River as raw water and zeolite as medium. The test result indicated that the removal efficiency of modified zeolite by acid exhibits improved obviously, pH value, stirring time, grain diameter were the factors that influenced the adsorption effect, when pH value was 6~8, stirring time was 110min, the adsorption performance was good, and the smaller the grain diameter was, the better the adsorption effect of organic matters was. Bio-zeolite was formed by biofilm culturing, and 20 days after the biofilm matured, the average removal rate of CODMn was 33.6 %, while raw water CODMn was 6.2~7.2 mg/L, and it could hold a long time. Adding ozone column before bio-zeolite column could effectively decrease the organic contaminants in water, the average removal rate of CODMn was 45.5 %. It opened up a new way for empoldering and applying of nature zeolite.

  11. Studies on the treatment of autumn Yangtze river raw water by polyferric sulfate composite coagulants%聚合硫酸铁复合混凝剂处理秋季长江水研究

    李潇潇; 张跃军; 贾进洲


    The enhanced coagulation treatment effectiveness by using composite coagulants,polyferric sulfate (PFS)/polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDM)with different intrinsic viscosities for autumn Yangtze river raw water have been investigated, through jar tests. The results show that when the temperature of autumn Yangtze river raw water is 16-18℃ and 57-62 NTU ,the turbidity removal efficiency of composite coagulants is remarkable. When the precipitated effluent residual turbidity standard 6 NTU at a Nanjing water plant is achieved,the PFS dosages could be decreased significantly. The lower the PFS/PDM composite ratio is,the higher the PDM intrinsic viscosity is, and the better the turbidity removal efficiency is. The PFS/PDM composite coagulant coagulation produces big floes,and rapid precipitation. Therefore,in actual produces more effluent and improves productivity effect. In order to be suitable for the water quality requirements in the future,the PFS/PDM composite coagulant can still works well,if the effluent from the precipitation tank reaches 2 NTU or so.%通过混凝烧杯实验,考察了特征黏度系列化的聚合硫酸铁(PFS)/聚二甲基二烯丙基氯化铵(PDM)复合混凝剂在秋季长江水处理中的混凝处理效果.结果表明:对温度为16~18℃,浊度为57~62 NTU的秋季长江水,复合混凝剂脱浊效果明显,达到南京某水厂6 NTU的沉淀出水余浊标准时,可显著降低PFS的投加量,PFS/PDM复合配比越低,PDM特征黏度越大,脱浊效果越好;PFS/PDM复合混凝剂混凝产生絮团大,沉淀快,在实际生产中可增大出水产量,提高生产效率.为适应未来发展水质要求,使沉淀池出水达到2NTU左右,PFS/PDM复合混凝剂依然可发挥好的作用.

  12. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar


    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  13. Age and residence time of terrestrial source water in the northwest Atlantic shelf seas

    He, R.; Todd, A. C.


    Coastal river mouths and bays are the junctions where terrestrial-source water meets and mixes with water from the open ocean. Once the riverine water reaches the coastal ocean, its eventual fate is largely unknown and difficult to trace. Rivers that flow into the ocean may contain high levels of nutrients and organic matter, so understanding the fate of terrestrial source water is important for a variety of biogeochemical processes that occur in the shelf seas. The fate of this terrestrial source water may be described in terms of its mean age (the time since it reached the ocean) and its residence time (the time it remains on the continental shelf). Using a high-resolution ocean model, we apply the constituent-oriented age and residence time (CART) theory to a large region encompassing the northwest Atlantic shelf seas to calculate the mean age of terrestrial source water and its residence time. For this application, 196 river mouths are used as sources of terrestrial water from South America to Nova Scotia. We investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of the water's mean age and compute the residence time within four different shelf regions: the Carribean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the South Atlantic Bight, and the Mid-Atlantic Bight/Gulf of Maine. From the estimates of mean age and residence time, we describe the impact of the coastal circulation on the eventual fate of terrestrial waters, and provide conjecture on how varying transport time scales may affect the general biogeochemical processes in the coastal ocean.

  14. Release of accumulated arsenic from distribution pipes into tap water after arsenic treatment of source water- presentation

    Toxic arsenic (As) is known to incorporate from source well water onto the scales of distribution system pipes such as iron, copper, galvanized steel and even plastic containing internal buildup of iron coatings (Lytle et al., 2010, 2004; Schock, 2015; Reiber and Dostal, 2000). W...

  15. 混凝和活性炭吸附去除微污染水源水中DON的研究%Removal of DON in Micro-polluted Raw Water by Coagulation and Adsorption Using Activated Carbon

    刘冰; 余国忠; 古励; 赵承美; 李清飞; 翟慧敏


    Dissolved organic nitrogen as a precursor of new type nitrogenous disinfection by-products in drinking water attracted gradually the attention of scholars all over the world. In order to explore the mechanism of DON removal in micro-polluted raw water by coagulation and adsorption, water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4+-N, UV254, pH and dissolved oxygen, were determined in raw water and the molecular weight distribution of the DON and DOC was investigated. The variations in DON, DOC and UV254 in the coagulation and adsorption tests were investigated, and the changes of DON in raw water were characterized using three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that DON, DOC and UV254 were 1.28 mg·L-1, 8.56 mg·L -1, 0. 16 cm -1 , and DOC/DON and SUVA were 6. 69 mg· mg , 1. 87 m -1 · ( mg· L -1 ) in raw water, respectively. The molecular weight distribution of the DON in raw water showed a bimodal distribution. The small molecular weight ( 20 000) fractions accounted for about 22% . The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 20% , 26% and 70% , respectively, in the coagulation test and the dosage of coagulant was 10 mg·L-1 . The removal of DON, DOC and UV254 was about 60% , 35% and 100% , respectively, in the adsorption test and the dosage of activated carbon was 1. 0 g. In the combination of coagulation and adsorption, the removal of DON and DOC reached approximately 82% and 64% , respectively. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON in the coagulation and adsorption tests depended intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.%溶解性有机氮(dissolved organic nitrogen,DON)作为饮用水中新兴氮消毒副产物(nitrogenous disinfection by-products,N-DBPs)的前体物逐渐受到国内外学者的关注.为探讨混凝和活性炭吸附对微污染水源水中DON的去除机制,首先测定原水中DON、溶解性有机炭(dissolved organic carbon,DOC)、NH4

  16. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L


    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  17. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads


    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  18. How to Obtain a 100% Reliable Grid with Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Providing 100% of all Raw Energy for All Purposes

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.; Cameron, M. A.; Frew, B. A.


    The greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid is the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. This talk discusses the recent development of a new grid integration model to address this issue. The model finds low-cost, no-load-loss, non-unique solutions to this problem upon electrification of all U.S. energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time-series data from a 3-D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen); and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 U.S. electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, stable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide. The paper this talk is based on was published in PNAS, 112, 15,060-15,065, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1510028112.

  19. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    King, Dawn N.; Donohue, Maura J.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Villegas, Eric N.; Ware, Michael W.; Vogel, Megan E.; Furlong, Edward; Kolpin, Dana W.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Pfaller, Stacy


    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture). Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 25% and in 46% of the source water samples, respectively (treated waters were not tested). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most commonly detected fungus in source waters (48%) but none of the three fungi were detected in treated water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 25% of the source water samples but in only 4% of treated water samples. M. avium and M. intracellulare were both detected in 25% of source water, while all three mycobacteria were detected in 36% of treated water samples. Five species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium phocaicum, Mycobacterium triplex, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium lentiflavum were cultured from treated water samples. Although these DWTPs represent a fraction of those in the U.S., the results suggest that many of these pathogens are widespread in source waters but that treatment is generally effective in reducing them to below detection limits. The one exception is the mycobacteria, which were commonly detected in treated water, even when not detected in source waters.

  20. Longitudinal and Source-to-Tap New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. Drinking Water Microbiology.

    Hull, Natalie M; Holinger, Eric P; Ross, Kimberly A; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R


    The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. were sampled to compare the microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system. Longitudinal samples indicated microbiology to have stability both spatially and temporally, and between treatment plants and distribution systems. Disinfection had the greatest impact on microbial composition, which was further refined by filtration and influenced by distribution and premise plumbing. Actinobacteria spp. exhibited trends with treatment. In particular, Mycobacterium spp., very low in finished waters, occurred idiosyncratically at high levels in some tap waters, indicating distribution and/or premise plumbing as main contributors of mycobacteria. Legionella spp., another genus containing potential opportunistic pathogens, also occurred ubiquitously. Source water microbiology was most divergent from tap water, and each step of treatment brought samples more closely similar to tap waters.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Arcobacter spp. by Multiplex PCR from Water Sources in Kars Region.

    Çelik, Elif; Ünver, Ahmet


    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in various water sources of stream, creek, pond, and drinking water in Kars and surrounding areas. A total of 113 water samples including 19 samples from creeks, 49 from streams, 10 from ponds, and 35 from drinking water samples collected from different regions were examined for presence of Arcobacter spp. by cultural methods. Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 14 (12.38 %) samples including 5 (26.31 %) creek and 9 (18.36 %) stream water samples and all were identified as Arcobacter butzleri by multiplex PCR. No agent was isolated from pond and drinking water samples. The results of this study demonstrated that creek and stream waters are contaminated by this agent showing high potential risk of Arcobacter species to be transmitted to humans and animals and in the contamination of food. It is concluded that water sources should also be considered as a factor not only carrying agents but also as a primary source of the infection.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  3. Water from air: An overlooked source of moisture in arid and semiarid regions

    McHugh, Theresa; Morrissey, Ember M; Reed, Sasha C.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Egbert


    Water drives the functioning of Earth’s arid and semiarid lands. Drylands can obtain water from sources other than precipitation, yet little is known about how non-rainfall water inputs influence dryland communities and their activity. In particular, water vapor adsorption – movement of atmospheric water vapor into soil when soil air is drier than the overlying air – likely occurs often in drylands, yet its effects on ecosystem processes are not known. By adding 18O-enriched water vapor to the atmosphere of a closed system, we documented the conversion of water vapor to soil liquid water across a temperature range typical of arid ecosystems. This phenomenon rapidly increased soil moisture and stimulated microbial carbon (C) cycling, and the flux of water vapor to soil had a stronger impact than temperature on microbial activity. In a semiarid grassland, we also observed that non-rainfall water inputs stimulated microbial activity and C cycling. Together these data suggest that, during rain-free periods, atmospheric moisture in drylands may significantly contribute to variation in soil water content, thereby influencing ecosystem processes. The simple physical process of adsorption of water vapor to soil particles, forming liquid water, represents an overlooked but potentially important contributor to C cycling in drylands.

  4. Vanishing Springs in Nepalese Mountains: Assessment of Water Sources, Farmers' Perceptions, and Climate Change Adaptation

    Durga D. Poudel


    Full Text Available The Thulokhola watershed of the Nuwakot district in the midhills region of Nepal can be considered typical of climate change-related stresses in the region. To assess the status of water resources and document farmers' perceptions of and adaptation to climate change impacts in this watershed, we invited community groups to monitor water quality and conducted 6 focus group meetings, 3 participatory rural appraisals, and spring and household surveys in 2011 and 2012. Historical precipitation data from a nearby weather station and discharge data for the Tadi Khola, the nearest major river, were also analyzed. The spring survey results confirmed farmers' perceptions and showed that 73.2% of the springs used as water sources had a decreased flow and 12.2% had dried up over the past 10 or more years, as recognized by local residents. In response to the severe decline of precipitation and the drying up of springs, local communities have implemented some climate change adaptation measures, such as constructing water tanks at water sources, using pipes to transport drinking water, diverting water from other springs, digging deeper wells, and traveling farther to wash clothes and fetch drinking water. To enhance drinking water supplies and ensure the agricultural, ecological, and environmental integrity of the watershed, initiatives such as comprehensive research on springs and groundwater hydrology, a spring rejuvenation program, and community capacity building for water sustainability and climate change adaptation are suggested.

  5. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens


    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microb....../or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.......Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring...... the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample...

  6. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting


    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Ozone application in water sources: effects of operational parameters and water quality variables on ozone residual profiles and decay rates

    F. A. Lage Filho


    Full Text Available Systematic ozonation tests were conducted by means of a mobile pilot plant. Water source 1 was a low turbidity stream with very low solids content and very low turbidity, apparent color and alkalinity. Water source 2 was reservoir water with higher turbidity, solids content and alkalinity than source 1. The ozone plant was a counter-current contactor composed of four columns in series. Variations in contact time, in the feed gas concentration (in terms of percent by weight of ozone and in splitting of the total applied ozone dosage between columns 1 and 2 were tested. Concentration - time (CT products were calculated and decay coefficients K were estimated from experimental data. The relative importance of water quality and certain operational parameters with regard to CT products and ozone decay was assessed. Total CT values seemed to increase with: (a total applied ozone dosage, (b percent by weight of ozone in the feed gas to the bubble contactor, (c increasing contact time and (d higher water quality, with regard to turbidity, apparent color, total organic carbon and particle counts. As the total applied ozone dosage was increased, the more important the contact time and ozone dosage configuration became for the total CT value. The apparent first order ozone decay rate constant (K decreased with increasing total applied ozone dosage. The contact time appeared to exert a much stronger influence on total CT values than on K values, particularly so as the total applied ozone dosage was increased.

  8. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.


    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  9. Highway as a source of water pollution: an appraisal with the heavy metal lead

    Laxen, D.P.H.; Harrison, R.M.


    Factors influencing the impact of highway lead on the quality of water resources are discussed, and the available information on each factor critically evaluated. Hence, the sources of lead input to the highway environment are described and the subsequent airborne and waterborne dispersal to the receiving waters discussed in detail. It appears that the impact on surface waters is confined to the lead contained in surface runoff, as the lead dispersed to roadside soils is effectively immobilized in the top 10 cm of soil. The concentration of lead in highway runoff can reach levels far in excess of those normally encountered in surface waters. However, when evaluating the impact on the receiving waters, the importance of considering both the lead mass discharge from the highway and the subsequent dilution by the receiving water is stressed. Finally, the present inadequate understanding of the physiochemical forms of lead in polluted and natural waters is highlighted.

  10. Sources and circulation of water and arsenic in the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.

    Clark, Ian D; Raven, Kenneth G


    Recovery of gold from arsenopyrite-hosted ore in the Giant Mine camp, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, has left a legacy of arsenic contamination that poses challenges for mine closure planning. Seepage from underground chambers storing some 237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust, has As concentrations exceeding 4000 ppm. Other potential sources and sinks of As also exist. Sources and movement of water and arsenic are traced using the isotopes of water and sulphate. Mine waters (16 ppm As; AsV/AsIII approximately 150) are a mixture of two principal water sources--locally recharged, low As groundwaters (0.5 ppm As) and Great Slave Lake (GSL; 0.004 ppm As) water, formerly used in ore processing and discharged to the northwest tailings impoundment (NWTP). Mass balance with delta18O shows that recirculation of NWTP water to the underground through faults and unsealed drillholes contributes about 60% of the mine water. Sulphate serves to trace direct infiltration to the As2O3 chambers. Sulphate in local, low As groundwaters (0.3-0.6 ppm As; delta34SSO4 approximately 4% and delta18OSO4 approximately -10%) originates from low-temperature aqueous oxidation of sulphide-rich waste rock. The high As waters gain a component of 18O-enriched sulphate derived from roaster gases (delta18OSO4) = + 3.5%), consistent with their arsenic source from the As2O3 chambers. High arsenic in NWTP water (approximately 8 ppm As; delta18OSO4 = -2%) derived from mine water, is attenuated to close to 1 ppm during infiltration back to the underground, probably by oxidation and sorption by ferrihydrite.

  11. Microbial and metal water quality in rain catchments compared with traditional drinking water sources in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

    Horak, Helena M; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Myers, Ward P; Davis, Jennifer; Fendorf, Scott; Boehm, Alexandria B


    In Papua New Guinea, a significant portion of morbidity and mortality is attributed to water-borne diseases. To reduce incidence of disease, communities and non-governmental organizations have installed rain catchments to provide drinking water of improved quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether these rain catchments provide drinking water of better quality than traditional drinking water sources, and if morbidity is decreased in villages with rain catchments. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water produced by rain catchments in comparison with traditional drinking water sources in rural villages in the East Sepik Province. Fifty-four water sources in 22 villages were evaluated for enterococci and Escherichia coli densities as well as 14 health-relevant metals. In addition, we examined how the prevalence of diarrhoeal illness in villages relates to the type of primary drinking water source. The majority of tested metals were below World Health Organization safety limits. Catchment water sources had lower enterococci and E. coli than other water sources. Individuals in villages using Sepik River water as their primary water source had significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea than those primarily using other water sources (streams, dug wells and catchments).

  12. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare


    Changes in land-use or management strategies may affect water outflow, sediment and nutrients loads. Thus, there is an increasing demand for quantitative information at the catchment scale that would help decision makers or planners to take appropriate decisions. The characterisation of water status, the description of pollution sources impact, the establishment of monitoring programs and the implementation of river basin management plans require an analysis of the current basin status and estimates of the relative significance of the different sources of pollution. Particularly, in this study the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT2000) model was considered since it is an integrated hydrological model that simulates both the qualitative as well as quantitative terms of hydrological balances. It is a spatially distributed hydrological model that operates on a daily time step at catchment scale developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its purpose is to simulate water sediment and chemical yields on large river basins and possible impacts of land use, climate changes and watershed management. Integrated hydrological models are, nowadays, needed to support the implementation of integrated water management plans and to comply with the current requirements of the European Water Directive. Actually, they can help in evaluating current water resources, identify pollution sources, evaluate alternative management policies. More specifically, the analysis has been applied to the Oreto catchment (77 Km2), an agricultural and urbanised catchment located in Sicily (Italy). Residential, commercial, farm and industrial settlements cover almost the entire area. The climate is Mediterranean with hot dry summer and rainy winter season. The hydrological response of this basin is dominated by long dry seasons and following wetting-up periods, during which even large inputs of rainfall may produce little or no response at the basin outlet

  13. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S


    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  14. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron