WorldWideScience

Sample records for raw source water

  1. Feasibility study of an aeration treatment system in a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source

    OpenAIRE

    Fronk, Robert Charles

    1996-01-01

    The systems engineering process has been utilized to determine the feasibility of an aeration treatment system for a raw water storage reservoir used as a potable water source. This system will be used to ensure a consistently high quality of raw water by the addition of dissolved oxygen into the reservoir. A needs analysis establishes the importance and requirements for a consistently high quality of raw water used as a source for a potable water treatment facility. This s...

  2. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Group A Rotaviruses in Water Sources and Selected Raw Vegetables in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, W. B.; Page, N. A.; Grabow, W. O. K.; Steele, A. D.; Taylor, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVs) are the most important cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in infants and young children. In this study raw and treated drinking water supplies at plants in two geographic areas, as well as selected irrigation water and corresponding raw vegetables in three regions of southern Africa, were screened for the presence of RVs using molecular techniques. Group A RVs were detected in 11.8% of partially treated and 1.7% of finally treated drinking water samples and in 14% of irrigation water samples and 1.7% of corresponding raw vegetable samples. Type-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR and sequence analysis revealed the presence of multiple types (G1, G2, G8, and G9) in irrigation water and single types (G1 or G3) in raw and treated drinking water. Group A RVs detected in all samples consisted of mixed P types (P[4], P[6], P[8], and P[9]), with P[6] predominating. The detection of types G8, G9, and P[6] reflects the emergence of these types in clinical infections. The similarity of environmental types to those in patients with clinical RV infections confirms the value of wastewater screening as a tool for assessing RVs circulating in communities, with the benefit of detecting types that cause both clinical and subclinical infections. The results provide new information on RV types in water and related environments and identify the potential risk of waterborne transmission. In addition, the presence of RVs in drinking water underlines shortcomings in quality specifications. These data provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of RVs in environmental sources, with important implications for vaccine development. PMID:16820443

  4. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suwartha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recharge pond and river at three sampling point to determine existing water quality of the pond. The results showed that recharge rate of the pond between dry season (3.2 mm/day and wet season (6.1 mm/day are considered as insignificant different. The water balance of the recharge pond shows an excessive rate. Various physics and chemical parameters (turbidity, color, TDS, pH, and  Cl are found to have concentration lower than the water quality standard. The results suggest that the pond surface water is remain suitable to be recharged into aquifer zone so that sustaining ground water conservation campaign, and it is potential to be utilized as an additional  raw water source for domestic water demand of UI Campus Depok.

  5. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  6. Evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential raw material source for briquette production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Kamaruddin, Siti Fatimah; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Singh, Lakhveer; Yong, Ee Ling; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the fuel properties of bio-briquettes made from a combination of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunch fiber (palm oil mill residue). Water hyacinth (WH) was mixed with empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers in a ratio of 25, 50, 75, 90, and 100% by weight and cassava starch added as binder. The experimental results showed that the addition of WH had a little effect (p < 0.05) on the physical and combustion properties of the briquettes. The proximate analysis showed that the moisture content, ash content and fixed carbon content were increased with the increase in WH amount from 25 to 100%, while the volatile matter content and calorific value decreased. Combustion test showed that the increase in the WH percentage in bio-briquette resulted in the decreased of O_2 and CO level, whereas, that of CO_2 and NO, NO_2 and SO_2 were increased. Therefore, the results conclude that the WH: EFB biomass bio-briquette could be a great potential as an alternative source to conventional coal to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases. - Highlights: • Fuel briquettes of mixtures of water hyacinth and empty fruit bunches were studied. • Various ratios of WH and EFB were analyzed, burned and the flue gas analyzed. • A ratio of WH 25% and EFB 75% was the optimum mixture. • The mixed content briquettes burn well with coal and can displace some coal.

  7. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  8. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugisidi Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3, chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4. In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  9. Sea Water Characterization at Ujung Kulon Coastal Depth as Raw Water Source for Desalination and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisidi, Dan; Heriyani, Okatrina

    2018-02-01

    Fresh water is basic need for life while the source is limited. Therefore, sea water is used as fresh water through desalination process. Sea water has different physical and chemical properties ranging from the surface to the seabed. The energy potential that can be obtained from the hydrostatic pressure also changes according to the depth. As part of the research of the utilization of sea water into fresh water, the aim of this study is to know the characteristics of sea water in the depth that can be utilized as source of fresh water. The sea water samples were taken at 11km from Ujung Kulon beach with depth of 0m, 20m, 40m, 60m, 80m, and 100m under the surface. The results showed that the physical properties at every depth were below the maximum allowable drinking water except for the amount of dissolved solids. Chemical characteristics at any depth above allowable level were fluoride, hardness (CaCo3), chloride, sodium, sulphate, and (KMnO4). In addition to the properties, pressure is one of the considerations in this study to determine the depth of sea water as sources for desalination. Pressure increased by 36.11% as the depth of the sea increased.

  10. Evaluation of Universitas Indonesia’s Recharge Pond Performance and Potential Utilization for Raw Water Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoman Suwartha; Resky Pramadin

    2012-01-01

    The UI recharge pond has been constructed 5 years ago. However, monitoring and evaluation activities on its performances are very lack. Aims of this study are to understand the recharge rate, and to evaluate existing quantity and water quality of the pond during dry and rainy season. Measurement of water depth, rainfall intensity, and evaporation is conducted to determine water availability, recharge rate, and water balance of the recharge pond. Amount of surface water is collected from recha...

  11. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  12. Water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as natural sources of raw materials; Wasser, Kohlenstoffdioxid und Stickstoff als natuerliche Rohstoffquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, Vollrath [VDI Bezirksverein Frankfurt-Darmstadt, Dreieich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Biological systems are open systems. Therefore they can exchange matter, energy and information with their surroundings, Water and energy and their conversion processes are not only in nature closely and inextricable linked but also in our highly technological world. A wind driven power station transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into electric energy by turbine and generator. When these electric energies must be stored then one needs accumulators (storage battery). In batteries the electric energy is stored as chemical energy. It will be transformed in electric energy with the aid of electrodes and water as means of transportation for ions. Another way to store electric energy is the synthesis of chemical products for the market e.g. urea. Urea is used as an excellent fertilizer for the agriculture and a fodder for ruminants e.g. cattle. If urea is mixed in suitable proportions with cellulose or molasses it gives a fodder which produces protein, when animals chew the cud. Four process stages are necessary to produce urea from the mentioned raw materials. (orig.)

  13. Fast, rugged and sensitive ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for analysis of cyanotoxins in raw water and drinking water--First findings of anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins and microcystin variants in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, Heidi; Westerberg, Erik; Bruno, Oscar; Lääne, Ants; Persson, Kenneth M; Sundström, L Fredrik; Thim, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-15

    Freshwater blooms of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in source waters are generally composed of several different strains with the capability to produce a variety of toxins. The major exposure routes for humans are direct contact with recreational waters and ingestion of drinking water not efficiently treated. The ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analytical method presented here allows simultaneous analysis of 22 cyanotoxins from different toxin groups, including anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularin and microcystins in raw water and drinking water. The use of reference standards enables correct identification of toxins as well as precision of the quantification and due to matrix effects, recovery correction is required. The multi-toxin group method presented here, does not compromise sensitivity, despite the large number of analytes. The limit of quantification was set to 0.1 μg/L for 75% of the cyanotoxins in drinking water and 0.5 μg/L for all cyanotoxins in raw water, which is compliant with the WHO guidance value for microcystin-LR. The matrix effects experienced during analysis were reasonable for most analytes, considering the large volume injected into the mass spectrometer. The time of analysis, including lysing of cell bound toxins, is less than three hours. Furthermore, the method was tested in Swedish source waters and infiltration ponds resulting in evidence of presence of anatoxin, homo-anatoxin, cylindrospermopsin and several variants of microcystins for the first time in Sweden, proving its usefulness. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  15. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  16. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project (http://www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  17. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  18. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  19. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  20. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

  1. use of water extract of moringa oleifera seeds (wemos) in raw water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing ... J. C. Agunwamba, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, .... Technical. Feasibility of the Treatment of Domestic. Waste and Raw Water.

  2. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Remediation of raw sewage water by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R.A.; Laroussi, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Raw sewage water has been used for irrigation in many countries in the world including Egypt. Although the reuse of sewage water for irrigation has become essential, this practice could represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Radiation treatment was applied to test its effect on the remediation of raw sewage water collected from the inlet of El-Gabal El-Asfar Waste Water Treatment Plant, north east of Cairo city. Different doses of gamma radiation and electron beam ( 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 KGy) were tested for their effects on raw sewage water properties. The parameters tested were total Coliform, BOD, COD, TSS, ph, EC, heavy metals, NH 4 and NO 3 . The data showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and total Coliform, BOD, COD and TSS. This result proved true for both kinds of radiations. However, the effect of gamma radiation was more pronounced than the electron beam at the same dose. The lethal doses for total Coliform were 1.5 KGy and 3.0 KGy for gamma radiation and electron beam, respectively. Regarding ammonium and nitrate ions, there was a reduction in their content as the radiation dose increased. The reduction was 20% for NH 4 and 21% for NO 3 at 2.5 KGy dose using gamma or electron beam, respectively. The total heavy metals levels were 40.0, 5.8, 55.9, 0.55, 32.2 and 16.4 ppb for Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn. The soluble fraction were 19.5, 3.3, 8.3, 0.02, 0.50, 3.1 ppb representing 49%, 58%, 15%, 3%, 1.6% and 19% of the total Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. In general, there was a tendency for reduction of the soluble fractions of heavy metals as the radiation dose increased

  5. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  6. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  7. Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water source Aeromonas sp. e indicadores microbiológicos em fontes de água não tratada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Di Bari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are autochtonous in the aquatic environment and some of them have been associated with health effects like wound infections, septicemia and diarrhoeal illness. In this study, the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. and microbial indicators in raw drinking water from wells, springs, fountains and mineral waters was evaluated. A total of 126 water samples was analyzed for Aeromonas spp. by the membrane filtration technique using ADA media and by P/A test. Typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation. Toxin production was tested using Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. Coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated by membrane filtration and pour plate techniques, respectively. P. aeruginosa, C. perfringens and fecal streptococci were determined by P/A method. Aeromonas spp. were isolated in 36.5% of the samples, whereas total and thermotolerant coliforms were detected in 51.2% and in 23.8% of the samples, respectively. C. perfringens, fecal streptococci and P. aeruginosa were present in 16.5%, 20.4% and 3.8% of the samples, respectively. The concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria were higher than 1,0x10³ CFU/mL in 52.5% of the samples. A. hydrophila was the most frequent species, followed by A. allosaccharophila,A. jandaei,A.sobria and HG2. A heat label toxin was detected in 13 from the 58 strains tested. These data show that the drinking water sources analyzed can represent a risk for human health. It is important to consider that wells and springs are used as drinking water supply in poor areas and rural regions, where undernourished people more susceptible to infections by these microorganisms predominate.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas são naturais no ambiente aquático e algumas espécies podem causar infecções em humanos como feridas, septicemia e diarréia. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a ocorrência de Aeromonas sp. em 126 amostras de água de poços, nascentes, fontes e

  8. The filtering of raw water with partition system in pool row water for the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harahap, Sentot Alibasya; Djunaidi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of filtering raw water in the pool is decreasing soluble dirty in the water from Puspiptek PAM also the dirty from the environments. The monitoring of raw water since 1998 that the raw water is not so good in the quality. This partition system use tree type of screen a.i. the opened 10 mm, Mesh 60 and Mesh 100. The down position use a plat with 400 mm higher from the floor of the pool that given support frame from the L profile and strip plate by stainless steel (SS-304), use for deposited the impurities. The filter capability from the monitoring that the filtering result is a good quality, the TDS drop (Total Dissolved Solvent) is 2,5 gram/liter and the water filtering static type is (4 - 8,5) gram/liter

  9. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  10. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  11. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  12. Determination of oestrogen hormones in raw and treated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use, via sewage treatment plants. If these compounds are not eliminated by wastewater treatment plants, they can then be discharged to rivers and lakes which are used as sources for drinking water production. Therefore, the presence of such organic contaminants may have a negative impact on the quality of drinking ...

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes and subtypes in raw and treated water in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M L; Xiao, L; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2009-06-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness reported worldwide are mostly associated with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Their presence in aquatic systems makes it essential to develop preventive strategies for water and food safety. This study was undertaken to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a total of 175 water samples, including raw and treated water from both surface and ground sources in Portugal. The samples were processed according to USEPA Method 1623 for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, followed by detection of oocysts/cysts by immunofluorecence (IFA) microscopy, PCR-based techniques were done on all water samples collected. Out of 175 samples, 81 (46.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium and 67 (38.3%) for Giardia by IFA. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis genotypes were identified by PCR in 37 (21.7%) and 9 (5.1%) water samples, respectively. C. parvum was the most common species (78.9%), followed by C. hominis (13.2%), C. andersoni (5.3%), and C. muris (2.6%). Subtype IdA15 was identified in all C. hominis-positive water samples. Subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1 and IIdA17G1. Giardia duodenalis subtype A1 was identified. The results of the present study suggest that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were widely distributed in source water and treated water in Portugal. Moreover, the results obtained indicate a high occurrence of human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtypes in raw and treated water samples. Thus, water can be a potential vehicle in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis, and giardiasis of humans and animals in Portugal.

  14. Strategies towards sustainable bark sourcing as raw material for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-07-31

    Jul 31, 2017 ... Warbugia salutaris bark is used to treat opportunistic ... local communities and households (Shackleton,. 2015). ... tree size are necessary for analysis of the impact of ... due to human influence, it is alternated with a mosaic of ... hardness” to be removed from wood were noted. ..... flow and poor water supply.

  15. Optimization of the Clarification System for Raw Water from the Pakra Reservoir Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first step in processing raw water from the Pakra lake for use in fertilizer production at Petrokemija is oxidation of total organic carbon matter with gaseous chlorine, Cl2. Thereupon it is clarified and filtered with the help of a clarification reactor and sand filters. Construction of the clarification reactor and process sand filters enables only the removal of the suspended matter from the raw water, without affecting its overall hardness. Process control of the clarification reactor and removal of the suspended matter from the raw water is achieved by adding corresponding mass concentration water solutions of aluminum sulphate, Al2(SO43 · 18 H2O and organic polyelectrolyte. The effectiveness of flocculation is carried out by laboratory determination of the m-alkalinity difference between inlet and outlet of raw water from the clarification reactor. For the most effective clarification of raw water, the optimal empirical value of the m-alkalinity difference is 0.65 mmol L-1 in the pH range of raw water from 7.0 to 8.0. Prior to processing clarified water by ionic decarbonatisation and demineralisation for protection of the ionic exchange resin from excess free Cl2, a corresponding mass concentration of a sodium bisulfite water solution, NaHSO3, is added. An improved system is proposed for continuous measurement of mass concentrations of free Cl2 in raw and clarified water, and pH difference value at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor. The proposed system can achieve optimal dosage of gaseous Cl2 in the raw water, improving the clarification process in the reactor as well as optimal dosage of water solution of NaHSO3. It is shown that the average pH difference from 0.65 to 0.75 at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor in the pH range of the raw water from 7.0 to 8.0 is an equally effective replacement for the laboratory determination of m-alkalinity. Also shown is the connection between dosage mass of the

  16. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  17. Detection by PCR of pathogenic protozoa in raw and drinkable water samples in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Lora, Fabiana; Zuluaga, Juan David; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the presence of DNA of Giardia, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium by PCR, and of Giardia and Cryptosporidium genera by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), in water samples, before, during, and after plant treatment for drinkable water. We applied this method in 38 samples of 10 l of water taken from each of the water treatment steps and in 8 samples taken at home (only for Toxoplasma PCR) in Quindio region in Colombia. There were 8 positive samples for Cryptosporidium parvum (21 %), 4 for Cryptosporidium hominis (10.5 %), 27 for Toxoplasma gondii (58.6 %), 2 for Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (5.2 %), and 5 for G. duodenalis assemblage B (13.1 %). By IFAT, 23 % were positive for Giardia and 21 % for Cryptosporidium. An almost perfect agreement was found between IFAT and combined results of PCR, by Kappa composite proportion analysis. PCR positive samples were significantly more frequent in untreated raw water for C. parvum (p = 0.02). High mean of fecal coliforms, high pH values, and low mean of chlorine residuals were strongly correlated with PCR positivity for G. duodenalis assemblage B. High pH value was correlated with PCR positivity for C. parvum. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences was possible, showing water and human clinical sequences for Toxoplasma within the same phylogenetic group for B1 repeated sequence. PCR assay is complementary to IFAT assay for monitoring of protozoa in raw and drinkable water, enabling species identification and to look for phylogenetic analysis in protozoa from human and environmental sources.

  18. Pentachlorophenol reduction in raw Cauca river water through activated carbon adsorption in water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Hernán Cruz Vélez; Magally González; Héctor Mario Gutiérrez; Luz Edith Barba; Juan Carlos Escobar; Luis Germán Delgado; Patricia Torres

    2008-01-01

    Reducing chemical risk in raw water from the River Cauca (caused by the presence of pentachlorophenol and organic matter (real color, UV254 absorbance)) was evaluated at bench scale by using three treatment sequences: adsorption with powdered ac-tivated coal (PAC); adsorption – coagulation; and, adsorption – disinfection – coagulation. The results showed that although PAC is appropriate for pentachlorophenol removal, and its use together with the coagulant (aluminium sulphate) significantly i...

  19. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  20. Towards more efficient raw material and water use in the production of fine art paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, M. [Metsae-Serla Oyj, Aeaenekoski (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Metsae-Serla's Aeaenekoski paper mill produces triple coated fine paper. The production capacity is 150000 t/a and the grammage range from 115 to 280 g/m{sup 2}. About 70% is sheeted at the mill. Profitability of the mill has been systematically improved. Among other things a good on-process wet end control system has been built. Raw material optimization has been done. The target of this two-year development project was to produce an optimized total plan for the raise of the closure degree based on critical examination of the whole paper making process. As a concrete target was a feasible plan how to cut the raw material losses to the effluent by 50% and the consumption of chemical water by 30%. The final target was significant annual cost savings. The project was run as three parallel sub-projects and total optimization was made simultaneously. The mill had two effluent flows; one for fibre containing and one for coating colour waste waters. Survey of both streams was carried out and the sources, amounts and quality of the fractions were determined. The lost raw material was 550 t/ month. One half was lost in the fibre and the other in the coating colour containing waste waters. Technical and economic evaluations were carried out for a proceeding plan. After tests and laboratory and pilot trials FilRec disperser was chosen as the treatment technique for the hydro cyclone reject and ultrafiltration for the recovery of coating colour. The specific consumption of chemical water was 9.1 m{sup 3}/ coated tonne. In the second sub-project a critical survey of the various uses was carried out. Quality demands for the chemical dilution purposes were studied by laboratory tests. Process chemical optimization was carried out. The effect of increasing closure on charge and COD build up was simulated using WinGEMS software. Possible solutions to replace chemical water and reduce its need were considered against the consequent investment costs. A proceeding plan for

  1. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  2. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.

  3. Conceptual design report, TWRS Privatization phase I, raw and potable water, subproject W-504

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    1997-01-01

    This document includes Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for extension of existing Raw and Potable systems from 200-East Area systems to two new private contractor facilities for immobilization and disposal of low-activity waste (LAW). The work will include design and installation of almost 3400 m (11,200 ft) of raw water pipe and 2200 in (7,300 ft) of potable water pipe

  4. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  5. Comparative study of water quality of rivers used for raw water supply and ex-mining lakes in Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orji, K U; Sapari, N; Yusof, K W; Asadpour, R; Olisa, E

    2013-01-01

    Ex-mining lakes are seldom used as sources of raw water for the treatment of public water supply due to the general view that they are highly polluted. This study examined the water quality of these lakes, compared and contrasted them to the water quality of the rivers used for Perak drinking water supply. Ten water samples were analyzed from different ex-mining lakes. Two water samples were from Kinta and Perak rivers. They were analyzed for physico-chemical properties such as temperature, pH, EC, TDS, SO 4 2− COD, Cl − Na + Fe, As, and Pb. The results showed that temperature varied from 28.1°C to 34.1°C, pH 6.2 to 9.0, EC 55 to 400 μs/cm, turbidity 5.6 to 74.2 NTU, TDS 36.8 to 268mg/l, Cl − 0.483 to 3.339mg/l, SO 4 2− 0.051 to 15.307mg/l, Na 0.669 to 3.668mg/l, Fe 0 to 0.14mg/l, As 0 to 0.004mg/l, and Pb 0.019 to 0.075mg/l. All the samples were highly turbid, had slightly high concentration of Pb, and had common water quality problem. The ex-mining lakes can also be used to supply water after treatment since these rivers are already being used by the Metropolitan Utilities Corporation for water treatment. The ex-mining pools can be used as alternative sources of drinking water supply to the people of Perak.

  6. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  7. Determination of oestrogen hormones in raw and treated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hormones in water samples have been classified as 'emerging pollutants' and may pose a potential risk for humans. Hormones can be found in both surface and ground water at low concentrations. These compounds enter water streams through wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and may elicit endocrine disruption to ...

  8. Raw materials exploitation in Prehistory of Georgia: sourcing, processing and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz; Oqrostsvaridze, Avthandil

    2016-04-01

    Study of raw materials has a big importance to understand the ecology, cognition, behavior, technology, culture of the Paleolithic human populations. Unfortunately, explorations of the sourcing, processing and distribution of stone raw materials had a less attention until the present days. The reasons of that were: incomplete knowledge of the archaeologists who are doing the late period archaeology (Bronze Age-Medieval) and who are little bit far from the Paleolithic technology and typology; Ignorance of the stone artifacts made on different kind of raw-materials, except flint and obsidians. Studies on the origin of the stone raw materials are becoming increasingly important since in our days. Interesting picture and situation have been detected on the different sites and in different regions of Georgia. In earlier stages of Middle Paleolithic of Djruchula Basin caves the number of basalt, andesite, argillite etc. raw materials are quite big. Since 130 000 a percent of the flint raw-material is increasing dramatically. Flint is an almost lonely dominated raw-material in Western Georgia during thousand years. Since approximately 50 000 ago the first obsidians brought from the South Georgia, appeared in Western Georgia. Similar situation has been detected by us in Eastern Georgia during our excavations of Ziari and Pkhoveli open-air sites. The early Lower Paleolithic layers are extremely rich by limestone artifacts while the flint raw-materials are dominated in the Middle Paleolithic layers. Study of these issues is possible to achieve across chronologies, the origins of the sources of raw-materials, the sites and regions. By merging archaeology with anthropology, geology and geography we are able to acquire outstanding insights about those populations. New approach to the Paleolithic stone materials, newly found Paleolithic quarries gave us an opportunities to try to achieve some results for understanding of the behavior of Paleolithic populations, geology and

  9. Coagulation effectiveness of graphene oxide for the removal of turbidity from raw surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaraka, Abdelmeguid E; Aboelfetoh, Eman F; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the performance of graphene oxide (GO) as a coagulant in turbidity removal from naturally and artificially turbid raw surface water. GO is considered an excellent alternative to alum, the more common coagulant used in water treatment processes, to reduce the environmental release of aluminum. Effects of GO dosage, pH, and temperature on its coagulation ability were studied to determine the ideal turbidity removal conditions. The turbidity removal was ≥95% for all levels of turbid raw surface water (20, 100, and 200 NTU) at optimum conditions. The role of alkalinity in inducing turbidity removal by GO coagulation was much more pronounced upon using raw surface water samples compared with that using artificially turbid deionized water samples. Moreover, GO demonstrated high-performance removal of biological contaminants such as algae, heterotrophic bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria by 99.0%, 98.8% and 96.0%, respectively, at a dosage of 40 mg/L. Concerning the possible environmental release of GO into the treated water following filtration process, there was no residual GO in a wide range of pH values. The outcomes of the study highlight the excellent coagulation performance of GO for the removal of turbidity and biological contaminants from raw surface water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  11. Mutagenicity and estrogenicity of raw water and drinking water in an industrialized city in the Yangtze River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanhua; Lv, Xuemin; Zeng, Yifan; Jin, Tao; Luo, Lan; Zhang, Binbin; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yanhui; Feng, Lin; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Public concern was aroused by frequently reported water pollution incidents in Taihu Lake and the Yangtze River. The pollution also caught and sustained the attention of the scientific community. From 2010 to 2016, raw water and drinking water samples were continually collected at Waterworks A and B (Taihu Lake) and Waterworks C (Yangtze River). The non-volatile organic pollutants in the water samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Ames tests and yeast estrogen screen (YES) assays were conducted to evaluate the respective mutagenic and estrogenic effects. Water samples from the Yangtze River-based Waterworks C possessed higher mutagenicity than those from Taihu Lake-based Waterworks A (P<0.001) and Waterworks B (P = 0.026). Water treatment enhanced the direct mutagenicity (P = 0.022), and weakened the estrogenicity of the raw water (P<0.001) with a median removal rate of 100%. In fact, very few of the finished samples showed estrogenic activity. Raw water samples from Waterworks A showed weaker estrogenicity than those from Waterworks B (P = 0.034) and Waterworks C (P = 0.006). In summary, mutagenic effects in drinking water and estrogenic effects in raw water merited sustained attention. The Yangtze River was more seriously polluted by mutagenic and estrogenic chemicals than Taihu Lake was. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pentachlorophenol reduction in raw Cauca river water through activated carbon adsorption in water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Hernán Cruz Vélez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Reducing chemical risk in raw water from the River Cauca (caused by the presence of pentachlorophenol and organic matter (real color, UV254 absorbance was evaluated at bench scale by using three treatment sequences: adsorption with powdered ac-tivated coal (PAC; adsorption – coagulation; and, adsorption – disinfection – coagulation. The results showed that although PAC is appropriate for pentachlorophenol removal, and its use together with the coagulant (aluminium sulphate significantly impro-ved phenolic compound and organic matter removal (promoting enhanced coagulation, the most efficient treatment sequence was adsorption – disinfection - coagulation, achieving minor pentachlorophenol levels than detection (1.56 μg/l and WHO li-mits (9μg/l due to the effect of chloride on PAC.

  13. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, and determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced

  14. Potential of Electronic Plastic Waste as a Source of Raw Material and Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazli Othman; Nor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Lariyah Mohd Sidek

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the production of electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing industrial activities in this world. The increase use of plastic in this sector resulted in an increase of electronic plastic waste. Basically, electronic plastic material contains various chemical elements which act as a flame retardant when electronic equipment is operated. In general, the concept of recycling electronic plastic waste should be considered in order to protect the environment. For this purpose, research has been conducted to different resins of electronic plastic waste to identify the potential of electronic plastic waste as a source of raw material and energy recovery. This study was divided into two part for example determination of physical and chemical characteristics of plastic resins and calculation of heating value for plastic resins based on Dulong formula. Results of this research show that the average calorific value of electronic waste is 30,872.42 kJ/ kg (7,375 kcal/ kg). The emission factor analysis showed that the concentration of emission value that might occur during waste management activities is below the standard set by the Environment Quality Act 1974. Basically, this research shows that electronic plastic waste has the potential to become the source of raw material and energy recovery. (author)

  15. A nationwide survey of NDMA in raw and drinking water in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Mari; Oya, Masami; Kosaka, Koji

    2009-05-15

    A nationwide survey of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in both raw and finished water samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Japan was conducted. NDMA was analyzed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). NDMA was detected in 15 of 31 raw water samples collected in the summer at concentrations up to 2.6 ng/L, and in 9 of 28 raw water samples collected in winter at concentrations up to 4.3 ng/L. The NDMA concentrations were higher in raw water samples collected from treatment plants with catchment areas that have high population densities. The NDMA concentrations were higher in river water samples collected from the east and west of Japan than in those collected from other areas. NDMA was detected in 10 of 31 finished samples collected in summer at reduced concentrations of up to 2.2 ng/L, while 5 of 28 finished samples collected in winter showed NDMA concentrations up to 10 ng/L. The highest NDMA levels were detected in finished water samples collected from the Yodo River basin DWTP, which uses ozonation. Furthermore, evaluation of the process water produced at six advanced water treatment plants was conducted. Influent from the Yodo River indicated that the NDMA concentration increased during ozonation to as high as 20 ng/L, and then decreased with subsequent biological activated carbon treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first nationwide evaluation of NDMA concentrations in water conducted in Japan to date.

  16. Improving the Efficiency of Natural Raw Water Pretreatment at Thermal Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremicheva, E. S.

    2018-02-01

    In the treatment of make-up water for thermal power stations (TPS) and heat networks, raw water from surface water bodies is used. It contains organic and mineral pollutants in the form of particulates or colloids. Coagulation and flocculation are reagent methods for removing these pollutants from water. Chemicals are used to assist in the formation of large structured flakes that are removed easily from water. The Kuibyshev water reservoir was selected as the object of investigation. Basic physical and chemical properties of the raw water are presented. The application of various coagulating agents, their mixtures in different proportions, and flocculating agents for clarifying the Volga water was examined. The required dose of a coagulant or flocculant was determined based on test coagulation of the treated water. Aluminum sulfate and iron (III) chloride were used a coagulant, and Praestol 2500 (nonionic) as a flocculant. A method of enhancement of coagulation and flocculation by injecting air into the treated water is examined. The results of experimental investigation of the effect of water treatment method on water quality indices, such as alkalinity, pH, iron content, suspended material content, and permanganate value, are presented. It is demonstrated that joint use of ironand aluminum containing coagulation agents brings the coagulation conditions closer to the optimum ones. Aeration does not affect the coagulation process. The methods for supplying air to a clarifier are proposed for practical implementation.

  17. Potentials of raw and cooked walnuts (Tetracapidium conophorum) as sources of valuable nutrients for good health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, O K; Falegbe, O; Moyib, F R

    2015-12-01

    The present study estimated nutrient composition of walnuts before and after cooking with respect to its potential as valuable source of nutrients for daily intake. Walnut fruits were purchased from five different markets in Ijebu-Ode local government area and its environs. The fruits samples were divided into two portions, labelled R (for raw) and C (cooked). The C samples were cooked at 100 degrees C for 1 hr and allowed to cool to room temperature. The seeds of both C and R samples were ground and analyzed for proximate, macro and micro minerals using methods of Association of Official Chemists. The results obtained showed that both raw and cooked walnuts are rich in fat, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) in amounts that are within daily recommended intake per 100 g of walnut seeds. They also contained appreciable levels of protein, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) but with low content of moisture (MC), carbohydrate, fiber, sodium (Na) and potassium (K). Boiling significantly affected the levels of protein, carbohydrate, ash, moisture content, fat, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, copper, zinc, phosphorus, potassium, manganese and iron The study reveals that walnut is nutritious due to its appreciable level of protein and presence of various essential and macro minerals. Its low content of sodium and potassium is beneficiary in hypertensive condition as snack. The study suggests future bio-fortification of walnut with zinc, which may bring about a co-increase in Ca and protein content.

  18. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mhanami@utfpr.edu.br; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  19. A Numerical Comparison of Spray Combustion between Raw and Water-in-Oil Emulsified Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tarlet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy fuel-oils, used engine oils and animal fat can be used as dense, viscous combustibles within industrial boilers. Burning these combustibles in the form of an emulsion with water enables to decrease the flame length and the formation of carbonaceous residue, in comparison with raw combustibles. These effects are due to the secondary atomization among the spray, which is a consequence of the micro-explosion phenomenon. This phenomenon acts in a single emulsion droplet by the fast (< 0.1 ms vaporization of the inside water droplets, leading to complete disintegration of the whole emulsion droplet. First, the present work demonstrates a model of spray combustion of raw fuel. Secondly, the spray combustion of water-in-oil emulsified fuel is exposed to the same burning conditions, taking into account the micro-explosion phenomenon. Finally, the comparison between the results with and without second atomization shows some similar qualitative tendencies with experimental measurements from the literature.

  20. The disequilibrium between {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in raw and drinking waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idoeta, R. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Herranz, M., E-mail: m.herranz@ehu.e [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Many countries have to monitor and control the radioactivity in drinking waters in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of their respective regulations. Among radionuclides responsible for this radioactivity there are {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, which are usually not in radioactive equilibrium in waters. This paper deals with the analysis of this disequilibrium and the way that the water treatment plants affect it. To do this, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activity concentrations were measured in raw and drinking water. The measurements were performed by alpha-particle spectrometry and gas flow proportional counting and the corresponding formulae for uncertainties and detection limits are presented. The values obtained show that the Po/Pb ratio is lower in surface than in ground waters. Regarding water treatment, this ratio adopts values lower in drinking water than in raw waters. In any case, for the waters analysed in this work the committed effective doses due to these radionuclides, are negligible.

  1. Assessment of Trace Metal Ions on Raw and Treated Water in Dakahlia Drinking water Purification Stations .Behaviour of aluminium in water purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Defrawy, M.M.; El-Fadaly, H.; El-Zawawy, F.; Makia, D.

    1999-01-01

    The technology of improvement of water quality at water purification plants can be characterised by a large diversity of method and processes employed and by substantial differences in the design and process structure and equipment. The effect of operational parameters as ph, pre-, post- chlorination, coagulant index and mixing intensities on the level of some metal ions concentration in different sources of drinking water plants were studied. Results of the chemical analysis indicated that the dissolved and total AI 3+ concentration in treated water was much higher than raw water and sometimes with values over the international maximum limit. Much of the overall variation in aqua aluminium ion in treated water could be explained on the basis of ph, solubility, and filtration models efficiency, while ions as Fe 3+ and Mn 2+ were found within the acceptable limits. The data obtained indicated that relation between watershed inputs (CI 2 , H CI, alum dose) and output of soluble aluminium was not necessary simple and straightforward. The investigated water samples were collected from main stations and compact units in Dakahlia Governorate

  2. Oxidation by UV and ozone of organic contaminants dissolved in deionized and raw mains water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Organic contaminants dissolved in deionized pretreated and raw mains water were reacted with ultraviolet light and ozone. Ozone first was used for partial oxidation followed by ozone combined with ultraviolet radiation to produce total oxidation. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) level and direct oxidation of halogenated compounds were measured throughout the treatment process. The rate of TOC reduction was compared for ozone injected upstream and inside the reactor

  3. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  4. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  5. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of sa106 gr.b carbon steel in raw water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Stancu, M.; Popa, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of microbiological corrosion susceptibility of carbon steel SA106gr.B in raw water. The experiment consisted of a series of electrochemical accelerated tests which evaluated the pitting corrosion susceptibility and determined corrosion rates before and after the immersion. The microbiological analysis of the water determined the types of bacteria and bacterial concentration present in water and in biofilms. Microbiological analysis of the water sample emphasized the existence, in small numbers (10-101 ml-1), of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and iron-oxidizing microorganisms. Along with sulphate-reducing bacteria, the heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and the iron-oxidizing microorganisms are categorized as having an important role in the corrosion of metals, including steel. The surfaces of the tested samples were analysed using the optical and electronic microscope, and emphasized the role of bacteria in the development of biofilms under which appeared characteristics of corrosion attack. (authors)

  6. Sweet sorghum: A new raw material source for the sugar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Bassam, N; Dambroth, M; Ruehl, G

    1987-01-01

    The primary uses of sweet sorghum have been as a syrup for human consumption and as a livestock feed. More recently, interest in sweet sorghum has risen because of its potential use as a source of sugar and/or as a raw material for the production of energy and for different biotechnological processes. However, before sweet sorghums may be utilized as a source for both sugar and energy, adequate and adapted genotypes must be identified. The objective of this study is to measure the agronomic performance of different lines and cultivars of sweet sorghum for cold tolerance yield of biomasse, yield of sugar and sugar quality. Of the more than 1000 entries from 20 different world-wide origins, 614 accessions have been cultivated for evaluation purposes in the last 2 years. Among the tested material 18 genotypes exhibited more than 90 tons biomass (FM) per hectare in 1985 and 32 types in 1986. The number of accessions which produced more than 90 th FM/ha in both years was 10, one type produced more than 11 tons FM/ha. The biomasse production of one accession achieved 169 t FM/ha in 1986. The highest sugar content in FM mounted to 9,2% in 1985 and 11,1% in 1986. Five genotypes produced more than 10 tons sugar per hectare, the highest sugar yield was 12 t/ha. In average of the high sugar yielding accessions, more than 50% of the sugar consists of saccharose, 28% of glucose and 19% of fructose. The corresponding quantity of alcohol which can be produced amounts to 7 000 l/ha. (orig.)

  7. Globalization and its influence to the availability of the Raw material sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of globalization does not lead only to concentration of physical and financial capital, and to centralization of its managing, what can be considered as its main signs, but at same time it gives whole raw of new claims to realization of technologies and their material basis.One of very important claims is also change in structure and volume of raw materials, that is gradually viewing in increased change from consumption of so-called classical raw materials, without which it is not possible to create basic components of information technologies.Information technologies are then creating important basis for quickly developed new branches of economy.

  8. NAA study on characteristics and sources of raw materials of celadon bodies from Qingliangsi kiln and Zhanggongxiang kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhanjun; Zhao Weijuan; Lu Xiaoke; Li Guoxia; Guo Min; Xie Jianzhong; Qiu Xia; Feng Songlin

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies unearthed from Qingliangsi kiln (containing 32 Ru official porcelain bodies and 5 Ru folk porcelain bodies), thirty-two samples of ancient celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln, and fourteen samples of modern mineral, were selected and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. Twenty-three elements were measured. The data of these elemental contents were processed by scatter analysis and principle component analysis methods in order to determine the characteristics and sources of the raw materials of the celadon porcelain bodies from the foregoing two kilns. The results show that Fe, Ce, Ba, Ta, Th, La, Sm and Cr are the fingerprint elements to distinguish the ancient Ru official porcelain bodies from ancient celadon bodies of Zhanggongxiang kiln. The sources of the raw material of the ancient Ru official porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln are more concentrated and stable than those from Zhanggongxiang kiln. The Ru folk porcelain bodies and the Ru official porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln have the same provenance, both sources of which are local. The raw material origins of the ancient celadon bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln is a little dispersed and the compositions of the raw material are different from the Ru porcelains, but the distance is not far away from each other. (authors)

  9. Buildings materials and raw materials as a source of exposition of population of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents specific activities of potassium-40, radium-226, thorium-232 and equivalent of specific activity in some building materials and raw materials used at building-up of flats in the Slovak Republic

  10. WATER-JET CUTTING MACHINE NOW AVAILABLE FROM THE CERN RAW MATERIALS STORES

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Raw Materials Stores has recently acquired a new water-jet cutting machine. The machine is capable of cutting all types and shapes of materials up to 70 mm in thickness, with an accuracy of +/- 0.1mm/m. For the time being, users requiring materials to be cut should supply drawings in DXF, DWG or IGES (AutoCad) file format. The machine will be operational as of 1st October 2007. The Stores Team Paulo Dos Santos FI-LS-MM 72308

  11. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spires PE, G.V.; Pickles PE, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  12. A simple filtration method to remove plankton-associated Vibrio cholerae in raw water supplies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A; Xu, B; Chowdhury, M A; Islam, M S; Montilla, R; Colwell, R R

    1996-07-01

    Plankton to which cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and/or O139 were attached was introduced into 0.5% Instant Ocean microcosms maintained at 25 degrees C. The bulk of the plankton and associated particulates was removed with a filter constructed from either nylon net and one of several different types of sari material, the latter being very inexpensive and readily available in villages in Bangladesh, where V. cholerae is endemic. V. cholerae was enumerated before and after filtration to evaluate the efficiency of the filtration procedure. The results obtained indicate that 99% of V. cholerae, i.e., those cells attached to plankton, were removed from the water samples. Epidemic strains of V. cholerae O1 and O139 from various geographical sources, including Bangladesh, Brazil, India, and Mexico, were included in the experiments. Removal of vibrios from water by this simple filtration method was found to yield consistent results with all strains examined in this study. Thus, it is concluded that a simple filtration procedure involving the use of domestic sari material can reduce the number of cholera vibrios attached to plankton in raw water from ponds and rivers commonly used for drinking. Since untreated water from such sources serves as drinking water for millions of people living in developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh), filtration should prove effective at reducing the incidence and severity of outbreaks, especially in places that lack fuel wood for boiling water and/or municipal water treatment plants. The results of this study provide the basis for determining such reductions, which are to be carried out in the near future.

  13. Upper Palaeolithic lithic raw material sourcing in Central and Northern Portugal as an aid to reconstructing hunter-gatherer societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubry

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the study of lithic raw materials used in Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in caves, rockshelters and open-air sites from two different geological environments in Portugal. For the sites located in the Lusitanian Basin, flint or silcrete sources are easily available in close vicinity. The Côa Valley sites, located in the Iberian Massif, are within a geological environment where restricted fine-grained vein quartz and siliceous metamorphic rocks are available, but no flint or silcrete, even though both are present in the archaeological assemblages. Data from the two clusters of sites are compared with a third newly located site in the Lower Vouga valley, at the limit of the Iberian Massif with the Lusitanian Basin, where quartz vein raw material types are locally available and flint is about 40 kilometres distant. This study reveals prehistoric adaptations to these different geological contexts, with shorter networks for the Lusitanian basin sites contrasting with the long distance ones for the Côa Valley, and the Vouga site at an intermediary position. Finally, we propose that lithic raw material supply networks, defined by a GIS least-cost algorithm, could be used as a proxy not only for territoriality in the case of local and regional lithic raw material sources, but also to infer long-distance social networks between different Palaeolithic human groups, created and maintained to promote the access to asymmetrically distributed resources.

  14. Synthesis of material microporous using raw materials alternative as a source of silica and alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.A.; Silva, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites have important properties of a technological viewpoint. Thus, this work aims at the use of natural raw materials such as kaolin waste and wood ash in order to produce these microporous materials. The starting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF); the phases formed as synthesis products were identified by XRD and gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA/TG). Hydrothermal synthesis took place by mixing the raw materials in stoichiometrically calculated batches with NaOH (3M) at 90 °C and time of 6, 20, 24 and 48 hours. The results show the formation of phases of type zeolite A and sodalite, demonstrating the raw materials be an efficient and low cost alternative to producing microporous materials. (author)

  15. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanska, Urszula, E-mail: ula@ch.pw.edu.p [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {l_brace}2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2){r_brace} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  16. Solubility of fragrance raw materials in water: Experimental study, correlations, and Mod. UNIFAC (Do) predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Paduszynski, Kamil; Niszczota, Zaneta K.

    2011-01-01

    The (liquid + liquid) and (solid + liquid) phase equilibria of nine binary mixtures containing fragrance raw materials (FRM) such as aliphatic ketones and compounds based on cyclohexane with water were investigated. The systems {2-heptanone, or 2-nonanone, or 2-undecanone, or 2-tridecanone, or cyclohexyl carboxylic acid (CCA), or cyclohexyl acetic acid (CAA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethanol (2CE) or cyclohexyl acetate (CA), or 2-cyclohexyl ethyl acetate (2CEA) + water (2)} have been measured by a dynamic method in wide range of temperatures from (290 to 360) K and ambient pressure. For all systems immiscibility in the liquid phase was detected. The experimental data was correlated by means of the NRTL equation, utilizing parameters derived from the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium. Additionally, the binary mixtures were predicted with the Mod. UNIFAC (Do) model, with known from literature parameters, with very good results.

  17. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  18. trend analysis of raw water parameters in river benue at the reach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    important element to man. It is essential to humanity and the largest source of fresh water lies underground. It constitutes the largest part of most living matters. The human body takes from. 55% to 70% water depending on ..... by surface runoff into the river should be discouraged. 4. Benue Brewery limited (BBL) and Nigeria.

  19. Class frequency distribution for a surface raw water quality index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... Vaal Water Management Areas, in the Vaal basin of South Africa. The study area ... tion sources for individual parameters that are assessed can be done to provide a ...... case for systems thinking approach to integrated water resources management ... implementation of user support for the Vaal system.

  20. Removal of aniline and phenol from water using raw and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C D; Zhang, J Y; Wang, L; He, M H

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using raw diatomite and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite (Al-diatomite) for removal of aniline and phenol from water was investigated. Their physicochemical characteristics such as pHsolution, point of zero charge (pHPZC), surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy was determined. After the raw diatomite was modified, the surface area of Al-diatomite increases from 26.67 to 82.65 m(2) g(-1). The pHPZC and pHsolution (10%) occurred around pH 5.2 and pH 8.6, respectively. The removal rates of aniline and phenol on diatomite and Al-diatomite decreased with increasing solution pH, while surface charge density decreased. The adsorption of aniline and phenol on diatomite presented a good fit to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, but the models are not fit to forecast the adsorption of aniline and phenol on Al-diatomite. The study indicated that electrostatic interaction was a dominating mechanism of aniline and phenol sorption onto Al-diatomite.

  1. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  2. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species and Genotypes in Scottish Raw and Drinking Waters during a One-Year Monitoring Period▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R. A. B.; Connelly, L.; Sullivan, C. B.; Smith, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed 1,042 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive slides (456 from raw waters and 586 from drinking waters) of which 55.7% contained 1 or 2 oocysts, to determine species/genotypes present in Scottish waters. Two nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays targeting different loci (1 and 2) of the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene were used for species identification, and 62.4% of samples were amplified with at least one of the PCR assays. More samples (577 slides; 48.7% from raw water and 51.3% from drinking water) were amplified at locus 1 than at locus 2 (419 slides; 50.1% from raw water and 49.9% from drinking water). PCR at loci 1 and 2 amplified 45.4% and 31.7% of samples containing 1 or 2 oocysts, respectively. We detected both human-infectious and non-human-infectious species/genotype oocysts in Scottish raw and drinking waters. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype (now Cryptosporidium ubiquitum) were most commonly detected in both raw and drinking waters, with C. ubiquitum being most common in drinking waters (12.5%) followed by C. parvum (4.2%) and C. andersoni (4.0%). Numerous samples (16.6% total; 18.9% from drinking water) contained mixtures of two or more species/genotypes, and we describe strategies for unraveling their identity. Repetitive analysis for discriminating mixtures proved useful, but both template concentration and PCR assay influenced outcomes. Five novel Cryptosporidium spp. (SW1 to SW5) were identified by RFLP/sequencing, and Cryptosporidium sp. SW1 was the fourth most common contaminant of Scottish drinking water (3%). PMID:20639357

  3. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Strzepek, K.; Pauw, W.P.; Brander, L.M.; Hughes, G.; Aerts, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a

  4. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... assessed for microbial quality using hydrogen sulphide test and .... existence of the same problem in other cities and towns in ... (2011). Urine jars were placed in the Panasonic ... were assembled and stored away from direct sunlight, at room .... view was conducted with the Drug and Toxicology Information.

  5. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico; Maes, Synthia; Lenz, Markus

    2015-01-25

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw materials Initiative, a list of 14 critical materials was defined, including some bulk metals, industrial minerals, the platinum group metals and rare earth elements. To tackle the supply risk challenge, innovation is required with respect to sustainable primary mining, substitution of critical metals, and urban mining. In these three categories, biometallurgy can play a crucial role. Indeed, microbe-metal interactions have been successfully applied on full scale to win materials from primary sources, but are not sufficiently explored for metal recovery or recycling. On the one hand, this article gives an overview of the microbial strategies that are currently applied on full scale for biomining; on the other hand it identifies technologies, currently developed in the laboratory, which have a perspective for large scale metal recovery and the needs and challenges on which bio-metallurgical research should focus to achieve this ambitious goal. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Application of radiation to processing of raw water and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1988-01-01

    Some studies and its results on irradiation of water are outlined. Ten precursory substances for trihalomethane, humic acid, resorcinol, methylglyoxal, phloroglucinol, pyruvic acid, 4-methoxyphenol, hydroquinone, n,n-diethylaniline and p-quinone, are separately dissolved in refined water and irradiated with cobalt-60 and gamma rays. Data on the dose required to reduce the total organic carbon by 50 percent are tabulated. An investigation is made on the effects of irradiation on the separation of fumic acid in liquid chromatography. The four peaks originally found in the spectrum decrease in peak area while two new peaks appear as the dose increases. The average molecular weight shows a maximum, indicating that irradiation seems to cause crosslinking. Capillary gas chromatography is performed to determine the effects of irradiation on the odor of water. For trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethane (inital concentration 90 ppb), which represent the major 'high-tech contaminants', 7.5 x 10 2 rad is required to meet the regulations. A study on the sterilization effects of irradiation is also outlined. Further studies are required to develop a practical process that uses irradiation to decompose organic substances in heavily contaminated waste water. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  8. Evaluation of coagulation sludge from raw water treated with Moringa oleifera for agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Jairo Feria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation-flocculation is a physical-chemical process responsible for producing the largest amount of sludge in the purification of natural raw water. Conventionally, aluminum sulfate or alum has been used as a coagulant. However, disposal of the sludge produced has been problematic for the environment due to excess aluminum. Currently, the convenience of using natural coagulants such as seed extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO is being studied, although, the properties of sewage sludge produced and its possible reuse are unknown. In this paper the physical-chemical, nutritional and dangerous characteristics from MO sludge were evaluated by using standard methods to verify its potential use in agricultural soils. Results indicated that pH, electrical conductivity, ion exchange capacity, organic matter and micronutrients from sludge were suitable for application to soils with agricultural potential; but deficiency of macronutrients and presence of fecal coliforms limits it to be used as soil improver and not as fertilizer. Sludge stabilization with hydrated lime at doses greater than or equal to 3 % was effective to ensure the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and to obtain a Class A sludge, unrestricted for agricultural use and suitable for acid soils.

  9. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  11. Phospholipid sources for adrenic acid mobilization in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Comparison with arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijas, Carlos; Astudillo, Alma M; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Rubio, Julio M; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Cells metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to adrenic acid (AdA) via 2-carbon elongation reactions. Like AA, AdA can be converted into multiple oxygenated metabolites, with important roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, in contrast to AA, there is virtually no information on how the cells regulate the availability of free AdA for conversion into bioactive products. We have used a comparative lipidomic approach with both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize changes in the levels of AA- and AdA-containing phospholipid species in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Incubation of the cells with AA results in an extensive conversion to AdA but both fatty acids do not compete with each other for esterification into phospholipids. AdA but not AA, shows preference for incorporation into phospholipids containing stearic acid at the sn-1 position. After stimulation of the cells with zymosan, both AA and AdA are released in large quantities, albeit AA is released to a greater extent. Finally, a variety of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol molecular species contribute to AA; however, AdA is liberated exclusively from phosphatidylcholine species. Collectively, these results identify significant differences in the cellular utilization of AA and AdA by the macrophages, suggesting non-redundant biological actions for these two fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Formation and changes of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in raw water of Yangtze River, Huangpu River and different treatment processes and pipelines network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23

  13. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  14. Water: Source of Health, Source of Illness. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Amy

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  15. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  16. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 in raw water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk products in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Vanessa; Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Parisi, Antonio; La Salandra, Giovanna; Lucifora, Giuseppe; Mula, Giuseppina; Virgilio, Sebastiano; Carosielli, Leonardo; Rella, Addolorata; Dario, Marco; Normanno, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    Escherichia coli 026 is known as a verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) organism that causes severe foodborne diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Although cattle are the most important reservoir of VTEC, only a few reports on the role of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as a reservoir of VTEC and on the presence of these organisms in their milk are available. However, in Southern Italy, where water buffalo are intensively reared, an outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome due to E. coli 026 has recently been reported, in which the consumption of typical dairy products was considered to be a common risk factor. The aims of this work were to assess the prevalence of E. coli O26 in raw water buffalo milk, to characterize the virulence gene profiles of the isolates, and to evaluate their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern. Of 160 analyzed samples, 1 (0.6%) tested positive for E. coli O26, and the isolate showed the stx1+/stx2+/eae-/hlyA+ genotypic profile. The strain showed resistance against glycopeptides, macrolides, and penicillins. The presence of VTEC organisms in raw water buffalo milk could be considered to be a potential threat to consumers; however, the strict adherence to the processes used in the preparation of the most common buffalo dairy products could strongly mitigate the foodborne risk. To our knowledge, this article reports the first isolation and characterization of E. coli O26 VTEC in raw water buffalo milk.

  17. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  18. Research on the raw material source and coloring mechanism of Jiaotan Guan porcelain in south song dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weijuan; Li Guoxia; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min; Gao Zhengyao

    2004-01-01

    The 28 samples from Jiaotan Guan kiln, one sample of mud material in jar from ruins of Jiaotan Guan kiln, one sample of mud material in pool of practice mud, one sample of violet-golden clay near Guan kiln and four samples of glazes and bodies of the modern imitative ancient Chinese guan porcelain were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 36 elements in each sample were measured. The NAA data were statistically treated by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram was obtained. The results show that the raw material origin of the bodies of Jiaotan Guan porcelain is evidently different from those of glazes, the source of raw material of bodies and glazes of Jiaotan Guan kiln are stable, and the iron is assured as main coloring element. The reflecting spectrum and main wavelength of Guan porcelain glazes are determined by color analysis instrument. The relative content of structural iron (Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ ) in the glaze and the quantitative relationship between the main wavelength of glaze in various colors are determined by Moessbauer spectrum. Thus the coloring mechanism of Guan porcelain is investigated

  19. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  20. Biotechnologies for critical raw material recovery from primary and secondary sources: R&D priorities and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennebel, T.; Boon, N.; Maes, S.; Lenz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw

  1. Instrumental neutron activation determination of gold in mineral raw materials using a californium neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilo, N.A.; Ippolitov, E.G.; Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, B.N.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Aristov, G.N.; Kovalenko, V.V.; Kondrat'ev, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    A facility using a californium neutron source and a method for the neutron activation analysis of gold were developed. The sensitivity of the determination is 0.1 g/t. The causes of random and systematic errors have been studied. It is concluded that in prospection and evaluation of gold ore deposists, the traditional test tube analysis for gold may be replaced with the developed method. (author)

  2. α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paloma Michelle; Souza, Paula Monteiro; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silveira, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.

  3. Performance and enhanced mechanism of a novel bio-diatomite biofilm pretreatment process treating polluted raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-feng; Feng, Li-juan; Wang, Sha-fei; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

    2015-09-01

    A lab-scale novel bio-diatomite biofilm process (BDBP) was established for the polluted raw water pretreatment in this study. Results showed that a shorter startup period of BDBP system was achieved under the completely circulated operation mode, and the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and disinfection by-product precursor were effective at low hydraulic retention time of 2-4 h due to high biomass attached to the carrier and diatomite. A maximum NH4(+)-N oxidation potential predicted by modified Stover-Kincannon model was 333.3 mg L(-1) d(-1) in the BDBP system, which was 4.7 times of that in the control reactor. Results demonstrated that the present of bio-diatomite favors the accumulation of functional microbes in the oligotrophic niche, and the pollutants removal performance of this novel process was enhanced for polluted raw water pretreatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Analysis of Sources of Raw for Blue-and-White Porcelain From Jingdezhen and Dehua Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shunmin; Yang Dawei; Li Rongwu; Li Guoxia; Cheng Huansheng; Zheng Jongxin; Chen Lifang

    2010-01-01

    In order to find out sources of raw, ingredients and classification relationship for Blue-and-White porcelain from Jingdezhen and Dehua area in different time, 34 Blue-and-White porcelain samples were selected. The chemical ingredients of every sample were determined by proton induced X-ray emission. The chemical ingredients data of all samples were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis. The results indicate that the sources of raw and classification relationship of majority bodies from Blue-and-White porcelain of Dehua and Jingdezhen area are commendably differentiated. The sources of raw and batch formulas of eight transparent enamel samples from Jingdezhen area in Ming Dynasty and majority transparent enamel samples from Dehua area are commendably differentiated. Except one or two samples, majority Blue-and-White glaze samples from two areas are obviously different, and it might be an important path for non-destructive discrimination among Blue-and-White porcelains from two areas. (authors)

  5. Detection and estimation of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in raw water at the drinking water treatment plant by in vivo fluorescence method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregor, Jakub; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šípková, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2007), s. 228-234 ISSN 0043-1354 Grant - others:-(CZ) 1M6798593901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cyanobacteria * phycocyanin * raw water Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.427, year: 2007

  6. Combustion properties, water absorption and grindability of raw/torrefied biomass pellets and Silantek coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, Sharmeela; Rahman, Norazah Abdul; Idris, Siti Shawaliah; Yaacob, Nurhafizah

    2017-12-01

    Torrefaction, also known as mild pyrolysis, is proven to convert raw biomass into a value-added energy commodity particularly for application in combustion and co-firing systems with improved storage and handling properties. This paper aims to compare the characteristics of Malaysian bituminous coal i.e. Silantek coal with raw and torrefied biomass pellet originated from oil palm frond and fast growing tree species, Leucaena Leucocephala. Biomass samples were initially torrefied at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Resulting torrefied biomass pellets were analysed using a number of standard fuel characterisation analyses i.e. elemental analysis, proximate analysis and calorific content (high heating values) experiments. Investigations on combustion characteristics via dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), grindability and moisture uptake tests were also performed on the torrefied biomass pellets. Better quality bio-chars were produced as compared to its raw forms and with optimal process conditions, torrefaction may potentially produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity equivalent to raw biomass while having compatible energy density and grindability to coal.

  7. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  8. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  9. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  11. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  12. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Philip J; Pauw, W Pieter; Brander, Luke M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Strzepek, Kenneth M; Hughes, Gordon A

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models. In this paper, adaptation costs are defined as those for providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections to 2050. We first estimate costs for a baseline scenario excluding climate change, and then additional climate change adaptation costs. Increased demand is assumed to be met through a combination of increased reservoir yield and alternative backstop measures. Under such controversial measures, we project global adaptation costs of $12 bn p.a., with 83-90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, adaptation costs are low compared to baseline costs ($73 bn p.a.), which supports the notion of mainstreaming climate change adaptation into broader policy aims. The method provides a tool for estimating broad costs at the global and regional scale; such information is of key importance in international negotiations.

  13. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Philip J; Pauw, W Pieter; Brander, Luke M; Aerts, Jeroen C J H [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strzepek, Kenneth M [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States); Hughes, Gordon A, E-mail: philip.ward@ivm.vu.nl [School of Economics, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a limited number of adaptation strategies, and apply the method using results of two climate models. In this paper, adaptation costs are defined as those for providing enough raw water to meet future industrial and municipal water demand, based on country-level demand projections to 2050. We first estimate costs for a baseline scenario excluding climate change, and then additional climate change adaptation costs. Increased demand is assumed to be met through a combination of increased reservoir yield and alternative backstop measures. Under such controversial measures, we project global adaptation costs of $12 bn p.a., with 83-90% in developing countries; the highest costs are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, adaptation costs are low compared to baseline costs ($73 bn p.a.), which supports the notion of mainstreaming climate change adaptation into broader policy aims. The method provides a tool for estimating broad costs at the global and regional scale; such information is of key importance in international negotiations.

  14. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  15. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  16. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  17. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  18. Identification of fecal contamination sources in water using host-associated markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Corinne A; Prystajecky, Natalie; Isaac-Renton, Judith

    2013-03-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, drinking water is tested for total coliforms and Escherichia coli, but there is currently no routine follow-up testing to investigate fecal contamination sources in samples that test positive for indicator bacteria. Reliable microbial source tracking (MST) tools to rapidly test water samples for multiple fecal contamination markers simultaneously are currently lacking. The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a qualitative MST tool to identify fecal contamination from different host groups, and (ii) to evaluate the MST tool using water samples with evidence of fecal contamination. Singleplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to test (i) water from polluted sites and (ii) raw and drinking water samples for presence of bacterial genetic markers associated with feces from humans, cattle, seagulls, pigs, chickens, and geese. The multiplex MST assay correctly identified suspected contamination sources in contaminated waterways, demonstrating that this test may have utility for heavily contaminated sites. Most raw and drinking water samples analyzed using singleplex PCR contained at least one host-associated marker. Singleplex PCR was capable of detecting host-associated markers in small sample volumes and is therefore a promising tool to further analyze water samples submitted for routine testing and provide information useful for water quality management.

  19. Cooperation of the member states of the SEV in the field of energy, fuel and raw material resources, and the problems of developing of new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapol' i, L

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of the agreement concerning the creation of a combined organization for conducting geological prospecting operations for petroleum and gas in the Baltic Sea in the area of the continental shelf and the floor of the territorial waters of the signatory states of East Germany, Poland, and the USSR, which was signed in 1975, the Petrolbaltik organization ws created. A long time program of cooperation in the areas of energy, fuel, and raw materials foresees that the SEV member states will carry out prospective scientific developments on the use of new sources of energy, including solar, wind, chemical and geothermal forms of energy. Forty-seven scientific and technical organization of the SEV member states are working under the leadership of the Coordination center concerning the problem, ''New methods on the use of coal,'' on the industrial use of the by-products of hte extraction and enrichment of coal, the methods of their coking, and their liquefaction and gasification. The technique of producing alumina and cement from the ash of energy systems, working on coal, as well as from coal heaps is being successfully applied in Hungary.

  20. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks

  1. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW. The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT, Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1, first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS, and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2 in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05. Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1348 - Standards for affected sources other than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than kilns; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and finish mills. 63.1348 Section 63.1348 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...; in-line kiln/raw mills; clinker coolers; new and reconstructed raw material dryers; and raw and...

  4. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  5. Role of water source in the growth of kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of 2 months we watered Kale with tap water, water from turtle bayou, rain water, water from university lake, and deionized water. We found little difference between height and number of seedlings with different water treatments even though nutrient levels were different between these water sources.

  6. Detection and identification of enteroviruses from various drinking water sources in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chen, Chien-Hsien; Wan, Min-Tao; Chang, Po-Jen; Fan, Cheng-Wei

    2009-02-01

    SummaryTwenty-three water samples, including seventeen from surface water reservoirs, three from the raw water of groundwater treatment plants, and three from small water systems, were collected in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of, as well as the species of enteroviruses. RT-PCR was used for the detection of enteroviruses. Results revealed that 23.5% of raw water samples from reservoirs were positive for enteroviruses. In addition, one of the three groundwater samples and two of the three small system water samples were positive for enteroviruses. Water samples that were positive for enteroviruses subsequently were evaluated by real-time PCR. The results indicated that enterovirus concentration in groundwater was lower than that in samples obtained from surface water sources. Enteroviruses were identified by nucleic acid sequencing in the 5'-untranslated regions. Three clusters of enteroviruses were identified as coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, and enterovirus 71. The presence of enteroviruses indicates the possibility of waterborne transmission of enteroviruses in Taiwan, if water is not adequately treated.

  7. The study of interrelationship between raw water quality parameters, chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Yee, Lim Fang; Ata, Sadia; Abdullah, Abass; Ishak, Basar; Abidin, Khairul Nidzham Zainal

    Disinfection is the most crucial process in the treatment of drinking water supply and is the final barrier against bacteriological impurities in drinking water. Chlorine is the primary disinfectant used in the drinking water treatment process throughout Malaysia. However, the occurrence of various disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids created a major issue on the potential health hazards which may pose adverse health effects in both human and animals. To simulate real water treatment conditions and to represent the conditions inherent in a tropical country, this study was performed at an urbanized water treatment plant with a daily production of about 549,000 m 3 of treated water. The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between the water quality parameters in the raw water with chlorine demand and the formation of disinfection by-products. This study also investigated the possibility of the statistical model applications for the prediction of chlorine demand and the THM formation. Two models were developed to estimate the chlorine demand and the THM formation. For the statistical evaluation, correlation and simple linear regression analysis were conducted using SPSS. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the estimation of goodness-of-fit of the dependent variables of the models to the normal distribution showed that all the dependent variables followed the normal distribution at significance level of 0.05. Good linear correlations were observed between the independent parameters and formation of THM and the chlorine demand. This study also revealed that ammonia and the specific ultraviolet absorbent (SUVA) were the function of chlorine consumption in the treatment process. Chlorine dosage and SUVA increase the yield of THM. Chlorine demand and THM formation was moderately sensitive, but significant to the pH. The level of significance ( α) for the statistical tests and the inclusion of a variable in the

  8. The determination and fate of disinfection by-products from ozonation of polluted raw water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.-J.; Fang, G.-C.; Wang, C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The major disinfection by-products (DBPs) resulting from ozone treatment of polluted surface water were investigated. By-products of either health concern or which may contribute to biological instability of treated drinking water were investigated. The major DBPs were analyzed in two fractions: carbonyl compounds and brominated organic compounds. The natural organic matter (NOM) was also isolated and fractionated from polluted water for subsequent ozonation and DBPs identification under conditions of typical drinking treatment. The main identified carbonyl compounds were low molecular weight carboxylic acids, benzoic compounds, aliphatic aldehydes and odorous aldehydes, respectively. Brominated organics were also found in ozonated water, including bromoform (CHBr 3 ), monobromoacetic acid (MBAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN), respectively. It was also found that the characteristic of organic precursors have significant influences on brominated organic by-products formation. Humic acid demonstrated the highest CHBr 3 , DBAA and 2,4-DBP formations, whereas hydrophilic neutral produced less CHBr 3 and 2,4-DBP than the rest of the organic fractions but produced the highest amount of DBAN. In addition to the other target compounds, a total of 59 different organic compounds were detected by means of gas chromatograph/high-resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) detection and tentatively identified using mass spectral library searching, mainly aromatics, acids/esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phthalates and amines/amino acids were analyzed. The percentage of elimination or formation levels reached during ozonation is also discussed in this study

  9. Raw materials, energy, water. Air pollution, ecological nutrition, alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepper, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    ''Ecological cattle breeding: A climate killer''. This was the title of an article in ''Frankfurter Rundschau'' journal, which summarized the findings of a study according to which ecological cattle breeding is more harmful to the environment than conventional cattle breeding, not least because eco-cattle live longer and are kept according to the principles of organic farming. This special issue of OeKO-TEST goes into detail about ecological nutrition. After all, animal farming accounts for 18 percent of the global climate-relevant gaseous emissions. A closer look will show that ecological cattle breeding is not a climate killer but that ecological farming and nutrition may even help in the fight against global climate change. In fact, this has been known all along, as are other strategies to prevent global warming. Thirty years ago, the Oeko-Institut, Freiburg, published a concept to prevent global climate change that is still up to date. It comprises energy conservation, rational energy use, and the utilization of alternative energy sources. If these concepts had been followed then and there, we would not have the problems of global climate change and rising energy cost today. We all know how to save this planet and how to prevent the dying out of species, the pollution of the oceans and air, and the destruction of forests. It is up to us to do it. (orig.)

  10. Cytogenotoxicity screening of source water, wastewater and treated water of drinking water treatment plants using two in vivo test systems: Allium cepa root based and Nile tilapia erythrocyte based tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2017-01-01

    Biological effect directed in vivo tests with model organisms are useful in assessing potential health risks associated with chemical contaminations in surface waters. This study examined the applicability of two in vivo test systems viz. plant, Allium cepa root based tests and fish, Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based tests for screening cytogenotoxic potential of raw source water, water treatment waste (effluents) and treated water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using two DWTPs associated with a major river in Sri Lanka. Measured physico-chemical parameters of the raw water, effluents and treated water samples complied with the respective Sri Lankan standards. In the in vivo tests, raw water induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitodepression and chromosomal abnormalities in the root meristem of the plant and micronuclei/nuclear buds evolution and genetic damage (as reflected by comet scores) in the erythrocytes of the fish compared to the aged tap water controls signifying greater genotoxicity of the source water especially in the dry period. The effluents provoked relatively high cytogenotoxic effects on both test systems but the toxicity in most cases was considerably reduced to the raw water level with the effluent dilution (1:8). In vivo tests indicated reduction of cytogenotoxic potential in the tested drinking water samples. The results support the potential applications of practically feasible in vivo biological test systems such as A. cepa root based tests and the fish erythrocyte based tests as complementary tools for screening cytogenotoxicity potential of the source water and water treatment waste reaching downstream of aquatic ecosystems and for evaluating cytogenotoxicity eliminating efficacy of the DWTPs in different seasons in view of human and ecological safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor

    2012-01-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  12. Human-associated fecal qPCR measurements and predicted risk of gastrointestinal illness in recreational waters contaminated with raw sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  13. Human-Associated Fecal Quantitative Polymerase Chain ReactionMeasurements and Simulated Risk of Gastrointestinal Illness in Recreational Waters Contaminated with Raw Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) illness associated with swimming in recreational waters containing different concentrations of human-associated fecal qPCR markers from raw sewage– HF183 and HumM2. The volume/volu...

  14. Use of rice rusk ash and spent catalyst as a source of raw material for the production and characterization of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Mariana Silva de

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the use of two industrial solid wastes (ISW), generated in large quantities in Brazil, were presented in production of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging. The evaluated wastes were rice husk ash (RHA) and the spent catalyst at the Petrochemical Fluid Catalytic Cracking units (ECAT), both may be classified as a class II solid waste according to NBR 10.004. This new proposal for the allocation of such wastes is an alternative to current provisions, seeking not only to minimize environmental impacts, but also enrich them as raw materials. For the samples production, besides ISW were used melting oxide (Na 2 CO 3 ) and stabilizer oxide (CaO).The results demonstrate that both can be used in their raw form (without treatment) replacing important raw materials, sources of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , essential for glass formation. The samples obtained presented amber color due to the presence of nickel (Ni² + ion) from ECAT and 18% of optical transmittance. They also showed a good homogeneity, i.e., absence of bubbles and striae and 1,33 x 10 -8 g/cm²·day of hydrolytic resistance according to ISO695-1984. Thus, the obtained glass is suitable for applications requiring low light transmittance such as colored glasses containers in general, which does not require perfect visibility and transparency. The incorporation in the final composition was approximately 78% in mass. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (a)(4) of this section based on the E. coli level that applies to the nearest surface water body. If no surface water body is nearby, the system must comply based on the requirements that apply to... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring...

  16. Installation design of pump motor control systems for supplied of the RSG-GAS secondary raw water cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiswanto; Teguh Sulistyo; M-Taufik

    2013-01-01

    It has designed already of an installation of the pump motor control system for supplied of raw water to fulfil the RSG-GAS secondary cooling system. The installation design of this plant is used to supply electrical energy from PLN and 3 phase generator to operate the pump motor embedded multilevel type, capacity, Q = 30 m 3 /h; electric power, PN = 4 kW; voltage, 380V/3-/50Hz, and Y connections that can be operated manually or automatically by using the automatic transfer switch. The results obtained recapitulation total load of 4 kW, the magnitude of the nominal current of 9.5 A; kind of safety and capacity are used NFB 16 A, use of this type of cable to the control panel is PLN NYY 6 mm 2 diameter maximum current capacity of 25 A cable and use the control panel to the pump motor cable type NYY 4 mm 2 diameter maximum current capacity of 20 A. The design of the pump motor control system installation is ready to be implemented. (author)

  17. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  18. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). In this presentation, we review the literature linking raw wate...

  19. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  20. Raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . Although science and technology studies (STS) makes a strong case for associating relationality with certainty, the article argues that a particular form of data, ‘raw data’, complicates this association. It further argues that scientific data is not simply composed out of relations, but is a relation......This article takes scientific ‘raw data’ as its ethnographic object in order to investigate the co-implication of nature and culture in scientific knowledge practices. The article traces out some of the activities that are involved in producing numerical climate data from the Brazilian Amazon...... itself. The article ends with a brief reflection on the possible repercussions of shifting from thinking of science as producing multiple natures and cultures to thinking of it as producing the potential for relations....

  1. Effects of using kaolin waste and granite waste as raw materials for the production of low-water absorption ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freires, H.P.; Argonz, R.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Sasaki, J.M.; Sales, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of co-use of granite waste (Rain Forest) and kaolin waste as raw material for the manufacture of ceramic coating of low water absorption. Raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Kaolin residue was added to the residue of granite in the following proportions (in wt%): 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. Specimens were fabricated by uniaxial pressing and fired at 1175,1200 and 1225 deg C. Studies of firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent porosity, apparent density and tensile bending test (or rupture modulus) were conducted. The temperature of 1225 deg C allowed the use of a mixture of 50% granite residue and 50% kaolin residue. Ceramic parts made from that mixture exhibited the maximum values required by the Brazilian Standard NBR 13818 for water absorption, shrinkage and density. (author)

  2. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  3. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    @yahoo.com ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  4. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  5. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  6. Impact of diatomite on the slightly polluted algae-containing raw water treatment process using ozone oxidation coupled with polyaluminum chloride coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde; Jia, Aiyin; Zhang, Zhilin; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    The impact of adding diatomite on the treatment performance of slightly polluted algae-containing raw water using ozone pre-oxidation and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) coagulation was investigated. Results demonstrated that the addition of diatomite is advantageous due to reduction of the PAC dose (58.33%) and improvement of the removal efficiency of algae, turbidity, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in raw water. When the ozone concentration was 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and the PAC dosage was 2.5 mg L⁻¹, the removal rates of algae, turbidity, UV254, and TOC were improved by 6.39%, 7.06%, 6.76%, and 4.03%, respectively, with the addition of 0.4 g L⁻¹ diatomite. It has been found that the DOM presented in the Pearl River raw water mainly consisted of small molecules ( 50 kDa). After adding diatomite (0.4 g L⁻¹), the additional removal of 5.77% TOC and 14.82% UV254 for small molecules (50 kDa) could be achieved, respectively, at an ozone concentration of 1.0 mg L⁻¹ and a PAC dose of 2.5 mg L⁻¹. The growth of anabaena flos-aquae (A.F.) was observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after adding diatomite. AFM images demonstrate that diatomite may have a certain adsorption on A.F.

  7. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  8. Neutron activation analysis on source of raw material of terracotta warriors and horses in No.2 pit of Qin Shihuang's mausoleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Han Guohe

    2002-01-01

    32 trace element contents in each sample are measured by neutron activation analysis for the selected that 19 samples of terracotta warriors and horses from No.2 pit of Emperor Qin shihuang's Mausoleum, 20 samples clay nearby Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. The trend cluster analysis diagram is obtained after sorting the data. The results show that the samples from the No.2 pit of Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum have a close relationship with the clay samples from the neighborhood of the Mausoleum. Consequently, the source of raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses may come from some places nearby the Mausoleum, the kiln sites may be also neighborhood of the Mausoleum. There is also a preliminary study on the relationship between the sealing earth of the Mausoleum, rammed earth and backfill of the No.2 pit and the clay from the nearby place

  9. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pablo Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked to the total (t-As and inorganic (i-As arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9. Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1 by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas.

  10. Estimation of Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Food (Raw and Cooked) in a Rural Village of Northern Chile. Urine as a Biomarker of Recent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Oscar Pablo; Arcos, Rafael; Tapia, Yasna; Pastene, Rubén; Velez, Dínoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Montoro, Rosa; Aguilera, Valeska; Becerra, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate both the contribution of drinking water and food (raw and cooked) to the total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic intake and the exposure of inhabitants of Socaire, a rural village in Chile´s Antofagasta Region, by using urine as biomarker. The i-As intake from food and water was estimated using samples collected between November 2008 and September 2009. A 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was given to 20 participants. Drinking water, food (raw and cooked) and urine samples were collected directly from the homes where the interviewees lived. The percentage of i-As/t-As in the drinking water that contributed to the total intake was variable (26.8–92.9). Cereals and vegetables are the food groups that contain higher concentrations of i-As. All of the participants interviewed exceeded the reference intake FAO/OMS (149.8 µg∙i-As·day−1) by approximately nine times. The concentration of t-As in urine in each individual ranged from 78 to 459 ng·mL−1. Estimated As intake from drinking water and food was not associated with total urinary As concentration. The results show that both drinking water and food substantially contribute to i-As intake and an increased exposure risk to adult residents in contaminated areas. PMID:26006131

  11. Heavy Metals Pollution on Surface Water Sources in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examine the effects of heavy metal pollutants to aquatic ecosystems and the environment by considering the role of urban, municipal, agricultural, industrial and other anthropogenic processes as sources of heavy metal pollution in surface water sources of Kaduna metropolis. Samples of the polluted water were ...

  12. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  13. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  14. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  15. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  16. Raw and extruded pea (Pisum sativum and lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia seeds as protein sources in weaned piglets’ diets: effect on growth rate and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 42 days trial was carried out using 140 piglets weaned at 28 days of age. The piglets were allocated according to  weight and sex to the 5 dietary treatments with 7 replicates for each treatments (4 pens x 4 castrated males and 3 pens  x 4 females. The piglets were fed according to the following experimental design: 1 control diet (CTR with soybean  meal (SBM 44% c.p. as protein source; 2 CRT diets with 200 g/kg of raw pea (Pisum sativum (RP; 3 CTR diet with  200 g/kg extruded pea (EP; 4 CRT diet with 170 g/kg raw lupin (Lupinus albusvar. Multitalia (RL; 5 CTR diet with  170 g/kg of extruded lupin (EL. During the trial, animals were weighed at 0 - 21 and 42 days from the start of the trial.  Feed intake was monitored and feed conversion ratio was calculated for the periods 0-21 d and 22-42 d. At the end of  the trial, blood samples were taken for 14 animals for each dietary treatment (2 animals per replicate and analysed for  total protein, urea and liver activity (ALT, AST and ALP parameters. Average daily weight gain and feed intake did not  differ according to dietary treatments whereas during the total experimental period (0-42 d, feed conversion ratio was  higher for EP vsCTR diet (2.35 vs2.09, respectively; P   compared with diets containing the raw ingredients did not differ. Feed conversion ratio for the RP was numerically high-  er than for the EP (2.35 vs2.16 and 2.76 vs2.32, respectively during 22-42 d and 0-42 d periods. Blood parameters  did not show significant difference among dietary treatments except for higher total protein for CTR diet vsRL diet, EL  and RP (67.3 vs62.2, 62.8 and 63.6 g/l, respectively; PvsRL  and RL (4.7 vs3.7 and 3.8 mmol/l respectively; P 

  17. Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed  Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Jokela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions.

  18. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    The overall aim of the present study is to identify and evaluate the importance of sources of nonylphenoles and phthalates in waste water in a local environment. The investigations were carried out in a Danish local community, Roskilde city and surroundings. Nonylphenoles and phthalates were...... analysed in the waste water from different institutions and industries thought to be potential sources. These were: car wash centers, a hospital, a kindergarten, an adhesive industry and a industrial laundry. Furthermore, analysis of the deposition in the area were carried out. This made it possible...... to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...

  19. Occurrence and fate of micropollutants in the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Part II: micropollutant removal between wastewater and raw drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Barbara; Bonvin, Florence; Reiser, Hans; Grandjean, Dominique; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Perazzolo, Chiara; Chèvre, Nathalie; Kohn, Tamar

    2010-08-01

    The occurrence and removal of 58 pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and pesticides, were assessed in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, as well as in the effluent-receiving water body, the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva. An analytical screening method to simultaneously measure all of the 58 micropollutants was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The selection of pharmaceuticals was primarily based on a prioritization study, which designated them as environmentally relevant for the Lake Geneva region. Except for the endocrine disruptor 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, all substances were detected in 24-h composite samples of wastewater entering the WWTP or in the treated effluent. Of these compounds, 40% were also detected in raw drinking water, pumped from the lake 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The contributions of dilution and degradation to micropollutant elimination between the WWTP outlet and the raw drinking water intake were established in different model scenarios using hypothetical residence times of the wastewater in Vidy Bay of 1, 4, or 90 d. Concentration decrease due to processes other than dilution was observed for diclofenac, beta-blockers, several antibiotics, corrosion inhibitors, and pesticides. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of pharmaceuticals were compared to the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) determined in the prioritization study and agreed within one order of magnitude, but MECs were typically greater than the corresponding PECs. Predicted no-effect concentrations of the analgesic paracetamol, and the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, were exceeded in raw drinking water samples and therefore present a potential risk to the ecosystem. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  20. Water: A Source of Life and Culture. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water as a…

  1. BioXTAS RAW: improvements to a free open-source program for small-angle X-ray scattering data reduction and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jesse Bennett; Gillilan, Richard E; Skou, Soren

    2017-10-01

    BioXTAS RAW is a graphical-user-interface-based free open-source Python program for reduction and analysis of small-angle X-ray solution scattering (SAXS) data. The software is designed for biological SAXS data and enables creation and plotting of one-dimensional scattering profiles from two-dimensional detector images, standard data operations such as averaging and subtraction and analysis of radius of gyration and molecular weight, and advanced analysis such as calculation of inverse Fourier transforms and envelopes. It also allows easy processing of inline size-exclusion chromatography coupled SAXS data and data deconvolution using the evolving factor analysis method. It provides an alternative to closed-source programs such as Primus and ScÅtter for primary data analysis. Because it can calibrate, mask and integrate images it also provides an alternative to synchrotron beamline pipelines that scientists can install on their own computers and use both at home and at the beamline.

  2. Purification and Structural Characterization of a Novel Water-Soluble Neutral Polysaccharide from Cantharellus cibarius and Its Immunostimulating Activity in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients of Cantharellus cibarius. The aims of this work were to analyze preliminary characterization and to investigate immunostimulating activity of a novel water-soluble neutral polysaccharide named JP1, which was purified from the fruiting body of Cantharellus cibarius using DEAE-FF chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The characteristics of JP1 were determined by HPGPC, FT-IR spectra, gas chromatography, and Congo Red Method. Immunostimulating activity of JP1 was investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that JP1 consisted of L-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1.06 : 1.95 : 1.17 with a molecular weight of 336 kDa. JP1 is nontoxic to RAW264.7 cells at this concentration range (62.5–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, JP1 can promote mouse peritoneal macrophages to secrete NO and enhance the secretion of macrophages’ cytokines IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that JP1 could have potential immunostimulating activity applications as medicine or functional food.

  3. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  4. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  5. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  6. Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cml

    2012-06-16

    Jun 16, 2012 ... Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers ... include leakage of pipes, pollution from sewerage pipes ..... and Quality Control Authority, Karachi, Pakistan.

  7. Level of Faecal Coliform Contamination of Drinking Water Sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... ... of Drinking Water Sources and Its Associated Risk Factors in Rural Settings of North Gondar ... of Environmental & Occupational. Health & Safety, Gondar, Ethiopia. 2University of Gondar .... technicians. All sampling bottles ...

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  9. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  10. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  11. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  12. Use of rice rusk ash and spent catalyst as a source of raw material for the production and characterization of soda-lime silicate glasses destined for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.S.; Martinelli, J.R.; Genova, L.A.; Prado, U.S. do

    2016-01-01

    Study on the use of rice husk ash (RHA) and waste catalyst (ECAT), two industrial solid waste generated in large quantities in Brazil, getting soda-lime glass for the production of packaging. Both the waste may be classified as class II waste according to NBR 10,004. Samples were produced adding Na_2CO_3 and CaO to obtain a composition within the range of commercial soda-lime glasses. The results showed that both can be used as received (without any previous treatment) replacing important raw materials, source of Al_2O_3 and SiO2, necessary for glass formation. The produced samples were amber due to the presence of nickel (Ni2+ ions) from the ECAT and optical transmittance of 18%. These also showed good homogeneity, i.e., absence of bubbles and striae and dissolution rate higher than a commercial soda-lime glass. In general, the samples are presented suitable for applications that require low transmittance such as colored glass containers, which does not require perfect visibility and transparency. Finally, the waste level of incorporation was approximately 78 mass%. (author)

  13. Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the levels of contamination of domestic water sources in Maiduguri Metropolis area of Borno State based on their physicochemical and bacteriological properties. It was informed by the global concern on good drinking water quality which is an indicator of development level; hence the focus on domestic ...

  14. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  15. Pollutants in drinking water - sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2005-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemicals and radionuclide etc. This is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  16. Preparation of water-equivalent radioactive solid sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Ione M.; Koskinas, Marina F.; Dias, Mauro S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of water-equivalent solid sources in two geometries, cylindrical and flat without the need of irradiation in a strong gamma radiation source to obtain polymerization is described. These sources should have density similar to water and good uniformity. Therefore, the density and uniformity of the distribution of radioactive material in the resins were measured. The variation of these parameters in the cylindrical geometry was better than 2.0% for the density and 2.3% for the uniformity and for the flat geometry the values obtained were better than 2.0 % and better than 1.3%, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the literature. (author)

  17. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  18. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe : State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources

  19. Influence of climate on alpine stream chemistry and water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foks, Sydney; Stets, Edward; Singha, Kamini; Clow, David W.

    2018-01-01

    The resilience of alpine/subalpine watersheds may be viewed as the resistance of streamflow or stream chemistry to change under varying climatic conditions, which is governed by the relative size (volume) and transit time of surface and subsurface water sources. Here, we use end‐member mixing analysis in Andrews Creek, an alpine stream in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from water year 1994 to 2015, to explore how the partitioning of water sources and associated hydrologic resilience change in response to climate. Our results indicate that four water sources are significant contributors to Andrews Creek, including snow, rain, soil water, and talus groundwater. Seasonal patterns in source‐water contributions reflected the seasonal hydrologic cycle, which is driven by the accumulation and melting of seasonal snowpack. Flushing of soil water had a large effect on stream chemistry during spring snowmelt, despite making only a small contribution to streamflow volume. Snow had a large influence on stream chemistry as well, contributing large amounts of water with low concentrations of weathering products. Interannual patterns in end‐member contributions reflected responses to drought and wet periods. Moderate and significant correlations exist between annual end‐member contributions and regional‐scale climate indices (the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index, and the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index). From water year 1994 to 2015, the percent contribution from the talus‐groundwater end member to Andrews Creek increased an average of 0.5% per year (p < 0.0001), whereas the percent contributions from snow plus rain decreased by a similar amount (p = 0.001). Our results show how water and solute sources in alpine environments shift in response to climate variability and highlight the role of talus groundwater and soil water in providing hydrologic resilience to the system.

  20. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, S.; Leitao, C.; Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Crespo, M.T. Barreto; Pereira, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. → Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. → Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. → The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm 2 , anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  1. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  2. Farm water as a possible source of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water depends on the water sources, but also on the quality of the water distribution system which supplies the water on to the final user. In addition, the possibility of contamination of water used for watering animals in the farm buildings depends on the hygienic conditions on farms. Microbiological quality of water on farms in Serbia has not been one of the main focuses of animal breeders, although according to the Food Safety Law water is considered as food. As feed safety for the animals, which includes microbiological analyses, is an important concern of breeder farmers, it is also important to control the water safety in order not to become a cause of the animal health problems. Change of the water quality is not important only from the sanitary epidemiological point of view, but the presence of different microorganisms, especially fungi, can cause changes in taste and smell, as organoleptic properties of water. According to legal regulations, there is no difference between the quality requirements for drinking water relative to the water supply intended for animals. For the aforementioned reasons, the subject of this study is microbiological control of water samples from the drinkers for animals at farms. The aim of the work is to examine which fungi are possibly present in the water and what their number is. In total, 35 samples of water from pig and poultry farms were tested. The method of direct seeding and filtration was used. The presence of different types of mold (Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Mucor sp. and Rhizopus sp., and Candida sp. was determined. The results indicate the necessity of microbiological control of water for watering of farm animals, which implies the analysis for the presence of molds. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR31071

  3. Pollution of water sources and removal of pollutants by advanced drinking-water treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    The pollution of water resources and drinking water sources in China is described in this paper with basic data. About 90% of surface waters and over 60% of drinking water sources in urban areas have been polluted to different extents. The main pollutants present in drinking water sources are organic substances, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, pesticides and pathogenic micro-organisms, some of which cannot be removed effectively by the traditional water treatment processes like coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorination, and the product water usually does not meet Chinese national drinking water standards, when polluted source water is treated. In some drinking-water plants in China, advanced treatment processes including activated carbon filtration and adsorption, ozonation, biological activated carbon and membrane separation have been employed for further treatment of the filtrate from a traditional treatment system producing unqualified drinking water, to make final product water meet the WHO guidelines and some developed countries' standards, as well as the Chinese national standards for drinking water. Some case studies of advanced water treatment plants are described in this paper as well.

  4. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  5. Propagation of Exploration Seismic Sources in Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.; Barton, P. J.; Gulick, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    The choice of safety radii to mitigation the impact of exploration seismic sources upon marine mammals is typically based on measurement or modeling in deep water. In shallow water environments, rule-of-thumb spreading laws are often used to predict the falloff of amplitude with offset from the source, but actual measurements (or ideally, near-perfect modeling) are still needed to account for the effects of bathymetric changes and subseafloor characteristics. In addition, the question: "how shallow is 'shallow?'" needs an answer. In a cooperative effort by NSF, MMS, NRL, IAGC and L-DEO, a series of seismic source calibration studies was carried out in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during 2003. The sources used were the two-, six-, ten-, twelve-, and twenty-airgun arrays of R/V Ewing, and a 31-element, 3-string "G" gun array, deployed by M/V Kondor, an exploration industry source ship. The results of the Ewing calibrations have been published, documenting results in deep (3200m) and shallow (60m) water. Lengthy analysis of the Kondor results, presented here, suggests an approach to answering the "how shallow is shallow" question. After initially falling off steadily with source-receiver offset, the Kondor levels suddenly increased at a 4km offset. Ray-based modeling with a complex, realistic source, but with a simple homogeneous water column-over-elastic halfspace ocean shows that the observed pattern is chiefly due to geophysical effects, and not focusing within the water column. The same kind of modeling can be used to predict how the amplitudes will change with decreasing water depth, and when deep-water safety radii may need to be increased. Another set of data (see Barton, et al., this session) recorded in 20 meters of water during early 2005, however, shows that simple modeling may be insufficient when the geophysics becomes more complex. In this particular case, the fact that the seafloor was within the near field of the R/V Ewing source array seems to have

  6. Consumer Perception and Preference of Drinking Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source.

  7. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, V.; Baude, I.

    2012-04-01

    As a biology and geology teacher, I have worked on water, from the source to the treatment plant, with pupils between 14 and 15 years old. Lesson 1. Introduction, the water in Vienna Aim: The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2. Soil, rock and water Aim: Permeability/ impermeability of the different layers of earth Activities: The pupils have measure the permeability and porosity of different stones: granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt. Lesson 3. Relationship between water's ion composition and the stone's mineralogy Aim: Each water source has the same ion composition as the soil where the water comes from. Activities: Comparison between the stone's mineralogy and ions in water. They had a diagram with the ions of granite, clay, sand, carbonate and basalt and the label of different water. They had to make hypotheses about the type of soil where the water came from. They verified this with a geology map of France and Austria. They have to make a profile of the area where the water comes from. They had to confirm or reject their hypothesis. Lesson 4 .Water-catchment and reservoir rocks Aim: Construction of a confined aquifer and artesian well Activities: With sand, clay and a basin, they have to model a confined aquifer and make an artesian well, using what they have learned in lesson 2. Lesson 5. Organic material breakdown and it's affect on the oxygen levels in an aquatic ecosystem Aim: Evaluate the relationship between oxygen levels and the amount of organic matter in an aquatic ecosystem. Explain the relationship between oxygen levels, bacteria and the breakdown of organic matter using an indicator solution. Activities: Put 5 ml of a different water sample in each tube with 20 drops of methylene blue. Observe the tubes after 1 month. Lesson 6. Visit to the biggest water treatment plant in

  8. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  9. Preliminary study on the radiological and physicochemical quality of the Umgeni Water catchments and drinking water sources in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickum, T.; John, W.; Terry, S.; Hodgson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Raw and potable water sample sources, from the Umgeni Water catchment areas (rivers, dams, boreholes) in central KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), were screened for Uranium concentration and alpha and beta radioactivity. Test methods used were gas flow proportional counting for alpha-beta radioactivity, and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), for Uranium. The uranium levels (median = 0.525 μg/L, range = <0.050–5.010) were well below the international World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) guideline for drinking-water quality (≤15 μg/L). The corresponding alpha and beta radioactivity was ≤0.5 Bq/L (median = 0.084, Interquartile Range (IR) = 0.038, range = 0.018–0.094), and ≤1.0 Bq/L (median = 0.114, IR = 0.096, range = 0.024–0.734), respectively, in compliance with the international WHO limits. For uranium radionuclide, the average dose level, at uranium level of ±0.525 μg/L, was 0.06 μSv/a, which complies with the WHO reference dose level for drinking water (<0.1 mSv/a). There was a distinct trend of cluster of relatively higher Uranium levels of some sources that were found to be associated with the geology/geography and groundwater sources. Overall, the radiological water quality classification, with respect to WHO, is “Blue” – ideal; additional physicochemical analyses indicated good water quality. The analytical test methods employed were found to be suitable for preliminary screening for potential radioactive “hot spots”. The observed Uranium levels, and the alpha/beta radioactivity, indicate contribution largely from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), with no significant health risk to humans, or to the environment. - Highlights: • Radiological and physicochemical quality of raw and drinking water sources. • Suitability of kinetic phosphorescence analysis for Uranium analysis of water. • Suitability of gas flow proportional counting for determining radioactivity of water. • The Effective

  10. Sources of radioiodine at pressurized water reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.A.; Cline, J.E.; Barefoot, E.D.; Hemphill, R.T.; Voilleque, P.G.; Emel, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    The report determines specific components and operations at operating pressurized water reactors that have a potential for being significant emission sources of radioactive iodine. The relative magnitudes of these specific sources in terms of the chemical forms of the radioiodine and the resultant annual averages from major components are established. The data are generalized for broad industry use for predictive purposes. The conclusions of this study indicate that the majority of radioiodine emanating from the primary side of pressurized water reactors comes from a few major areas; in some cases these sources are locally treatable; the interaction of radioiodine with plant interior surfaces is an important phenomenon mediating the source and affecting its release to the atmosphere; the chemical form varies depending on the circumstances of the release

  11. Aerosol behavior and light water reactor source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, F.; Schikarski, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    The major developments in nuclear aerosol modeling following the accident to pressurized water reactor Unit 2 at Three Mile Island are briefly reviewed and the state of the art summarized. The importance and implications of these developments for severe accident source terms for light water reactors are then discussed in general terms. The treatment is not aimed at identifying specific source term values but is intended rather to illustrate trends, to assess the adequacy of the understanding of major aspects of aerosol behavior for source term prediction, and demonstrate in qualitative terms the effect of various aspects of reactor design. Areas where improved understanding of aerosol behavior might lead to further reductions in current source terms predictions are also considered

  12. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  13. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments finally. The results show that the detection method using hypotheses testing is more stable. The performance of the coarse localization algorithm depends on the nodes density. The localization based on the diffusion model can yield precise localization results; however, the results are not stable. The localization method based on the contour is better than the other two localization methods when the concentration contours are axisymmetric. Thus, in the water pollution source localization, the detection using hypotheses testing is more preferable in the source detection step. If concentration contours are axisymmetric, the localization method based on the contour is the first option. And, in case the nodes are dense and there is no explicit diffusion model, the coarse localization algorithm can be used, or else the localization based on diffusion models is a good choice.

  14. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  15. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  16. Review of, and improvements to, the techniques of trace element analysis of raw water for home dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, A.P.; Drury, P.J.; Ineson, P.R.; Harston, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The optimum operating conditions for the measurement of aluminium and iron concentrations in water by atomic absorption spectrometry have been determined experimentally. The characteristics of an ion-selective electrode for the measurement of fluoride have also been investigated. Contrary to other work, the addition of acid to samples did not improve their storage stability, although the acid-washing of polyethylene containers is recommended for the storage of water.

  17. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  18. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  19. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  20. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Zhao; Yanrui Zhang; Haojun Mi; Yimeng Zhou; Yong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The heat pump water heater (HPWH), as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat...

  1. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  2. Differences in staining intensities affect reported occurrences and concentrations of Giardia spp. in surface drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderisio, K A; Villegas, L F; Ware, M W; McDonald, L A; Xiao, L; Villegas, E N

    2017-12-01

    USEPA Method 1623, or its equivalent, is currently used to monitor for protozoan contamination of surface drinking water sources worldwide. At least three approved staining kits used for detecting Cryptosporidium and Giardia are commercially available. This study focuses on understanding the differences among staining kits used for Method 1623. Merifluor and EasyStain labelling kits were used to monitor Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst densities in New York City's raw surface water sources. In the year following a change to the approved staining kits for use with Method 1623, an anomaly was noted in the occurrence of Giardia cysts in New York City's raw surface water. Specifically, Merifluor-stained samples had higher Giardia cyst densities as compared with those stained with EasyStain. Side by side comparison revealed significantly lower fluorescence intensities of Giardia muris as compared with Giardia duodenalis cysts when labelled with EasyStain. This study showed very poor fluorescence intensity signals by EasyStain on G. muris cysts resulting in lower cyst counts, while Merifluor, with its broader Giardia cyst staining specificity, resulted in higher cyst counts, when using Methods 1623. These results suggest that detected Giardia cyst concentrations are dependent on the staining kits used, which can result in a more or less conservative estimation of occurrences and densities of zoonotic Giardia cysts by detecting a broader range of Giardia species/Assemblages. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to examine the association between domestic water sourcing practice and the risk of developing diarrhea. A total of 200 households were studied over an eight week period from 4 June to 31st July 2005 using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1. Most of ...

  4. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems serving at least 10,000 people must report the results from the initial source water monitoring... reporting monitoring results that EPA approves. (c) Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must report.... PWS ID. 2. Facility ID. 3. Sample collection date. 4. Analytical method number. 5. Method type. 6...

  5. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  6. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  7. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  8. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  9. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  10. Modeling the contribution of point sources and non-point sources to Thachin River water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Monika; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Major rivers in developing and emerging countries suffer increasingly of severe degradation of water quality. The current study uses a mathematical Material Flow Analysis (MMFA) as a complementary approach to address the degradation of river water quality due to nutrient pollution in the Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand. This paper gives an overview of the origins and flow paths of the various point- and non-point pollution sources in the Thachin River Basin (in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus) and quantifies their relative importance within the system. The key parameters influencing the main nutrient flows are determined and possible mitigation measures discussed. The results show that aquaculture (as a point source) and rice farming (as a non-point source) are the key nutrient sources in the Thachin River Basin. Other point sources such as pig farms, households and industries, which were previously cited as the most relevant pollution sources in terms of organic pollution, play less significant roles in comparison. This order of importance shifts when considering the model results for the provincial level. Crosschecks with secondary data and field studies confirm the plausibility of our simulations. Specific nutrient loads for the pollution sources are derived; these can be used for a first broad quantification of nutrient pollution in comparable river basins. Based on an identification of the sensitive model parameters, possible mitigation scenarios are determined and their potential to reduce the nutrient load evaluated. A comparison of simulated nutrient loads with measured nutrient concentrations shows that nutrient retention in the river system may be significant. Sedimentation in the slow flowing surface water network as well as nitrogen emission to the air from the warm oxygen deficient waters are certainly partly responsible, but also wetlands along the river banks could play an important role as nutrient sinks.

  11. Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

    2013-10-15

    Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  13. Water quality - Measurement of gross alpha activity in non-saline water - Thick source method. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 degree Centigrade. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters. The range of application depends on the amount of suspended matter in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. Gross alpha radioactivity is determined by using proportional counting or solid scintillation counting on water residue deposited on a planchet. Due to the strong absorption of the residue deposit, it is considered that the alpha emission from the surface is proportional to the alpha activity of the deposit. Gross alpha determination is not an absolute determination of the sample alpha radioactive content, but a relative determination referring to a specific alpha emitter which constitutes the standard calibration source. This type of determination is also known as alpha index. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 degree Centigrade. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchet and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard and the alpha activity concentration calculated. The paper provides information about scope, normative references, symbols, definitions and units, principle, reagents and equipment, procedure, contamination check, expression of results and test report

  14. From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR. Rörig

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.

  15. Water: from the source to the treatment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, I.; Marquet, V.

    2012-04-01

    Isabelle BAUDE isa.baude@free.fr Lycee français de Vienne Liechtensteinstrasse 37AVienna As a physics and chemistry teacher, I have worked on water from the source to the treatment plant with 27 pupils between 14 and 15 years old enrolled in the option "Science and laboratory". The objectives of this option are to interest students in science, to introduce them to practical methods of laboratory analyses, and let them use computer technology. Teaching takes place every two weeks and lasts 1.5 hours. The theme of water is a common project with the biology and geology teacher, Mrs. Virginie Marquet. Lesson 1: Introduction: The water in Vienna The pupils have to consider why the water is so important in Vienna (history, economy etc.) and where tap water comes from. Activities: Brainstorming about where and why we use water every day and why the water is different in Vienna. Lesson 2: Objectives of the session: What are the differences between mineral waters? Activities: Compare water from different origins (France: Evian, Vittel, Contrex. Austria: Vöslauer, Juvina, Gasteiner and tap water from Vienna) by tasting and finding the main ions they contain. Testing ions: Calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, and potassium Lesson 3: Objectives of the session: Build a hydrometer Activities: Producing a range of calibration solutions, build and calibrate the hydrometer with different salt-water solutions. Measure the density of the Dead Sea's water and other mineral waters. Lesson 4: Objectives of the session: How does a fountain work? Activities: Construction of a fountain as Heron of Alexandria with simple equipment and try to understand the hydrostatic principles. Lesson 5: Objectives of the session: Study of the physical processes of water treatment (decantation, filtration, screening) Activities: Build a natural filter with sand, stone, carbon, and cotton wool. Retrieve the filtered water to test it during lesson 7. Lesson 6: Visit of the biggest treatment

  16. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H...

  17. Settling and growth of D. polymorpha in the raw water circuits of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (Moselle, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreteau, J.C.; Khalanski, M.

    1994-05-01

    A''biological profile'' of the zebra mussels which are infesting certain circuits of the Cattenom nuclear power plant has been provided by data collected during a three-year measurement programme (1991-1993). The larval settlement periods and the growth of settled mussels were monitored. A simple mathematical model, which calculates the shell growth on the long term, was calibrated with the field data. It is based on three functions representing the effect of the initial size, water temperature and fool availability (plankton chlorophyll a). (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Water Adsorption Isotherms on Fly Ash from Several Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navea, Juan G; Richmond, Emily; Stortini, Talia; Greenspan, Jillian

    2017-10-03

    In this study, horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gravimetry to investigate the adsorption isotherms of water on fly ash, a byproduct of coal combustion in power plants. Because of composition variability with the source region, water uptake was studied at room temperature as a function of relative humidity (RH) on fly ash from several regions: United States, India, The Netherlands, and Germany. The FT-IR spectra show water features growth as a function of RH, with water absorbing on the particle surface in both an ordered (ice-like) and a disordered (liquid-like) structure. The QCM data was modeled using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm model. The BET model was found to describe the data well over the entire range of RH, showing that water uptake on fly ash takes place mostly on the surface of the particle, even for poorly combusted samples. In addition, the source region and power-plant efficiency play important roles in the water uptake and ice nucleation (IN) ability of fly ash. The difference in the observed water uptake and IN behavior between the four samples and mullite (3Al 2 O 3 ·2SiO 2 ), the aluminosilicate main component of fly ash, is attributed to differences in composition and the density of OH binding sites on the surface of each sample. A discussion is presented on the RH required to reach monolayer coverage on each sample as well as a comparison between surface sites of fly ash samples and enthalpies of adsorption of water between the samples and mullite.

  19. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  1. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  2. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  3. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  4. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  5. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  6. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  7. Microbial Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Kazem Neisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Vegetables are useful for humans as they contain minerals, vitamins, fiber and other nutrients. Eating raw vegetables are a nutritional habit in Iranian families. Raw eating vegetables is the main source of parasitic infections. The aim of this study was to determine microbial contamination of raw vegetables in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014-2015. Materials and Methods: In this study, 20 samples collected from markets of Ahvaz. Average weight of collecting raw vegetables was 1 to 2 kilograms. Then, raw vegetables were washed by 4 to 5 liter tap water. For parasitic ova washed water leaved for 24 hours for sedimentation and then the supernatant poured and about 50 to 100 milliliter of settled water transferred to 15 ml centrifugal tubes. After centrifugation, pellet floated and finally parasitic ova were observed microscopically (corrected Bailenger method. The multiple tube method used for Coliform bacteria (Total & Faecal examination. Results: Maximum Coliform bacteria was in Kootabdullah samples (total Coliform was 25893319.52 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform was 15054572.83 MPN/100ml. Maximum Ascaris ova in Hamidieh was 43.3 per liter and Sheiban 36.66 per litter. Conclusion: Microbial contamination of raw vegetables, especially in Kootabdullah, possibly was due to Karoon river water pollution by sewage discharge of Ahvaz city, and also in Hamidieh possibly due to Karkheh river water pollution by sewage discharge of Hamidieh city. Thus, sewage treatment of these cities before discharging in rivers is necessary.

  8. Water Quality Assessment of River Soan (Pakistan) and Source Apportionment of Pollution Sources Through Receptor Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Summya; Ali, Zeshan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the spatiotemporal patterns in water quality of River Soan using multivariate statistics. A total of 26 sites were surveyed along River Soan and its associated tributaries during pre- and post-monsoon seasons in 2008. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA) classified sampling sites into three groups according to their degree of pollution, which ranged from least to high degradation of water quality. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) revealed that alkalinity, orthophosphates, nitrates, ammonia, salinity, and Cd were variables that significantly discriminate among three groups identified by HACA. Temporal trends as identified through DFA revealed that COD, DO, pH, Cu, Cd, and Cr could be attributed for major seasonal variations in water quality. PCA/FA identified six factors as potential sources of pollution of River Soan. Absolute principal component scores using multiple regression method (APCS-MLR) further explained the percent contribution from each source. Heavy metals were largely added through industrial activities (28 %) and sewage waste (28 %), nutrients through agriculture runoff (35 %) and sewage waste (28 %), organic pollution through sewage waste (27 %) and urban runoff (17 %) and macroelements through urban runoff (39 %), and mineralization and sewage waste (30 %). The present study showed that anthropogenic activities are the major source of variations in River Soan. In order to address the water quality issues, implementation of effective waste management measures are needed.

  9. Loading functions for assessment of water pollution from nonpoint sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, A.D.; Chiu, S.Y.; Nebgen, J.W.; Aleti, A.; Bennett, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Methods for evaluating the quantity of water pollutants generated from nonpoint sources including agriculture, silviculture, construction, mining, runoff from urban areas and rural roads, and terrestrial disposal are developed and compiled for use in water quality planning. The loading functions, plus in some instances emission values, permit calculation of nonpoint source pollutants from available data and information. Natural background was considered to be a source and loading functions were presented to estimate natural or background loads of pollutants. Loading functions/values are presented for average conditions, i.e., annual average loads expressed as metric tons/hectare/year (tons/acre/year). Procedures for estimating seasonal or 30-day maximum and minimum loads are also presented. In addition, a wide variety of required data inputs to loading functions, and delineation of sources of additional information are included in the report. The report also presents an evaluation of limitations and constraints of various methodologies which will enable the user to employ the functions realistically

  10. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  11. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  12. Prevalent glucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; George, Anuja A; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C; Schiltz, R Louis; Blazer, Vicki S; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Hager, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  13. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  14. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  15. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  16. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  17. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  18. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Bibi, S.; Javed, T.; Shah, Z.; Sajjad, M.I.

    1993-12-01

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  19. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  20. Responses of biofilm characteristics to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading in a moving-bed biofilm reactor treating micro-polluted raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangfu; Wang, Yayi; He, Weitao; Wu, Min; Xing, Meiyan; Yang, Jian; Gao, Naiyun; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-03-01

    A pilot-scale moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for biological treatment of micro-polluted raw water was operated over 400days to investigate the responses of biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance to variations in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. The mean removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N in the MBBR reached 71.4±26.9%, and batch experiments were performed to study nitrification kinetics for better process understanding. Seven physical-chemical parameters, including volatile solids (VS), polysaccharides (PS) and phospholipids (PL) increased firstly, and then rapidly decreased with increasing temperature and NH4(+)-N loading, and properly characterized the attached biomass during biofilm development and detachment in the MBBR. The biofilm compositions were described by six ratios, e.g., PS/VS and PL/VS ratios showed different variation trends, indicating different responses of PS and PL to the changes in temperature and NH4(+)-N loading. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that increased NH4(+)-N loadings caused an enrichment of the nitrifying biofilm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  2. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  3. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water reservoirs is to use the water that has seeped from the irrigation canals and irrigated fields and that has formed a small layer of fresh water on top of the brackish groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of irrigation seepage water for drinking results in less diarrhoea than direct use of irrigation water and how irrigation water management would impact on health. The study was undertaken in an irrigated area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Over a one-year period, drinking water sources used and diarrhoea episodes were recorded each day for all individuals of 200 households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained by the generally poor quality of water in the in-house storage vessels, reflecting considerable in-house contamination of drinking water. Risk factors for diarrhoea were absence of a water connection and water storage facility, lack of a toilet, low standard of hygiene, and low socio-economic status. The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0

  4. Impacts of water quality on the corrosion of cast iron pipes for water distribution and proposed source water switch strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Dong, Huiyu; Xu, Qiang; Ling, Wencui; Qu, Jiuhui; Qiang, Zhimin

    2018-02-01

    Switch of source water may induce "red water" episodes. This study investigated the impacts of water quality on iron release, dissolved oxygen consumption (ΔDO), corrosion scale evolution and bacterial community succession in cast iron pipes used for drinking water distribution at pilot scale, and proposed a source water switch strategy accordingly. Three sets of old cast iron pipe section (named BP, SP and GP) were excavated on site and assembled in a test base, which had historically transported blended water, surface water and groundwater, respectively. Results indicate that an increasing Cl - or SO 4 2- concentration accelerated iron release, but alkalinity and calcium hardness exhibited an opposite tendency. Disinfectant shift from free chlorine to monochloramine slightly inhibited iron release, while the impact of peroxymonosulfate depended on the source water historically transported in the test pipes. The ΔDO was highly consistent with iron release in all three pipe systems. The mass ratio of magnetite to goethite in the corrosion scales of SP was higher than those of BP and GP and kept almost unchanged over the whole operation period. Siderite and calcite formation confirmed that an increasing alkalinity and hardness inhibited iron release. Iron-reducing bacteria decreased in the BP but increased in the SP and GP; meanwhile, sulfur-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing and iron oxidizing bacteria increased in all three pipe systems. To avoid the occurrence of "red water", a source water switch strategy was proposed based on the difference between local and foreign water qualities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isotope studies of UK tufa deposits and associated source waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, P.M.

    1981-12-01

    Tufa is a secondary deposit of calcium carbonate precipitated from springs and streams. Previous attempts to date tufa deposits directly with 14 C have had limited success. The major problem is to quantify the amount of carbon incorporated in tufa, derived from the dissolution of carbonate bedrock, essentially free of 14 C. The isotopic composition of tufa-depositing streamwaters is similar to that of water recharging aquifers. The 14 C levels of recent tufa layers, at three sites, were similar to those of the source waters. 14 C dates from tufa at these sites suggested a Postglacial origin when corrected for bedrock carbon dilution of 16 to 24%. This dilution was overestimated by consideration of carbon mass balance using characteristic stable carbon isotope compositions (delta 13 C) for the biogenic and bedrock components. This method of correction is often applied to 14 C dates from groundwaters. The carbon isotope composition of spring waters supplying the tufa-depositing streams was realistically explained by a two stage process of carbonate dissolution under open and then closed conditions with respect to gaseous carbon dioxide. Seasonal variations in the 14 C and delta 13 C composition of stream and spring waters, downstream increases in 14 C and delta 13 C and seasonal variations in the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall are explained. (author)

  6. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  7. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  8. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  9. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  10. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  11. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.E.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G.H.; Schade, M.; Fernandez-Cassi, X.; Fuchs, W.; Mach, R.L.; Lindner, G.; Kirschner, A.; Gaisbauer, M.; Piringer, H.; Blaschke, A.P.; Girones, R.; Zessner, M.; Sommer, R.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml−1) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2–6.5 ME 100 ml−1), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53–65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3–3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7–4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if

  12. Use of multiple water surface flow constructed wetlands for non-point source water pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Yan; Chu, Zhaosheng; He, Yan; Huang, Minsheng

    2018-05-02

    Multiple free water surface flow constructed wetlands (multi-FWS CWs) are a variety of conventional water treatment plants for the interception of pollutants. This review encapsulated the characteristics and applications in the field of ecological non-point source water pollution control technology. The roles of in-series design and operation parameters (hydraulic residence time, hydraulic load rate, water depth and aspect ratio, composition of influent, and plant species) for performance intensification were also analyzed, which were crucial to achieve sustainable and effective contaminants removal, especially the retention of nutrient. The mechanism study of design and operation parameters for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus was also highlighted. Conducive perspectives for further research on optimizing its design/operation parameters and advanced technologies of ecological restoration were illustrated to possibly interpret the functions of multi-FWS CWs.

  13. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Results Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research......Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB......, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three...

  14. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  15. Pulsed Source Measurements on a Uranium-Water Subcritical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, I.H.; Walker, J.

    1964-01-01

    An unreflected assembly of natural uranium and light water has been used in conjunction with a pulsed source of neutrons for decay-time measurements at different bucklings. Four different lattice pitches over the range 3.94 cm to 5.08 cm were obtained by using different pairs of accurately machined lattice plates and in each case the uranium was in the form of bars 109.8 cm long and 3.0 cm diameter. The fuel- was mounted horizontally and loadings up to approximately 6 t were involved. Spatial harmonics were eliminated or selected by appropriate placing of a small scintillation detector. Experimental results showing the dependence of decay constant on buckling are presented and compared with theoretical values. (author) [fr

  16. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m 2 , with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m 2 . The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm 2 month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  17. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  18. Contamination of community water sources by potentially pathogenic vibrios following sea water inundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P

    2007-12-01

    Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases.

  19. Multiple time-reversed guide-sources in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.; Lingevitch, Joseph F.; Gauss, Roger C.; Menis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Detection in a monostatic, broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation-induced spreading. The detection improvement from multiple spatially separated guide sources (GSs) is presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. The improvement of detection by using information in a set of one-way transmissions from a variety of positions is shown using sea data. The experimental area is south of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New Jersey. The data were taken using five elements of a time-reversing VLA. The five elements were contiguous and at midwater depth. The target and guide source was an echo repeater positioned at various ranges and at middepth. The transmitted signals were 3.0- to 3.5-kHz LFMs. The data are analyzed to show the amount of information present in the collection, a baseline probability of detection (PD) not using the collection of GS signals, the improvement in PD from the use of various sets of GS signals. The dependence of the improvement as a function of range is also shown. [The authors acknowledge support from Dr. Jeffrey Simmen, ONR321OS, and the chief scientist Dr. Charles Holland. Work supported by ONR.

  20. Identification of sources and mechanisms of salt-water pollution ground-water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.C.; Dutton, A.R.; Kreitler, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on salinization of soils and ground water that is widespread in the Concho River watershed and other semiarid areas in Texas and the United States. Using more than 1,200 chemical analyses of water samples, the authors were able to differentiate various salinization mechanisms by mapping salinity patterns and hydrochemical facies and by analyzing isotopic compositions and ionic ratios. Results revealed that in Runnels County evaporation of irrigation water and ground water is a major salinization mechanism, whereas to the west, in Irion and Tom Green Counties, saline water appears to be a natural mixture of subsurface brine and shallowly circulating meteoric water recharged in the Concho River watershed. The authors concluded that the occurrence of poor-quality ground water is not a recent or single-source phenomenon; it has been affected by terracing of farmland, by disposal of oil-field brines into surface pits, and by upward flow of brine from the Coleman Junction Formation via insufficiently plugged abandoned boreholes

  1. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously

  2. Framework for local government to implement integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... Integrated water resource management (IWRM) is such a process and it ..... procedures. The WSDP consists of 10 business elements (see Table. 1). ..... Origin, volume and quality of raw water available from each source.

  3. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh -1 /NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  5. Determination of Key Risk Supervision Areas around River-Type Water Sources Affected by Multiple Risk Sources: A Case Study of Water Sources along the Yangtze’s Nanjing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide a reference for risk management of water sources, this study screens the key risk supervision areas around river-type water sources (hereinafter referred to as the water sources threatened by multiple fixed risk sources (the risk sources, and establishes a comprehensive methodological system. Specifically, it comprises: (1 method of partitioning risk source concentrated sub-regions for screening water source perimeter key risk supervision areas; (2 approach of determining sub-regional risk indexes (SrRI, which characterizes the scale of sub-regional risks considering factors like risk distribution intensity within sub-regions, risk indexes of risk sources (RIRS, characterizing the risk scale of risk sources and the number of risk sources; and (3 method of calculating sub-region’s risk threats to the water sources (SrTWS which considers the positional relationship between water sources and sub-regions as well as SrRI, and the criteria for determining key supervision sub-regions. Favorable effects are achieved by applying this methodological system in determining water source perimeter sub-regions distributed along the Yangtze’s Nanjing section. Results revealed that for water sources, the key sub-regions needing supervision were SD16, SD06, SD21, SD26, SD15, SD03, SD02, SD32, SD10, SD11, SD14, SD05, SD27, etc., in the order of criticality. The sub-region with the greatest risk threats on the water sources was SD16, which was located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. In general, sub-regions along the upper Yangtze reaches had greater threats to water sources than the lower reach sub-regions other than SD26 and SD21. Upstream water sources were less subject to the threats of sub-regions than the downstream sources other than NJ09B and NJ03.

  6. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  7. Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 using coconut water as a raw material substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Seesuriyachan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water (CW was used as a complex nitrogen source for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Lactobacillus confusus TISTR 1498 to reduce the cost of fermentation medium. EPS production was carried out in a bioreactor using (0.5× modified MRS-sucrose-CW medium, in which three relatively expensive complex nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract and beef extract were halved relative to those present in (1× modified MRS-sucrose medium. Fermentation parameters (pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed were varied in the process of optimisation. Under an optimised condition (pH 5.5, sucrose concentration of 100 g/L and agitation rate of 50 rpm, the maximum EPS level of 38.2 g/L was produced at 35C after 30 h of cultivation. This EPS concentration (38.2 g/L from the (0.5× medium was higher than those produced in the (1× modified MRS-sucrose and (1× modified MRS-sucrose-CW media (21.3 and 31.5 g/L respectively, both having the original concentration of all three complex nitrogen sources. Thus, in a bioreactor where the pH level was properly controlled, the EPS production was greatly enhanced. Sugar concentration also played an important role in the production of EPS.

  8. Water quality monitoring: a case study of water pollution in minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigates the level of purity in Minna water and its environs. Water samples were collected from four water sources; Federal University of Technology (FUT), Minna water tank (Treated water), Maikunkele (Borehole), Chanchaga (Water treatment plant) and Tagwai dam (Raw). The following analyses of pH, Total ...

  9. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  10. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  11. Chromium in Drinking Water: Sources, Metabolism, and Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor–dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10–20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  12. Studies on characteristics of water sources around Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, T.R.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Abdul Khadar, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic and detailed study of characteristics of ground water, Kali river water and rain water samples around Kaiga project area has been undertaken. The analysis of a large number of parameters revealed that the ground waters and Kali river water are of calcium-bicarbonate type as indicated by Romani's modified Hill Piper diagram. The ionic impurities in ground waters and Kali river water are well within the Indian Drinking Water Specifications. The results obtained would serve as base line data for future impact studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Presence of e-EDCs in surface water and effluents of pollution sources in Sai Gon and Dong Nai river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Le Thi Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the presence of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (e-EDCs including estriol, bisphenol A (BPA, atrazine (ATZ, octylphenol, octylphenol diethoxylate, octylphenol triethoxylate, nonylphenol, Nonylphenol triethoxylate (NPE3, nonylphenol diethoxylate (NPE2 and 17β-estradiol in: (i Sai Gon and Dong Nai river waters which have been major raw water sources for drinking water supply for Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC and neighbouring provinces, and (ii water pollution sources located in their catchment basin. NPE3 and NPE2 were detected in most of the surface water samples. Concentrations of NPE3 were in a range of less than 5.9–235 ng L−1, whereas BPA was detected at significantly high concentrations in the dry season in canals in HCMC. In the upstream of Sai Gon and Dong Nai Rivers, ATZ concentrations were observed at water intake of water treatment plants served for HCMC water supply system. Similarly, high potential risk of NPE2 and NPE3 contamination at Phu Cuong Bridge near Hoa Phu water intake was identified. The significant correlation between NPE2, dissolved organic carbon and total nitrogen was found. Estrogenic equivalent or estrogenic activity of Sai Gon and Dong Nai Rivers was lower than those of the previous studies. Compared with other studies, e-EDCs of pollution in Sai Gon river basin were relatively low.

  14. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X-Ray Source: an electronic brachytherapy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mark J; Davis, Stephen D; DeWerd, Larry A; Rusch, Thomas W; Axelrod, Steve

    2006-11-01

    A new x-ray source, the model S700 Axxent X-Ray Source (Source), has been developed by Xoft Inc. for electronic brachytherapy. Unlike brachytherapy sources containing radionuclides, this Source may be turned on and off at will and may be operated at variable currents and voltages to change the dose rate and penetration properties. The in-water dosimetry parameters for this electronic brachytherapy source have been determined from measurements and calculations at 40, 45, and 50 kV settings. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport utilized the MCNP5 code and the EPDL97-based mcplib04 cross-section library. Inter-tube consistency was assessed for 20 different Sources, measured with a PTW 34013 ionization chamber. As the Source is intended to be used for a maximum of ten treatment fractions, tube stability was also assessed. Photon spectra were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and calculated using MCNP. Parameters used in the two-dimensional (2D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism were determined. While the Source was characterized as a point due to the small anode size, S700 Source exhibited depth dose behavior similar to low-energy photon-emitting low dose rate sources 125I and l03Pd, yet with capability for variable and much higher dose rates and subsequently adjustable penetration capabilities. This paper presents the calculated and measured in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for the model S700 Source at the aforementioned three operating voltages.

  15. Quality assessment of drinking water from different sources in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treated pipe borne water, sachet water and water sold in open containers were also investigated. Standard plate count technique, multiple tube fermentation technique, and membrane filtration technique were employed in determining the microbial quality of the water. The study showed uniform temperature range of 27.5 to ...

  16. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  17. Palatability of water-soluble extracts of protein sources and replacement of fishmeal by a selected mixture of protein sources for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Poor palatability is a limiting factor for replacing fishmeal with other protein sources in aquaculture. The water-soluble molecules with low molecular weights are the major determinants of the palatability of diets. The present study was conducted to investigate the palatability of water-soluble extracts from single protein source (single extract pellets) and the mixture of these extracts with different proportions (blended extract pellets) in juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus). Then according to the palatability of blended extract pellets, an optimal mixture proportion was selected, and a new protein source made from raw protein materials with the selected proportion was formulated to replace fishmeal. Summarily, the palatability of single extract pellets for turbot was descendent from fishmeal to pet-food grade poultry by-product meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal, peanut meal, meat and bone meal, and corn gluten meal. Subsequently, according to the palatability of single extract pellets, 52 kinds of blended extract pellets were designed to test their palatability. The results showed that the pellets presented remarkably different palatability, and the optimal one was diet 52 (wheat gluten meal: pet-food grade poultry by-product meal: meat and bone meal: corn gluten meal = 1:6:1:2). The highest ingestion ratio (the number of pellets ingested/the number of pellets fed) was 0.73 ± 0.03, which was observed in Diet 52. Then five isonitrogenous (52% crude protein) and isocaloric (20 kJ g-1 gross energy) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (control), 35%, 50%, 65% and 80% of fishmeal with No.52 blending proportion. After a 10-weeks feeding trial, a consistent feed intake was found among all replacement treatments. Replacement level of fishmeal up to 35% did not significantly influence final body weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio of turbot. Therefore, the water-soluble extracts of protein sources play an

  18. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents.

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  20. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  1. Water SA - Vol 41, No 5 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Framework for optimizing chlorine dose in small- to medium-sized water distribution systems: A ... Piloting a method to evaluate the implementation of integrated water ... Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the Harare ... Fish community of a small, temperate, urban river in South Africa · EMAIL ...

  2. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  3. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridgestock, L.; van de Flierdt, T.; Rehkämper, M.; Paul, P.; Middag, R.; Milne, A.; Lohan, M.C.; Baker, A.; Chance, R.; Khondoker, R.; Strekopytov, S.; Humphreys-Williams, E.; Achterberg, E.P.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources duringthe past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotopemeasurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to thetropical North Atlantic following the

  4. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  5. Preliminary study on the radiological and physicochemical quality of the Umgeni Water catchments and drinking water sources in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, T; John, W; Terry, S; Hodgson, K

    2014-11-01

    Raw and potable water sample sources, from the Umgeni Water catchment areas (rivers, dams, boreholes) in central KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), were screened for Uranium concentration and alpha and beta radioactivity. Test methods used were gas flow proportional counting for alpha-beta radioactivity, and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), for Uranium. The uranium levels (median = 0.525 μg/L, range = water quality (≤15 μg/L). The corresponding alpha and beta radioactivity was ≤0.5 Bq/L (median = 0.084, Interquartile Range (IR) = 0.038, range = 0.018-0.094), and ≤1.0 Bq/L (median = 0.114, IR = 0.096, range = 0.024-0.734), respectively, in compliance with the international WHO limits. For uranium radionuclide, the average dose level, at uranium level of ±0.525 μg/L, was 0.06 μSv/a, which complies with the WHO reference dose level for drinking water (water quality classification, with respect to WHO, is "Blue" - ideal; additional physicochemical analyses indicated good water quality. The analytical test methods employed were found to be suitable for preliminary screening for potential radioactive "hot spots". The observed Uranium levels, and the alpha/beta radioactivity, indicate contribution largely from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), with no significant health risk to humans, or to the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and ... acidification, heavy metal contamination, organic pollution .... Table 1 shows 18 sampling stations of water samples for salt water.

  7. Caffeine As An Indicator Of Estrogenic Activity In Source Water.

    OpenAIRE

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine ...

  8. Caffeine as an indicator of estrogenic activity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A; Pasquini, C; Jardim, W F

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine has already been used as an indicator of anthropogenic impacts, especially the ones related to the disposal of sewage in water bodies. In this work, the presence of caffeine has been correlated with the estrogenic activity of water samples measured using the BLYES assay. After testing 96 surface water samples, it was concluded that caffeine can be used to prioritize samples to be tested for estrogenic activity in water quality programs evaluating emerging contaminants with endocrine disruptor activity.

  9. Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D.; Smith, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of produc...

  10. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. FREEWAT: FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura

    2015-01-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 project financed by the EU Commission under the call WATER INNOVATION: BOOSTING ITS VALUE FOR EUROPE. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and other EU wa...

  12. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  13. Tapping Into an Ancient Source. Isotope Hydrology Techniques to Help Manage Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidambi, Misha

    2011-01-01

    The Water Resources Program at the IAEA uses a powerful tool, isotope hydrology, that aids in coping with water scarcity. IAEA scientists are convinced that if we understand how to manage water efficiently, there will be sufficient renewable and non-renewable water sources for meet global needs

  14. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoover, Joseph; Gonzales, Melissa; Shuey, Chris; Barney, Yolanda; Lewis, Johnnye

    2016-01-01

    Regional water pollution and use of unregulated water sources can be an important mixed metals exposure pathway for rural populations located in areas with limited water infrastructure and an extensive mining history.?Using censored data analysis and mapping techniques we analyzed the joint geospatial distribution of arsenic and uranium in unregulated water sources throughout the Navajo Nation, where over 500 abandoned uranium mine sites are located in the rural southwestern United States. Re...

  15. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  16. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2010-12-31

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  17. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  18. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  19. Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Duan, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zeng-Sheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceuticals are heavily used to improve human and animal health, resulting in the frequent contamination of aquatic environments with pharmaceutical residues, which has raised considerable concern in recent years. When inadequately removed from drinking water in water treatment plants, pharmaceuticals can have potential toxic effects on human health. This study investigated the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of five pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KEP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), in the Huangpu River system (a drinking water source for Shanghai) over a period of almost two years as well as the associated risk to human health for different age groups. All of the targets were ubiquitous in the river water, with levels decreasing in the following order: KEP (mean: 28.6 ng/L)≈IBP (23.3 ng/L)>DFC (13.6 ng/L)≈NPX (12.3 ng/L)>CA (1.6ng/L). The concentrations of all of the investigated compounds were at the low or medium end of the global range. The upstream tributaries contained lower IBP but higher NPX than did the mainstream and downstream tributaries. However, no significant variations were found in the levels of KEP, DFC, or CA at the different sampling sites. Except for CA in the mainstream, significantly higher pharmaceutical levels were observed in the dry season than in the wet season. Overall, a very low risk of the selected pharmaceuticals for human health via drinking water was observed, but future studies are needed to examine the fate and chronic effects of all pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the human health risk of pharmaceuticals in raw drinking water in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  1. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  2. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  3. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  4. [Water sources of Nitraria sibirica and response to precipitation in two desert habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wen Zhi; He, Zhi Bin

    2017-07-18

    Nitraria sibirica usually exists in a form of nebkhas, and has strong ecological adaptability. The plant species has distinctive function for wind prevention and sand fixation, and resistance drought and salt. However, the water condition is still a limiting factor for the plant survival and development. In order to understand the water use strategy of the plant in different desert habitats, we selected the N. sibirica growing in sandy desert habitat and gravel desert habitat to study the seaso-nal variation of plant water sources and response to precipitation at the edge of the oasis of Linze in the Hexi Corridor. We measured the oxygen stable isotope of the plant stem water and the different potential water sources (precipitation, soil water and ground water), and used the IsoSource model to calculate the proportion of water sources from the potential water. The results showed that there were significant seasonal variation characteristics of δ 18 O value and water source of stem water for the plant in the two habitats. In the sandy habitat, the plant used more ground water in the less precipitation seasons including spring and fall, and more than 50% of the water sources absorbed from ground water. However, under the condition of gravel habitat, the plant could not achieve the ground water level depth of 11.5 m, and its water source was controlled by precipitation, which had large seasonal variability. The water sources of N. sibirica had significant responses to the change of precipitation in the two desert habitats. Following the rapid decrease of soil water content after the precipitation events, the plant in the sandy habitat turned to use the abundant ground water as the main sources of water, while the plant in the gravel habitat only used the less water from precipita-tion infiltration to the deep soil. Therefore, different water use strategies of the plant in the two habitats were the main reason for the difference in growth characteristics, and it had a

  5. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1).

  6. Quantification of micropollutants in some water sources in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    their waste assimilative capacity is a threat to both ecology of the ecosystems and health of the ... pesticide residues in river water and sediments from northern Tanzania. .... Pangani River Basin Water Board (PBWB). ..... release of Ni in the environment are forest fires and .... Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences.

  7. Investigation of Different Water Sources as a Possible Cause of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vibrio cholerae, 01 serogroup, Ogawa serotype and EI-Tor biotype was isolated from 20.8% of the water samples tested. These isolates showed multiple resistance to antibiotics particularly tetracycline but were susceptible to the cephalosporins. Eleven other water samples (45.8%) showed growth of Enterococcus faecalis ...

  8. Seasonal Variation in Drinking and Domestic Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Duret, Michel; de Waal, Dominick; Khush, Ranjiv

    2017-01-01

    We compared dry and rainy season water sources and their quality in the urban region of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Representative sampling indicated that municipal water supplies represent < 1% of the water sources. Residents rely on privately constructed and maintained boreholes that are supplemented by commercially packaged bottled and sachet drinking water. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms increased from 21% of drinking water sources in the dry season to 42% of drinking water sources in the rainy season (N = 356 and N = 397). The most significant increase was in sachet water, which showed the lowest frequencies of contamination in the dry season compared with other sources (15%, N = 186) but the highest frequencies during the rainy season (59%, N = 76). Only half as many respondents reported drinking sachet water in the rainy season as in the dry season. Respondents primarily used flush or pour-flush toilets connected to septic tanks (85%, N = 399). The remainder relied on pit latrines and hanging (pier) latrines that drained into surface waters. We found significant associations between fecal contamination in boreholes and the nearby presence of hanging latrines. Sanitary surveys of boreholes showed that more than half were well-constructed, and we did not identify associations between structural or site deficiencies and microbial water quality. The deterioration of drinking water quality during the rainy season is a serious public health risk for both untreated groundwater and commercially packaged water, highlighting a need to address gaps in monitoring and quality control. PMID:27821689

  9. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  10. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approves the use of E. coli as a fecal indicator for source water monitoring under this paragraph (a). If the repeat sample collected from the ground water source is E.coli positive, the system must comply... listed in the in paragraph (c)(2) of this section for the presence of E. coli, enterococci, or coliphage...

  11. Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-07-03

    Jul 3, 2002 ... Assessment of the microbial quality of river water sources ... These untreated water sources are used for drinking and domestic purposes and pose a serious threat to ... These diseases cause crippling, devastating and debilitating effects ..... gastrointestinal illness, due mainly by enteric viruses in sewage.

  12. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei; Tseng, Kuo-Chih; Su, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der; Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng; Kao, Po-Min

    2011-01-01

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: → A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. → Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. → A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  13. Evaluation of different analysis and identification methods for Salmonella detection in surface drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu, E-mail: bmhsu@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Kuan-Hao; Huang, Shih-Wei [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Kuo-Chih [Department of Internal Medicine, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Su, Ming-Jen [Department of Clinical Pathology, Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Chen; Ji, Dar-Der [Research and Diagnostic Center, Centers for Disease Control, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Jyh-Larng [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University of Science and Technology, HsinChu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kao, Po-Min [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-09-15

    The standard method for detecting Salmonella generally analyzes food or fecal samples. Salmonella often occur in relatively low concentrations in environmental waters. Therefore, some form of concentration and proliferation may be needed. This study compares three Salmonella analysis methods and develops a new Salmonella detection procedure for use in environmental water samples. The new procedure for Salmonella detection include water concentration, nutrient broth enrichment, selection of Salmonella containing broth by PCR, isolation of Salmonella strains by selective culture plates, detection of possible Salmonella isolate by PCR, and biochemical testing. Serological assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used to identify Salmonella serotype and genotype, respectively. This study analyzed 116 raw water samples taken from 18 water plants and belonging to 5 watersheds. Of these 116, 10 water samples (8.6%) taken from 7 water plants and belonging to 4 watersheds were positive for a Salmonella-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. Guided by serological assay results, this study identified 7 cultured Salmonella isolates as Salmonella enterica serovar: Alnaby, Enteritidis, Houten, Montevideo, Newport, Paratyphi B var. Java, and Victoria. These seven Salmonella serovars were identified in clinical cases for the same geographical areas, but only one of them was 100% homologous with clinical cases in the PFGE pattern. - Research highlights: {yields} A new Salmonella detecting procedure for environmental water is developed. {yields} Salmonella isolates are identified by serological assay and PFGE. {yields} A total of seven Salmonella serovars is isolated from environmental water.

  14. Using Dual Isotopes and a Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model to Evaluate Nitrate Sources of Surface Water in a Drinking Water Source Watershed, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A high concentration of nitrate (NO3− in surface water threatens aquatic systems and human health. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental to making effective water management strategies. However, nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mix land use watersheds remain unclear. In this study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years’ monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, China. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (ranging from 0.02 to 8.57 mg/L were spatially heterogeneous that were influenced by hydrogeological and land use conditions. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage, M & S; soil nitrogen, NS; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall were estimated by using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. The results showed that nitrate sources contributions varied significantly among different rainfall conditions and land use types. As for the whole watershed, M & S (manure and sewage and NS (soil nitrogen were major nitrate sources in both wet and dry seasons (from 28% to 36% for manure and sewage and from 24% to 27% for soil nitrogen, respectively. Overall, combining a dual isotopes method with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offered a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as quantitatively estimate the contributions of potential nitrate sources in drinking water source watersheds, Jianghuai hilly region, eastern China.

  15. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  16. Distributed Water Pollution Source Localization with Mobile UV-Visible Spectrometer Probes in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Meng, Fansheng; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Yeyao; Shi, Ping

    2018-02-16

    Pollution accidents that occur in surface waters, especially in drinking water source areas, greatly threaten the urban water supply system. During water pollution source localization, there are complicated pollutant spreading conditions and pollutant concentrations vary in a wide range. This paper provides a scalable total solution, investigating a distributed localization method in wireless sensor networks equipped with mobile ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrometer probes. A wireless sensor network is defined for water quality monitoring, where unmanned surface vehicles and buoys serve as mobile and stationary nodes, respectively. Both types of nodes carry UV-visible spectrometer probes to acquire in-situ multiple water quality parameter measurements, in which a self-adaptive optical path mechanism is designed to flexibly adjust the measurement range. A novel distributed algorithm, called Dual-PSO, is proposed to search for the water pollution source, where one particle swarm optimization (PSO) procedure computes the water quality multi-parameter measurements on each node, utilizing UV-visible absorption spectra, and another one finds the global solution of the pollution source position, regarding mobile nodes as particles. Besides, this algorithm uses entropy to dynamically recognize the most sensitive parameter during searching. Experimental results demonstrate that online multi-parameter monitoring of a drinking water source area with a wide dynamic range is achieved by this wireless sensor network and water pollution sources are localized efficiently with low-cost mobile node paths.

  17. Root distribution of Nitraria sibirica with seasonally varying water sources in a desert habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Zhao, Wenzhi; Zheng, Xinjun; Li, Shoujuan

    2015-07-01

    In water-limited environments, the water sources used by desert shrubs are critical to understanding hydrological processes. Here we studied the oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ (18)O) of stem water of Nitraria sibirica as well as those of precipitation, groundwater and soil water from different layers to identify the possible water sources for the shrub. The results showed that the shrub used a mixture of soil water, recent precipitation and groundwater, with shallow lateral roots and deeply penetrating tap (sinker) roots, in different seasons. During the wet period (in spring), a large proportion of stem water in N. sibirica was from snow melt and recent precipitation, but use of these sources declined sharply with the decreasing summer rain at the site. At the height of summer, N. sibirica mainly utilized deep soil water from its tap roots, not only supporting the growth of shoots but also keeping the shallow lateral roots well-hydrated. This flexibility allowed the plants to maintain normal metabolic processes during prolonged periods when little precipitation occurs and upper soil layers become extremely dry. With the increase in precipitation that occurs as winter approaches, the percentage of water in the stem base of a plant derived from the tap roots (deep soil water or ground water) decreased again. These results suggested that the shrub's root distribution and morphology were the most important determinants of its ability to utilize different water sources, and that its adjustment to water availability was significant for acclimation to the desert habitat.

  18. Water. Sleeping Energy source; Wasser. Energiequelle im Dornroeschenschlaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2009-12-11

    The intelligent utilization of water power is so old as human civilization. An intelligent further development of advanced technologies is still sleeping. Suitable kinds of utilization and advanced technology attempts are presented in this contribution. Some are more likely exotic, but the water giants of Assuan and the three-canyons project in China present themselves more and more as a ticking environmental bomb. (orig./GL)

  19. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  20. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  1. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...... system, which includes a desiccant wheel and a dew point cooler. The system is simulated during the summer period in the Mediterranean climate of Rome and it results completely independent of external water sources. The seasonal thermal COP drops 8% in comparison to the open regeneration circuit solution...

  2. Microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: evidence from western Kenya and southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Caitlin A; Kipkorir, Emmanuel C; Nguyen, Kien; Blatchley, E R

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, more than 2 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources thanks to extensive effort from governments, and public and private sector entities. Despite this progress, many water sector development interventions do not provide access to safe water or fail to be sustained for long-term use. The authors examined drinking water quality of previously implemented water improvement projects in three communities in western Kenya and three communities in southern Vietnam. The cross-sectional study of 219 households included measurements of viable Escherichia coli. High rates of E. coli prevalence in these improved water sources were found in many of the samples. These findings suggest that measures above and beyond the traditional 'improved source' definition may be necessary to ensure truly safe water throughout these regions.

  3. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  4. Implementing Pollution Source Control—Learning from the Innovation Process in English and Welsh Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the stimulation and management of innovation by water utilities is a key mechanism through which the challenges of securing sustainable water and wastewater services will be achieved. This paper describes the process of adopting source control interventions (SCIs) by water and sewerage

  5. Nanofiltration Membranes for Removal of Color and Pathogens in Small Public Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small public water supplies that use surface water as a source for drinking water are frequently faced with elevated levels of color and natural organic matter (NOM) that are precursors for chlorinated disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation. Nanofiltration (NF) systems can preve...

  6. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  7. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to

  8. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N; Mohamed, R A; Abouelenien, F

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens' health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality

  9. Calculated and measured brachytherapy dosimetry parameters in water for the Xoft Axxent X-Ray Source: An electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, Mark J.; Davis, Stephen D.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Rusch, Thomas W.; Axelrod, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A new x-ray source, the model S700 Axxent trade mark sign X-Ray Source (Source), has been developed by Xoft Inc. for electronic brachytherapy. Unlike brachytherapy sources containing radionuclides, this Source may be turned on and off at will and may be operated at variable currents and voltages to change the dose rate and penetration properties. The in-water dosimetry parameters for this electronic brachytherapy source have been determined from measurements and calculations at 40, 45, and 50 kV settings. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport utilized the MCNP5 code and the EPDL97-based mcplib04 cross-section library. Inter-tube consistency was assessed for 20 different Sources, measured with a PTW 34013 ionization chamber. As the Source is intended to be used for a maximum of ten treatment fractions, tube stability was also assessed. Photon spectra were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and calculated using MCNP. Parameters used in the two-dimensional (2D) brachytherapy dosimetry formalism were determined. While the Source was characterized as a point due to the small anode size, P (5) were 0.20, 0.24, and 0.29 for the 40, 45, and 50 kV voltage settings, respectively. For 1 125 I and 103 Pd, yet with capability for variable and much higher dose rates and subsequently adjustable penetration capabilities. This paper presents the calculated and measured in-water brachytherapy dosimetry parameters for the model S700 Source at the aforementioned three operating voltages

  10. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  11. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  12. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  13. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas

  14. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of a Practical Approach for Characterizing the Source of Particulates in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ha Chae

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality complaints related to particulate matter and discolored water can be troublesome for water utilities in terms of follow-up investigations and implementation of appropriate actions because particulate matter can enter from a variety of sources; moreover, physicochemical processes can affect the water quality during the purification and transportation processes. The origin of particulates can be attributed to sources such as background organic/inorganic materials from water sources, water treatment plants, water distribution pipelines that have deteriorated, and rehabilitation activities in the water distribution systems. In this study, a practical method is proposed for tracing particulate sources. The method entails collecting information related to hydraulic, water quality, and structural conditions, employing a network flow-path model, and establishing a database of physicochemical properties for tubercles and slimes. The proposed method was implemented within two city water distribution systems that were located in Korea. These applications were conducted to demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for providing solutions to customer complaints. The results of the field studies indicated that the proposed method would be feasible for investigating the sources of particulates and for preparing appropriate action plans for complaints related to particulate matter.

  16. HEAT PUMP USING SUBSOIL WATERS AS LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic directions of perfection of heat supply systems is the tendency of transition to the low-temperature heating systems based on application of heat pump installations. We consider heat supply system with heat pump installations using subsoil waters. Numerical simulation of thermal processes in the elements of a single-stage and double-stage heat pump systems has been worked out. Values of depths of wells and their quantity, necessary for effective operation of the offered installations, and values of capacity of electric water pumps for subsoil waters unit are calculated. Capacity of compressor electric drive and coefficient of performance of heat pump for the conditions of the city of Odessa are presented.

  17. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases....

  18. Detection of heavy metals in water in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: From source to consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Baydaa; Abdullah, Md. Pauzi; Tahrim, Nurfaizah Abu

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities, such as heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the heavy metals concentrations in a water reticulation system of Negeri Sembilan. 25 stations were selected along Sungai Linggi (upstream of intake point) and through there reticulation system of Sungai Linggi Water Treatment Plant encompassing raw water through to the last point of use. Sampling activities were carried out in June and July 2016. The samples taken were analysed for heavymetals using an Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). In addition other water quality parameters were measured in situ (pH, water temperature, conductivity and dissolved oxygen) and analysed in the laboratory (BOD, COD, TSS, NH3-N, TOC and residual chlorine). The results showed a high level of Ca in the distribution system, while in the treatment plant it was normal, as well as Fe is decreased. Meanwhile Mn is decreased after treatment processes. The concentrations of DO and temperature in the tap water exceeded the standard concentrations.

  19. Source Water Identification and Chemical Typing for Nitrogen at the Kissimmee River, Pool C, Florida--Preliminary Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelps, G. G

    2002-01-01

    As part of the South Florida Water Management District's Ground Water-Surface Water Interactions Study, a project was undertaken to identify the ages and sources of water in the area of Pool C, Kissimmee River, Florida...

  20. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut......’s adolescence without hypostatizing distinctions between inside and outside, or between culture and its raw or primitive origins, while nevertheless not conflating the dissolution of boundaries and hierarchies with a possible end to territoriality and control, nor promoting a resignation of thought...

  1. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... transported into an aquatic environment by a number of pathways including fossil fuel distribution, storm water runoff and sewage effluent. Fossil ... formed during the incomplete combustion of coal, oil, gas wood and garbage (Neff, ..... Health impacts of polynuclear aromatic hydrocar- bons. Environmental ...

  2. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the source water from Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoplankton community and cyanotoxins in Lake Chivero (formerly Lake McIlwaine) and the presence of cyanotoxins in treated drinking water were investigated between 2003 and 2004. A typical seasonal succession of Cyanobacteria species occurred from January to April, Bacillariophyta from May to July, and ...

  3. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... Department of Chemistry, Delta State University, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. Phone: +234 ... tous in nature as evidenced by their detection in sedi- ments, soils, air ... sions of non-combustion derived matter including inad- vertent oil ... composition of the 2, 3 - ring, low molecular weight PAHs in water of ...

  4. Effects of source, water conditioning and thermal treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at 15 % moisture content amounting to 61.3 MJ was the optimum thermal treatment for achieving germination of 69 %. R. heudelotii seeds soaked in water for 15 days at moisture content of 24 % over dry weight followed by thermal treatment improved germination by 22 %. The highest germination of 79 % was obtained for ...

  5. Toxicological and chemical insights into representative source and drinking water in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhou, Sicong; Xiao, Hongxia; Qiu, Jingfan; Li, Aimin; Zhou, Qing; Pan, Yang; Hollert, Henner

    2018-02-01

    Drinking water safety is continuously threatened by the emergence of numerous toxic organic pollutants (TOPs) in environmental waters. In this study, an approach integrating in vitro bioassays and chemical analyses was performed to explore toxicological profiles of representative source and drinking water from waterworks of the Yangtze River (Yz), Taihu Lake (Th), and the Huaihe River (Hh) basins in eastern China. Overall, 34 of 96 TOPs were detected in all water samples, with higher concentrations in both source and drinking water samples of Hh, and pollutant profiles also differed across different river basins. Non-specific bioassays indicated that source water samples of Hh waterworks showed higher genotoxicity and mutagenicity than samples of Yz and Th. An EROD assay demonstrated dioxin-like toxicity which was detected in 5 of 7 source water samples, with toxin concentration levels ranging from 62.40 to 115.51 picograms TCDD equivalents per liter of water (eq./L). PAHs and PCBs were not the main contributors to observed dioxin-like toxicity in detected samples. All source water samples induced estrogenic activities of 8.00-129.00 nanograms 17β-estradiol eq./L, and estrogens, including 17α-ethinylestradiol and estriol, contributed 40.38-84.15% of the observed activities in examined samples. While drinking water treatments efficiently removed TOPs and their toxic effects, and estrogenic activity was still observed in drinking water samples of Hh. Altogether, this study indicated that the representative source water in eastern China, especially that found in Hh, may negatively affect human health, a finding that demonstrates an urgent requirement for advanced drinking water treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott

    2016-04-19

    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  7. Molecular detection of Fasciola hepatica in water sources of District Nowshehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali

    2012-12-01

    Fascioliasis is spread through contamination of water sources and cause morbidity throughout the world. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by PCR for detection of Fasciola hepatica. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 9.66 % (29/300). Highest prevalence was recorded in drain water16 % (16/100) followed by tube well water 10% (4/40), open well water 8 % (8/100) and the lowest was recorded in tap water 1.66 %(1/60). The significant difference P < 0.05 was recorded during data analysis. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. It was concluded from the study that cleaning and filtration should be adopted to avoid the health hazards against water borne zoonotic parasites.

  8. Parsing and Quantification of Raw Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Data Using RawQuant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; Moggridge, Sophie; Chen, David D Y; Morin, Gregg B; Hughes, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Effective analysis of protein samples by mass spectrometry (MS) requires careful selection and optimization of a range of experimental parameters. As the output from the primary detection device, the "raw" MS data file can be used to gauge the success of a given sample analysis. However, the closed-source nature of the standard raw MS file can complicate effective parsing of the data contained within. To ease and increase the range of analyses possible, the RawQuant tool was developed to enable parsing of raw MS files derived from Thermo Orbitrap instruments to yield meta and scan data in an openly readable text format. RawQuant can be commanded to export user-friendly files containing MS 1 , MS 2 , and MS 3 metadata as well as matrices of quantification values based on isobaric tagging approaches. In this study, the utility of RawQuant is demonstrated in several scenarios: (1) reanalysis of shotgun proteomics data for the identification of the human proteome, (2) reanalysis of experiments utilizing isobaric tagging for whole-proteome quantification, and (3) analysis of a novel bacterial proteome and synthetic peptide mixture for assessing quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags. Together, these analyses successfully demonstrate RawQuant for the efficient parsing and quantification of data from raw Thermo Orbitrap MS files acquired in a range of common proteomics experiments. In addition, the individual analyses using RawQuant highlights parametric considerations in the different experimental sets and suggests targetable areas to improve depth of coverage in identification-focused studies and quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags.

  9. A Tiered Approach to Evaluating Salinity Sources in Water at Oil and Gas Production Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Shawn M; Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Walker, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Harley; Chakraborty, Ayan

    2017-09-01

    A suspected increase in the salinity of fresh water resources can trigger a site investigation to identify the source(s) of salinity and the extent of any impacts. These investigations can be complicated by the presence of naturally elevated total dissolved solids or chlorides concentrations, multiple potential sources of salinity, and incomplete data and information on both naturally occurring conditions and the characteristics of potential sources. As a result, data evaluation techniques that are effective at one site may not be effective at another. In order to match the complexity of the evaluation effort to the complexity of the specific site, this paper presents a strategic tiered approach that utilizes established techniques for evaluating and identifying the source(s) of salinity in an efficient step-by-step manner. The tiered approach includes: (1) a simple screening process to evaluate whether an impact has occurred and if the source is readily apparent; (2) basic geochemical characterization of the impacted water resource(s) and potential salinity sources coupled with simple visual and statistical data evaluation methods to determine the source(s); and (3) advanced laboratory analyses (e.g., isotopes) and data evaluation methods to identify the source(s) and the extent of salinity impacts where it was not otherwise conclusive. A case study from the U.S. Gulf Coast is presented to illustrate the application of this tiered approach. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Assessment of bacteriological quality of drinking water from various sources in Amritsar district of northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sita; Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Devi, Pushpa

    2015-08-29

    Safe water is a precondition for health and development and is a basic human right, yet it is still denied to hundreds of millions of people throughout the developing world. Water-related diseases caused by insufficient safe water supplies, coupled with poor sanitation and hygiene, cause 3.4 million deaths a year, mostly in children. The present study was conducted on 1,317 drinking water samples from various water sources in Amritsar district in northern India. All the samples were analyzed to assess bacteriological quality of water for presumptive coliform count by the multiple tube test. A total of 42.9% (565/1,317) samples from various sources were found to be unfit for human consumption. Of the total 565 unsatisfactory samples, 253 were from submersible pumps, 197 were from taps of piped supply (domestic/public), 79 were from hand pumps, and 36 were from various other sources A significantly high level of contamination was observed in samples collected from submersible pumps (47.6%) and water tanks (47.3%), as these sources of water are more exposed and liable to contamination. Despite continuous efforts by the government, civil society, and the international community, over a billion people still do not have access to improved water resources. Bacteriological assessment of all sources of drinking should be planned and conducted on regular basis to prevent waterborne dissemination of diseases.

  11. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  12. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia : an action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    British Columbia`s approach to water quality management is discussed. The BC efforts include regulating `end of pipe` point discharges from industrial and municipal outfalls. The major remaining cause of water pollution is from non-point sources (NPS). NPS water pollution is caused by the release of pollutants from different and diffuse sources, mostly unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture and other forms of land development. The importance of dealing with such problems on an immediate basis to avoid a decline in water quality in the province is emphasized. Major sources of water pollution in British Columbia include: land development, agriculture, storm water runoff, onsite sewage systems, forestry, atmospheric deposition, and marine activities. 3 tabs.

  13. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint-source pollution in rural and urban watersheds. This progress report provides a summary of the data collected by the U.S Geological Survey for the program and a discussion of the results from several different detailed analyses conducted within this program.

  15. Sources and diagenetic alteration of organic matter in coastal waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inter-site differences in 13C and 15N could be related to the sources of OM. In the Msansani Bay the material is derived from seagrasses while in the Dar es Salaam harbour and Msimbazi micro-bay, large proportion is derived from the continent. Other parameters of OC, nitrogen and C/N ratios for these three sites show ...

  16. Research on wireless remote control scheme for the water source well of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Bao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wired electrical control method is applicable to simple control for the short-distance industrial equipment, but it is not suitable for the water source well of uranium mines requiring remote control. A kind of wireless remote control system based on high-speed radio modem communication technology was presented for the water source wells of a uranium mine, and the water source wells can be remotely controlled with the system. The component, implementation and characteristics of the control system are introduced. (authors)

  17. Estimating the Seasonal Importance of Precipitation to Plant Source Water over Time and Space with Water Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen are physical properties of water molecules that can carry information on their sources or transport histories. This provides a useful tool for assessing the importance of rainfall at different times of the year for plant growth, provided that rainwater values vary over time and that waters do not partially evaporate after deposition. We tested the viability of this approach using data from samples collected at nineteen sites throughout Europe at monthly intervals over two consecutive growing seasons in 2014 and 2015. We compared isotope measurements of plant xylem water with soil water from multiple depths, and measured and modeled precipitation isotope values. Paired analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotope values were used to screen out a limited number of water samples that were influenced by evaporation, with the majority of all water samples indicating meteoric sources. The isotopic composition of soil and xylem waters varied over the course of an individual growing season, with many trending towards more enriched values, suggesting integration of the plant-relevant water pool at a timescale shorter than the annual mean. We then quantified how soil water residence times varied at each site by calculating the interval between measured xylem water and the most recently preceding match in modeled precipitation isotope values. Results suggest a generally increasing interval between rainfall and plant uptake throughout each year, with source water corresponding to dates in the spring, likely reflecting a combination of spring rain, and mixing with winter and summer precipitation. The seasonally evolving spatial distribution of source water-precipitation lag values was then modeled as a function of location and climatology to develop continental-scale predictions. This spatial portrait of the average date for filling the plant source water pool provides insights on the seasonal importance of rainfall for plant

  18. Correlation Analysis of Rainstorm Runoff and Density Current in a Canyon-Shaped Source Water Reservoir: Implications for Reservoir Optimal Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather has recently become frequent. Heavy rainfall forms storm runoff, which is usually very turbid and contains a high concentration of organic matter, therefore affecting water quality when it enters reservoirs. The large canyon-shaped Heihe Reservoir is the most important raw water source for the city of Xi’an. During the flood season, storm runoff flows into the reservoir as a density current. We determined the relationship among inflow peak discharge (Q, suspended sediment concentration, inflow water temperature, and undercurrent water density. The relationships between (Q and inflow suspended sediment concentration (CS0 could be described by the equation CS0 = 0.3899 × e0.0025Q, that between CS0 and suspended sediment concentration at the entrance of the main reservoir area S1 (CS1 was determined using CS1 = 0.0346 × e0.2335CS0, and air temperature (Ta and inflow water temperature (Tw based on the meteorological data were related as follows: Tw = 0.7718 × Ta + 1.0979. Then, we calculated the density of the undercurrent layer. Compared to the vertical water density distribution at S1 before rainfall, the undercurrent elevation was determined based on the principle of equivalent density inflow. Based on our results, we proposed schemes for optimizing water intake selection and flood discharge during the flood season.

  19. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  20. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telias, Adriana; White, James R; Pahl, Donna M; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2011-04-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water) when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an important step forward towards the development of science

  1. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  2. Estimates of water source contributions in a dynamic urban water supply system inferred via a Bayesian stable isotope mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Brewer, S.; Fiorella, R.; Tipple, B. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Terry, S.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply systems (PWSS) are complex distribution systems and critical infrastructure, making them vulnerable to physical disruption and contamination. Exploring the susceptibility of PWSS to such perturbations requires detailed knowledge of the supply system structure and operation. Although the physical structure of supply systems (i.e., pipeline connection) is usually well documented for developed cities, the actual flow patterns of water in these systems are typically unknown or estimated based on hydrodynamic models with limited observational validation. Here, we present a novel method for mapping the flow structure of water in a large, complex PWSS, building upon recent work highlighting the potential of stable isotopes of water (SIW) to document water management practices within complex PWSS. We sampled a major water distribution system of the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, measuring SIW of water sources, treatment facilities, and numerous sites within in the supply system. We then developed a hierarchical Bayesian (HB) isotope mixing model to quantify the proportion of water supplied by different sources at sites within the supply system. Known production volumes and spatial distance effects were used to define the prior probabilities for each source; however, we did not include other physical information about the supply system. Our results were in general agreement with those obtained by hydrodynamic models and provide quantitative estimates of contributions of different water sources to a given site along with robust estimates of uncertainty. Secondary properties of the supply system, such as regions of "static" and "dynamic" source (e.g., regions supplied dominantly by one source vs. those experiencing active mixing between multiple sources), can be inferred from the results. The isotope-based HB isotope mixing model offers a new investigative technique for analyzing PWSS and documenting aspects of supply system structure and operation that are

  3. Implementations of Riga city water supply system founded on groundwater sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lāce, I.; Krauklis, K.; Spalviņš, A.; Laicāns, J.

    2017-10-01

    Drinking water for Riga city is provided by the groundwater well field complex “Baltezers, Zakumuiza, Rembergi” and by the Daugava river as a surface water source. Presently (2016), the both sources jointly supply 122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water. It seems reasonable to use in future only groundwater, because river water is of low quality and its treatment is expensive. The research on this possibility was done by scientists of Riga Technical university as the task drawn up by the company “Aqua-Brambis”. It was required to evaluate several scenario of the groundwater supply for Riga city. By means of hydrogeological modelling, it was found out that groundwater well fields could provide 120-122 thous.metre3day-1 of drinking water for the Riga city and it is possible further not to use water of the Daugava river. However, in order to provide more extensive use of groundwater sources, existing water distribution network shall be adapted to the change of the water sources and supply directions within the network. Safety of water supply shall be ensured. The publication may be of interest for specialists dealing with problems of water supply for large towns.

  4. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Changbo; Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming; Du, Ping; Luo, Yi; Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water

  6. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: zhangyuan@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Changbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Du, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Luo, Yi [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water.

  7. Elevated Arsenic and Uranium Concentrations in Unregulated Water Sources on the Navajo Nation, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Joseph; Gonzales, Melissa; Shuey, Chris; Barney, Yolanda; Lewis, Johnnye

    2017-01-01

    Regional water pollution and use of unregulated water sources can be an important mixed metals exposure pathway for rural populations located in areas with limited water infrastructure and an extensive mining history. Using censored data analysis and mapping techniques we analyzed the joint geospatial distribution of arsenic and uranium in unregulated water sources throughout the Navajo Nation, where over 500 abandoned uranium mine sites are located in the rural southwestern United States. Results indicated that arsenic and uranium concentrations exceeded national drinking water standards in 15.1 % (arsenic) and 12.8 % (uranium) of tested water sources. Unregulated sources in close proximity (i.e., within 6 km) to abandoned uranium mines yielded significantly higher concentrations of arsenic or uranium than more distant sources. The demonstrated regional trends for potential co-exposure to these chemicals have implications for public policy and future research. Specifically, to generate solutions that reduce human exposure to water pollution from unregulated sources in rural areas, the potential for co-exposure to arsenic and uranium requires expanded documentation and examination. Recommendations for prioritizing policy and research decisions related to the documentation of existing health exposures and risk reduction strategies are also provided.

  8. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural phosphorus and water quality: sources, transport and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHARPLEY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P. To identify critical sources of P export from agricultural catchments we investigated hydrological and chemical factors controlling P export from a mixed land use (30% wooded, 50% cultivated, 20% pasture 39.5-ha catchment in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Mehlich-3 extractable soil P, determined on a 30-m grid over the catchment, ranged from 7 to 788 mg kg-1. Generally, soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (

  10. Characterization and source apportionment of water pollution in Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Yue, Weifeng; Song, Liuting

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing water quality and identifying potential pollution sources could greatly improve our knowledge about human impacts on the river ecosystem. In this study, fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), pollution index (PI), principal component analysis (PCA), and absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were combined to obtain a deeper understanding of temporal-spatial characterization and sources of water pollution with a case study of the Jinjiang River, China. Measurement data were obtained with 17 water quality variables from 20 sampling sites in the December 2010 (withered water period) and June 2011 (high flow period). FCA and PI were used to comprehensively estimate the water quality variables and compare temporal-spatial variations, respectively. Rotated PCA and receptor model (APCS-MLR) revealed potential pollution sources and their corresponding contributions. Application results showed that comprehensive application of various multivariate methods were effective for water quality assessment and management. In the withered water period, most sampling sites were assessed as low or moderate pollution with characteristics pollutants of permanganate index and total nitrogen (TN), whereas 90% sites were classified as high pollution in the high flow period with higher TN and total phosphorus. Agricultural non-point sources, industrial wastewater discharge, and domestic sewage were identified as major pollution sources. Apportionment results revealed that most variables were complicatedly influenced by industrial wastewater discharge and agricultural activities in withered water period and primarily dominated by agricultural runoff in high flow period.

  11. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...... households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained....... The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water...

  12. Uranium mine waste water: a potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiss, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area

  13. Environmental Survey of Drinking Water Sources in Kampala, Uganda, during a Typhoid Fever Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J L; Kahler, A M; Nansubuga, I; Nanyunja, E M; Kaplan, B; Jothikumar, N; Routh, J; Gómez, G A; Mintz, E D; Hill, V R

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, a typhoid fever outbreak began in downtown Kampala, Uganda, and spread into adjacent districts. In response, an environmental survey of drinking water source types was conducted in areas of the city with high case numbers. A total of 122 samples was collected from 12 source types and tested for Escherichia coli , free chlorine, and conductivity. An additional 37 grab samples from seven source types and 16 paired large volume (20 liter) samples from wells and springs were also collected and tested for the presence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Escherichia coli was detected in 60% of kaveras (drinking water sold in plastic bags) and 80% of refilled water bottles; free chlorine was not detected in either source type. Most jerry cans (68%) contained E. coli and had free chlorine residuals below the WHO-recommended level of 0.5 mg/liter during outbreaks. Elevated conductivity readings for kaveras, refilled water bottles, and jerry cans (compared to treated surface water supplied by the water utility) suggested that they likely contained untreated groundwater. All unprotected springs and wells and more than 60% of protected springs contained E. coli Water samples collected from the water utility were found to have acceptable free chlorine levels and no detectable E. coli While S Typhi was not detected in water samples, Salmonella spp. were detected in samples from two unprotected springs, one protected spring, and one refilled water bottle. These data provided clear evidence that unregulated vended water and groundwater represented a risk for typhoid transmission. IMPORTANCE Despite the high incidence of typhoid fever globally, relatively few outbreak investigations incorporate drinking water testing. During waterborne disease outbreaks, measurement of physical-chemical parameters, such as free chlorine residual and electrical conductivity, and of microbiological parameters, such as the presence of E. coli or the implicated etiologic agent, in drinking

  14. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  15. Relation between Nitrates in Water Wells and Potential Sources in the Lower Yakima Valley, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a study EPA conducted to investigate the contribution of various sources to the high nitrate levels in groundwater and residential drinking water wells in the Lower Yakima Valley of Washington State.

  16. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  17. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test...

  18. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  19. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  20. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  1. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community changes in drinking water treatment system: From drinking water source to tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Gui; Chen, Jun; He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-03-01

    As emerging contaminants, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a public concern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of ARGs, and variation in the composition of bacterial communities in source water, drinking water treatment plants, and tap water in the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Various ARGs were present in the different types of water. Among the 27 target ARGs, floR and sul1 dominated in source water from three large rivers in the region. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that sul1, sul2, floR, and cmlA could be potential indicators for ARGs in water samples. The total abundance of the detected ARGs in tap water was much lower than that in source water. Sand filtration and sedimentation in drinking water treatment plants could effectively remove ARGs; in contrast, granular activated carbon filtration increased the abundance of ARGs. It was found that Pseudomonas may be involved in the proliferation and dissemination of ARGs in the studied drinking water treatment system. Bacteria and ARGs were still present in tap water after treatment, though they were significantly reduced. More research is needed to optimize the water treatment process for ARG removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Man-made organic compounds in source water of nine community water systems that withdraw from streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  4. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Anthropogenic water sources and the effects on Sonoran Desert small mammal communities

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron B. Switalski; Heather L. Bateman

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic water sources (AWS) are developed water sources used as a management tool for desert wildlife species. Studies documenting the effects of AWS are often focused on game species; whereas, the effects on non-target wildlife are less understood. We used live trapping techniques to investigate rodent abundance, biomass, and diversity metrics near AWS and paired control sites; we sampled vegetation to determine rodent-habitat associations in the Sauceda Mountains of the Sonoran Desert...

  6. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  7. Investigation Of The Origin Of Various Water Sources In The Vicinity Of Ngancar Dam, Wonogiri Using Natural Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidauruk, Paston; Indrojoyo; Wibagoyo; Pratikno, Bungkus; Evarista Ristin, P.I.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of the origin of various water sources in the vicinity of Ngancar Dam, Wonogiri, using natural isotopes technique has been conducted. The study includes collecting and analyzing water samples from various sources in the vicinity of the dam such as reservoir water, water discharges, springs, local water well, rain water, water from piezometer and observation wells. For this investigation, natural isotopes composition and hydro chemical ions of the samples have been analyzed and interpreted. From the data interpretation, it is concluded that most of the water in various sources originated from water reservoir

  8. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  9. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  10. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun

    2011-07-13

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  11. Assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quantitative assessment of air, water and land-based sources of pollution to the coastal zone of the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area of Ghana was conducted by making an emission inventory from information on industrial, commercial and domestic activities. Three sources of air pollution were analysed, viz, emission from ...

  12. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  13. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., all aquifers or parts of aquifers which meet the definition of an “underground source of drinking... underground source of drinking water if it meets the definition in § 144.3. (b)(1) The Director may identify... mineral or hydrocarbon producing. Information contained in the mining plan for the proposed project, such...

  14. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3)...

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  16. Sources of water column methylmercury across multiple estuaries in the Northeast U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Prentiss H; Schartup, Amina T; Mason, Robert P; Chen, Celia Y

    2015-12-20

    Estuarine water column methylmercury (MeHg) is an important driver of mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in pelagic organisms and thus it is necessary to understand the sources and processes affecting environmental levels of MeHg. Increases in water column MeHg concentrations can ultimately be transferred to fish consumed by humans, but despite this, the sources of MeHg to the estuarine water column are still poorly understood. Here we evaluate MeHg sources across 4 estuaries and 10 sampling sites and examine the distributions and partitioning of sediment and water column MeHg across a geographic range (Maine to New Jersey). Our study sites present a gradient in the concentrations of sediment, pore water and water column Hg species. Suspended particle MeHg ranged from below detection to 187 pmol g -1 , dissolved MeHg from 0.01 to 0.68 pM, and sediment MeHg from 0.01 to 109 pmol g -1 . Across multiple estuaries, dissolved MeHg correlated with Hg species in the water column, and sediment MeHg correlated with sediment total Hg (HgT). Water column MeHg did not correlate well with sediment Hg across estuaries, indicating that sediment concentrations were not a good predictor of water MeHg concentrations. This is an unexpected finding since it has been shown that MeHg production from inorganic Hg 2+ within sediment is the primary source of MeHg to coastal waters. Additional sources of MeHg regulate water column MeHg levels in some of the shallow estuaries included in this study.

  17. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  18. Functional groups in North Chilean desert shrub species, based on the water sources used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squeo, Francisco A; Olivares, Nancy; Olivares, Sandra; Jorquera, Carmen; Pollastri, Alberto; Aguirre, Evelyn; Aravena, Ramon; Ehleringer, James R

    1999-01-01

    Primary productivity and vegetation structure in arid ecosystems are determined by water availability. In studies conducted in the coastal dry land of North Central Chile (29 degrees 43'S; 71degrees 14'0, 300m), the mechanisms to use different water sources by shrubs species, in two contrasting rainfall years were compared. Information on pheno logical studies, root architecture and water sources used by shrubs through the use of stable isotopes is are discussed. Six functional groups based on water uptake and water use are recognized. The functional groups were defined based on their habits (deciduous and evergreen), their root systems, (shallow, dimorphic and deep), and their ability to use different water sources (surficial and/or deep). Because of the differential impact of the goat overgrazing on different functional groups, this would result on a lower utilization of surficial waters. A management and/or restoration plan should maximize the use of all water sources available to recover the primary productivity and the system stability

  19. Identification and quantification of point sources of surface water contamination in fruit culture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Werd, de H.A.E.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of pesticide concentrations in surface water by the water boards show that they have decreased less than was expected from model calculations. Possibly, the implementation of spray drift reducing techniques is overestimated in the model calculation. The impact of point sources is

  20. Inferring the source of evaporated waters using stable H and O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of H and O are widely used to identify the source of water, e.g., in aquifers, river runoff, soils, plant xylem, and plant-based beverages. In situations where the sampled water is partially evaporated, its isotope values will have evolved along an evaporati...

  1. On the mineralization model of 'three sources--heat, water and uranium'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xueli

    1992-01-01

    In response to the relations between geological and geothermal settings, geothermal water and uranium mineralizations in the Southeastern China, the model of uranium mineralization in discharge area (depressurization area) of fossil geothermal systems in Mesozoic-Cenozoic Volcanic-magmatic active areas has been put forward and expounded in the view of mineral-formation by the 'three sources'-heat, water and uranium

  2. Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Subbaram

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.

  3. Studies of the contributions of nonpoint terrestrial sources to mineral water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.

    1977-05-01

    The contributions of nonpoint sources of water quality constituents represent a background loading rate that will not be reduced easily. Consequently, those contributions may have a dominant effect on aquatic ecosystems once point sources have been controlled. Modeling studies conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority and Oak Ridge National Laboratory represent contrasting approaches that highlight some of the possibilities for predicting nonpoint source inputs to aquatic systems

  4. Pollutants in drinking water: their sources, harmful effects and removal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.

    2004-01-01

    The underground water resources available for human consumption are being continuously contaminated by the natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The pollutants include toxic microorganism, inorganic and organic chemical and radionuclide etc. this is an acute problem in our country, where free style way of disposal of industrial effluents into the natural water bodies contaminates the surface and ground water. These contaminants make their way into human body through contaminated drinking water, which leads to the malfunctioning of the body organs. Details of some pollutants present in drinking water, their source and harmful effects on human beings are reviewed in this communication. Merits and demerits of methods used to remove the pollutants from drinking water are also discussed. (author)

  5. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  6. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  7. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  8. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  9. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER — BASIN WATER HIGH EFFICIENCY ION EXCHANGE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Basin Water System was conducted over a 54-day period between April 4, 2005 and May 28, 2005. The test was conducted at the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD) Corydon Street Well in Lake Elsinore, California. The source water was a raw gr...

  10. Identification of neutron noise sources in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sides, W.H. Jr.; Mathis, M.V.; Smith, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were made at units 2 and 3 of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in order to characterize the noise signatures of the neutron and process signals and to determine the usefulness of such signatures for anomaly detection in BWR-4s. Previous measurements and theoretical analyses of BWR noise by others were concerned with the determination of steam velocity and void fraction (using the local component of neutron noise) and with the sources of global noise. The work described is under a five-part program to develop a complete and systematic analysis and representation of BWR neutron and process noise through complementary measurements and stochastic model developments. The parts are: (1) recording as many neutron detector and process noise signals as are available in a BWR-4; (2) reducing these data to noise signatures in order to perform an empirical analysis of these signatures, and documenting the relationships between the signals from spatially separated neutron detectors and between neutron and process variables; (3) developing spatially dependent neutronic models coupled with thermal-hydraulic models to aid in interpreting the observed relationships among the measured noise signatures, (4) comparing measured noise signatures with model predictions to obtain additional insight into BWR-4 dynamic behavior and to validate the models; and (5) using these models to predict the sensitivity of noise monitoring for detection, surveillance, and diagnosis of postulated in-core anomalies in BWRs. The paper describes the procedures used to obtain the noise recordings and presents initial empirical analysis and observations pertaining to the noise signatures and the relationships between several noise variables in the 0.01- to 1-Hz range. The mathematical models have not been developed sufficiently to report theoretical results or to compare measured spectra with model predictions at this time

  11. Use of oleaginous plants in phytotreatment of grey water and yellow water from source separation of sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Alibardi, Luca; Garbo, Francesco; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-05-01

    Efficient and economic reuse of waste is one of the pillars of modern environmental engineering. In the field of domestic sewage management, source separation of yellow (urine), brown (faecal matter) and grey waters aims to recover the organic substances concentrated in brown water, the nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) in the urine and to ensure an easier treatment and recycling of grey waters. With the objective of emphasizing the potential of recovery of resources from sewage management, a lab-scale research study was carried out at the University of Padova in order to evaluate the performances of oleaginous plants (suitable for biodiesel production) in the phytotreatment of source separated yellow and grey waters. The plant species used were Brassica napus (rapeseed), Glycine max (soybean) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). Phytotreatment tests were carried out using 20L pots. Different testing runs were performed at an increasing nitrogen concentration in the feedstock. The results proved that oleaginous species can conveniently be used for the phytotreatment of grey and yellow waters from source separation of domestic sewage, displaying high removal efficiencies of nutrients and organic substances (nitrogen>80%; phosphorous >90%; COD nearly 90%). No inhibition was registered in the growth of plants irrigated with different mixtures of yellow and grey waters, where the characteristics of the two streams were reciprocally and beneficially integrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The influence of increased temperature of waters from Cernavoda NPP on underground water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbasoiu, Eugen Constantin; Marinov, Anca Mariana; Moraru, Carina Nicoleta; Rizescu, Gheorghe

    1997-01-01

    The operation of Cernavoda NPP implies the change of thermal regime of waters in the Danube-Black Sea channel zone. The Danube water is used to cool the NPP systems before being delivered into channel and used in irrigations. The temperature increase of water in Cernavoda NPP installations is between 7 and 12 deg. C. The negative effects of this warming are: 1. limitation of water use for irrigations; 2. occurrence and persistence of fog in channel area; 3. thermal pollution of underground waters and limitation of underground potable water supply. The paper presents a general approach of thermal pollution problems of an aquifer and a mathematical model of forecasting the underground water temperature variation in Danube-Black Sea channel area. (authors)

  13. Survey to determine why people drink raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis extract a large financial and personal toll on society. Pharmaceutical or dietary calcium intake is needed to increase bone mineral density to prevent fragility fractures. Although dairy products are a good source of calcium, patients who are unable to digest lactose tend to avoid them and are put at a greater risk for fracture than the general population. Anecdotal reports suggest that lactose maldigesters, when consuming raw milk, have a dramatic reduction in symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. The mechanism of the reported reduction in symptoms, if true, is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to survey raw milk drinkers to ascertain their health-related motivations for consuming raw milk, especially as they relate to lactose maldigestion. An online survey regarding raw milk was completed by 153 of 1527 members of a raw milk-buying community. The primary reason the respondents cited for drinking raw milk was that they believed it was more healthful; 30% reported some gastrointestinal discomfort when drinking pasteurized milk, yet almost all (99%) reported consuming raw milk without discomfort. Despite the reports of gastrointestinal discomfort, only 5% of respondents had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant by a medical professional, and only 1% had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant via the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. The primary motivation for drinking raw milk is its perceived health value, not its digestibility. Although raw milk appears to be more easily digested than pasteurized milk in our survey sample, the mechanism of digestibility remains unknown.

  14. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  15. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  16. Intraspecific variation in the use of water sources by the circum-Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltas, Jordi; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Maria Regina; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The relevance of interspecific variation in the use of plant water sources has been recognized in drought-prone environments. By contrast, the characterization of intraspecific differences in water uptake patterns remains elusive, although preferential access to particular soil layers may be an important adaptive response for species along aridity gradients. Stable water isotopes were analysed in soil and xylem samples of 56 populations of the drought-avoidant conifer Pinus halepensis grown in a common garden test. We found that most populations reverted to deep soil layers as the main plant water source during seasonal summer droughts. More specifically, we detected a clear geographical differentiation among populations in water uptake patterns even under relatively mild drought conditions (early autumn), with populations originating from more arid regions taking up more water from deep soil layers. However, the preferential access to deep soil water was largely independent of aboveground growth. Our findings highlight the high plasticity and adaptive relevance of the differential access to soil water pools among Aleppo pine populations. The observed ecotypic patterns point to the adaptive relevance of resource investment in deep roots as a strategy towards securing a source of water in dry environments for P. halepensis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  18. Tackling non-point source water pollution in British Columbia: An action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to protect British Columbia water quality by regulating point discharges from municipal and industrial sources have generally been successful, and it is recognized that the major remaining cause of water pollution in the province is from non-point sources. These sources are largely unregulated and associated with urbanization, agriculture, and other forms of land development. The first part of this report reviews the provincial commitment to clean water, the effects of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, and the management of NPS in the province. Part 2 describes the main causes of NPS in British Columbia: Land development, agriculture, stormwater runoff, on-site sewage systems, forestry and range activities, atmospheric deposition, and boating/marine activities. Finally, it presents key components of the province's NPS action plan: Education and training, prevention at site, land use planning and co-ordination, assessment and reporting, economic incentives, legislation and regulation, and implementation.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  20. Aggregation of Adenovirus 2 in Source Water and Impacts on Disinfection by Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromeans, Theresa L.; Metcalfe, Maureen G.; Humphrey, Charles D.; Hill, Vincent R.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microscopy was used to measure aggregation before and after addition of virus particles to surface water at different pH and specific conductance levels. The impact of aggregation on the efficacy of chlorine disinfection was also examined. Disinfection experiments with human adenovirus 2 (HAdV2) in source water were conducted using 0.2 mg/L free chlorine at 5 °C. Aggregation of HAdV2 in source water (≥3 aggregated particles) remained higher at higher specific conductance and pH levels. However, aggregation was highly variable, with the percentage of particles present in aggregates ranging from 43 to 71 %. Upon addition into source water, the aggregation percentage dropped dramatically. On average, chlorination CT values (chlorine concentration in mg/L × time in min) for 3-log10 inactivation of aggregated HAdV2 were up to three times higher than those for dispersed HAdV2, indicating that aggregation reduced the disinfection rate. This information can be used by water utilities and regulators to guide decision making regarding disinfection of viruses in water. PMID:26910058

  1. In vitro assessment of thyroid hormone disrupting activities in drinking water sources along the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xinxin; Shi Wei; Zhang Fengxian; Cao Fu; Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun; Wei Si; Wang Xinru; Yu Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid hormone disrupting activities of drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River were examined using a reporter gene assay based on African green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cells. None of the eleven tested samples showed thyroid receptor (TR) agonist activity. Nine water samples exhibited TR antagonist activities with the equivalents referring to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DNBP) (TR antagonist activity equivalents, ATR-EQ 50 s) ranging from 6.92 × 10 1 to 2.85 × 10 2 μg DNBP/L. The ATR-EQ 50 s and TR antagonist equivalent ranges (ATR-EQ 30–80 ranges) for TR antagonist activities indicated that the water sample from site WX-8 posed the greatest health risks. The ATR-EQ 80 s of the water samples ranging from 1.56 × 10 3 to 6.14 × 10 3 μg DNBP/L were higher than the NOEC of DNBP. The results from instrumental analysis showed that DNBP might be responsible for the TR antagonist activities in these water samples. Water sources along Yangtze River had thyroid hormone disrupting potential. - Highlights: ► We examined thyroidal activities of drinking water sources at lower reaches of Yangtze River. ► Nine sites showed TR antagonist activities and no site exhibited TR agonist activity. ► ATR-EQ 50 s and ATR-EQ 30–80 ranges showed that the tested water samples had potential risks. ► The drinking water after water treatment processes may pose potential risks to residents. ► DBP, DEHP, NP and OP might contribute to TR antagonist activities in the aquatic environment. - Drinking water sources from the lower reaches of Yangtze River showed thyroid hormone disrupting potential in reporter gene assays.

  2. The occurrence and distribution of a group of organic micropollutants in Mexico City's water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Cañedo, Thania E; Durán-Álvarez, Juan C; Jiménez-Cisneros, Blanca

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of a group of 17 organic micropollutants in surface and groundwater sources from Mexico City was determined. Water samples were taken from 7 wells, 4 dams and 15 tanks where surface and groundwater are mixed and stored before distribution. Results evidenced the occurrence of seven of the target compounds in groundwater: salicylic acid, diclofenac, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). In surface water, 11 target pollutants were detected: same found in groundwater as well as naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and gemfibrozil. In groundwater, concentration ranges of salicylic acid, 4-NP and DEHP, the most frequently found compounds, were 1-464, 1-47 and 19-232 ng/L, respectively; while in surface water, these ranges were 29-309, 89-655 and 75-2,282 ng/L, respectively. Eleven target compounds were detected in mixed water. Concentrations in mixed water were higher than those determined in groundwater but lower than the detected in surface water. Different to that found in ground and surface water, the pesticide 2,4-D was found in mixed water, indicating that some pollutants can reach areas where they are not originally present in the local water sources. Concentration of the organic micropollutants found in this study showed similar to lower to those reported in water sources from developed countries. This study provides information that enriches the state of the art on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in water sources worldwide, notably in megacities of developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How to Obtain a 100% Reliable Grid with Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Providing 100% of all Raw Energy for All Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Delucchi, M. A.; Cameron, M. A.; Frew, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    The greatest concern facing the large-scale integration of wind, water, and solar (WWS) into a power grid is the high cost of avoiding load loss caused by WWS variability and uncertainty. This talk discusses the recent development of a new grid integration model to address this issue. The model finds low-cost, no-load-loss, non-unique solutions to this problem upon electrification of all U.S. energy sectors (electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, and industry) while accounting for wind and solar time-series data from a 3-D global weather model that simulates extreme events and competition among wind turbines for available kinetic energy. Solutions are obtained by prioritizing storage for heat (in soil and water); cold (in ice and water); and electricity (in phase-change materials, pumped hydro, hydropower, and hydrogen); and using demand response. No natural gas, biofuels, or stationary batteries are needed. The resulting 2050-2055 U.S. electricity social cost for a full system is much less than for fossil fuels. These results hold for many conditions, suggesting that low-cost, stable 100% WWS systems should work many places worldwide. The paper this talk is based on was published in PNAS, 112, 15,060-15,065, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1510028112.

  4. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  5. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in

  6. Strategic water source areas for urban water security: Making the connection between protecting ecosystems and benefiting from their services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic water source areas are those areas that have a relatively high natural runoff in the region of interest, which is made accessible for supporting the region’s population or economy. These areas contribute substantially to development needs...

  7. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Phthalate esters in main source water and drinking water of Zhejiang Province (China): Distribution and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Nianhua; Ding, Gangqiang; Chen, Zhijian; Xu, Peiwei; Wu, Lizhi; Cai, Jianmin; Han, Jianlong; Qiu, Xueting

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the distributions and health risks of phthalate esters in the main source water and corresponding drinking water of Zhejiang Province, the concentrations of 16 phthalate esters in water samples from 19 sites were measured from samples taken in the dry season and wet season. The concentration of the total phthalate ester congeners in source water ranged from 1.07 μg/L to 7.12 μg/L in the wet season, from 0.01 μg/L to 1.58 μg/L in the dry season, from 1.18 μg/L to 15.28 μg/L from drinking water in the wet season, and from 0.16 μg/L to 1.86 μg/L from drinking water in the dry season. Of the 16 phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate, di-iso-butyl phthalate, bis-2-n-butoxyethyl phthalate, and dicyclohexyl phthalate were present in the samples analyzed, dominated by di-iso-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. The concentrations of phthalate esters in the wet season were all relatively higher than those in the dry season, and the drinking water had higher concentrations of phthalate esters than source water. The phthalate ester congeners studied pose little health risk to nearby citizens. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2205-2212. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Determination of sources and analysis of micro-pollutants in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Pauzi Abdullah; Soh Shiau Chian

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to develop and validate selected analytical methods for the analysis of micro organics and metals in water; to identify, monitor and assess the levels of micro organics and metals in drinking water supplies; to evaluate the relevancy of the guidelines set in the National Standard of Drinking Water Quality 2001; and to identify the sources of pollution and to carryout risk assessment of exposure to drinking water. The presentation discussed the progress of the work include determination of VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) in drinking water using SPME (Solid phase micro-extraction) extraction techniques, analysis of heavy metals in drinking water, determination of Cr(VI) with ICPES (Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry) and the presence of halogenated volatile organic compounds (HVOCs), which is heavily used by agricultural sector, in trace concentrations in waters

  10. Sources and circulation of water and arsenic in the Giant Mine, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian D; Raven, Kenneth G

    2004-06-01

    Recovery of gold from arsenopyrite-hosted ore in the Giant Mine camp, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, has left a legacy of arsenic contamination that poses challenges for mine closure planning. Seepage from underground chambers storing some 237,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust, has As concentrations exceeding 4000 ppm. Other potential sources and sinks of As also exist. Sources and movement of water and arsenic are traced using the isotopes of water and sulphate. Mine waters (16 ppm As; AsV/AsIII approximately 150) are a mixture of two principal water sources--locally recharged, low As groundwaters (0.5 ppm As) and Great Slave Lake (GSL; 0.004 ppm As) water, formerly used in ore processing and discharged to the northwest tailings impoundment (NWTP). Mass balance with delta18O shows that recirculation of NWTP water to the underground through faults and unsealed drillholes contributes about 60% of the mine water. Sulphate serves to trace direct infiltration to the As2O3 chambers. Sulphate in local, low As groundwaters (0.3-0.6 ppm As; delta34SSO4 approximately 4% and delta18OSO4 approximately -10%) originates from low-temperature aqueous oxidation of sulphide-rich waste rock. The high As waters gain a component of 18O-enriched sulphate derived from roaster gases (delta18OSO4) = + 3.5%), consistent with their arsenic source from the As2O3 chambers. High arsenic in NWTP water (approximately 8 ppm As; delta18OSO4 = -2%) derived from mine water, is attenuated to close to 1 ppm during infiltration back to the underground, probably by oxidation and sorption by ferrihydrite. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  11. Meeting water needs for sustainable development: an overview of approaches, measures and data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Tabea; Reusser, Dominik E.; Sullivan, Caroline A.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    An essential part of a global transition towards sustainability is the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), providing a blueprint of goals to meet human needs. Water is an essential resource in itself, but also a vital factor of production for food, energy and other industrial products. Access to sufficient water has only recently been recognized as a human right. One central MDG is halving the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation. To adequately assess the state of development and the potential for a transition towards sustainability, consistent and meaningful measures of water availability and adequate access are thus fundamental. Much work has been done to identify thresholds and definitions to measure water scarcity. This includes some work on defining basic water needs of different sectors. A range of data and approaches has been made available from a variety of sources, but all of these approaches differ in their underlying assumptions, the nature of the data used, and consequently in the final results. We review and compare approaches, methods and data sources on human water use and human water needs. This data review enables identifying levels of consumption in different countries and different sectors. Further comparison is made between actual water needs (based on human and ecological requirements), and recognised levels of water abstraction. The results of our review highlight the differences between different accounts of water use and needs, and reflect the importance of standardised approaches to data definitions and measurements, making studies more comparable across space and time. The comparison of different use and allocation patterns in countries enables levels of water use to be identified which allow for an adequate level of human wellbeing to be maintained within sustainable water abstraction limits. Recommendations are provided of how data can be defined more clearly to make comparisons of water use more meaningful and

  12. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S

    2007-04-15

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method.

  13. Detailed Design of Cooling Water System for Cold Neutron Source in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Soo; Choi, Jung Woon; Kim, Y. K.; Wu, S. I.; Lee, Y. S.

    2007-04-01

    To make cold neutron, a cryogenic refrigerator is necessary to transform moderator into cryogenic state so, thermal neutron is changed into cold neutron through heat transfer with moderator. A cryogenic refrigerator mainly consists of two apparatus, a helium compressor and a cold box which needs supply of cooling water. Therefore, cooling water system is essential to operate of cryogenic refrigerator normally. This report is mainly focused on the detailed design of the cooling water system for the HANARO cold neutron source, and describes design requirement, calculation, specification of equipment and water treatment method

  14. Goaf water detection using the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Wu, Y.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    To detect the geoelectric characteristic of goaf water, the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system (developed by Jilin University, China) is applied to the goaf water detection since its advantages of considerable prospecting depth, lateral resolution and detection efficiency. For the test of GREATEM system in goaf water detection, an experimental survey was conducted at Qinshui coal mine (Shanxi province, China). After data acquisition, noise reduction and inversion, the resistivity profiles of survey area is presented. The results highly agree the investigation information provided by Shanxi Coal Geology Geophysical Surveying Exploration Institute (China), conforming that the GREATEM system is an effective technique for resistivity detection of goaf water.

  15. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  16. Microbial and metal water quality in rain catchments compared with traditional drinking water sources in the East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Helena M; Chynoweth, Joshua S; Myers, Ward P; Davis, Jennifer; Fendorf, Scott; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2010-03-01

    In Papua New Guinea, a significant portion of morbidity and mortality is attributed to water-borne diseases. To reduce incidence of disease, communities and non-governmental organizations have installed rain catchments to provide drinking water of improved quality. However, little work has been done to determine whether these rain catchments provide drinking water of better quality than traditional drinking water sources, and if morbidity is decreased in villages with rain catchments. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of water produced by rain catchments in comparison with traditional drinking water sources in rural villages in the East Sepik Province. Fifty-four water sources in 22 villages were evaluated for enterococci and Escherichia coli densities as well as 14 health-relevant metals. In addition, we examined how the prevalence of diarrhoeal illness in villages relates to the type of primary drinking water source. The majority of tested metals were below World Health Organization safety limits. Catchment water sources had lower enterococci and E. coli than other water sources. Individuals in villages using Sepik River water as their primary water source had significantly higher incidence of diarrhoea than those primarily using other water sources (streams, dug wells and catchments).

  17. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  18. Fractured Epikarst Bedrock as Water Source for Woody Plants in Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, S.; Goodsheller, K. R.; Schwartz, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    Study of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system has been overwhelmingly dominated by systems with deep soils, yet large portions of the world are characterized by shallow soils underlain by fractured bedrock. In these systems, fractured bedrock may provide significant water storage, but we know little about the function of fractured bedrock as a water source for plants. In this study we examined the water use of three co-dominant tree species on the eastern rim of the karstic Edwards Plateau where the soil is extremely rocky, only 20 -30 cm thick, and overlies a well-developed epikarst. We used Granier sap flow sensors to estimate changes in sapflow velocity with the onset of summer drought. Simultaneously, we measured precipitation inputs and drip rates in a shallow cave below the field site. Precipitation, stem and drip water were also periodically sampled for stable isotope analysis to match stem water with potential source waters. The year of the study, 2009, was characterized by extreme drought conditions developing during summer. Sap flow rates began to decline in mid-May for all three species, but there were distinct species differences in the development of water stress: live oak (Quercus fusiformis) was the first to show significant loss of transpiration, reaching minimal sap flow values by early June. Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia) reached minimal sap flow values by early July, while Ashe juniper’s (Juniperus ashei) loss of transpiration was very gradual, continuing to decline until early August. The isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in water were not significantly different between species, suggesting that root development and water uptake was similarly constrained for the three species. In summer, all stem water isotope ratios were enriched relative to precipitation, while all drip waters coincided with the local meteoric water line. This suggests that tree water sources were relatively shallow and water draining out of the root zone did not have a

  19. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE, followed by ampicillin (AM, piperacillin (PIP, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT, and chloramphenicol (C. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman's rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP, as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM. Pearson's chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87% contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.

  20. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  1. Enhancing the water management schemes of H08 global hydrological model to attribute human water use to six major water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Kanae, S.

    2017-12-01

    Humans abstract water from various sources to sustain their livelihood and society. Some global hydrological models (GHMs) include explicit schemes of human water management, but the representation and performance of these schemes remain limited. We substantially enhanced the human water management schemes of the H08 GHM by incorporating the latest data and techniques. The model enables us to estimate water abstraction from six major water sources, namely, river flow regulated by global reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs regulating the flow of the world's major rivers), aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, seawater desalination, renewable groundwater, and nonrenewable groundwater. All the interactions were simulated in a single computer program and the water balance was always strictly closed at any place and time during the simulation period. Using this model, we first conducted a historical global hydrological simulation at a spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degree to specify the sources of water for humanity. The results indicated that, in 2000, of the 3628 km3yr-1 global freshwater requirement, 2839 km3yr-1 was taken from surface water and 789 km3yr-1 from groundwater. Streamflow, aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, and seawater desalination accounted for 1786, 199, 106, and 1.8 km3yr-1 of the surface water, respectively. The remaining 747 km3yr-1 freshwater requirement was unmet, or surface water was not available when and where it was needed in our simulation. Renewable and nonrenewable groundwater accounted for 607 and 182 km3yr-1 of the groundwater total, respectively. Second, we evaluated the water stress using our simulations and contrasted it with earlier global assessments based on empirical water scarcity indicators, namely, the Withdrawal to Availability ratio and the Falkenmark index (annual renewable water resources per capita). We found that inclusion of water infrastructures in our model diminished water stress in some parts of the world, on

  2. EFECTO DEL INCREMENTO EN LA TURBIEDAD DEL AGUA CRUDA SOBRE LA EFICIENCIA DE PROCESOS CONVENCIONALES DE POTABILIZACIÓN EFEITO DO INCREMENTO NA TURBIEDADE DA ÁGUA CRUA SOBRE A EFICIÊNCIA DE PROCESSOS CONVENCIONAIS DE POTABILIZAÇÃO EFFECT OF INCREASE OF RAW WATER TURBIDITY ON EFFICIENCY OF CONVENTIONAL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los fenómenos ambientales provocan fuerte impacto sobre la variación de la calidad del agua de fuentes de abastecimiento, exigiendo que los procesos de potabilización respondan a tales variaciones y mantengan los estándares de calidad en la producción de agua segura. El análisis histórico del comportamiento de la turbiedad del río Cauca y del agua clarificada y tratada permitió evaluar el efecto del incremento en la turbiedad del agua cruda sobre la eficiencia de los procesos convencionales de potabilización que se realizan en la planta Puerto Mallarino en Cali (Colombia. Se encontró que dicho fenómeno afectó la eficiencia del tratamiento y la calidad del agua tratada, siendo la filtración la etapa más vulnerable. Se identificó alta correlación lineal entre la turbiedad máxima del agua cruda y la dosificación de productos químicos utilizados en el tratamiento del agua (coagulante y desinfectante.Os fenômenos ambientais provocam forte impacto sobre a variação da qualidade da água de fontes de abastecimento, exigindo que os processos de potabilizacão respondam a tais variações e mantenham os standards de qualidade na produção de água segura. A análise histórica do comportamento da turbidez do rio Cauca e da água clarificada e tratada permitiu avaliar o efeito do incremento na turbidez da água crua sobre a eficiência dos processos convencionais de potabilizacão que se realizam na planta Porto Mallarino em Cali (Colômbia. Encontrou-se que dito fenômeno afetou a eficiência do tratamento e a qualidade da água tratada, sendo a filtração a etapa mais vulnerável. Identificou-se alta correlação linear entre a turbidez máxima da água crua e a dosagem de produtos químicos utilizados no tratamento da água (coagulante e desinfetante.Environmental phenomena cause a strong impact in the variation of the quality of sources for drinking water, demanding that potable water treatment processes respond to these

  3. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob

    2017-09-01

    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  4. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  5. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Williams, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic and mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Between one day and 90 days after initial contact, specific conductance in the sample mixtures had a median increase of 306 percent. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of the lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden (a coal, a sandstone, and a shale) probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the over-burden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water.

  6. Identification of dissolved-constituent sources in mine-site ground water using batch mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.M.; Williams, R.S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Batch-mixing experiments were used to help identify lithologic mineralogic sources of increased concentrations of dissolved solids in water affected by surface coal mining in northwestern Colorado. Ten overburden core samples were analyzed for mineral composition and mixed with distilled water for 90 days until mineral-water equilibrium was reached. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 200 to 8,700 mg/L in water samples extracted from the mixtures after 90 days. Mass-balance simulations were conducted using the geochemical models BALANCE and WATEQF to quantify mineral-water interactions occurring in five selected sample mixtures and in water collected from a spring at a reclaimed mine site. The spring water is affected by mineral-water interactions occurring in all of lithologic units comprising the overburden. Results of the simulations indicate that oxidation of pyrite, dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, and epsomite, and cation-exchange reactions are the primary mineral-water interactions occurring in the overburden. Three lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute most of the dissolved solids to the spring water. Water sample extracts from mixtures using core from these three units accounted for 85 percent of the total dissolved solids in the 10 sample extracts. Other lithologic units in the overburden probably contribute smaller quantities of dissolved solids to the spring water

  7. Estimation of The Contribution of the Water Sources in The Mixed Waters; Karisim Sularinda Koekensel Katkilarin Belirlenmesi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurttas, T [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-07-01

    In many cases simple hydrogeochemical evaluations are sufficient to distinguish different source of the waters in the hydrogeological studies. In this study how hydrochemical data can be used to understand mixing mechanism is explained. Mixing ratios determined by using physically or chemically nonreactive component in hydrogeological studies. For mixing quantity calculations, quantity of the end members that cause to mixing, need to be known. Electrical conductivity is another parameter may be used when lack of hydrochemical data is present or more practical and fast solution is required. Isotope techniques are widely used to describe the hydrogeological conditions, where the conventional methods is not sufficient to understand. Since {sup 18}O ve D are conservative isotopes and do not effected by the hydrochemical processes in the aquifer, they are used to explain recharge quantities of the aquifer, determination of the recharge areas, groundwater-surface water relations, determination of mixing quantities and understanding of recharge-discharge relations in the fractured aquifers. By using stable isotope data, sources of the mixing portions, dissolution of salts, evaporation and isotopic enrichment or fresh water-salt water/fresh water- sea water mixing can be identified easily.

  8. Disinfection byproduct formation in drinking water sources: A case study of Yuqiao reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongyan; He, Xizhen; Zhang, Yan; Du, Tingting; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Li, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the potential formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination of 20 water samples collected from different points of Yuqiao reservoir in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of dissolved organic matter and ammonia decreased downstream the reservoir, while the specific UV absorbance (SUVA: the ratio of UV 254 to dissolved organic carbon) increased [from 0.67 L/(mg*m) upstream to 3.58 L/(mg*m) downstream]. The raw water quality played an important role in the formation of DBPs. During chlorination, haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the major DBPs formed in most of the water samples, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs). CHCl 3 and CHCl 2 Br were the major THM species, while trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were the major HAA species. Chloramination, on the other hand, generally resulted in lower concentrations of THMs (CHCl 3 ), HAAs (TCAA and DCAA), and haloacetonitriles (HANs). All the species of DBPs formed had positive correlations with the SUVA values, and HANs had the highest one (R 2  = 0.8). The correlation coefficients between the analogous DBP yields and the SUVA values in chlorinated samples were close to those in chloraminated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  10. Occurrence and sources of bromate in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuino, Homer C; Espino, Maria Pythias B

    2012-04-01

    Significant levels of potentially carcinogenic bromate were measured in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, using an optimized ion-chromatographic method. This method can quantify bromate in water down to 4.5 μg l⁻¹ by employing a postcolumn reaction with acidic fuchsin and subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The concentration of bromate in tap drinking water samples collected from 21 locations in cities and municipalities within the 9-month study period ranged from 7 to 138 μg l⁻¹. The average bromate concentration of all tap drinking water samples was 66 μg l⁻¹ (n = 567), almost seven times greater than the current regulatory limit in the country. The levels of bromate in other water types were also determined to identify the sources of bromate found in the distribution lines and to further uncover contaminated sites. The concentration of bromate in water sourced from two rivers and two water treatment plants ranged from 15 to 80 and 12 to 101 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Rainwater did not contribute bromate in rivers but decreased bromate level by dilution. Groundwater and wastewater samples showed bromate concentrations as high as 246 and 342 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Bromate presence in tap drinking water can be linked to pollution in natural water bodies and the practice of using hypochlorite chemicals in addition to gaseous chlorine for water disinfection. This study established the levels, occurrence, and possible sources of bromate in local drinking water supplies.

  11. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  12. Biopolymer Production Kinetics of Mixed Culture Using Wastewater Sludge as a Raw Material and the Effect of Different Cations on Biopolymer Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2016-05-01

    Thirteen extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains were cultivated (as mixed culture) in the sterilized sludge (suspended solids of 25 g/L) and the batch fermentation was carried out. Mixed culture revealed a high specific growth rate of 0.35/hr. The EPS production rate was higher up to 24 hours, which gradually decreased with further incubation. The kinetic estimates demonstrated growth-associated EPS production. Broth EPS revealed higher flocculation activity when combined with different cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+)) in river water (≥90%), municipal wastewater (≥90%), and brewery wastewater (≥80%), respectively. A low dose (5 to 40 mg/L) of trivalent cations was required to achieve higher flocculation compared to the divalent cations (50 to 250 mg/L). Flocculation performance of EPS was comparable to Magnafloc-155 (chemical polymer) and, hence, it could be used as a flocculant.

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from water sources in Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Adzitey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella species isolated from drinking water sources in Tamale Metropolis. Materials and Methods: Isolation of Salmonella species from 275 different drinking water samples (25 each from dam, well, rain, and bottle, 35 from tap, 40 from water trough, and 100 from sachet was done using a slightly modified method of the Bacteriological Analytical Manual of the Food and Drugs Administration, USA. 34 Salmonella species isolated from the water samples were examined for their susceptibility to nine different antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. The study was carried out from July 2014 to January 2015. Results: The overall prevalence of Salmonella species was 4.36% (12/275. Dam 16.00% (4/25 and well 16.00% (4/25 water samples were the most contaminated source, followed by rain water (stored 12.00% (3/25 and tap water samples 2.86% (1/35. There were no significant differences among water samples which were positive for Salmonella species (p>0.05; however, dam and well samples that were positive for Salmonella species differ significantly (p<0.05 from bottle water, sachet water, and water trough samples, which were negative for Salmonella species. The 34 Salmonella isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (E (100% and vancomycin (VA (94.12%. Few isolates exhibited intermediate resistances to ceftriaxone (CRO (17.65%, gentamicin (CN (17.65%, tetracycline (14.71%, chloramphenicol (C (5.88%, ciprofloxacin (CIP (2.94%, and amoxicillin (AMC (2.94%. Salmonella isolates also exhibited six different antibiotic resistant patterns (VA-E, VA-E-AMC, VA-E-CRO, VA-E-C, VA-E-CRO-AMC, and VA-E-AMC-CN. The resistant pattern VA-E (with multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.22 was the commonest. Conclusion: This study indicated that some drinking water sources for humans and animals in Tamale Metropolis are contaminated with Salmonella species which exhibited varying resistance to

  14. Treatment and conditioning of solid and liquid raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubec, R.

    2015-01-01

    Jadrova a vyradovacia spolocnost, a.s. (JAVYS) implements activities within the processes of treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste (RAW) at two nuclear facilities, one of them located in Bohunice - Technologies for treatment and conditioning of RAW. This nuclear facility includes: Bohunice RAW treatment centre, bituminization lines, waste water purification station and technologies for sorting, fragmentation and decontamination of metallic RAW. The Bohunice RAW treatment centre (BRTC) in Bohunice processes and conditions liquid and solid radioactive waste produced during the A1 NPP and V1 NPP decommissioning, waste from the operation of V2 NPP in Bohunice as well as from the operation of NPP EMO 1,2 in Mochovce. The BRTC includes the following technological facilities: sorting, high-pressure compaction, incineration, concentration and cementation. Treatment of radioactive wastes in the BRTC is described. (authors)

  15. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO 3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO 4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ 34 S SO4 and δ 18 O SO4 ) verified that the SO 4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) indicated that NO 3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO 3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ 34 S SO4 and δ 15 N NO3 . This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different

  16. Relationship between organic precursors and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation in tropical water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wang; Fang Yee, Lim; Jiangyong, Hu

    2014-12-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water sources is one of the concerns in water treatment. They are potential precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and thus induce health problems in humans. Among the emerging DBPs, carcinogenic compound N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been receiving attention during the last decade. This study examined the characteristics of organic components in various water sources and investigated their relationships with NDMA formation. Experiments were carried out on selected water samples from both natural water and wastewater. Results showed similar NDMA formation kinetics for both water sources. However, more contribution of NDMA precursors was found to be from the wastewater due to its higher organic nitrogen content. NDMA formation potential (NDMAFP) of secondary effluent ranged from 264 to 530 ng/L. A correlation study between organic compound characteristics and NDMAFP indicated that the majority of NDMA precursors came from dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compound with small molecular weight (smaller than 500 Da), with correlation R(2) = 0.898. Although secondary treatment removed more than 90% of NDMA precursors, the remaining precursors in secondary effluent would still pose a challenge for water quality.

  17. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  18. Drinking water intake and source patterns within a US-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Adam; Gurian, Patrick; Mena, Kristina D

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify water intake and source patterns among a population that resides in a hot, arid region on the US-Mexico border. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted among households in the neighbouring cities of El Paso, TX, USA and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico to obtain data on the quantity and source of water consumed. The study was also designed to identify factors that impact water consumption patterns, including gender, demographics, socio-economic status, cultural characteristics, health status, types of occupations and residences, available water sources and outdoor temperature, among many others. Of all factors studied, outdoor air temperature was found to have the strongest impact upon water intake quantity. Specifically, among the survey participants, when the outdoor air temperature exceeded 90 °F, water consumption increased by 28 %. Additionally, it was found that participants in this region consumed approximately 50 % more water than the values reported in previous studies.

  19. POLLUTION SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY STATE OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to evaluate water quality of the Supraśl river and identify its main pollution sources. On the river and its tributaries, 8 control points were selected, located near Krynica, Gródek, Nowosiółki, Zasady (mouth of the tributary Sokołda, Supraśl, Nowodworce, Dobrzyniewo (mouth of the tributary Biała and Dzikie. The control points were selected in such a way as to take into account the impact of major point sources of analyzed components located along the river and its main tributaries on water quality in the main stream catchment. Water samples were collected once a month during the period from May to November in 2014. In water samples the concentration of dissolved oxygen, Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+, P-PO43- and the values of pH, BOD5 and electrolytic conductivity were indicated. Based on the obtained results, loads of the individual components in river waters were calculated as a product of concentration and Supraśl waters flow rate in a particular month. Supraśl waters, due to values of most analyzed parameters, should be classified as first quality class. The source of Cl-, SO42-, N-NH4+ in Supraśl waters were treated wastewater and other anthropogenic sources associated with the basin development. Reduced Supraśl water quality is caused by the inflow of organic substances expressed by BZT5 from natural and anthropogenic origin and concentration of PO43-, which were mainly delivered with treated wastewater.

  20. [Arsenic levels in drinking water supplies from underground sources in the community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés Sanz, N; Palacios Diez, M; Avello de Miguel, A; Gómez Rodríguez, P; Martínez Cortés, M; Rodríguez Bernabeu, M J

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, arsenic concentrations of more than 50 micrograms/l were detected in some drinking water supplies from underground sources in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, which is the maximum permissible concentration for drinking water in Spain. These two facts have meant the getting under way of a specific plan for monitoring arsenic in the drinking water in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. The results of the first two sampling processes conducted in the arsenic level monitoring plan set out are presented. In the initial phase, water samples from 353 water supplies comprised within the census of the Public Health Administration of the Autonomous Community of Madrid were analyzed. A water supply risk classification was made based on these initial results. In a second phase, six months later, the analyses were repeated on those 35 water supplies which were considered to possibly pose a risk to public health. Seventy-four percent (74%) of the water supplies studied in the initial phase were revealed to have an arsenic concentration of less than 10 micrograms/l, 22.6% containing levels of 10 micrograms/l-50 micrograms/l, and 3.7% over 50 micrograms/l. Most of the water supplies showing arsenic levels of more than 10 micrograms/l are located in the same geographical area. In the second sampling process (six months later), the 35 water supplies classified as posing a risk were included. Twenty-six (26) of these supplies were revealed to have the same arsenic level ((10-50 micrograms/l), and nine changed category, six of which had less than 10 micrograms/l and three more than 50 micrograms/l. In the Autonomous Community of Madrid, less than 2% of the population drinks water coming from supplies which are from underground sources. The regular water quality monitoring conducted by the Public Health Administration has led to detecting the presence of more than 50 micrograms/l of arsenic in sixteen drinking water supplies from underground sources, which is the maximum

  1. Impact of applying hygienic practices at farm on bacteriological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the potential source of contamination and the efficacy of different washing practices towards quality milk production. Materials and Methods: Probable sources of contamination viz. stored water, potable water, milker’s hands, milking pail, udder of individual buffalo and milk cans were subjected to different types of bacterial counts before the actual experiment to start. Twenty milch buffaloes thereafter were divided randomly into four treatment groups where washing was performed in each step viz. milker hands, udder of individual buffalo, milking pail and milk cans before milking either with water (T0: stored water, T1: potable water or sanitizers (T2: 200 ppm chlorine solution, T3: 50 ppm iodophore solution for 60 days. Bacterial counts again were performed for last 5 alternate days for all the sources involved along with the microbial load of raw milk. Data obtained were subjected to standard statistical analysis. Results: It was found that for all bacterial count stored water contributed significantly higher as compared to the potable water. Among the other potential sources of contamination (log/6 cm2, standard plate count (SPC and coliform count were significantly highest for milking pail (6.73±0.02 and udder of milch buffaloes (3.77±0.12, respectively, while for Staphylococci count both milking pail (3.24±0.02 and milking can (3.22±0.04 were contributed maximally (p0.05 for most of the parameters, even for the raw milk quality. Conclusion: Study revealed that milker hands, milking pails, udder of animals, milk cans and stored water used for washing of equipment are the potential source of contamination in raw milk. These were counted as critical point which needs attention for the production of high-quality milk. Potable water was found to be better than stored water. The use of either chlorine 200 ppm and iodophor 50 ppm is highly effective in reducing the bacterial population for

  2. Water quality and possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron Terrace Aquifer, Oklahoma, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2004-01-01

    Water from the Cimarron terrace aquifer in northwest Oklahoma commonly has nitrate concentrations that exceed the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (referred to as nitrate) set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public drinking water supplies. Starting in July 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study in the Cimarron terrace aquifer to assess the water quality and possible sources of nitrate. A qualitative and quantitative approach based on multiple lines of evidence from chemical analysis of nitrate, nitrogen isotopes in nitrate, pesticides (indicative of cropland fertilizer application), and wastewater compounds (indicative of animal or human wastewater) were used to indicate possible sources of nitrate in the Cimarron terrace aquifer. Nitrate was detected in 44 of 45 ground-water samples and had the greatest median concentration (8.03 milligrams per liter) of any nutrient analyzed. Nitrate concentrations ranged from chemicals, 3 compounds were hydrocarbons, 2 compounds were industrial chemicals, 2 compounds were pesticides, 1 compound was of animal source, and 1 compound was a detergent compound. The most frequently detected wastewater compound was phenol, which was detected in 23 wells. N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was detected in water samples from 5 wells. Benzophenone, ethanol- 2-butoxy-phosphate, and tributylphosphate were detected in water samples from 3 wells. Fertilizer was determined to be the possible source of nitrate in samples from 13 of 45 wells sampled, with a15N values ranging from 0.43 to 3.46 permil. The possible source of nitrate for samples from the greatest number of wells (22 wells) was from mixed sources of nitrate from fertilizer, septic or manure, or natural sources. Mixed nitrate sources had a 15N values ranging from 0.25 to 9.83 permil. Septic or manure was determined as the possible

  3. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset shows the concentration of cyanobacteria cells/ml in fresh water bodies and estuaries of the Ohio and Florida derived from 300x300 meter MEdium...

  4. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  5. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  6. An open source hydroeconomic model for California's water supply system: PyVIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M. S.; White, E.; Herman, J. D.; Hart, Q.; Merz, J.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Models help operators and decision makers explore and compare different management and policy alternatives, better allocate scarce resources, and predict the future behavior of existing or proposed water systems. Hydroeconomic models are useful tools to increase benefits or decrease costs of managing water. Bringing hydrology and economics together, these models provide a framework for different disciplines that share similar objectives. This work proposes a new model to evaluate operation and adaptation strategies under existing and future hydrologic conditions for California's interconnected water system. This model combines the network structure of CALVIN, a statewide optimization model for California's water infrastructure, along with an open source solver written in the Python programming language. With the flexibilities of the model, reservoir operations, including water supply and hydropower, groundwater pumping, and the Delta water operations and requirements can now be better represented. Given time series of hydrologic inputs to the model, typical outputs include urban, agricultural and wildlife refuge water deliveries and shortage costs, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater systems, and insights into policy and management decisions, such as capacity expansion and groundwater management policies. Water market operations also represented in the model, allocating water from lower-valued users to higher-valued users. PyVIN serves as a cross-platform, extensible model to evaluate systemwide water operations. PyVIN separates data from the model structure, enabling model to be easily applied to other parts of the world where water is a scarce resource.

  7. Multi-criteria evaluation of sources for self-help domestic water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, C. C.; Banigo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Two multi-criteria decision analysis methods were employed to evaluate six water sources. The analytical hierarchical process (AHP) ranked borehole highest with a rank of 0.321 followed by water board with a rank of 0.284. The other sources ranked far below these two as follows: water tanker (0.139), rainwater harvesting (0.117), shallow well (0.114) and stream (0.130). The Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) ranked water board highest with a rank of 0.865, followed by borehole with a value of 0.778. Quality and risk of contamination were found to be the most influential criteria while seasonality was the least.

  8. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    status of the environment. Several multivariate models are used for source apportionment studies, as they pinpoint the possible factors or sources that influence the water quality (Morales et al., 1999; Wunderlin et al., 2001; Petersen et al., 2001... and statistical approaches. Ecology 74: 2201– 2214. Morales, M. M., Martih, P., Llopis, A., Campos, L., and Sagrado, J. 1999. An environmental study by factor analysis of surface seawater in the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean). Analytica Chimica Acta 394...

  9. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space

  10. Fecal indicator organism modeling and microbial source tracking in environmental waters: Chapter 3.4.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models have been widely applied to surface waters to estimate rates of settling, resuspension, flow, dispersion, and advection in order to calculate movement of particles that influence water quality. Of particular interest are the movement, survival, and persistence of microbial pathogens or their surrogates, which may contaminate recreational water, drinking water, or shellfish. Most models devoted to microbial water quality have been focused on fecal indicator organisms (FIO), which act as a surrogate for pathogens and viruses. Process-based modeling and statistical modeling have been used to track contamination events to source and to predict future events. The use of these two types of models require different levels of expertise and input; process-based models rely on theoretical physical constructs to explain present conditions and biological distribution while data-based, statistical models use extant paired data to do the same. The selection of the appropriate model and interpretation of results is critical to proper use of these tools in microbial source tracking. Integration of the modeling approaches could provide insight for tracking and predicting contamination events in real time. A review of modeling efforts reveals that process-based modeling has great promise for microbial source tracking efforts; further, combining the understanding of physical processes influencing FIO contamination developed with process-based models and molecular characterization of the population by gene-based (i.e., biological) or chemical markers may be an effective approach for locating sources and remediating contamination in order to protect human health better.

  11. Saline sewage treatment and source separation of urine for more sustainable urban water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wilsenach, J A; Chen, G H

    2011-01-01

    While energy consumption and its associated carbon emission should be minimized in wastewater treatment, it has a much lower priority than human and environmental health, which are both closely related to efficient water quality management. So conservation of surface water quality and quantity are more important for sustainable development than green house gas (GHG) emissions per se. In this paper, two urban water management strategies to conserve fresh water quality and quantity are considered: (1) source separation of urine for improved water quality and (2) saline (e.g. sea) water toilet flushing for reduced fresh water consumption in coastal and mining cities. The former holds promise for simpler and shorter sludge age activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (no nitrification and denitrification), nutrient (Mg, K, P) recovery and improved effluent quality (reduced endocrine disruptor and environmental oestrogen concentrations) and the latter for significantly reduced fresh water consumption, sludge production and oxygen demand (through using anaerobic bioprocesses) and hence energy consumption. Combining source separation of urine and saline water toilet flushing can reduce sewer crown corrosion and reduce effluent P concentrations. To realize the advantages of these two approaches will require significant urban water management changes in that both need dual (fresh and saline) water distribution and (yellow and grey/brown) wastewater collection systems. While considerable work is still required to evaluate these new approaches and quantify their advantages and disadvantages, it would appear that the investment for dual water distribution and wastewater collection systems may be worth making to unlock their benefits for more sustainable urban development.

  12. Effect of peracetic acid, ultraviolet radiation, nanofiltration-chlorine in the disinfection of a non conventional source of water (Tula Valley).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, J; Barrios, J A; Jimenez, B

    2008-01-01

    Water supply for human consumption requires certain quality that reduces health risks to consumers. In this sense, the process of disinfection plays an important role in the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. Even though chlorination is the most applied process based on its effectiveness and cost, its application is being questioned considering the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Therefore, alternative disinfectants are being evaluated and some treatment processes have been proposed to remove DBPs precursors (organic matter. This paper reports the results of disinfection of a non conventional source of water (aquifer recharged unintentionally with raw wastewater) with peracetic acid (PAA) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) as well as nanofiltration (NF) followed by chlorination to produce safe drinking water. The results showed that a dose of 2 mg/L PAA was needed to eliminate total and faecal coliforms. For UV light, a dose of 12.40 mWs/cm2 reduced total and faecal coliforms below the detection limit. On the other hand, chlorine demand of water before NF was 1.1-1.3 mg/L with a trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of 118.62 microg/L, in contrast with chlorination after NF where the demand was 0.5 mg/L and THMFP of 17.64 microg/L. The recommended scheme is nanofiltration + chlorination.