Sample records for raw score identified

  1. Consistency and Raw Scores Survive Another Test: A Last Response to Prediger and His Colleagues

    Holland, John L.


    Prediger confuses observations about the data with Holland's theoretical statement, performs some uninterpretable analyses, omits much relevant data, and provides an incomplete account of what psychometric authorities have said about raw scores in interest inventories. (Author)

  2. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan


    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  3. Modified EBMT Pretransplant Risk Score Can Identify Favorable-risk Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for AML, Not Identified by the HCT-CI Score.

    Michelis, Fotios V; Messner, Hans A; Uhm, Jieun; Alam, Naheed; Lambie, Anna; McGillis, Laura; Seftel, Matthew D; Gupta, Vikas; Kuruvilla, John; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan


    Risk scores have been developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) and the modified European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation risk score (mEBMT) for acute leukemia. We investigated the influence of these scores for 350 patients who underwent transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The HCT-CI scores were grouped as 0 to 2 and ≥ 3 (231 and 119 patients, respectively) and the mEBMT scores as 0 to 2 and ≥ 3 (166 and 184 patients, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant association between the HCT-CI score and overall survival (OS) (P = .01), as did the mEBMT score (P = .002). The 5-year OS rate was 50% and 34% for a mEBMT score of 0 to 2 and ≥ 3, respectively. A subgroup of patients with a mEBMT score of 0 to 1 (n = 32) demonstrated a favorable OS of 75% at 5 years. This subgroup was younger (median age, 31 years), in first remission at transplantation, and had related donors. For the HCT-CI, the 5-year OS was 46% and 34% for a score of 0 to 2 and ≥ 3, respectively. Patients with an HCT-CI score of 0 (n = 94) had a 5-year OS of 44%. Multivariable analysis confirmed both the HCT-CI score and the mEBMT score, as previously grouped, as independent prognostic variables for both OS (P = .02 and P = .001, respectively) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (P = .01 and P = .003, respectively). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the HCT-CI and mEBMT are both prognostic for OS and NRM in our cohort. However, the mEBMT score can identify a favorable-risk subgroup of patients not identifiable using the HCT-CI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a program to identify and track corrosion in nuclear plant raw water systems

    Spires PE, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Pickles PE, S.B. [Senior Engineer, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario (Canada)


    Findings derived from a comprehensive plant performance survey at Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) nuclear units convinced management that it would be prudent to expand the ongoing power piping Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) induced wall thinning base-lining and tracking program to encompass the raw cooling water systems as well. Such systems are subject to a distinctly different class of pipe wall thinning (PWT) mechanisms than the FAC that degrades high-energy power piping. This paper describes the PWT corrosion assessment and tracking program that has been developed and is currently being implemented by OPG for the raw cooling water (i.e., Service Water) systems within it's nuclear generating stations. Interim databases are used prior to initial inspection rounds to catalogue the prospective locations. For each piping system being surveyed, these interim databases include physical coordinates for the candidate locations, the type and wall thickness of the components comprising each location, ranking indications and recommended NDE methodologies as a function of the anticipated corrosion mechanisms. Rationales for assessing corrosion susceptibility and ranking prospective inspection sites are expounded by way of notations built into the database. (authors)

  5. Using family atopy scores to identify the risk of atopic dermatitis in infants

    Melisa Anggraeni


    Full Text Available Background Atopic dermatitis is the first manifestation of allergic disease in early life. Early interventions may prevent the development of allergy disease. Allergy trace cards have been used to identify the level of allergic risk, based on family atopy scores. Because environmental factors may also influence the development of atopic dermatitis, the usefulness of the allergy trace card needs to be reevaluated. Objective To compare the incidence of atopic dermatitis in infants aged 0-4 months with total family atopy scores of > 0 to those with scores of 0. Methods We conducted this cohort study from June 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Family atopy score was tabulated from all pregnant woman in the Obstetric Outpatient Clinic and the Maternity Room. Subjects were divided into two groups based on their total family atopy score: those with scores > 0 and those with scores of 0. The appearance of atopic dermatitis symptoms in the infants were evaluated until they reached 4 months of age. The incidence of atopic dermatitis in two groups was compared using Chi-square test. Results The incidence of atopic dermatitis in this study was 10.9%. The group with total family atopy scores of 0 had a significantly higher incidence of atopic dermatitis than the group with scores > 0 (adjusted RR 22.5; 95%CI 8.8 to 57.0; P = 0.001. Conclusion The incidence of atopic dermatitis is higher in infants with total family atopy score > 0 and this group has a 22.5 times higher risk of atopic dermatitis compared to infants with total family atopy score of 0. Allergy trace cards are relevant in differentiating the risk of atopy with regards to development of atopic dermatitis. We suggest that family atopy scores be evaluated during antenatal care in order to limit the development of atopic dermatitis in infants. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:330-7.].

  6. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  7. A new scoring function for protein-protein docking that identifies native structures with unprecedented accuracy

    Moreira, Irina S.; da Silva Martins, João Miguel; Coimbra, João T.S.


    Protein-protein (P-P) 3D structures are fundamental to structural biology and drug discovery. However, most of them have never been determined. Many docking algorithms were developed for that purpose, but they have a very limited accuracy in generating native-like structures and identifying...... the most correct one, in particular when a single answer is asked for. With such a low success rate it is difficult to point out one docked structure as being native-like. Here we present a new, high accuracy, scoring method to identify the 3D structure of P-P complexes among a set of trial poses...... the trial structures and identifies the native-like structures with unprecedented accuracy (∼94%), providing the correct P-P 3D structures that biochemists and molecular biologists need to pursue their studies. With such a success rate, the bottleneck of protein-protein docking moves from the scoring...

  8. Jury-Contestant Bipartite Competition Network: Identifying Biased Scores and Their Impact on Network Structure Inference

    Jeon, Gyuhyeon


    A common form of competition is one where judges grade contestants' performances which are then compiled to determine the final ranking of the contestants. Unlike in another common form of competition where two contestants play a head-to-head match to produce a winner as in football or basketball, the objectivity of judges are prone to be questioned, potentially undermining the public's trust in the fairness of the competition. In this work we show, by modeling the judge--contestant competition as a weighted bipartite network, how we can identify biased scores and measure their impact on our inference of the network structure. Analyzing the prestigious International Chopin Piano Competition of 2015 with a well-publicized scoring controversy as an example, we show that even a single statistically uncharacteristic score can be enough to gravely distort our inference of the community structure, demonstrating the importance of detecting and eliminating biases. In the process we also find that there does not exist...

  9. A novel thromboelastographic score to identify overt disseminated intravascular coagulation resulting in a hypocoagulable state.

    Sharma, Prashant; Saxena, Renu


    Thromboelastography (TEM) yields a multitude of data that are complicated to analyze. We evaluated its value in identification of global coagulopathy in overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We studied 21 patients, each with International Society for Haemostasis and Thrombosis scores of 5 or more (compatible with overt DIC) and less than 5 (suggestive of nonovert DIC), who underwent whole blood nonadditive TEM. A TEM score based on the reaction and kappa times, alpha angle, and maximum amplitude was defined as the total number of TEM parameters deranged in the direction of hypocoagulability. The TEM score at a cutoff of 2 or more achieved sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 81.0%, and the highest receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of all parameters of 0.957 for identifying overt DIC. Individual TEM parameters correlated variably with conventional tests. Their combination into a cohesive TEM score possibly better captured the multiple hemostatic derangements occurring in DIC. The TEM score may bring objectivity to the analysis of TEM data.

  10. The ability of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cardiovascular risk score to identify rheumatoid arthritis patients with high coronary artery calcification scores.

    Kawai, Vivian K; Chung, Cecilia P; Solus, Joseph F; Oeser, Annette; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C Michael


    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that is underestimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 10-year risk score would perform better than the FRS and the Reynolds Risk Score (RRS) in identifying RA patients known to have elevated cardiovascular risk based on high coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores. Among 98 RA patients eligible for risk stratification using the ACC/AHA risk score, we identified 34 patients with high CAC (defined as ≥300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile of expected coronary artery calcium for age, sex, and ethnicity) and compared the ability of the 10-year FRS, RRS, and ACC/AHA risk scores to correctly assign these patients to an elevated risk category. All 3 risk scores were higher in patients with high CAC (P risk category was similar among the 3 scores (FRS 32%, RRS 32%, ACC/AHA risk score 41%) (P = 0.223). The C statistics for the FRS, RRS, and ACC/AHA risk score predicting the presence of high CAC were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively. The ACC/AHA 10-year risk score does not offer any advantage compared to the traditional FRS and RRS in the identification of RA patients with elevated risk as determined by high CAC. The ACC/AHA risk score assigned almost 60% of patients with high CAC to a low risk category. Risk scores and standard risk prediction models used in the general population do not adequately identify many RA patients with elevated cardiovascular risk.

  11. Design of a score to identify hospitalized patients at risk of drug-related problems.

    Urbina, Olatz; Ferrández, Olivia; Grau, Santiago; Luque, Sonia; Mojal, Sergi; Marin-Casino, Monica; Mateu-de-Antonio, Javier; Carmona, Alexia; Conde-Estévez, David; Espona, Merce; González, Elena; Riu, Marta; Salas, Esther


    The potential impact of drug-related problems (DRP) on morbidity and mortality is a serious concern in hospitalized patients. This study aimed to design a risk score to identify patients most at risk of a DRP. Data from patients admitted to a tertiary university hospital between January and August 2009 were used to design the risk score (training set). DRP were detected through a pharmacy warning system integrated in the computerized medical history. The variables associated with developing a DRP were identified through a binary multivariate logistic regression analysis and were used to compute the DRP risk score, which was subsequently validated in patients admitted between September and December 2009 (validation set). Of the 8713 patients included in the training set, at least one DRP was detected in 2425 (27.8%). Prescription of a higher number of drugs, higher comorbidity, advanced age, certain groups of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and some major diagnostic categories were associated with risk of DRP. These variables were used to compute the DRP risk score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.778 (95%CI [0.768, 0.789]). Of the 4058 admissions included in the validation set, at least one DRP was detected in 876 (21.6%). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.776 (95%CI [0.759, 0.792]). Knowledge of the variables associated with DRP could aid their early detection in at-risk patients. The use of an application that can be continually updated in daily clinical practice helps to optimize resources. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores



    Full Text Available It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personality tests. Therefore, this study tested whether candidates’ ability to identify evaluation criteria (ATIC correlates with their integrity test scores. Candidates were tested in an application training setting (N = 92. The results supported the idea that ATIC also plays an important role for integrity tests. New directions for future research are suggested based on this finding.

  13. Neonatal status: an objective scoring method for identifying infants at risk for poor outcome.

    Salamy, A; Davis, S; Eldredge, L; Wakeley, A; Tooley, W H


    The likelihood of sustaining neurological, sensory or cognitive deficits is considerably greater for very low birthweight (VLBW) infants who require intensive care in early postnatal life than those without major neonatal illness. Identifying which, if any, medical events are responsible for an adverse outcome is most difficult in the face of multiple concurrent complications. In this research, a principal components analysis was performed in order to arrive at a set of orthogonal variables which succinctly described clinical involvement in the nursery. With this procedure, a single hypothetical factor depicting neonatal status (NS) was computed. Principal component scores were then generated for NS and assigned to 252 VLBW (less than 1500 g) infants. These subjects were followed prospectively from birth to 4 years of age. Standardized measures of neurological, sensory and intellectual function were regularly administered. Neonatal status was shown to be significantly correlated with the various test results and predictive of long-term development. When subjects were divided into quartiles with respect to NS, a specific subgroup was identified as "at high risk" for poor outcome. Those subjects falling into the lower quartile incurred more neurological abnormalities persisting beyond the first year. They also suffered a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and sensori-neural hearing loss. In addition, the lower 25%, as a group, scored well below all others on traditional tests of mental ability. These differences were sustained throughout infancy and early childhood and could not be attributed to a number of demographic variables including sex, gestational age, birthweight, Apgar scores or parental educational level.

  14. Development of a claims-based risk score to identify obese individuals.

    Clark, Jeanne M; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Bolen, Shari D; Shore, Andrew D; Goodwin, Suzanne M; Weiner, Jonathan P


    Obesity is underdiagnosed, hampering system-based health promotion and research. Our objective was to develop and validate a claims-based risk model to identify obese persons using medical diagnosis and prescription records. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of de-identified claims data from enrollees of 3 Blue Cross Blue Shield plans who completed a health risk assessment capturing height and weight. The final sample of 71,057 enrollees was randomly split into 2 subsamples for development and validation of the obesity risk model. Using the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups case-mix/predictive risk methodology, we categorized study members' diagnosis (ICD) codes. Logistic regression was used to determine which claims-based risk markers were associated with a body mass index (BMI) > or = 35 kg/m(2). The sensitivities of the scores > or =90(th) percentile to detect obesity were 26% to 33%, while the specificities were >90%. The areas under the receiver operator curve ranged from 0.67 to 0.73. In contrast, a diagnosis of obesity or an obesity medication alone had very poor sensitivity (10% and 1%, respectively); the obesity risk model identified an additional 22% of obese members. Varying the percentile cut-point from the 70(th) to the 99(th) percentile resulted in positive predictive values ranging from 15.5 to 59.2. An obesity risk score was highly specific for detecting a BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2) and substantially increased the detection of obese members beyond a provider-coded obesity diagnosis or medication claim. This model could be used for obesity care management and health promotion or for obesity-related research.

  15. Novel Dielectric Coagulometer Identifies Hypercoagulability in Patients with a High CHADS2 Score without Atrial Fibrillation.

    Yuki Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Recent reports showed that the CHADS2 score predicted the risk of strokes in patients without atrial fibrillation (AF. Although the hypercoagulability may contribute to the thrombogenesis, it has not been fully investigated due to a lack of a sensitive evaluation modality. Recently a novel dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM was invented for evaluating the coagulability by measuring the temporal change in whole blood dielectric permittivity.We evaluated the utility of the DBCM for identifying the coagulability.For fundamental experiments, 133 citrated blood samples were drawn from subjects with or without heparin administration. A DBCM analysis was performed to find the adequate coagulation index, and to delineate its measurement range by adding recombinant human tissue factor (TF or heparin. Then the coagulability was assessed by DBCM and conventional coagulation assays in 84 subjects without AF, who were divided into 3 groups by their CHADS2 score. Another 17 patients who received warfarin were also assessed by DBCM to evaluate the effect of anticoagulants.We calculated the derivative of the dielectric permittivity change after recalcification, and extracted the end of acceleration time (EAT as a novel index. The EAT showed a dose-dependent shortening with the addition of serial dilutions of TF (×10-2 to ×10-4, and a dose-dependent prolongation with the addition of heparin (0.05 to 0.15 U/ml. The EAT was significantly shorter in the higher CHADS2 score group (19.8 ± 4.8, 18.6 ± 3.1, and 16.3 ± 2.7 min in the CHADS2 = 0, 1, and ≥2 groups, respectively, p = 0.0065 by ANOVA. Patients receiving warfarin had a significantly more prolonged EAT than those without warfarin (18.6±4.2 vs. 25.8±7.3 min, p <0.001. DBCM detected the whole blood coagulability with a high sensitivity. Subjects with higher CHADS2 scores exhibited hypercoagulability without AF.

  16. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage?

    Matthew R. Johnston


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19–93 years, with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%: blood transfusion (147 : 37.9%, endoscopic intervention (75 : 19.3%, and surgery (8 : 2.1%. 42 (10.8% had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%. Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12–2.69. PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11–1.92. Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08–0.60. Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy.

  17. Internal Validation of the Sepsis in Obstetrics Score to Identify Risk of Morbidity From Sepsis in Pregnancy.

    Albright, Catherine M; Has, Phinnara; Rouse, Dwight J; Hughes, Brenna L


    To prospectively validate the Sepsis in Obstetrics Score, a pregnancy-specific sepsis scoring system, to identify risk for intensive care unit (ICU) admission for sepsis in pregnancy. This is a prospective validation study of the Sepsis in Obstetrics Score. The primary outcome was admission to the ICU for sepsis. Secondary outcomes included admission to a telemetry unit and time to administration of antibiotic therapy. We evaluated test characteristics of a predetermined score of 6 or greater. Between March 2012 and May 2015, 1,250 pregnant or postpartum women presented to the emergency department and met systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Of those, 425 (34%) had a clinical suspicion or diagnosis of an infection, 14 of whom (3.3%) were admitted to the ICU. The Sepsis in Obstetrics Score had an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.95) for prediction of ICU admission for sepsis. This is within the prespecified 15% margin of the area under the curve of 0.97 found in the derivation cohort. A score of 6 or greater had a sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 15%, and negative predictive value of 98.6%. Women with a score 6 or greater were more likely to be admitted to the ICU (15% compared with 1.4%, Pidentify risk of ICU admission for sepsis with the threshold score of 6 having a negative predictive value of 98.6%. Adherence to antibiotic administration guidelines is poor.

  18. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    Cai, T.


    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  19. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.


    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  20. Identifying Dyslexia in Adults: An Iterative Method Using the Predictive Value of Item Scores and Self-Report Questions

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.


    Methods for identifying dyslexia in adults vary widely between studies. Researchers have to decide how many tests to use, which tests are considered to be the most reliable, and how to determine cut-off scores. The aim of this study was to develop an objective and powerful method for diagnosing dyslexia. We took various methodological measures,…

  1. Predicting the Risk of Clostridium difficile Infection upon Admission: A Score to Identify Patients for Antimicrobial Stewardship Efforts.

    Kuntz, Jennifer L; Smith, David H; Petrik, Amanda F; Yang, Xiuhai; Thorp, Micah L; Barton, Tracy; Barton, Karen; Labreche, Matthew; Spindel, Steven J; Johnson, Eric S


    Increasing morbidity and health care costs related to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have heightened interest in methods to identify patients who would most benefit from interventions to mitigate the likelihood of CDI. To develop a risk score that can be calculated upon hospital admission and used by antimicrobial stewards, including pharmacists and clinicians, to identify patients at risk for CDI who would benefit from enhanced antibiotic review and patient education. We assembled a cohort of Kaiser Permanente Northwest patients with a hospital admission from July 1, 2005, through December 30, 2012, and identified CDI in the six months following hospital admission. Using Cox regression, we constructed a score to identify patients at high risk for CDI on the basis of preadmission characteristics. We calculated and plotted the observed six-month CDI risk for each decile of predicted risk. We identified 721 CDIs following 54,186 hospital admissions-a 6-month incidence of 13.3 CDIs/1000 patient admissions. Patients with the highest predicted risk of CDI had an observed incidence of 53 CDIs/1000 patient admissions. The score differentiated between patients who do and do not develop CDI, with values for the extended C-statistic of 0.75. Predicted risk for CDI agreed closely with observed risk. Our risk score accurately predicted six-month risk for CDI using preadmission characteristics. Accurate predictions among the highest-risk patient subgroups allow for the identification of patients who could be targeted for and who would likely benefit from review of inpatient antibiotic use or enhanced educational efforts at the time of discharge planning.

  2. A Scoring Tool to Identify East African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Partnerships with a High Likelihood of Pregnancy.

    Renee Heffron

    Full Text Available HIV-1 prevention programs targeting HIV-1 serodiscordant couples need to identify couples that are likely to become pregnant to facilitate discussions about methods to minimize HIV-1 risk during pregnancy attempts (i.e. safer conception or effective contraception when pregnancy is unintended. A clinical prediction tool could be used to identify HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with a high likelihood of pregnancy within one year.Using standardized clinical prediction methods, we developed and validated a tool to identify heterosexual East African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant in the next year. Datasets were from three prospectively followed cohorts, including nearly 7,000 couples from Kenya and Uganda participating in HIV-1 prevention trials and delivery projects.The final score encompassed the age of the woman, woman's number of children living, partnership duration, having had condomless sex in the past month, and non-use of an effective contraceptive. The area under the curve (AUC for the probability of the score to correctly predict pregnancy was 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76. Scores ≥ 7 predicted a pregnancy incidence of >17% per year and captured 78% of the pregnancies. Internal and external validation confirmed the predictive ability of the score.A pregnancy likelihood score encompassing basic demographic, clinical and behavioral factors defined African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with high one-year pregnancy incidence rates. This tool could be used to engage African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in counseling discussions about fertility intentions in order to offer services for safer conception or contraception that align with their reproductive goals.

  3. Development of a symptom score for clinical studies to identify children with a documented viral upper respiratory tract infection

    Taylor, James A.; Weber, Wendy J.; Martin, Emily T.; McCarty, Rachelle L.; Englund, Janet A.


    The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children 2–11 years old at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared. Nasal swabs were obtained on 108 children whose parents reported their child was developing a cold. A viral etiology was identified in 62/108 (57.4%) samples. Symptom measures that best differentiated children with a viral etiology from those without were significant runny nose and significant cough on day 1 through day 4 of the illness. A URI symptom score was developed based on these symptoms, with a sensitivity of 81.4%, specificity of 61.9% and accuracy of 73.3%. Parental impression is only a moderately accurate predictor of viral URI in children. Our URI symptom score provided a more accurate method for identifying children with viral URIs for clinical studies. PMID:20520584

  4. Evaluation of scoring models for identifying the need for therapeutic intervention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A new prediction score model for Japanese patients.

    Iino, Chikara; Mikami, Tatsuya; Igarashi, Takasato; Aihara, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Jyuichi; Tono, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shinsaku


    Multiple scoring systems have been developed to predict outcomes in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We determined how well these and a newly established scoring model predict the need for therapeutic intervention, excluding transfusion, in Japanese patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We reviewed data from 212 consecutive patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients requiring endoscopic intervention, operation, or interventional radiology were allocated to the therapeutic intervention group. Firstly, we compared areas under the curve for the Glasgow-Blatchford, Clinical Rockall, and AIMS65 scores. Secondly, the scores and factors likely associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed with a logistic regression analysis to form a new scoring model. Thirdly, the new model and the existing model were investigated to evaluate their usefulness. Therapeutic intervention was required in 109 patients (51.4%). The Glasgow-Blatchford score was superior to both the Clinical Rockall and AIMS65 scores for predicting therapeutic intervention need (area under the curve, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.81] vs 0.53 [0.46-0.61] and 0.52 [0.44-0.60], respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis retained seven significant predictors in the model: systolic blood pressure upper gastrointestinal bleeding. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  5. A lipemia-independent NanoDrop(®)-based score to identify hemolysis in plasma and serum samples.

    Appierto, Valentina; Callari, Maurizio; Cavadini, Elena; Morelli, Daniele; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Tiberio, Paola


    The identification and management of hemolyzed samples are crucial issues in the development of new blood-based biomarkers. Using experiments of controlled hemolysis and lipemia and two plasma series from cancer patients, we developed and validated a lipemia-independent hemolysis score (HS). HS resulted strictly associated with the amount of lysed erythrocytes and with serum index measurement (reference method), highly reproducible, and able to identify as hemolyzed plasma/serum samples containing ≥6.1 mg/dl of free hemoglobin. We developed a simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective, spectrophotometrically-based system to identify hemolyzed plasma/serum specimens. The procedure requires only 2 μl of sample, thus representing a useful tool for research studies and an essential pre-analytical quality control for an optimal biobanking of liquid biopsies.

  6. Incorporating deep learning with convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices for identifying electron transport proteins.

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ho, Quang-Thai; Ou, Yu-Yen


    In several years, deep learning is a modern machine learning technique using in a variety of fields with state-of-the-art performance. Therefore, utilization of deep learning to enhance performance is also an important solution for current bioinformatics field. In this study, we try to use deep learning via convolutional neural networks and position specific scoring matrices to identify electron transport proteins, which is an important molecular function in transmembrane proteins. Our deep learning method can approach a precise model for identifying of electron transport proteins with achieved sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 94.4%, and accuracy of 92.3%, with MCC of 0.71 for independent dataset. The proposed technique can serve as a powerful tool for identifying electron transport proteins and can help biologists understand the function of the electron transport proteins. Moreover, this study provides a basis for further research that can enrich a field of applying deep learning in bioinformatics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Addition of a biomarker panel to a clinical score to identify patients at low risk for appendicitis.

    Depinet, Holly; Copeland, Karen; Gogain, Joseph; Hennes, Halim; Paradis, Norman A; Andrews-Dickert, Rebecca; Vance, Cheryl W; Huckins, David S


    The diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis can be difficult. Although scoring systems such as the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) are helpful, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity as standalone diagnostics. When used for risk stratification, they often result in large percentages of moderate-risk patients requiring further diagnostic evaluation. We applied a biomarker panel (the APPY1 Test) that has high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) to patients with PAS in the moderate-risk range (3-7) and reclassified those patients with a negative result to the low-risk group. We compared the specificity, sensitivity, and NPV of the original and reclassified low-risk groups at several different PAS low-risk cutoffs. The application of a negative biomarker panel to a group of patients with a moderate risk for appendicitis (PAS, 3-7) resulted in 4 times more patients (586 vs 145) being safely classified as low risk. Reclassification increased the overall specificity or the proportion of patients without appendicitis who were correctly identified as low risk, from 10.3% to 42.0%. The high NPV (97.2%) in the original group was preserved (97.6%) in the reclassified low-risk group, as was the sensitivity (original 99.1% vs reclassified 96.9%). The addition of negative biomarker test results to patients with a moderate risk of appendicitis based on the PAS can safely reclassify many to a low-risk group. This may allow clinicians to provide more conservative management in children with suspected appendicitis and decrease unnecessary resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Twelve-single nucleotide polymorphism genetic risk score identifies individuals at increased risk for future atrial fibrillation and stroke.

    Tada, Hayato; Shiffman, Dov; Smith, J Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Louie, Judy Z; Catanese, Joseph J; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. In 27 471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. During follow-up, 2160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.31; P=2.7×10(-21)) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (Pstroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. A clinical scoring system to identify patients with sebaceous neoplasms at risk for the Muir-Torre variant of Lynch syndrome.

    Roberts, Maegan E; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Thomas, Brittany C; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Purcell, Jennifer U; Hanson, Nancy B; Leppig, Kathleen A; Lim, Justin; Cappel, Mark A


    The Muir-Torre syndrome variant of Lynch syndrome is characterized by the presence of sebaceous neoplasms (adenoma, epithelioma/sebaceoma, carcinoma) and Lynch syndrome-associated cancers (colon, endometrial, and others). Several clinical scoring systems have been developed to identify patients with colon cancer at high risk of Lynch syndrome. However, no such system has been described for patients presenting with sebaceous neoplasms. Based on logistic regression analysis, a scoring system was developed for patients with sebaceous neoplasm to identify those with the highest likelihood of having Muir-Torre syndrome. The final version of the scoring system included variables such as age at presentation of initial sebaceous neoplasm, total number of sebaceous neoplasms, personal history of a Lynch-related cancer, and family history of Lynch-related cancers. Patients with a score of 3 or more were more likely to have Muir-Torre syndrome (28 of 29 patients), those with a score of 2 had intermediate likelihood (12 of 20 patients), and no patient with a score of 0 or 1 was diagnosed with Muir-Torre syndrome. The Mayo Muir-Torre syndrome risk scoring system appears to identify whether patients who present with sebaceous neoplasms are in need of further Lynch syndrome evaluation using easily ascertained clinical information. Abnormal mismatch repair gene immunohistochemistry of a sebaceous neoplasm is a poor predictor in regard to diagnosing Lynch syndrome.

  10. Identifying changes in scores on the EORTC-QLQ-C30 representing a change in patients' supportive care needs.

    Snyder, Claire F; Blackford, Amanda L; Sussman, Jonathan; Bainbridge, Daryl; Howell, Doris; Seow, Hsien Y; Carducci, Michael A; Wu, Albert W


    Using health-related quality-of-life measures for patient management requires knowing what changes in scores require clinical attention. We estimated changes on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life-Questionnaire-Core-30 (EORTC-QLQ-C30), representing important changes by comparing to patient-reported changes in supportive care needs. This secondary analysis used data from 193 newly diagnosed cancer patients (63 % breast, 37 % colorectal; mean age 60 years; 20 % male) from 28 Canadian surgical practices. Participants completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey-Short Form-34 (SCNS-SF34) and EORTC-QLQ-C30 at baseline, 3, and 8 weeks. We calculated mean changes in EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores associated with improvement, worsening, and no change in supportive care needs based on the SCNS-SF34. Mean changes in the EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores associated with the SCNS-SF34 improved and worsened categories were used to estimate clinically important changes, and the 'no change' category to estimate insignificant changes. EORTC-QLQ-C30 score changes ranged from 6 to 32 points for patients reporting improved supportive care needs; statistically significant changes were 10-32 points. EORTC-QLQ-C30 score changes ranged from 21-point worsening to 21-point improvement for patients reporting worsening supportive care needs; statistically significant changes were 9-21 points in the hypothesized direction and a 21-point statistically significant change in the opposite direction. EORTC-QLQ-C30 score changes ranged from a 1-point worsening to 16-point improvement for patients reporting stable supportive care needs. These data suggest 10-point EORTC-QLQ-C30 score changes represent changes in supportive care needs. When using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 in clinical practice, scores changing ≥10 points should be highlighted for clinical attention.

  11. Microbact™ 24E system identifiation and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial flra from raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in Gwagwalada, Nigeria

    Samuel Mailafia


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms from raw milk of cows in Gwagwalada and determine their susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Methods: A total of 120 samples of milk were obtained from lactating cows that were at different stages of postpartum from six different locations in Gwagwalada metropolis. Samples were subjected to Microbact™ 24E system identification, isolation and characterization of isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility test. Results: The most prevalent organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (34.1%, Escherichia coli (27.3% and Bacillus species (18.2% while the least isolated were Salmonella species (11.4% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.0%. The highest resistance patterns were shown by Staphylococcus aureus which displayed resistance to five drugs: amoxicillin, ampiclox, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The least resistance was displayed by Bacillus species which were resistant to only two drugs, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol. Pseudomonas aeroginosa dissipated the highest pattern susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin while Salmonella species showed the lowest pattern of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Other microorganisms dissipated susceptibility patterns ranging from 16.6%–100.0%. Conclusions: This study documented the occurrence of bacterial flora in raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in the Gwagwalada area. The variation in patterns of multidrug resistance and susceptibilities in our studies may lead to possibility of transfer of antibiotic resistance from raw milk consumers. More studies are required using higher molecular techniques to expose different species of microorganisms causing milk borne illness and their antibiotic resistant genes.

  12. Accuracy of Pooled-Cohort Equation and SCORE cardiovascular risk calculators to identify individuals with high coronary atherosclerotic burden - implications for statin treatment.

    Tralhão, António; Ferreira, António M; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Rodrigues, Rita; Costa, Cátia; Guerreiro, Sara; Cardim, Nuno; Marques, Hugo


    Different cardiovascular risk calculators and risk-based thresholds for initiating statin therapy are currently in use. Using coronary computed tomography angiography, we sought to compare the Pooled-Cohort Equation [atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score] with the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) in the identification of patients with high coronary atherosclerotic burden. In a single-center prospective registry of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography, we identified individuals aged 40-75 years without diabetes or known cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk and eligibility for statin therapy were determined individually on the basis of the two calculators and the guidelines that endorse them. Coronary atherosclerotic burden was assessed by coronary calcium score, presence of stenosis greater than or equal to 50%, and several measures of plaque severity and extension. In the 327 patients assessed (181 men, mean age 59±9 years), the median SCORE and ASCVD values were 2.6 and 9.7%, respectively. Compared with SCORE, the ASCVD calculator showed greater discriminative power to identify patients with calcium score greater than or equal to 300 [C-statistic 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.82 vs. 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, P=0.008] and showed a trend toward better identification of patients with obstructive stenosis (C-statistic 0.72, 95% CI 0.64-0.80 vs. 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.76, P=0.053). The proportion of statin-eligible patients would be higher with the SCORE-based criteria, particularly among individuals with little or no detectable coronary atherosclerosis. The SCORE calculator seems to be less discriminative than the ASCVD equation in identifying patients with high atherosclerotic burden. Current SCORE-based criteria would assign statin therapy to a larger proportion of patients with low-risk features, which could result in a lower yield of cholesterol-reducing strategies.

  13. A predictive score to identify hospitalized patients' risk of discharge to a post-acute care facility

    Chopard Pierre


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early identification of patients who need post-acute care (PAC may improve discharge planning. The purposes of the study were to develop and validate a score predicting discharge to a post-acute care (PAC facility and to determine its best assessment time. Methods We conducted a prospective study including 349 (derivation cohort and 161 (validation cohort consecutive patients in a general internal medicine service of a teaching hospital. We developed logistic regression models predicting discharge to a PAC facility, based on patient variables measured on admission (day 1 and on day 3. The value of each model was assessed by its area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC. A simple numerical score was derived from the best model, and was validated in a separate cohort. Results Prediction of discharge to a PAC facility was as accurate on day 1 (AUC: 0.81 as on day 3 (AUC: 0.82. The day-3 model was more parsimonious, with 5 variables: patient's partner inability to provide home help (4 pts; inability to self-manage drug regimen (4 pts; number of active medical problems on admission (1 pt per problem; dependency in bathing (4 pts and in transfers from bed to chair (4 pts on day 3. A score ≥ 8 points predicted discharge to a PAC facility with a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 63%, and was significantly associated with inappropriate hospital days due to discharge delays. Internal and external validations confirmed these results. Conclusion A simple score computed on the 3rd hospital day predicted discharge to a PAC facility with good accuracy. A score > 8 points should prompt early discharge planning.

  14. Identifying patients with less potential to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: comparison of the performance of four risk scoring systems.

    Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Kamdar, Ravi; Petzer, Edward; McDonagh, Theresa; Murgatroyd, Francis; Dhillon, Para; Scott, Paul


    Patients at high non-sudden cardiac death risk may gain no significant benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. A number of approaches have been proposed to identify these patients, including single clinical markers and more complex scoring systems. The aims of this study were to use the proposed scoring systems to (1) establish how many current ICD recipients may be too high risk to derive significant benefit from ICD therapy and (2) evaluate how well the scoring systems predict short-term mortality in an unselected ICD cohort. We performed a single-centre retrospective observational study of all new ICD implants over 5 years (2009-2013). We used four published scoring systems (Bilchick, Goldenberg, Kramer and Parkash) and serum urea to identify new ICD recipients whose short-term predicted mortality risk was high. We evaluated how well the scoring systems predicted death. Over 5 years, there were 406 new implants (79% male, mean age 70 (60-76), 58% primary prevention). During a follow-up of 936 ± 560 days, 96 patients died. Using the scoring systems, the proportion of ICD recipients predicted to be at high short-term mortality risk were 5.9% (Bilchick), 34.7% (Goldenberg), 7.4% (Kramer), 21.4% (Parkash) and 25% (urea, cut-off of >9.28 mM). All four risk scores predicted mortality (P systems, a significant proportion of current ICD recipients are at high short-term mortality risk. Although all four scoring systems predicted mortality during follow-up, none significantly outperformed serum urea.

  15. G-NEST: a gene neighborhood scoring tool to identify co-conserved, co-expressed genes

    Lemay Danielle G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previous studies, gene neighborhoods—spatial clusters of co-expressed genes in the genome—have been defined using arbitrary rules such as requiring adjacency, a minimum number of genes, a fixed window size, or a minimum expression level. In the current study, we developed a Gene Neighborhood Scoring Tool (G-NEST which combines genomic location, gene expression, and evolutionary sequence conservation data to score putative gene neighborhoods across all possible window sizes simultaneously. Results Using G-NEST on atlases of mouse and human tissue expression data, we found that large neighborhoods of ten or more genes are extremely rare in mammalian genomes. When they do occur, neighborhoods are typically composed of families of related genes. Both the highest scoring and the largest neighborhoods in mammalian genomes are formed by tandem gene duplication. Mammalian gene neighborhoods contain highly and variably expressed genes. Co-localized noisy gene pairs exhibit lower evolutionary conservation of their adjacent genome locations, suggesting that their shared transcriptional background may be disadvantageous. Genes that are essential to mammalian survival and reproduction are less likely to occur in neighborhoods, although neighborhoods are enriched with genes that function in mitosis. We also found that gene orientation and protein-protein interactions are partially responsible for maintenance of gene neighborhoods. Conclusions Our experiments using G-NEST confirm that tandem gene duplication is the primary driver of non-random gene order in mammalian genomes. Non-essentiality, co-functionality, gene orientation, and protein-protein interactions are additional forces that maintain gene neighborhoods, especially those formed by tandem duplicates. We expect G-NEST to be useful for other applications such as the identification of core regulatory modules, common transcriptional backgrounds, and chromatin domains. The

  16. Development and validation of a scoring system to identify individuals at high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasms who should undergo colonoscopy screening.

    Tao, Sha; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann


    Screening the population for colorectal cancer (CRC) by colonoscopy could reduce the disease burden. However, targeted screening of individuals at high risk could increase its cost effectiveness. We developed a scoring system to identify individuals with at least 1 advanced adenoma, based on easy-to-collect risk factors among 7891 participants of the German screening colonoscopy program. The system was validated in an independent sample of 3519 participants. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop the algorithm, and the regression coefficient-based scores were used to determine individual risks. Relative risk and numbers of colonoscopies needed for detecting one or more advanced neoplasm(s) were calculated for quintiles of the risk score. The predictive ability of the scoring system was quantified by the area under the curve. We identified 9 risk factors (sex, age, first-degree relatives with a history of CRC, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, red meat consumption, ever regular use [at least 2 times/wk for at least 1 y] of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, previous colonoscopy, and previous detection of polyps) that were associated significantly with risk of advanced neoplasms. The developed score was associated strongly with the presence of advanced neoplasms. In the validation sample, individuals in the highest quintile of scores had a relative risk for advanced neoplasm of 3.86 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-5.49), compared with individuals in the lowest quintile. The number needed to screen to detect 1 or more advanced neoplasm(s) varied from 20 to 5 between quintiles of the risk score. In the validation sample, the scoring system identified patients with CRC or any advanced neoplasm with area under the curve values of 0.68 and 0.66, respectively. We developed a scoring system, based on easy-to-collect risk factors, to identify individuals most likely to have advanced neoplasms. This system might be used to stratify individuals for CRC

  17. Use of a risk scoring tool to identify higher-risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples for an antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention intervention.

    Irungu, Elizabeth M; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly; Ngure, Kenneth; Katabira, Elly; Bulya, Nulu; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Odoyo, Josephine; Asiimwe, Stephen; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduce HIV-1 transmission within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Prioritizing couples at highest HIV-1 transmission risk for ART and PrEP would maximize impact and minimize costs. The Partners Demonstration Project is an open-label, delivery study of integrated PrEP and ART for HIV-1 prevention among high risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda. We evaluated the feasibility of using a validated risk score that weighs a combination of easily measurable factors (age, children, marital status, male circumcision status, condom use, plasma HIV-1 levels) to identify couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission for enrollment. Couples scoring ≥5 met the risk score eligibility criteria. We screened 1694 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples and enrolled 1013. Of the screened couples, 1331 (78.6 %) scored ≥5 (with an expected incidence >3 % per year) and 76 % of these entered the study. The median age of the HIV-1 uninfected partner was 29 years [IQR 26, 36] and 20 % were 50,000 copies/ml. A risk scoring tool identified HIV-1 serodiscordant couples for a demonstration project of PrEP and ART with high HIV-1 risk. The tool may be feasible for research and public health settings to maximize efficiency and minimize HIV-1 prevention costs.

  18. Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Using the 2005 Caprini Score to Identify the Benefits and Harms of Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    Pannucci, Christopher J; Swistun, Lukasz; MacDonald, John K; Henke, Peter K; Brooke, Benjamin S


    We performed a meta-analysis to investigate benefits and harms of chemoprophylaxis among surgical patients individually risk stratified for venous thromboembolism (VTE) using Caprini scores. Individualized VTE risk stratification may identify high risk surgical patients who benefit from peri-operative chemoprophylaxis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases were queried. Eligible studies contained data on postoperative VTE and/or bleeding events with and without chemoprophylaxis. Primary outcomes included rates of VTE and clinically relevant bleeding after surgical procedures, stratified by Caprini score. A meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. Among 13 included studies, 11 (n = 14,776) contained data for VTE events and 8 (n = 7590) contained data for clinically relevant bleeding with and without chemoprophylaxis. The majority of patients received mechanical prophylaxis. A 14-fold variation in VTE risk (from 0.7% to 10.7%) was identified among surgical patients who did not receive chemoprophylaxis, and patients at increased levels of Caprini risk were significantly more likely to have VTE. Patients with Caprini scores of 7 to 8 [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.37-0.97] and >8 (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.65) had significant VTE risk reduction after surgery with chemoprophylaxis. Patients with Caprini scores ≤6 comprised 75% of the overall population, and these patients did not have a significant VTE risk reduction with chemoprophylaxis. No association between postoperative bleeding risk and Caprini score was identified. The benefit of peri-operative VTE chemoprophylaxis was only found among surgical patients with Caprini scores ≥7. Precision medicine using individualized VTE risk stratification helps ensure that chemoprophylaxis is used only in appropriate surgical patients and may minimize bleeding complications.

  19. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa


    to use in clinical practice by the GP or the patient herself, could just as well as FRAX® be used to identify women with increased risk of fracture. SUMMARY: Comparison of FRAX® and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE) in predicting fractures indicate that FRAX® did not perform better...... returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3...... 3years follow-up FRAX® did not perform better in the fracture risk prediction compared with simpler tools such as OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE or age alone in a screening scenario where BMD was not measured. These findings suggest that simpler models based on fewer risk factors, which would be easier...

  20. A risk score to identify HIV-infected women most likely to become lost to follow-up in the postpartum period.

    Bengtson, Angela M; Chibwesha, Carla J; Westreich, Daniel; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Chi, Benjamin H; Miller, William C; Mapani, Muntanga; Pence, Brian W; Musonda, Patrick; Stringer, Jeffrey Sa; Pettifor, Audrey


    Access to lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is expanding among HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). For this strategy to meaningfully improve maternal HIV outcomes, retention in HIV care is essential. We developed a risk score to identify women with high likelihood of loss to follow-up (LTFU) at 6 months postpartum from HIV care, using data from public health facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. LTFU was defined as not presenting for HIV care within 60 days of the last scheduled appointment. We used logistic regression to assess demographic, obstetric and HIV predictors of LTFU and to develop a simple risk score. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed at each risk score cut-point. Among 2029 pregnant women initiating cART between 2009 and 2011, 507 (25%) were LTFU by 6 months postpartum. Parity, education, employment status, WHO clinical stage, duration of cART during pregnancy and number of antenatal care visits were associated with LTFU (p-value risk score cut-point of 11 (42nd percentile) had 85% sensitivity (95% CI 82%, 88%) and 22% specificity (95% CI 20%, 24%) to detect women LTFU and would exclude 20% of women from a retention intervention. A risk score cut-point of 18 (69th percentile) identified the 23% of women with the highest probability of LTFU and had sensitivity 32% (95% CI 28%, 36%) and specificity 80% (95% CI 78%, 82%). A risk score approach may be useful to triage a subset of women most likely to be LTFU for targeted retention interventions.

  1. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  2. Pre-endoscopic Rockall and Blatchford scores to identify which emergency department patients with suspected gastrointestinal bleed do not need endoscopic hemostasis.

    Meltzer, Andrew C; Burnett, Sarah; Pinchbeck, Carrie; Brown, Angela L; Choudhri, Tina; Yadav, Kabir; Fleischer, David E; Pines, Jesse M


    The pre-endoscopic Rockall Score (RS) and the Glasgow-Blatchford Scores (GBS) can help risk stratify patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed who are seen in the Emergency Department (ED). The RS and GBS have yet to be validated in a United States patient population for their ability to discriminate which ED patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed do not need endoscopic hemostasis. We sought to determine whether patients who received a score of zero on either score (the lowest risk) in the ED still required upper endoscopic hemostasis during hospitalization. Retrospective electronic medical record chart review was performed during a 3-year period (2007-2009) to identify patients with suspected upper gastrointestinal bleed by ED final diagnosis of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and related terms at a single urban academic ED. The RS and GBS were calculated from ED chart abstraction and the hospital records of admitted patients were queried for subsequent endoscopic hemostasis. Six hundred and ninety patients with gastrointestinal bleed were identified and 86% were admitted to the hospital. One hundred and twenty-two patients had an RS equal to zero; 67 (55%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 46-63%) of these patients were admitted to the hospital and 11 (16%; 95% CI 9-27%) received endoscopic hemostasis. Sixty-three patients had a GBS equal to zero; 15 (24%; 95% CI 15-36%) were admitted to the hospital and 2 (13%; 95% CI 4-38%) received endoscopic hemostasis. Some patients who were identified as lowest risk by the GBS or RS still received endoscopic hemostasis during hospital admission. These clinical decision rules may be insufficiently sensitive to predict which patients do not require endoscopic hemostasis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Intracranial hemorrhage recurrence on vitamin K antagonist: severity of the first episode and HASBLED score fail to identify high-risk patients from the CHIRONE study.

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia; Dentali, Francesco; Testa, Sophie; Palareti, Gualtiero


    The most feared complication of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) treatment is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The previously published CHIRONE Study fails to identify risk factors associated with ICH recurrence after VKAs resumption. The aim of this secondary analysis of the study is to evaluate if patients who need surgery or with severe neurological sequelae after the first episode show a higher risk of ICH recurrence. The HASBLED score was used to stratify bleeding risk and to evaluate the distribution of recurrence in relation to each class of risk. The study included 267 patients from 27 Italian centers. The treatment of the index ICH, surgical or medical was recorded; modified Rankin Scale score of 3 or more was used to define patients with severe neurological impairment; HASBLED score of 3 or more was used to identify high bleeding risk patients. During follow-up, 20 patients (7.5%) had ICH recurrence (rate of 2.56 × 100 patient-years). No difference in the type of treatment [hazard ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-4.74] and neurological impairment with modified Rankin Scale 3 or more (hazard ratio = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.31-2.83) were found in relation to ICH recurrence. The mean HASBLED score was similar between the two groups (P = 0.54). In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that neither the severity of the index ICH at presentation nor the HASBLED clinical prediction rule should be used to assess the risk of recurrence in patients who need VKAs resumption after a previous ICH.

  4. The HAS-BLED Score Identifies Patients with Acute Venous Thromboembolism at High Risk of Major Bleeding Complications during the First Six Months of Anticoagulant Treatment.

    Judith Kooiman

    Full Text Available The HAS-BLED score enables a risk estimate of major bleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation on vitamin K-antagonists (VKA treatment, but has not been validated for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE. We analyzed whether the HAS-BLED score accurately identifies patients at high risk of major bleeds during VKA treatment for acute VTE.Medical records of 537 patients with acute VTE (primary diagnosis pulmonary embolism in 223, deep vein thrombosis in 314 starting VKA treatment between 2006-2007 were searched for items on the HAS-BLED score and the occurrence of major bleeds during the first 180 days of follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR for the occurrence of major bleeds comparing non-high with high-risk patients as defined by a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points was calculated using Cox-regression analysis.Major bleeds occurred in 11/537 patients (2.0%, 5.2/100 person years, 95% CI 2.8-9.2. Cumulative incidences of major bleeds were 1.3% (95% CI 0.1-2.5 in the non-high (HAS-BLED < 3 and 9.6% (95%CI 2.2-17.0 in the high-risk group (HAS-BLED ≥ 3, (p <0.0001 by Log-Rank test, with a HR of 8.7 (95% CI 2.7-28.4. Of the items in the HAS-BLED score, abnormal renal function (HR 10.8, 95% CI 1.9-61.7 and a history of bleeding events (HR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-42.5 were independent predictors of major bleeds during follow-up.Acute VTE patients with a HAS-BLED score ≥ 3 points are at increased risk of major bleeding. These results warrant for correction of the potentially reversible risk factors for major bleeding and careful International Normalized Ratio monitoring in acute VTE patients with a high HAS-BLED score.

  5. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.


    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk...... samples (n = 101) were kindly provided by the Milk Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Presumptive arcobacters were identified by previously described genus-specific and species-specific PCR assays. Arcobacter spp. were found to be common...... contaminants of retail raw meats and raw milk in Northern Ireland. Poultry meat (62%) had the highest prevalence, but frequent isolations were made from pork (35%), beef (34%), and raw milk (46%). Arcobacter butzleri was the predominant species isolated from retail raw meats and was the only species isolated...

  6. A modified score to identify and discriminate neuropathic pain: a study on the German version of the neuropathic pain symptom inventory (NPSI)


    Background Neuropathic pain must be correctly diagnosed for optimal treatment. The questionnaire named Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) was developed in its original French version to evaluate the different symptoms of neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that the NPSI might also be used to differentiate neuropathic from non-neuropathic pain. Methods We translated the NPSI into German using a standard forward-backward translation and administered it in a case-control design to patients with neuropathic (n = 68) and non-neuropathic pain (headache and osteoarthritis, n = 169) to validate it and to analyze its discriminant properties, its sensitivity to change, and to detect neuropathic pain subgroups with distinct profiles. Results Using a sum score (the NPSI-G score), we found sensitivity to change (r between 0.37 and 0.5 for pain items of the graded chronic pain scale) and could distinguish between neuropathic and other pain on a group basis, but not for individual patients. Post hoc development of a discriminant score with optimized diagnostic properties to distinguish neuropathic pain from non-neuropathic pain resulted in an instrument with high sensitivity (91%) and acceptable specificity (70%). We detected six different pain profiles in the patient group with neuropathic pain; three profiles were found to be distinct. Conclusions The NPSI-G potentially combines the properties of a diagnostic tool and an instrument to identify subtypes of neuropathic pain. PMID:21861889

  7. Application of the MASCC and CISNE Risk-Stratification Scores to Identify Low-Risk Febrile Neutropenic Patients in the Emergency Department.

    Coyne, Christopher J; Le, Vivian; Brennan, Jesse J; Castillo, Edward M; Shatsky, Rebecca A; Ferran, Karen; Brodine, Stephanie; Vilke, Gary M


    Although validated risk-stratification tools have been used to send low-risk febrile neutropenic patients home from clinic and inpatient settings, there is a dearth of research evaluating these scores in the emergency department (ED). We compare the predictive accuracy of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and Clinical Index of Stable Febrile Neutropenia (CISNE) scores for patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia and presenting to the ED. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate all patients with febrile neutropenia (temperature ≥38°C [100.4°F], absolute neutrophil count identified 53 (23%) of these patients as low risk and was highly specific in the identification of a low-risk cohort for all outcome variables (98.3% specific, 95% confidence interval [CI] 89.7% to 99.9%; positive predictive value 98.1%, 95% CI 88.6% to 99.9%). Median length of stay was shorter for low-risk versus high-risk CISNE patients (3-day difference; Prisk cohort. Our results suggest that the CISNE score may be the most appropriate febrile neutropenia risk-stratification tool for use in the ED. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Agreement between Framingham Risk Score and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine in Identifying High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in North Indian Population.

    Bansal, Dipika; Nayakallu, Ramya S R; Gudala, Kapil; Vyamasuni, Rajavikram; Bhansali, Anil


    The aim of the study is to evaluate the concurrence between Framingham Risk score (FRS) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine in identifying coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in newly detected diabetes mellitus patients and to explore the characteristics associated with the discrepancy between them. A cross-sectional study involving 489 subjects newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. Agreement between FRS and UKPDS in classifying patients as high risk was calculated using kappa statistic. Subjects with discrepant scores between two algorithms were identified and associated variables were determined. The FRS identified 20.9% subjects (range, 17.5 to 24.7) as high-risk while UKPDS identified 21.75% (range, 18.3 to 25.5) as high-risk. Discrepancy was observed in 17.9% (range, 14.7 to 21.7) subjects. About 9.4% had high risk by UKPDS but not FRS, and 8.6% had high risk by FRS but not UKPDS. The best agreement was observed at high-risk threshold of 20% for both (κ=0.463). Analysis showed that subjects having high risk on FRS but not UKPDS were elderly females having raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Patients with high risk on UKPDS but not FRS were males and have high glycosylated hemoglobin. The FRS and UKPDS (threshold 20%) identified different populations as being at high risk, though the agreement between them was fairly good. The concurrence of a number of factors (e.g., male sex, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking) in both algorithms should be regarded as increasing the CHD risk. However, longitudinal follow-up is required to form firm conclusions.

  9. Comparison of Four Bleeding Risk Scores to Identify Rivaroxaban-treated Patients With Venous Thromboembolism at Low Risk for Major Bleeding.

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Jimenez, David; Courtney, D Mark; Ianus, Juliana; Cao, Lynn; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H; Wells, Philip S


    Outpatient treatment of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) requires the selection of patients with a low risk of bleeding during the first few weeks of anticoagulation. The accuracy of four systems, originally derived for predicting bleeding in VTE treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), was assessed in VTE patients treated with rivaroxaban. All patients treated with rivaroxaban in the multinational EINSTEIN deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) trials were included. Major bleeding was defined as ≥2 g/dL drop in hemoglobin or ≥2-unit blood transfusion, bleeding in critical area, or bleeding contributing to death. The authors examined the incidence of major bleeding in patients with low-risk assignment by the systems of Ruiz-Gimenez et al. (score = 0 to 1), Beyth et al. (score = 0), Kuijer et al. (score = 0), and Landefeld and Goldman. (score = 0). For clinical relevance, the definition of low risk for all scores except Kuijer includes all patients risk patients during the entire treatment period were similar: Ruiz-Gimenez et al., 12 of 2,622 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%); Beyth et al., nine of 2,249 (0.4%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%); Kuijer et al., four of 1,186 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.9%); and Landefeld and Goldman, 11 of 2,407 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.8%). At 30 days, major bleed rates for low-risk patients were as follows: Ruiz-Gimenez et al., five of 2,622 (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.4%); Beyth et al., five of 2,249 (0.2%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.5%); Kuijer et al., three of 1,186 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.7%); and Landefeld and Goldman, seven of 2,407 (0.3%; 95% CI = 0.1% to 0.6%). No low-risk patient had a fatal bleed. Four scoring systems that use criteria obtained in routine clinical practice, derived to predict low bleeding risk with VKA treatment for VTE, identified patients with less than a 1% risk of major bleeding during full-course treatment with rivaroxaban. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Application of a Risk Score to Identify Older Adults with Community-Onset Pneumonia Most Likely to Benefit From Empiric Pseudomonas Therapy.

    Frei, Christopher R; Rehani, Sylvie; Lee, Grace C; Boyd, Natalie K; Attia, Erene; Pechal, Ashley; Britt, Rachel S; Mortensen, Eric M


    To assess the impact of empiric Pseudomonas pharmacotherapy on 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with community-onset pneumonia stratified according to their risk (low, medium, or high) of drug-resistant pathogens. Retrospective cohort study. Veterans Health Administration database. A total of 50,119 patients who were at least 65 years of age, hospitalized with pneumonia, and received antibiotics within 48 hours of admission between fiscal years 2002 and 2007. Patients were stratified into empiric Pseudomonas therapy (31,027 patients) and no Pseudomonas therapy (19,092 patients) groups based on antibiotics received during their first 48 hours of admission. A clinical prediction scoring system developed in 2014 that stratifies patients with community-onset pneumonia according to their risk of drug-resistant pathogens was used to identify patients who were likely to benefit from empiric Pseudomonas therapy as well as those in whom antipseudomonal therapy could be spared; patients were classified into low-risk (68%), medium-risk (21%), and high-risk (11%) groups. Of the 50,119 patients, 62% received Pseudomonas therapy. All-cause 30-day mortality was the primary outcome. Empiric Pseudomonas therapy (adjusted odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.62-0.84) was associated with lower 30-day mortality in the high-risk group but not the low- or medium-risk groups. Application of a risk score for patients with drug-resistant pathogens can identify patients likely to benefit from empiric Pseudomonas therapy. Widespread use of this score could reduce overuse of anti-Pseudomonas antibiotics in low- to medium-risk patients and improve survival in high-risk patients. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  12. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee


    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  13. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio


    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  14. Identifying Speech Acts in E-Mails: Toward Automated Scoring of the "TOEIC"® E-Mail Task. Research Report. ETS RR-12-16

    De Felice, Rachele; Deane, Paul


    This study proposes an approach to automatically score the "TOEIC"® Writing e-mail task. We focus on one component of the scoring rubric, which notes whether the test-takers have used particular speech acts such as requests, orders, or commitments. We developed a computational model for automated speech act identification and tested it…

  15. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael


    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  16. Dangerous Raw Oysters


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  17. Reliability of a Retail Food Store Survey and Development of an Accompanying Retail Scoring System to Communicate Survey Findings and Identify Vendors for Healthful Food and Marketing Initiatives

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Sugerman, Sharon


    Objective: To develop a retail grocery instrument with weighted scoring to be used as an indicator of the food environment. Participants/Setting: Twenty six retail food stores in low-income areas in California. Intervention: Observational. Main Outcome Measure(s): Inter-rater reliability for grocery store survey instrument. Description of store…

  18. Identifying native-like protein structures with scoring functions based on all-atom ECEPP force fields, implicit solvent models and structure relaxation.

    Arnautova, Yelena A; Vorobjev, Yury N; Vila, Jorge A; Scheraga, Harold A


    Availability of energy functions which can discriminate native-like from non-native protein conformations is crucial for theoretical protein structure prediction and refinement of low-resolution protein models. This article reports the results of benchmark tests for scoring functions based on two all-atom ECEPP force fields, that is, ECEPP/3 and ECEPP05, and two implicit solvent models for a large set of protein decoys. The following three scoring functions are considered: (i) ECEPP05 plus a solvent-accessible surface area model with the parameters optimized with a set of protein decoys (ECEPP05/SA); (ii) ECEPP/3 plus the solvent-accessible surface area model of Ooi et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987;84:3086-3090) (ECEPP3/OONS); and (iii) ECEPP05 plus an implicit solvent model based on a solution of the Poisson equation with an optimized Fast Adaptive Multigrid Boundary Element (FAMBEpH) method (ECEPP05/FAMBEpH). Short Monte Carlo-with-Minimization (MCM) simulations, following local energy minimization, are used as a scoring method with ECEPP05/SA and ECEPP3/OONS potentials, whereas energy calculation is used with ECEPP05/FAMBEpH. The performance of each scoring function is evaluated by examining its ability to distinguish between native-like and non-native protein structures. The results of the tests show that the new ECEPP05/SA scoring function represents a significant improvement over the earlier ECEPP3/OONS version of the force field. Thus, it is able to rank native-like structures with C(alpha) root-mean-square-deviations below 3.5 A as lowest-energy conformations for 76% and within the top 10 for 87% of the proteins tested, compared with 69 and 80%, respectively, for ECEPP3/OONS. The use of the FAMBEpH solvation model, which provides a more accurate description of the protein-solvent interactions, improves the discriminative ability of the scoring function to 89%. All failed tests in which the native-like structures cannot be discriminated as those with low

  19. Apgar score

    ... this page: // Apgar score To use the sharing features on this page, ... birth. Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. How the Test is Performed The ...

  20. From Rasch scores to regression

    Christensen, Karl Bang


    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  1. Identifying cutoff scores for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the head and neck cancer-specific module EORTC QLQ-H&N35 representing unmet supportive care needs in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Jansen, Femke; Snyder, Claire F; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M


    This study investigates cutoff scores for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30-questions (EORTC QLQ-C30) and head and neck cancer-specific module (QLQ-H&N35) to identify patients with head and neck cancer who may require clinical attention. Ninety-six patients with head and neck cancer completed the EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35 and questions on supportive care needs. For all EORTC domains with the ability to discriminate between patients with and without unmet needs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] ≥0.70), the accuracy (eg, sensitivity and specificity) of potential cutoff scores were calculated. Cutoff scores (sensitivity ≥0.80 and specificity ≥0.60) of 90 (functioning domains) and 5 to 10 (symptom domains) were found on 7 of 28 continuous EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35 domains. Borderline cutoff scores (sensitivity ≥0.70 and specificity ≥0.60 or sensitivity ≥0.80 and specificity ≥0.50) were found on 5 other domains. This study provided cutoff scores on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 based on patients' perceptions of their needs for supportive care. Future research is needed on the replicability of these cutoff scores. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1493-E1500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    Wilson, Alexander


    . The concepts of raw art and outsider art were typical of a time when oppositional politics still infused artistic and academic discourses. But modernity seems to have ‘grown out’ of its adolescence, so to speak: out of politics of opposition and absolutes. Of course, it is neither desirable nor possible...... to return to the oppositional dynamics and binary divisions of yesterday, now that we have crossed this paradigmatic threshold. But the schizoanalytic stance may offer us another view of the emerging paradigm. It affords different tools of interpretation and suggests ways artists may grow out of modernity...

  3. Comparative Study between Sequential Automatic and Manual Home Respiratory Polygraphy Scoring Using a Three-Channel Device: Impact of the Manual Editing of Events to Identify Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Glenda Ernst


    Full Text Available Objective. According to current guidelines, autoscoring of respiratory events in respiratory polygraphy requires manual scoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between automatic analysis and manual scoring to identify patients with suspected OSA. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed 791 records from respiratory polygraphy (RP performed at home. The association grade between automatic scoring and manual scoring was evaluated using Kappa coefficient and the agreement using Bland and Altman test and intraclass correlation coefficient (CCI. To determine the accuracy in the identification of AHI≥30 eV/h, the ROC curve analysis was used. Results. The population analyzed consisted of 493 male (62.3% and 298 female patients, with an average age of 54.7±14.20 years and BMI of 32.7±8.21 kg/m2. There was no significant difference between automatic and manual apnea/hypopnea indexes (aAHI, mAHI: aAHI 17.25 (SD: 17.42 versus mAHI 21.20±7.96 (p; NS. The agreement between mAHI and aAHI to AHI≥30 was 94%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.83 (p<0.001 and a CCI of 0.83. The AUC-ROC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.99 (CI 95%: 0.98-0.99, p<0.001, 86% (CI 95%: 78.7–91.4, and 97% (CI 95%: 96–98.3, respectively. Conclusions. We observed good agreement between automatic scoring and sequential manual scoring to identify subjects with AHI≥30 eV/h.

  4. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu


    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca(2+) and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Apgar Scores

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as your ... the syringe, but is blue; her one minute Apgar score would be 8—two points off because she ...

  6. Score Correlation

    Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)


    In this paper, we study a distribution-dependent correlation coefficient based on the concept of scalar score. This new measure of association of continuous random variables is compared by means of simulation experiments with the Pearson, Kendall and Spearman correlation coefficients.

  7. Scoping Future Policy Dynamics in Raw Materials Through Scenarios Testing

    Correia, Vitor; Keane, Christopher; Sturm, Flavius; Schimpf, Sven; Bodo, Balazs


    The International Raw Materials Observatory (INTRAW) project is working towards a sustainable future for the European Union in access to raw materials, from an availability, economical, and environmental framework. One of the major exercises for the INTRAW project is the evaluation of potential future scenarios for 2050 to frame economic, research, and environmental policy towards a sustainable raw materials supply. The INTRAW consortium developed three possible future scenarios that encompass defined regimes of political, economic, and technological norms. The first scenario, "Unlimited Trade," reflects a world in which free trade continues to dominate the global political and economic environment, with expectations of a growing demand for raw materials from widely distributed global growth. The "National Walls" scenario reflects a world where nationalism and economic protectionism begins to dominate, leading to stagnating economic growth and uneven dynamics in raw materials supply and demand. The final scenario, "Sustainability Alliance," examines the dynamics of a global political and economic climate that is focused on environmental and economic sustainability, leading towards increasingly towards a circular raw materials economy. These scenarios were reviewed, tested, and provided simulations of impacts with members of the Consortium and a panel of global experts on international raw materials issues which led to expected end conditions for 2050. Given the current uncertainty in global politics, these scenarios are informative to identifying likely opportunities and crises. The details of these simulations and expected responses to the research demand, technology investments, and economic components of raw materials system will be discussed.




    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  9. Diverse Gram-positive bacteria identified from raw and pasteurized ...

    Bacterial agents, especially gram-positive bacteria as they are widely distributed in the environment, may ... by the dominant presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus that can lead to public health ... coagulase negative (15.

  10. VERAM - Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Vashev, Boris


    The overall objective of VERAM project is to produce a Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials in 2050 based on raw materials research and innovation (R&I) coordination. Two leading European Technology Platforms (ETPs): ETP SMR (Sustainable Minerals Resources) and FTP (Forest Technology Platform) are joining forces to develop a common vison and roadmap with the support of ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), represented by UNIVPM, SusChem (ETP for Sustainable Chemistry), represented by Cefic, EuMaT (Advanced Materials ETP), represented by VITO, ERAMIN 2, represented by Research Centre JUELICH and WoodWisdom Network Plus represented by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). This partnership provides VERAM with expertise from downstream applications and additional knowledge on non-biotic and biotic raw materials. The project encourages capacity building as well as transfer of knowledge. It expects to provide an innovation reference point for the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials (formerly the KIC Raw MatTERS), to coordinate the network involved in the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials Commitments and relevant proposals funded under Horizon 2020. It provides a platform for identifying gaps and complementarities and enables their bridging. VERAM will be able to advise the European Commission and Member States on future research needs and policies to stimulate innovation and assist in overcoming fragmentation in the implementing the EIP Raw Materials Strategic Implementation Plan. VERAM looks for mutually beneficial information exchange, encourages cross-fertilization between actions undertaken by different raw material industries, and expects to accelerate exploitation of breakthrough innovations. One of the main outcomes of the project is the presentation of a common long term 2050 Vision and Roadmap for relevant raw materials including metals, industrial minerals and aggregates and wood. The

  11. Raw materials prices under pressure

    Kolbe, Heinz


    Since April 1984 there has been a general fall in world market prices for industrial raw materials following upon increases which, in some cases, had been quite considerable. What are the reasons for this development? What are the prospects for 1985?

  12. Raw milk consumption and health.

    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija


    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  13. Examination of various WMS-III logical memory scores in the assessment of response bias.

    Bortnik, Kirsty E; Boone, Kyle B; Marion, Sarah D; Amano, Stacy; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Cottingham, Maria E; Victor, Tara L; Zeller, Michelle A


    The assessment of response validity during neuropsychological evaluation is an integral part of the testing process. Research has increasingly focused on the use of "embedded" effort measures (derived from standard neuropsychological tasks) because they do not require additional administration time and are less likely to be identified as effort indicators by test takers because of their primary focus as measures of cognitive function. The current study examined the clinical utility of various WMS-III Logical Memory scores in detecting response bias, as well as the Rarely Missed Index, an embedded effort indicator derived from the WMS-III Logical Memory Delayed Recognition subtest. The Rarely Missed Index cut-off only identified 24.1% of 63 non-credible participants (at >/=90% specificity in 125 credible patients), and cut-offs for other Logical Memory variables were in fact found to be more sensitive to non-credible performance. A new indicator, consisting of the weighted combination of the two most sensitive Logical Memory subtest scores (Logical Memory II raw score and Logical Memory Delayed Recognition raw score), was associated with 53% to 60% sensitivity, and thus may be an effective adjunct when utilized in conjunction with other validated effort indicators and collateral information in identifying non-credible performance.

  14. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L


    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Raw milk consumption and health

    Popović-Vranješ Anka


    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  16. Raw-fish-eating behavior and fishborne zoonotic trematode infection in people of northern Vietnam

    Phan, Van Thi; Ersbæll, Annette Kjær; Do, Dung Trung


    eating raw fish in restaurants had 3.6 times higher odds of FZT infection (p = 0.009) than people eating raw fish at home. A successful program to control FZT must be based on in-depth knowledge on the social and anthropological determinants of people's raw-fish-eating behavior and hygiene practices...... fishborne zoonotic trematode (FZT) infection. The present study was done in a fish-farming community in Nam Dinh, Vietnam, to obtain information about habits of eating raw fish dishes and risks for human FZT infection. Discussions were held in different groups divided by gender and age on raw......-fish-eating behavior. A total of 180 household members were interviewed and their stool samples analyzed to identify risk factors of FZT infection. There was awareness about the risk of liver fluke infections from eating raw fish. However, many older people accepted these risks and continued eating raw fish...

  17. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

    Jae Won Lee


    Full Text Available While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism.

  18. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide.

    Lee, Jae Won; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Lee, Dae-Young; Park, Seung Cheol; Ban, Myeong Soon; Choi, Jehun; Park, Chun Geon; Ahn, Young-Sup; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Hyung Don


    While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism.

  19. Usefulness of layer-specific strain for identifying complex CAD and predicting the severity of coronary lesions in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: Compared with Syntax score.

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Wei-Chun; Ma, Hong; Wang, Hao


    Layer-specific strain allows the assessment of the function of every layer of myocardium. To evaluate the changes of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome(NSTE-ACS) patients with and without complex coronary artery disease(CAD) by layer-specific strain and determine if myocardial strain can identify complex CAD and assess the severity of coronary lesions as defined by Syntax score (SS). A total of 139 patients undergoing coronary angiography due to suspected NSTE-ACS were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography was performed 1h before angiography. Global longitudinal strain (GLS), territorial longitudinal strain (TLS), global circumferential strain (GCS) and territorial circumferential strain (TCS) of the three layers of LV wall were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) with layer-specific myocardial deformation quantitative analysis based on the perfusion territories of the three major coronary arteries in an 18-segment model of LV. SS was used for predicting the severity of coronary lesions in patients with complex CAD. 78 had complex CAD, 32 had 1- or 2-vessel disease and 29 had no significant coronary stenosis confirmed by coronary angiography. According to SS value, 78 complex CAD subjects were subdivided into three groups, 24 in group SS1 (SS≤22), 26 in group SS2 (SS 23-32) and 28 in group SS3 (SS≥33). Compared to the other two groups without complex CAD, patients with NSTE-ACS due to complex CAD had worse function in all 3 myocardial layers assessed by GLS, TLS, GCS and TCS. Endocardial GLS and TLS (all, PCAD than in those without (all, PCAD and predict the severity of coronary lesions in patients with NSTE-ACS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Score Normalization as a Fair Grading Practice. ERIC Digest.

    Winters, R. Scott

    This Digest outlines an appropriate way to handle score normalization in a fair and equitable manner. Using raw scores to calculate final grades may not entirely capture a student's true performance within a class. As variation in performance evaluation increases, so does the impact on the student's final ranking. Ideally, the distribution of…

  1. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    Background and purpose: It is likely that the most common method for calculating a Roland Morris Disability Index (RMDQ) sum score is to simply ignore any unanswered questions. In contrast, the raw sum score on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is converted to a 0-100 scale, with the advantage...

  2. The lod score method.

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J


    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  3. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.


    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  4. Preprocessing of raw metabonomic data.

    Vettukattil, Riyas


    Recent advances in metabolic profiling techniques allow global profiling of metabolites in cells, tissues, or organisms, using a wide range of analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). The raw data acquired from these instruments are abundant with technical and structural complexity, which makes it statistically difficult to extract meaningful information. Preprocessing involves various computational procedures where data from the instruments (gas chromatography (GC)/liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, NMR spectra) are converted into a usable form for further analysis and biological interpretation. This chapter covers the common data preprocessing techniques used in metabonomics and is primarily focused on baseline correction, normalization, scaling, peak alignment, detection, and quantification. Recent years have witnessed development of several software tools for data preprocessing, and an overview of the frequently used tools in data preprocessing pipeline is covered.

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada


    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. β-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications.

  6. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  7. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll


    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  8. Photoshop CS3 RAW Transforming your RAW data into works of art

    Aaland, Mikkel


    Because RAW files remain virtually untouched by in-camera processing, working with them has given digital photographers greater flexibility and control during the editing process -- for those who are familiar enough with the format. Camera RAW, the plug in for Adobe Photoshop CS3, has emerged as one of the best and most familiar tools for editing RAW images, and the best way to master this workflow is with Photoshop CS3 RAW. Award-winning author Mikkel Aaland explores the entire RAW process, from the practical reasons to shoot RAW, to managing the images with the new features of Bridge 2.0 n

  9. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias


    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation.

  10. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A


    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin A Gene Isolated From Raw Red Meat and Poultry in Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh Zargar


    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent infectious agent of food materials. Enterotoxin producing types of S. aureus cause well-known food-borne disease. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA is the most important agent of gastroenteritis. Objectives: The present study aimed to screen the raw meat samples collected from different regions of Tehran for S. aureus infection and type of encoding enterotoxin. Materials and Methods: Hundred and eighty six meat samples were collected randomly from city dealers and transferred to laboratory within screw cap containers. The samples were first cultured according to the standard bacteriological methods and then S. aureus isolates were identified using standard bacteriological tests. The isolates were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to detect gene encoding SEA. Results: Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 29 (15.6% meat samples including beef 14.8%, raw lamb 15%, raw chicken 15.7% and raw turkey 16.6%. Using special primer sets proved that the species isolated from five samples (two raw chicken, two raw beef and one raw turkey encoded enterotoxin A. Conclusions: Although staphylococcal contamination within food material is more or less a routine, but detection of enterotoxin encoding species from raw meat samples is alarming for health authorities. These data highlight the importance of periodic surveillance of raw meat distributed among ordinary consumers.

  12. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  13. Test Scoring [book review].

    Meijer, Rob R.


    This book discusses how to obtain test scores and, in particular, how to obtain test scores from tests that consist of a combination of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The strength of the book is that scoring solutions are presented for a diversity of real world scoring problems. (SLD)


    D. S. Bataeva


    Full Text Available The need to renew the safety criteria for meat raw material used in production of fermented sausages was determined. The presence of the enterotoxigenic S. aureus strains in meat raw material was established. The method was mastered and the PCR approaches to identification and screenings of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in meat raw material were proposed. In order to identify enterotoxigenicity of detected staphylococci, the conservative regions of the S. aureus target gene sequences responsible for production of different types of enterotoxins (A, B, Е, С, D were found and studied. In addition, short fragments of a nuclear acid (primers corresponding to these revealed genes were constructed. As a result of identification, it was established that two isolated strains of S. аureus were enterotoxigenic. One of them produced type А and Е toxins (strain NG1 and another produced type С and Е toxins (strain NG2. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR method allowed not only identification of pure cultures but also screening of enterotoxigenic strains and their toxins in a product. The use of this method in the production control for the presence of the enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus in meat raw material used in fermented sausage manufacture was recommended.

  15. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Boussaa, S. Anas; Kheloufi, A.; Zaourar, N. Boutarek; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F.


    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO2 + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  16. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail:; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)


    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  17. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Henriksen K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  18. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P


    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost.

  19. Polymers based on renewable raw materials

    Jovanović Slobodan M.


    Full Text Available The basic raw materials for the chemical industry, which also means for polymer production, are mineral oil and natural gas. Mineral oil and natural gas resources are limited so that sooner or later they will be consumed. For this reason alternative, renewable raw materials for the chemical industry have become the object of intensive investigation all over the world. Some of the results of these investigations concerning renewable raw materials for the production of polymer materials are presented in this paper.

  20. Talker identification from analysis of raw complex waveforms

    Stokes, Michael A.


    Stokes (1996) demonstrated that visual inspection of raw complex waveforms can be used to identify a vowel produced by a talker. This research resulted in the MAS Model of Vowel Perception and Production (Stokes, 1998; More recently, another experiment extended this work to female talkers as well as male talkers (Stokes, 2001). Together, this research represents the only ongoing comprehensive research involving visual inspection of raw complex waveforms for identifying vowels produced by any talker. As an extension of the work, the present study involves identifying a talker from a waveform display. Unique voice signatures identified from waveform displays are used to identify a talker from a set of 10 talkers in the same way as one would identify a person from fingerprints. In two trials (the word who'd in trial 1 and heed in trial 2), a talker was correctly identified from a set of 10 unique talkers per trial using small visual samples of waveforms and matching it to a waveform sample of the talkers to be identified.

  1. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma


    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  2. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Š. Vilamová


    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  3. Potent odorants characterize the aroma quality of leaves and stalks in raw and boiled celery.

    Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Kouno, Emi; Fujita, Akira; Morimitsu, Yasujiro; Kubota, Kikue


    The raw and boiled odors of celery leaves and stalks were investigated. Among 12 compounds identified as potent odorants, 3-n-butylphthalide 1, sedanenolide 2, and trans- and cis-sedanolides 3, 4 were assessed to be most contributive to the overall odor of celery. These three phthalides, (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-undecatriene, myrcene, and (E)-2-nonenal were common to both raw and boiled materials. Two compounds, ((Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenol), were dominant in raw materials and four compounds, (2-methylbutanoic acid, sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone), were dominant in boiled materials. Sensory evaluations were performed on natural celery odor and a series of reconstructed model aromas by assigning each intensity ratings for a set of seven odor qualities which aptly describe the odors of raw and boiled celery. According to the evaluation results, six common components contributed to the moderate odor of raw celery, two components dominant in raw materials enhanced the raw celery character, and four components dominant in boiled materials reduced the raw celery character and enhanced the boiled celery character. It was clarified that boiling-induced changes in celery odor were not affected by the amounts of phthalides, but by thermally generated compounds such as sotolon, beta-damascenone, and beta-ionone, which reduce the "green spicy" note.

  4. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Ghorab, H. Y.; Rizk, M.; Ibrahim, B.; Allam, M. M.


    Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grai...

  5. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky


    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  6. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Š. Vilamová; P. Besta; R. Kozel; K. Janovská; M. Piecha; Levit, A; Straka, M.; Šanda, M.


    Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly differ...

  7. Initial experience with identifying high-grade prostate cancer using diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in patients with a Gleason score

    Somford, D.M.; Hambrock, T.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Futterer, J.J.; Oort, I.M. van; Basten, J.P. van; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Barentsz, J.O.


    INTRODUCTION: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) might be able to fulfill the need to accurately identify high-grade prostate carcinoma, in patients initially selected for active surveillance in the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening era based on transrectal ultrasound-g

  8. The complete raw workflow guide how to get the most from your raw images in Adobe Camera Raw, Lightroom, Photoshop, and Elements

    Andrews, Philip


    One of the most important technologies a photographer can master is shooting and working with raw images. However, figuring out the best way to work with raw files can be confusing and overwhelming. What's the advantage to working in raw? How do you manage, organize, and store raw files? What's the best way to process your files to meet your photographic needs? How do Photoshop, Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw work together? Is it possible to keep your photos in the raw format and still enhance them extensively? Philip Andrews answers these questions and more in his all-new essential raw workfl

  9. Research on Identifying Central Rating in Net-based Composition Scoring Using Many-facet Rasch Model%基于多面Rasch模型的作文网上评卷“趋中评分”判定研究

    俞韫烨; 谢小庆


    写作测试则是评价学生语言能力最有效的工具之一,但在作文评分中,评分员容易出现“趋中评分”,即打“中间分”的现象。趋中评分是评分过程中形成的一种系统性误差,它在一定程度上会影响作文评分的质量。本文基于多面Rasch模型,采用MHK(三级)考试的实测数据,估计了考生的能力值和期望得分,计算出残差标准差、残差与期望得分的相关,同时参考原始评分的峰度值、评分员infit值、评分员期望评分的峰度值和专家校验卷的分析结果,最后确定了具有趋中评分倾向的评分员,同时提出了判定趋中评分的方法和标准。%Researchers have found that in composition scoring process, some raters tended to assign central scores, avoiding using the high or low end of the rating scale. This is the so-called "central rating". This study tried to identify central raters in net-based composition scoring using Many-Facet Rasch Model. The statistics were collected from MHK (Level III) composition rating which contained 15,194 examinees and 45 raters. This research estimated each examinee' s ability and expected score, and then by computing the residual' s standard deviation and coefficient with expected score, kurtosis of observed scores, infit statistics generated by the model, kurtosis of expected ratings and analyzing the result of expert-consensus scores, researchers successfully identified two "suspected central rater". Furthermore, this study suggested a series of standards to identify central rating which could be applied in future net-based composition scoring.

  10. Subgroup Balancing Propensity Score

    DONG, JING; Zhang, Junni L; Li, Fan


    We investigate the estimation of subgroup treatment effects with observational data. Existing propensity score matching and weighting methods are mostly developed for estimating overall treatment effect. Although the true propensity score should balance covariates for the subgroup populations, the estimated propensity score may not balance covariates for the subgroup samples. We propose the subgroup balancing propensity score (SBPS) method, which selects, for each subgroup, to use either the ...

  11. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores


    42 Approaches to Standardizing PFE /SKT Scores...NPS non–prior service OSD Office of the Secretary of Defense OSI Office of Special Investigations PFE Promotion Fitness Exam RAW Retrieval Application...both the Promotion Fitness Exam ( PFE ) and Specialty Knowledge Test (SKT). Using a percentile ranking was one way to standardize because every AFSC

  12. The Apgar Score.


    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  13. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  14. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Rubporn Kittivachra


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  15. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)


    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  16. Raw Data (ASCII format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available PLACE Raw Data (ASCII format) Data detail Data name Raw Data (ASCII format) Description of data contents The.... Data analysis method - Number of data entries 469 entries Data item Description ID Identifier AC Accession... number DT Date (operation) author DE Description (regulation, gene, transacting factor, etc.) KW Keywords O... or G W: A or T Y: C or T (Mar. 31, 1997) XX Data item delimiter Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description

  17. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas


    Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB...

  18. Chemical composition of the clays as indicator raw material sources

    Khramchenkova Rezida Kh


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study on the chemical composition of unglazed pottery from the excavations of the Bulgar fortified settlement site and the clay, selected from the modern deposits of ceramic raw materials located near the medieval settlement sites. Significant differences in macro- and microelement composition of different groups of ceramics have been revealed. The difference in the macroelemental composition is largely determined by the ceramic fabric recipe. Thus, the high calcium content corresponds to the addition of river shells, the high content of silicon results from sand addition. A more interesting picture has been revealed in the course of studies of the so-called “trace elements” (microelements. Nine groups of ceramics with different elemental set have been distinguished. The first two groups consist of imported ceramics; other groups have demonstrated a rather pronounced elemental composition. The most notable variations are observed in chromium, vanadium and nickel content. Similar microelement composition variety has been observed in clays from deposits of different localization, while the concentration of the mentioned elements in a variety of clays also differs considerably. Therefore, marker elements typical of different clays have been identified. A comparative analysis of the data obtained for clay raw materials and ceramics has been conducted. The results demonstrate the potential of studying the elemental composition in order to determine the localization of the raw material sources for ceramic production.

  19. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Baras Josip K.


    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.


    Havelka Jaroslav


    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  1. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J


    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  2. 75 FR 10460 - Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product


    ... Food Safety Inspection Service Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef... raw beef product that FSIS has found positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. FSIS will also... Agency procedures for identifying product that may be positive for E. coli O157:H7. DATES: The public...

  3. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Clifton, F.T.


    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  4. Assessing Raw and Treated Water Quality Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Bridgeman, J.; Baker, A.


    To date, much fluorescence spectroscopy work has focused on the use of techniques to characterize pollution in river water and to fingerprint pollutants such as, inter alia, treated and raw sewage effluent. In the face of tightening water quality standards associated with disinfection byproducts, there exists the need for a surrogate THM parameter which can be measured accurately and quickly at the water treatment works and which will give a satisfactory indication of the THM concentration leaving the water treatment works. In addition, water treatment works and distribution system managers require tools which are simple and quick, yet robust, to monitor plant and unit process performance. We extend the use of fluorescence techniques from raw water quality monitoring to (1) the monitoring of water treatment works intakes and the assessment of water treatment works performance by (2) assessing the removal of dissolved organic matter (DOM) through the unit process stages of various water treatment works treating different raw waters and (3) examining the prevalence of microbiological activity found at service reservoirs in the downstream distribution system. 16 surface water treatment works were selected in the central region of the UK and samples taken at works' intakes, downstream of each unit process, and in the distribution systems. The intakes selected abstract water from a broad range of upland and lowland water sources with varying natural and anthropogenic pollutant inputs and significantly different flows. The treatment works selected offer a range of different, but relatively standard, unit processes. The results demonstrate that raw waters exhibit more fluorescence than (partially) treated waters. However, noticeable differences between each site are observed. Furthermore, differences in unit process performance between works are also identified and quantified. Across all sites, treatment with Granular Activated Carbon is found to yield a significant




  6. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    MANAGING MISSING SCORES ON THE ROLAND MORRIS DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE Peter Kenta and Henrik Hein Lauridsenb aBack Research Centre and bInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark Background There is no standard method to calculate Roland Morris Disability......, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) convert their raw score into a standardized score out of 100. An advantage of this method is that it allows missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. For example, if 17 questions had been answered ’yes’ on a RMDQ questionnaire containing 23 yes...

  7. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    MANAGING MISSING SCORES ON THE ROLAND MORRIS DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE Peter Kenta and Henrik Hein Lauridsenb aBack Research Centre and bInstitute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark Background There is no standard method to calculate Roland Morris Disability......, such as the Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) convert their raw score into a standardized score out of 100. An advantage of this method is that it allows missing data to be accommodated by proportional recalculation. For example, if 17 questions had been answered ’yes’ on a RMDQ questionnaire containing 23 yes...

  8. Flavour formation in pork semimembranosus: Combination of pan-temperature and raw meat quality

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis


    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pork semimembranosus were investigated with regard to different raw meat qualities (feeding/fasting strategy; control/low glycogen level, gender; castrate/female, slaughter live-weight; 84 kg/110 kg) combined with frying temperature (150 degrees C....../240 degrees C). It was further investigated whether the precursor levels of glycogen, IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine in the raw meat were correlated to the raw meat quality and fried/grilled attributes. Pork schnitzels were fried on a pan (155 degrees C) or grill-pan (240-250 degrees C) to a core...... temperature of 70 degrees C. Frying temperature was the one factor with greatest influence on the sensory attributes, and pan-grilled schnitzels had significantly higher scores in fried/grilled attributes regardless of meat quality compared to pan-fried schnitzels. Texture was not appreciably influenced...

  9. Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study.

    Donaldson, M S; Speight, N; Loomis, S


    Fibromyalgia engulfs patients in a downward, reinforcing cycle of unrestorative sleep, chronic pain, fatigue, inactivity, and depression. In this study we tested whether a mostly raw vegetarian diet would significantly improve fibromyalgia symptoms. Thirty people participated in a dietary intervention using a mostly raw, pure vegetarian diet. The diet consisted of raw fruits, salads, carrot juice, tubers, grain products, nuts, seeds, and a dehydrated barley grass juice product. Outcomes measured were dietary intake, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), SF-36 health survey, a quality of life survey (QOLS), and physical performance measurements. Twenty-six subjects returned dietary surveys at 2 months; 20 subjects returned surveys at the beginning, end, and at either 2 or 4 months of intervention; 3 subjects were lost to follow-up. The mean FIQ score (n = 20) was reduced 46% from 51 to 28. Seven of the 8 SF-36 subscales, bodily pain being the exception, showed significant improvement (n = 20, all P for trend vegetarian diet.

  10. Synthetic Raw Materials for Refractories in China

    SHIGan; YUEWeidong


    The development and status of synthetic raw materials for refractories in China are reviewed,including magne-site-based materials,alumina ,ullite,calcium alumi-nate cement ,ultrafine powder,spinel,silicon carbide and cordierite.The research work on calcium zirconate and sialon materials are also introduced.

  11. Low complexity efficient raw SAR data compression

    Rane, Shantanu; Boufounos, Petros; Vetro, Anthony; Okada, Yu


    We present a low-complexity method for compression of raw Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Raw SAR data is typically acquired using a satellite or airborne platform without sufficient computational capabilities to process the data and generate a SAR image on-board. Hence, the raw data needs to be compressed and transmitted to the ground station, where SAR image formation can be carried out. To perform low-complexity compression, our method uses 1-dimensional transforms, followed by quantization and entropy coding. In contrast to previous approaches, which send uncompressed or Huffman-coded bits, we achieve more efficient entropy coding using an arithmetic coder that responds to a continuously updated probability distribution. We present experimental results on compression of raw Ku-SAR data. In those we evaluate the effect of the length of the transform on compression performance and demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework over a state-of-the-art low complexity scheme called Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ).

  12. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  13. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    Guillaume, Bertrand


    Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe Guillaume BERTRAND1, Daniel CASSARD1, Nikolaos ARVANITIDIS2, Gerry STANLEY3 and the EuroGeoSurvey Mineral Resources Expert Group4. 1 - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Georesources Divison, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, FRANCE. 2 - Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), Box 670, SE-751 28, Uppsala, SWEDEN 3 - Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin D04 K7X4, IRELAND 4 - EuroGeoSurveys, Rue Joseph II 36-38, 1000 Brussels, BELGIUM The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological Surveys in Europe. It provides the European Institutions with expert, independent, balanced and practical pan-European advice and information as an aid to problem-solving, policy development, regulatory and programme formulation in areas such as natural resources, energy and geo-hazards. The EGS MREG is actively involved in contributing to policy and strategy-making processes aimed at identifying, characterizing and safeguarding resource potential, especially for critical raw materials through data provision, research, technological development and innovation. The European Union aspires to reducing the import dependency of raw materials, especially CRM, that are essential to Europe's industries. In this respect, mineral resource information, data sharing and networking by European Geological Surveys is crucial. The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials highlights the need for establishing and maintaining a

  14. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina


    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  15. Non-imported brucellosis outbreak from unpasteurized raw milk in Moroccan immigrants in Spain



    SUMMARY Nine cases of brucellosis were identified in the city of Elche (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) in two families of Moroccan immigrants. All of the patients had drunk unpasteurized raw milk from goats. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was identified in clinical specimens. Preventive measures for brucellosis should be implemented among immigrant populations in Spain. PMID:18205974

  16. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    Yao, Lihua


    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  17. What diagnoses may make patients more seriously ill than they first appear? Mortality according to the Simple Clinical Score Risk Class at the time of admission compared to the observed mortality of different ICD9 codes identified on death or discharge.

    Kellett, John


    The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) determined at the time of admission places acutely ill general medical patients into one of five risk classes associated with an increasing risk of death within 30 days. The cohort of acute medical patient that the SCS was derived from had, on average, four combinations of 74 groupings of ICD9 codes. This paper reports the ICD9 codes associated with the different SCS risk classes and identifies those ICD9 codes with a greater observed mortality than that of other patients in the same SCS risk class.

  18. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun


    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  19. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun


    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  20. The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III

    Whitaker, Simon; Wood, Christopher


    Objective: It has been suggested that, as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) give a scaled score of one even if a client scores a raw score of zero, these assessments may have a hidden floor effect at low IQ levels. The study looked for…

  1. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    Roivainen, Eka


    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  2. Confidence Intervals for True Scores Using the Skew-Normal Distribution

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.


    A recent comparative analysis of alternative interval estimation approaches and procedures has shown that confidence intervals (CIs) for true raw scores determined with the Score method--which uses the normal approximation to the binomial distribution--have actual coverage probabilities that are closest to their nominal level. It has also recently…

  3. Confidence Intervals for True Scores Using the Skew-Normal Distribution

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.


    A recent comparative analysis of alternative interval estimation approaches and procedures has shown that confidence intervals (CIs) for true raw scores determined with the Score method--which uses the normal approximation to the binomial distribution--have actual coverage probabilities that are closest to their nominal level. It has also recently…

  4. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)

    Collins, N J; Prinsen, C A C; Christensen, R


    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize evidence regarding measurement properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). DESIGN: A comprehensive literature search identified 37 eligible papers evaluating KOOS measurement properties in partici...

  5. Pneumonia severity scores in resource poor settings

    Jamie Rylance


    Full Text Available Clinical prognostic scores are increasingly used to streamline care in well-resourced settings. The potential benefits of identifying patients at risk of clinical deterioration and poor outcome, delivering appropriate higher level clinical care, and increasing efficiency are clear. In this focused review, we examine the use and applicability of severity scores applied to patients with community acquired pneumonia in resource poor settings. We challenge clinical researchers working in such systems to consider the generalisability of existing severity scores in their populations, and where performance of scores is suboptimal, to promote efforts to develop and validate new tools for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems.

  6. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  7. Minimization of Salmonella contamination on raw poultry.

    Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, L J


    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is still found on raw poultry. Expert committees have repeatedly emphasized the importance of controlling risk, but information about Salmonella in poultry is often limited to prevalence, with inadequate information about testing methods or strains of Salmonella that are detected by these methods and no information about any impact on the degree of risk. This review examines some assumptions behind the discussion of Salmonella in poultry: the relationships between sampling and cultural methodology, prevalence and numbers of cells, and the implications of serotype and subtype issues. Minimizing Salmonella contamination of poultry is not likely to reduce human salmonellosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken until these issues are confronted more systematically.

  8. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović


    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  9. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee


    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  10. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    Z Noori; SH Saadati; A. Mirsalehian; SH Shoeibi; N Rahimifard; Mehrangiz Mehdizadeh; M Pirali- Hamedani


    Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Bro...

  11. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E


    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  12. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria


    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  13. Global GNSS processing based on the raw observation approach

    Strasser, Sebastian; Zehentner, Norbert; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten


    Many global navigation satellite system (GNSS) applications, e.g. Precise Point Positioning (PPP), require high-quality GNSS products, such as precise GNSS satellite orbits and clocks. These products are routinely determined by analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The current processing methods of the analysis centers make use of the ionosphere-free linear combination to reduce the ionospheric influence. Some of the analysis centers also form observation differences, in general double-differences, to eliminate several additional error sources. The raw observation approach is a new GNSS processing approach that was developed at Graz University of Technology for kinematic orbit determination of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and subsequently adapted to global GNSS processing in general. This new approach offers some benefits compared to well-established approaches, such as a straightforward incorporation of new observables due to the avoidance of observation differences and linear combinations. This becomes especially important in view of the changing GNSS landscape with two new systems, the European system Galileo and the Chinese system BeiDou, currently in deployment. GNSS products generated at Graz University of Technology using the raw observation approach currently comprise precise GNSS satellite orbits and clocks, station positions and clocks, code and phase biases, and Earth rotation parameters. To evaluate the new approach, products generated using the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation and observations from the global IGS station network are compared to those of the IGS analysis centers. The comparisons show that the products generated at Graz University of Technology are on a similar level of quality to the products determined by the IGS analysis centers. This confirms that the raw observation approach is applicable to global GNSS processing. Some areas requiring further work have been identified, enabling future

  14. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  15. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  16. Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an ...

    Indigenous processing methods and raw materials of borde , an Ethiopian traditional ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... A study of village-level processing techniques and raw materials used for the ...

  17. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk ...

  18. Instant MuseScore

    Shinn, Maxwell


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175... § 161.175 Frozen raw breaded shrimp. (a) Frozen raw breaded shrimp is the food prepared by coating one of the optional forms of shrimp specified in paragraph (c) of this section with safe and suitable...

  20. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  1. Tensorial Orientation Scores

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Azzopardi, George; Petkov, Nicolai


    Orientation scores are representations of images built using filters that only select on orientation (and not on the magnitude of the frequency). Importantly, they allow (easy) reconstruction, making them ideal for use in a filtering pipeline. Traditionally a specific set of orientations has to be c

  2. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  3. Nursing activities score

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  4. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu


    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance.

  5. Automated Essay Scoring

    Semire DIKLI


    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  6. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    H.R. HaghighatKhah


    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  7. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material



    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.

  8. [Investigation of gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats].

    Seres, Adrienn; Ducza, Eszter; Gáspár, Róbert


    Numerous honeybee products are used in traditional medicine. The best-known honeybee products are the honey, the propolis and the royal jelly. Drone milk is a relatively little-known honeybee product. Although, drone milk is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women in certain countries, the literature furnishes no information concerning effects of the drone milk. The oestrogenic and androgenic effects of drone milk have recently been reported in rats and the effective compounds have also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the putative gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats. Maintenance of pregnancy assays revealed that drone milk was able to increase the number of surviving fetuses. This results suggested some gestagenic effects. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot methods in which the mRNA and protein expressions of gestagen-dependent CRLR (Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor) peptide were determined. To determine the efficacy of gestagenic effect of drone milk, spironolactone (weak gestagen compound) was used. The combination of drone milk and spironolactone showed more potent gestagenic effect. These results lead us to suppose that raw drone milk shows weak gestagenic effect and this effect can be increased by another weak gestagen. Further studies are required to clarify the gestagenic mechanisms of action of drone milk.

  9. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Olga Yatsenko


    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  10. Evaluation of four raw meat diets using domestic cats, captive exotic felids, and cecectomized roosters.

    Kerr, K R; Beloshapka, A N; Morris, C L; Parsons, C M; Burke, S L; Utterback, P L; Swanson, K S


    Our objective was to evaluate raw meat diets for captive exotic and domestic carnivores containing traditional and alternative raw meat sources, specifically, beef trimmings, bison trimmings, elk muscle meat, and horse trimmings. We aimed to examine diet composition and protein quality; apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility in domestic cats, African wildcats, jaguars, and Malayan tigers; and ME and fecal fermentative end-products in domestic cats. Because of variation in the meat sources, dietary proximate, AA, and long-chain fatty acid composition were variable. Our analyses indicated that all diets had essential fatty acid deficiencies, and the elk diet (i.e., trimmed muscle meat) was deficient in total fat. Standardized AA digestibilities measured using the cecectomized rooster assay were high (>87%). Using the NRC minimum requirements for the growth of kittens, the first limiting AA of all diets was the combined requirement of Met and Cys (AA score: 81 to 95; protein digestibility corrected AA score: 75 to 90). All diets were highly digestible (88 to 89% OM digestibility). There was no effect of diet or felid species on DM (85 to 87%), OM, and GE (90 to 91%) digestibilities. Apparent CP digestibility was greater (P≤0.05) in cats fed elk (97%) compared with those fed bison (96%), and greater (P≤0.05) in wildcats (97%) and domestic cats (97%) compared with tigers (95%). The diet and species interaction (P≤0.05) was observed for apparent fat digestibility. In domestic cats, the fresh fecal pH and proportions of acetate and butyrate were altered (P≤0.05) due to diet. Diet also affected (P≤0.05) fresh fecal concentrations of total branched-chain fatty acids, valerate, and Lactobacillus genus. In conclusion, although the raw meat diets were highly digestible, because of variation in raw meat sources the nutrient composition of the diets was variable. Thus, compositional analysis of raw meat sources is necessary for proper diet

  11. Guiding automated NMR structure determination using a global optimization metric, the NMR DP score

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet, E-mail:; Mao, Binchen; Xu, Fei; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, and Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (United States)


    ASDP is an automated NMR NOE assignment program. It uses a distinct bottom-up topology-constrained network anchoring approach for NOE interpretation, with 2D, 3D and/or 4D NOESY peak lists and resonance assignments as input, and generates unambiguous NOE constraints for iterative structure calculations. ASDP is designed to function interactively with various structure determination programs that use distance restraints to generate molecular models. In the CASD–NMR project, ASDP was tested and further developed using blinded NMR data, including resonance assignments, either raw or manually-curated (refined) NOESY peak list data, and in some cases {sup 15}N–{sup 1}H residual dipolar coupling data. In these blinded tests, in which the reference structure was not available until after structures were generated, the fully-automated ASDP program performed very well on all targets using both the raw and refined NOESY peak list data. Improvements of ASDP relative to its predecessor program for automated NOESY peak assignments, AutoStructure, were driven by challenges provided by these CASD–NMR data. These algorithmic improvements include (1) using a global metric of structural accuracy, the discriminating power score, for guiding model selection during the iterative NOE interpretation process, and (2) identifying incorrect NOESY cross peak assignments caused by errors in the NMR resonance assignment list. These improvements provide a more robust automated NOESY analysis program, ASDP, with the unique capability of being utilized with alternative structure generation and refinement programs including CYANA, CNS, and/or Rosetta.

  12. Multidimensional Linking for Domain Scores and Overall Scores for Nonequivalent Groups

    Yao, Lihua


    The No Child Left Behind Act requires state assessments to report not only overall scores but also domain scores. To see the information on students' overall achievement, progress, and detailed strengths and weaknesses, and thereby identify areas for improvement in educational quality, students' performances across years or across forms need to be…

  13. Credit scoring for individuals

    Maria DIMITRIU


    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  14. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Christine Smyth


    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  15. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Pierina eVisciano


    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  16. Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: An observational study

    Speight Neal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia engulfs patients in a downward, reinforcing cycle of unrestorative sleep, chronic pain, fatigue, inactivity, and depression. In this study we tested whether a mostly raw vegetarian diet would significantly improve fibromyalgia symptoms. Methods Thirty people participated in a dietary intervention using a mostly raw, pure vegetarian diet. The diet consisted of raw fruits, salads, carrot juice, tubers, grain products, nuts, seeds, and a dehydrated barley grass juice product. Outcomes measured were dietary intake, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ, SF-36 health survey, a quality of life survey (QOLS, and physical performance measurements. Results Twenty-six subjects returned dietary surveys at 2 months; 20 subjects returned surveys at the beginning, end, and at either 2 or 4 months of intervention; 3 subjects were lost to follow-up. The mean FIQ score (n = 20 was reduced 46% from 51 to 28. Seven of the 8 SF-36 subscales, bodily pain being the exception, showed significant improvement (n = 20, all P for trend Conclusion This dietary intervention shows that many fibromyalgia subjects can be helped by a mostly raw vegetarian diet.

  17. Introducing the SKIN score: a validated scoring system to assess severity of mastectomy skin flap necrosis.

    Lemaine, Valerie; Hoskin, Tanya L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Boughey, Judy C; Torstenson, Tiffany A; Jacobson, Steven R; Jakub, James W; Degnim, Amy C


    With increasing use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) is a clinical problem that deserves further study. We propose a validated scoring system to discriminate MSFN severity and standardize its assessment. Women who underwent skin-sparing (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and IBR from November 2009 to October 2010 were studied retrospectively. A workgroup of breast and plastic surgeons scored postoperative photographs using the skin ischemia necrosis (SKIN) score to assess depth and surface area of MSFN. We evaluated correlation of the SKIN score with reoperation for MSFN and its reproducibility in an external sample of surgeons. We identified 106 subjects (175 operated breasts: 103 SSM, 72 NSM) who had ≥1 postoperative photograph within 60 days. SKIN scores correlated strongly with need for reoperation for MSFN, with an AUC of 0.96 for SSM and 0.89 for NSM. External scores agreed well with the gold standard scores for the breast mound photographs with weighted kappa values of 0.82 (depth), 0.56 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). The agreement was similar for the nipple-areolar complex photographs: 0.75 (depth), 0.63 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). A simple scoring system to assess the severity of MSFN is proposed, incorporating both depth and surface area of MSFN. The SKIN score correlates strongly with the need for reoperation to manage MSFN and is reproducible among breast and plastic surgeons.

  18. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok


    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at

  19. Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Levels in Raw Milk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Christidis, T; Pintar, K D M; Butler, A J; Nesbitt, A; Thomas, M K; Marshall, B; Pollari, F


    Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease internationally, contributing significantly to the enteric illness burden. Cases have been associated with the consumption of raw milk, a behavior that has garnered attention recently. Estimates of the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk are lacking, which hinders risk assessment attempts. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence and levels of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in the raw milk of cows, goats, and sheep in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The relevant literature was reviewed, and trained reviewers examined the results for inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. Relevant data (prevalence and/or level of Campylobacter in raw milk, country of origin, animal species, sample source, Campylobacter species identified, etc.) were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed in Stata v. 12 (Metaprop command). The weighted mean prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk samples was 1.18%. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine how prevalence varied by study characteristics, with the highest prevalence values in studies from the United Kingdom (by country, 6.4%), about cows (by animal species, 1.3%), and including samples taken from inline filters (by sample source, 1.75%) and in studies that included species that are not pathogenic to humans (by Campylobacter species, 1.14%). Two articles each included a single Campylobacter level, 0.16 ± 0.3 and approximately 0.047 most probable number per ml. Despite a relatively low prevalence, consumption of raw milk is inherently risky because no treatment has been used to inactivate pathogens. This potential risk further supports maintaining regulations to limit the sales of raw milk.

  20. The derivation and validation of a scoring system for identifying patients with bronchiectasis at risk of exacerbations%支气管扩张症急性加重风险分层评分系统的构建及验证

    李杰; 焦瑞; 温林芳; 杜小兵; 高杨; 李晓云; 陈勇; 武元星; 刘双


    Objective:To create and verify a scoring system for identifying patients with bronchiectasis at risk of exacerbations.Methods Derivation of the scoring system used data from a retrospective cohort study enrolling 228 patients with bronchiectasis.Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors associated with exacerbations.β-coefficients derived from the independent predictors in our logistic regression model were applied to create a scoring system (Total score was 8).The scoring system was then validated in a prospective cohort enrolling 334 patients with bronchiectasis.Results The derivation study showed that age ≥ 60 years (OR =2.583,95% CI:1.188-5.613),BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (OR =2.991,95% CI:1.112-8.042),high medical research council dyspnea score (OR =7.905,95% CI:4.288-8.309),Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization (OR =3.227,95% CI:1.041-9.004),the lobes involved on high-resolution computed tomography ≥3 (OR =3.179,95% CI:1.449 ~ 6.976),prior intensive care unit admissions (OR =2.499,95% CI:1.301-4.801),and FEV1 < 50% predicted (OR =2.497,95% CI:1.421-5.080) were the independent predictors associated with exacerbations.The scoring system predicted exacerbations with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% confidence interval,0.74-0.84).In the validation cohorts,the total score ranged 0 to 6.There was significant difference in exacerbation frequency and quality of life between patients classified as low (0-2),intermediate (3-4),and high (5-8) risks by the scoring system (P < 0.05).A higher score was associated with higher risk of exacerbations and poorer quality of life.Conclusion Our scoring system was an efficient clinical predictive tool to identify patients with bronchiectasis at risk of exacerbations.It may be useful for early prevention of bronchiectasis exacerbations and for proper management.%目的:建立并验证针对支气管扩张症急性加重

  1. Use score card to boost quality.


    Keeping a score card can identify problem areas and track improvements. When specific goals are reached, staff are given rewards such as thank-you letters, tokens, or pizza parties. Staff are kept informed about the results of the score card through bulletin board postings, staff meetings, and the hospital Intranet. Data are collected with manual entry by nursing staff, chart review by performance improvement, and a computerized program.

  2. Hydrolytic potential of a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    Ana Paula F. Corrêa


    Full Text Available The production of extracellular hydrolases by a psychrotrophic bacterium isolated from refrigerated raw milk, and identified as a Pseudomonas sp. belonging to the Pseudomonas jenssenii group, was studied. This bacterium produced proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes in all media investigated (skim milk, cheese whey, casein broth, and tryptone soy broth. High levels of α-glucosidase were produced in skim milk broth. Hydrolytic enzymes detected in skim milk broth are of particular concern, indicating that these enzymes could be produced by Pseudomonas sp. during the cold storage of raw milk, contributing to the spoilage problem in milk and dairy products.

  3. An empirical Bayes model using a competition score for metabolite identification in gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Kim Seongho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry (MS based metabolite profiling has been increasingly popular for scientific and biomedical studies, primarily due to recent technological development such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOF-MS. Nevertheless, the identifications of metabolites from complex samples are subject to errors. Statistical/computational approaches to improve the accuracy of the identifications and false positive estimate are in great need. We propose an empirical Bayes model which accounts for a competing score in addition to the similarity score to tackle this problem. The competition score characterizes the propensity of a candidate metabolite of being matched to some spectrum based on the metabolite's similarity score with other spectra in the library searched against. The competition score allows the model to properly assess the evidence on the presence/absence status of a metabolite based on whether or not the metabolite is matched to some sample spectrum. Results With a mixture of metabolite standards, we demonstrated that our method has better identification accuracy than other four existing methods. Moreover, our method has reliable false discovery rate estimate. We also applied our method to the data collected from the plasma of a rat and identified some metabolites from the plasma under the control of false discovery rate. Conclusions We developed an empirical Bayes model for metabolite identification and validated the method through a mixture of metabolite standards and rat plasma. The results show that our hierarchical model improves identification accuracy as compared with methods that do not structurally model the involved variables. The improvement in identification accuracy is likely to facilitate downstream analysis such as peak alignment and biomarker identification. Raw data and result matrices can be found at http

  4. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W


    The SYNTAX Score ( has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  5. Raw Materials, Production and Distribution of Xuejiagang Stone Tools

    Zhuang Lina


    Full Text Available The Xuejiagang culture is associated with the latter part of the Neolithic period in southern China. Since the 1970s, we have found many cemeteries associated with this culture, in which stone implements make up an important and significant part of the funerary objects. The perforated stone knife, the yue axe and the adze were especially important. Analysis of the frequency and relationships between raw material, technology and tool types provides a basis for distinguishing between the different production sites associated with the Xuejiagang stone industry. This article discusses the relationship between rock types and stone tools, and between stone artefacts from different production sites. Thin-section analysis was used to identify and characterise stone used for implement manufacture.

  6. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  7. Direct bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen by a new strain Clostridium sp. FS3.

    Song, Zhao-Xia; Li, Xiao-Hu; Li, Wei-Wei; Bai, Yan-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei


    A new strain FS3 which could achieve an efficient bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen had been isolated from anaerobic acclimated sludge, and identified as Clostridium butyricum on the basis of a series of physiological and biochemical experiments and 16S rDNA gene sequence. The strain could utilize various carbon sources to produce hydrogen. On the basis of single-factor experiments, the response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to optimize the media for hydrogen production. The maximum hydrogen yield of 92.9ml/g was observed under the optimal conditions: 20g/l raw corn stalk, 1.76g/l NH4HCO3, 0.91g/l KH2PO4 and 10.4ml/l nutrient solution. This finding opens a new avenue for direct conversion of raw cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen.

  8. Preparing raw clinical data for publication: guidance for journal editors, authors, and peer reviewers.

    Hrynaszkiewicz, Iain; Norton, Melissa L; Vickers, Andrew J; Altman, Douglas G


    In recognition of the benefits of transparent reporting, many peer-reviewed journals require that their authors be prepared to share their raw, unprocessed data with other scientists and/or state the availability of raw data in published articles. But little information on how data should be prepared for publication - or sharing - has emerged. In clinical research patient privacy and consent for use of personal health information are key considerations, but agreed-upon definitions of what constitutes anonymised patient information do not appear to have been established. We aim to address this issue by providing practical guidance for those involved in the publication process, by proposing a minimum standard for de-identifying datasets for the purposes of publication in a peer-reviewed biomedical journal, or sharing with other researchers. Basic advice on file preparation is provided along with procedural guidance on prospective and retrospective publication of raw data, with an emphasis on randomised controlled trials.

  9. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.


    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  10. Identification and effect decomposition of risk factors for Brucella contamination of raw whole milk in china.

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23-3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors-culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants

  11. Mild desalination of various raw water streams.

    Groot, C K; van den Broek, W B P; Loewenberg, J; Koeman-Stein, N; Heidekamp, M; de Schepper, W


    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4 Water project ( comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is designed to develop commercial applications for mild desalination of brackish raw water streams from various origins to enable reuse in industry or agriculture. This study describes an effective two-stage work process, which was used to narrow down a broad spectrum of desalination technologies to a selection of the most promising techniques for a demonstration pilot at 2-4 m³/hour. Through literature study, laboratory experiments and multi-criteria analysis, nanofiltration and electrodialysis reversal were selected, both having the potential to attain the objectives of E4Water at full scale.

  12. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    S. Y. Khomutov


    Full Text Available In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia and CSIR-NGRI (India, we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  13. Noise in raw data from magnetic observatories

    Khomutov, Sergey Y.; Mandrikova, Oksana V.; Budilova, Ekaterina A.; Arora, Kusumita; Manjula, Lingala


    In spite of significant progress in the development of new devices for magnetic measurements, mathematical and computational technologies for data processing and means of communication, the quality of magnetic data accessible through the data centres (for example, World Data Centres or INTERMAGNET) still largely depends on the actual conditions in which observation of the Earth's magnetic field is performed at observatories. Processing of raw data of magnetic measurements by observatory staff plays an important role. It includes effective identification of noise and elimination of its influence on final data. In this paper, on the basis of the experience gained during long-term magnetic monitoring carried out at the observatories of IKIR FEB RAS (Russia) and CSIR-NGRI (India), we present a review of methods commonly encountered in actual practice for noise identification and the possibility of reducing noise influence.

  14. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D


    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk.

  15. From Raw Data to Physics Results

    CERN. Geneva


    These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start by defining some simple physics variables of interest, then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The process of calibration and alignment is surveyed, with emphasis on getting "reasonable" results in the absence of formally complete information. Finally, the role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. Throughout, we emphasize how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve.

  16. From raw data to physics results

    CERN. Geneva


    This series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start by defining some simple physics variables of interest, then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in racking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The process of calibration and alignment is surveyed, with emphasis on getting "reasonable" results in the absence of formally complete information. Finally, the role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. Throughout, we emphasize how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve.

  17. From Raw Data to Physics Results course

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA


    It would be helpful for students to know: a) How measurements are made in physical detectors, for example how a tracking chamber "sees" a charged particle or how a calorimeter measures energy. b) That physics processes result in photons, leptons, etc., which we then want to detect and analyze. These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start with an example analysis to show the kinds of information needed. We then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. We discuss how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve. Th...


    L. V. Antipova


    Full Text Available Purposeful use of proteins of connecting fabrics is based first of all on structural and mechanical and physical and chemical properties of collagen, his physiology to a human body. Traditional source of collagen is the split of skins of the cattle, but in view of the objective reasons (spongy encephalopathy, reduction of a livestock of cattle, there was a need for search of alternative sources. The particular interest and popularity represent collagenic proteins in biomedical technologies, when receiving surgical sutural materials, wound healing means, prolongator of medicines, artificial organs and fabrics, implatant. New data on use the collagen containing of sources are directly connected with expansion of a source of raw materials of processing industries of agrarian and industrial complex on the basis of deep processing of biological resources and their maximum involvement in the main and special production with significant growth in an exit of useful products from raw materials unit. In this regard, researches of a microstructure of skins and fractional composition of proteins of objects of research are conducted; data on the general chemical composition and the content of collagen in them are received. Experimental data showed that the most perspective source of collagen from the studied fishes of internal reservoirs is the skin of a silver carp that is caused by the high content of target substance collagen, the low content of fat. The technology of receiving collagenic substances with the high technical characteristics allowing to apply them in production of medical materials is proved and realized in vitro. The comparative analysis showed that substances from a split of skins of cattle and a silver carp have an identical set of amino acids, but are characterized by the different content of separate amino acid s.

  19. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Jia Li


    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  20. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Liana Claudia Salanţă


    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  1. Disclosure Risk from Factor Scores

    Drechsler Jörg


    Full Text Available Remote access can be a powerful tool for providing data access for external researchers. Since the microdata never leave the secure environment of the data-providing agency, alterations of the microdata can be kept to a minimum. Nevertheless, remote access is not free from risk. Many statistical analyses that do not seem to provide disclosive information at first sight can be used by sophisticated intruders to reveal sensitive information. For this reason the list of allowed queries is usually restricted in a remote setting. However, it is not always easy to identify problematic queries. We therefore strongly support the argument that has been made by other authors: that all queries should be monitored carefully and that any microlevel information should always be withheld. As an illustrative example, we use factor score analysis, for which the output of interest - the factor loading of the variables - seems to be unproblematic. However, as we show in the article, the individual factor scores that are usually returned as part of the output can be used to reveal sensitive information. Our empirical evaluations based on a German establishment survey emphasize that this risk is far from a purely theoretical problem.

  2. Catalytic Pretreatment and Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Raw Materials

    Hakola, Maija


    There is nowadays a strong concern about decreasing oil supplies and global warming leading to ever increasing interest in biobased fuels and chemical production. The utilization of lignocellulosic raw materials for liquid biofuels and chemicals is a challenging task due to raw materials rigid structure which is resistant towards any actions to break it. Thus the raw materials should be pretreated to reach an economically vital process. Catalytic and alkaline oxidation presented here ar...

  3. Fingerprinting of music scores

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin


    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  4. Raw oysters can be a risk for infections

    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to count and identify sucrose positive and negative vibrios isolated from cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters during their growing cycle. Every month for 12 months, 10 to 18 oysters were collected for study. Collections occurred at the Center for Studies of Coastal Aquaculture (CSCA, which is associated with the Institute of Marine Science, Labomar, located in Euzebio, Ceará, Brazil. Approximately 150 oysters and their intervalvular liquor were studied. Vibrio Standard Plates Counts (SPC from oyster meat and their intervalvular liquor varied from 25 to 59,000,000 CFU/g. For most of the 12 months of the oysters' life, it was possible to identify Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Vibrio carchariae was identified in four collections. Among other isolated species, the most important, considering public health risks, was V. vulnificus, although only one strain was confirmed. We concluded that retail purchased oysters should never be eaten raw or undercooked because many species of the genus Vibrio are known to be pathogenic to humans and live naturally on and in shellfish throughout their life cycle.

  5. Raw oysters can be a risk for infections.

    Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Macrae, Andrew; Fonteles Filho, Antonio Adauto; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres


    The aims of this study were to count and identify sucrose positive and negative vibrios isolated from cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters during their growing cycle. Every month for 12 months, 10 to 18 oysters were collected for study. Collections occurred at the Center for Studies of Coastal Aquaculture (CSCA), which is associated with the Institute of Marine Science, Labomar, located in Euzebio, Ceará, Brazil. Approximately 150 oysters and their intervalvular liquor were studied. Vibrio Standard Plates Counts (SPC) from oyster meat and their intervalvular liquor varied from 25 to 59,000,000 CFU/g. For most of the 12 months of the oysters' life, it was possible to identify Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Vibrio carchariae was identified in four collections. Among other isolated species, the most important, considering public health risks, was V. vulnificus, although only one strain was confirmed. We concluded that retail purchased oysters should never be eaten raw or undercooked because many species of the genus Vibrio are known to be pathogenic to humans and live naturally on and in shellfish throughout their life cycle.

  6. [Scoring--criteria for operability].

    Oestern, H J


    For therapeutic recommendations three different kinds of scores are essential: 1. The severity scores for trauma; 2. Severity scores for mangled extremities; 3. Intensive care scores. The severity of polytrauma patients is measurable by the AIS, ISS, RTS, PTS and TRISS which is a combination of RTS, ISS, age, and mechanism of injury. For mangled extremities there are also different scores available: MESI (Mangled Extremity Syndrome Index) and MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score). The aim of these scores is to assist in the indication with regard to amputate or to save the extremity. These scoring indices can be used to evaluate the severity of a systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome with respect to multiple organ failure. All scores are dynamic values which are variable with improvement of therapy.

  7. Trends in the predictive performance of raw ensemble weather forecasts

    Hemri, Stephan; Scheuerer, Michael; Pappenberger, Florian; Bogner, Konrad; Haiden, Thomas


    Over the last two decades the paradigm in weather forecasting has shifted from being deterministic to probabilistic. Accordingly, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have been run increasingly as ensemble forecasting systems. The goal of such ensemble forecasts is to approximate the forecast probability distribution by a finite sample of scenarios. Global ensemble forecast systems, like the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble, are prone to probabilistic biases, and are therefore not reliable. They particularly tend to be underdispersive for surface weather parameters. Hence, statistical post-processing is required in order to obtain reliable and sharp forecasts. In this study we apply statistical post-processing to ensemble forecasts of near-surface temperature, 24-hour precipitation totals, and near-surface wind speed from the global ECMWF model. Our main objective is to evaluate the evolution of the difference in skill between the raw ensemble and the post-processed forecasts. The ECMWF ensemble is under continuous development, and hence its forecast skill improves over time. Parts of these improvements may be due to a reduction of probabilistic bias. Thus, we first hypothesize that the gain by post-processing decreases over time. Based on ECMWF forecasts from January 2002 to March 2014 and corresponding observations from globally distributed stations we generate post-processed forecasts by ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) for each station and variable. Parameter estimates are obtained by minimizing the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) over rolling training periods that consist of the n days preceding the initialization dates. Given the higher average skill in terms of CRPS of the post-processed forecasts for all three variables, we analyze the evolution of the difference in skill between raw ensemble and EMOS forecasts. The fact that the gap in skill remains almost constant over time, especially for near

  8. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal


    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  9. Usefulness of raw bagasse for oil absorption: a comparison of raw and acylated bagasse and their components.

    Said, Abd El-Aziz A; Ludwick, Adriane G; Aglan, Heshmat A


    Raw bagasse or sugar cane cellulosic residues were modified using acylation grafting with fatty acid. The capability of the grafted bagasse to absorb oil from aqueous solution was studied and compared with the raw bagasse. It was found that the grafted material was significantly more hydrophobic than the raw bagasse. This grafted bagasse had little affinity for water and good affinity for oil. It was also found that bleaching of raw bagasse did not enhance its oil absorptivity. The grafted raw bagasse would be most suitable for applications where oil is to be removed from an aqueous environment. For oil absorbing applications in the absence of water, the raw bagasse was an excellent material.

  10. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea


    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  11. Relationship of Apgar Scores and Bayley Mental and Motor Scores

    Serunian, Sally A.; Broman, Sarah H.


    Examined the relationship of newborns' 1-minute Apgar scores to their 8-month Bayley mental and motor scores and to 8-month classifications of their development as normal, suspect, or abnormal. Also investigated relationships between Apgar scores and race, longevity, and birth weight. (JMB)

  12. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Ghorab, H. Y.


    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  13. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.


    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  14. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Luis C. L. Correia


    Full Text Available Background: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow in relation to hospital death. Results: The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively, as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively. Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98, similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99 - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by χ2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92, well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed χ2 = 14 (p = 0.08. This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively, differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%, which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion: Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  15. Beyond the Test Scores.

    Thibodeau, Janice J.


    A diagnostic-prescriptive scheme is illustrated using subtests of the Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude. The scheme is intended to focus on the child's learning style by examining the task and the strategies employed. (CL)

  16. Rust scoring guide



    This brief guide for identifying rust diseases of smaill grain cereals contains color photos depicting the growth stages of small grain cereal crops and provides instructions for recording rust severity and field response for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust (P. graminis), and leaf rust

  17. Credit Scoring Modeling

    Siana Halim


    Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.

  18. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in raw meat

    Z Noori


    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram negative, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming and a small"ncurved bacillus which is able to cause foodborne infection in human. In this study the occurrence of C. jejuni in poultry and"nbeef meat was investigated."nMaterials & Methods: Forty raw meat samples including 22 poultry samples and 18 beef samples were investigated for the"npresence of C. jejuni. To isolate the bacterium, the samples were initially enriched in Preston Broth medium and subsequently"ntransferred to Campylobacter selective Agar containing defibrinated sheep blood and antibiotics. The biochemical tests were"nused for identification of isolated bacteria at species level."nResults: Three poultry samples were positive for C. jejuni."nConclusion: Alimentary tract of chickens contain high numbers of C. jejuni therefore, this bacterium can be easily found in"ntheir feces. It is recommended to use chlorinated water in birds’ feed and to perform slaughtering, skinning and evisceration"nunder aseptic conditions to prevent campylobacteriosis in human from poultry meat. None of the beef samples yielded any"nCampylobacter, this may be due to limited number of samples of beef meat analyzed in this study.

  19. A clinical prediction score for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis.

    Constans, Joel; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Sevestre-Pietri, Marie-Antoinette; Perusat, Sophie; Nguon, Monika; Degeilh, Maryse; Labarere, Jose; Gattolliat, Olivier; Boulon, Carine; Laroche, Jean-Pierre; Le Roux, Philippe; Pichot, Olivier; Quéré, Isabelle; Conri, Claude; Bosson, Jean-Luc


    It was the objective of this study to design a clinical prediction score for the diagnosis of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT). A score was built by multivariate logistic regression in a sample of patients hospitalized for suspicion of UEDVT (derivation sample). It was validated in a second sample in the same university hospital, then in a sample from the multicenter OPTIMEV study that included both outpatients and inpatients. In these three samples, UEDVT diagnosis was objectively confirmed by ultrasound. The derivation sample included 140 patients among whom 50 had confirmed UEDVT, the validation sample included 103 patients among whom 46 had UEDVT, and the OPTIMEV sample included 214 patients among whom 65 had UEDVT. The clinical score identified a combination of four items (venous material, localized pain, unilateral pitting edema and other diagnosis as plausible). One point was attributed to each item (positive for the first 3 and negative for the other diagnosis). A score of -1 or 0 characterized low probability patients, a score of 1 identified intermediate probability patients, and a score of 2 or 3 identified patients with high probability. Low probability score identified a prevalence of UEDVT of 12, 9 and 13%, respectively, in the derivation, validation and OPTIMEV samples. High probability score identified a prevalence of UEDVT of 70, 64 and 69% respectively. In conclusion we propose a simple score to calculate clinical probability of UEDVT. This score might be a useful test in clinical trials as well as in clinical practice.

  20. Exact score distribution computation for ontological similarity searches

    Schulz Marcel H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semantic similarity searches in ontologies are an important component of many bioinformatic algorithms, e.g., finding functionally related proteins with the Gene Ontology or phenotypically similar diseases with the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO. We have recently shown that the performance of semantic similarity searches can be improved by ranking results according to the probability of obtaining a given score at random rather than by the scores themselves. However, to date, there are no algorithms for computing the exact distribution of semantic similarity scores, which is necessary for computing the exact P-value of a given score. Results In this paper we consider the exact computation of score distributions for similarity searches in ontologies, and introduce a simple null hypothesis which can be used to compute a P-value for the statistical significance of similarity scores. We concentrate on measures based on Resnik's definition of ontological similarity. A new algorithm is proposed that collapses subgraphs of the ontology graph and thereby allows fast score distribution computation. The new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the naive approach, as we demonstrate by computing score distributions for similarity searches in the HPO. It is shown that exact P-value calculation improves clinical diagnosis using the HPO compared to approaches based on sampling. Conclusions The new algorithm enables for the first time exact P-value calculation via exact score distribution computation for ontology similarity searches. The approach is applicable to any ontology for which the annotation-propagation rule holds and can improve any bioinformatic method that makes only use of the raw similarity scores. The algorithm was implemented in Java, supports any ontology in OBO format, and is available for non-commercial and academic usage under:

  1. Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese

    Miyata, Susanne; MacWhinney, Brian; Otomo, Kiyoshi; Sirai, Hidetosi; Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Hirakawa, Makiko; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Sugiura, Masatoshi; Itoh, Keiko


    This article reports on the development and use of the Developmental Sentence Scoring for Japanese (DSSJ), a new morpho-syntactical measure for Japanese constructed after the model of Lee's English Developmental Sentence Scoring model. Using this measure, the authors calculated DSSJ scores for 84 children divided into six age groups between 2;8…

  2. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    McCluskey, Neal


    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  3. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    Moriarty, Sandra E.


    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  4. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.


    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  5. Development and Capacity Forecast of China Rubber Raw Materials


    The "1 lth Five-Year Plan" period is the most glorious period in the history of China raw materials such as NR and SR. During the "12th Five-Year Plan" period, the rubber raw materials will enter an important period of great development in technology, product and output.

  6. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

    DANIEL, Radovan


    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  7. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Liana Claudia Salanţă; Maria Tofană; Sonia Socaci; Cristina Barta; Carmen Pop


    ...; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products...

  8. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.


    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  9. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)


    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited outc

  10. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)


    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited

  11. Photoelectric Measurement of the Fineness of Raw Silk

    Wan-chun FEI


    In order to precisely measure the diameters for obtaining the fineness of rolling raw silk, the physical features of raw silk are analyzed. By means of Fresnel principle, diffractions caused by different transparent raw silk filaments are analyzed and simulated. Image data of raw silk filament measured by digital CMOS camera are analyzed and processed for obtaining the precise diameters of the filament with the relative error of less than 1%. On the assumption of appropriate elliptic cross-section of the filament, the cross-section area is calculated as the fineness of the filament. Measurement experiments are carried out. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for photoelectric measuring the fineness of raw silk.

  12. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  13. Pharmacophore-based similarity scoring for DOCK.

    Jiang, Lingling; Rizzo, Robert C


    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein-ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK.

  14. Tapering Practices of New Zealand's Elite Raw Powerlifters.

    Pritchard, Hayden J; Tod, David A; Barnes, Matthew J; Keogh, Justin W; McGuigan, Michael R


    Pritchard, HJ, Tod, DA, Barnes, MJ, Keogh, JW, and McGuigan, MR. Tapering practices of New Zealand's elite raw powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1796-1804, 2016-The major aim of this study was to determine tapering strategies of elite powerlifters. Eleven New Zealand powerlifters (28.4 ± 7.0 years, best Wilks score of 431.9 ± 43.9 points) classified as elite were interviewed, using semistructured interviews, about their tapering strategies. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed. Total training volume peaked 5.2 ± 1.7 weeks from competition while average training intensity (of 1 repetition maximum) peaked 1.9 ± 0.8 weeks from competition. During tapering, volume was reduced by 58.9 ± 8.4% while intensity was maintained (or slightly reduced) and the final weight training session was performed 3.7 ± 1.6 days out from competition. Participants generally stated that tapering was performed to achieve full recovery; that accessory work was removed around 2 weeks out from competition; and deadlifting takes longer to recover from than other lifts. Typically participants stated that trial and error, and changes based on "feel" were the sources of tapering strategies; equipment used and movements performed during tapering are the same as in competition; nutrition was manipulated during the taper (for weight cutting or performance aims); and poor tapering occurred when too long (1 week or more) was taken off training. These results suggest that athletes may benefit from continuing to strength train before important events with reduced volume and maintained intensity. Only exercises that directly assist sports performance should remain in the strength program during tapering, to assist with reductions in fatigue while maintaining/improving strength expression and performance.

  15. Molecular approaches to analysing the microbial composition of raw milk and raw milk cheese.

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D


    The availability and application of culture-independent tools that enable a detailed investigation of the microbiota and microbial biodiversity of food systems has had a major impact on food microbiology. This review focuses on the application of DNA-based technologies, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE), single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and others, to investigate the diversity, dynamics and identity of microbes in dairy products from raw milk. Here, we will highlight the benefits associated with culture-independent methods which include enhanced sensitivity, rapidity and the detection of microorganisms not previously associated with such products.

  16. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R


    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation.

  17. Scientific and technical factors affecting the setting of Salmonella criteria for raw poultry: a global perspective.

    Mead, Geoffrey; Lammerding, Anna M; Cox, Nelson; Doyle, Michael P; Humbert, Florence; Kulikovskiy, Alexander; Panin, Alexander; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro; Wierup, Martin


    Concerns about foodborne salmonellosis have led many countries to introduce microbiological criteria for certain food products. If such criteria are not well-grounded in science, they could be an unjustified obstacle to trade. Raw poultry products are an important part of the global food market. Import and export ambiguities and regulatory confusion resulting from different Salmonella requirements were the impetus for convening an international group of scientific experts from 16 countries to discuss the scientific and technical issues that affect the setting of a microbiological criterion for Salmonella contamination of raw chicken. A particular concern for the group was the use of criteria implying a zero tolerance for Salmonella and suggesting complete absence of the pathogen. The notion can be interpreted differently by various stakeholders and was considered inappropriate because there is neither an effective means of eliminating Salmonella from raw poultry nor any practical method for verifying its absence. Therefore, it may be more useful at present to set food safety metrics that involve reductions in hazard levels. Such terms as "zero tolerance" or "absence of a microbe" in relation to raw poultry should be avoided unless defined and explained by international agreement. Risk assessment provides a more meaningful approach than a zero tolerance philosophy, and new metrics, such as performance objectives that are linked to human health outcomes, should be utilized throughout the food chain to help define risk and identify ways to reduce adverse effects on public health.

  18. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw milk in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Pantea Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoeal diseases are great problem throughout the world and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a major cause of gastroenteritis that may be complicated by hemorrhagic colitis (HC or the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, which is the main cause of acute renal failure in children. Food-borne outbreaks associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been well documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains in raw milk samples.Raw milk samples collected from various cow farms in Kermanshah, Iran during June - September 2009 were investigated for STEC using PCR targeting stx1 and stx2 and then eaeA.Of 206 samples, 36 (17.47% were contaminated with STEC. STEC isolates harbored 56.41% and 43.59% stx 2 and stx 1 gene respectively. In antibiotic resistance test, all strains were sensitive to ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. 23.08% of isolates were resistat to tetracycline, and 38.5% of them showed intermediate sensitvity to cephalothin.The high presence of STEC in raw milk confirms the important role of raw milk as putative vehicle of infection to human. Moreover, this study suggests that the development of antibiotic resistant STEC must be a major concern in Iran and more studies are needed to identify the prevalence of STEC in other food samples.

  19. Identifying Activity

    Lewis, Adrian S


    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  20. Short communication: Variation in the composition and properties of Swedish raw milk for ultra-high temperature processing.

    Karlsson, Maria A; Langton, Maud; Innings, Fredrik; Wikström, Malin; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö


    The composition and properties of raw milk are of great importance for the quality and shelf life of the final dairy product, especially in products with a long shelf life [e.g., ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk]. The objective of this study was to investigate the compositional variation in raw milk samples before processing at the dairy plant. Moreover, we wanted to investigate the effect of the UHT process on this variation (i.e., if the same variation could be observed in the corresponding UHT milk). The quality traits analyzed included detailed milk composition, counts of total and psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic activity, and color, as well as predictive measures of stability (i.e., ethanol stability and heat coagulating time). Samples of raw milk and the corresponding produced UHT milk were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis during 1 yr. Principal component analysis was used to identify months showing similarities and differences with respect to total variation. In contrast to previous studies, we observed only small variations between months and no clear effect of season for the raw milk. For the UHT milk, July and the winter months (December, January, and February) tended to separate from the other months. Quality traits showing significant variation were only to some extent identical in raw milk and UHT-processed milk. A better understanding of the natural variation in raw milk quality will provide opportunities to improve the shelf life of UHT-treated milk products.

  1. Quality assessment of raw and processed Arctium lappa L. through multicomponent quantification, chromatographic fingerprint, and related chemometric analysis.

    Qin, Kunming; Wang, Bin; Li, Weidong; Cai, Hao; Chen, Danni; Liu, Xiao; Yin, Fangzhou; Cai, Baochang


    In traditional Chinese medicine, raw and processed herbs are used to treat different diseases. Suitable quality assessment methods are crucial for the discrimination between raw and processed herbs. The dried fruit of Arctium lappa L. and their processed products are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, yet their therapeutic effects are different. In this study, a novel strategy using high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection coupled with multivariate statistical analysis to rapidly explore raw and processed Arctium lappa L. was proposed and validated. Four main components in a total of 30 batches of raw and processed Fructus Arctii samples were analyzed, and ten characteristic peaks were identified in the fingerprint common pattern. Furthermore, similarity evaluation, principal component analysis, and hierachical cluster analysis were applied to demonstrate the distinction. The results suggested that the relative amounts of the chemical components of raw and processed Fructus Arctii samples are different. This new method has been successfully applied to detect the raw and processed Fructus Arctii in marketed herbal medicinal products.

  2. Validity of the J-CTO Score and the CL-Score for predicting successful CTO recanalization.

    Guelker, J E; Bansemir, L; Ott, R; Rock, T; Kroeger, K; Guelker, R; Klues, H G; Shin, D I; Bufe, A


    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of total chronic coronary occlusion (CTO) still remains a major challenge in interventional cardiology. To predict the probability of a successful intervention different scoring systems are available. We analyzed in this study the validity of two scoring systems, the Japanese CTO score (J-CTO score) and the newly developed Clinical and Lesion-related score (CL Score). Between 2012 and 2015 we included 379 consecutive patients. They underwent PCI for at least one CTO. Antegrade and retrograde CTO techniques were applied. The retrograde approach was used only after failed antegrade intervention. Patients undergoing CTO PCI were mainly men (84%). The overall procedural success rate was 84% (±0.4). The mean J-CTO score was 2.9 (±1.3) and the mean CL score was 4.3 (±1.7). The CL score predicted more precisely the interventional results than the J-CTO score. Our study suggests that the previously presented CL score is superior to the J-CTO score in identifying CTO lesions with a likelihood for successful recanalization. Generally it appears to be a helpful tool for selecting patients and identifying the appropriate operator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Purevsuren B


    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  4. Fine detrending of raw Kepler and MOST photometric data of KIC 6950556 and HD 37633

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Paunzen, Ernst; Zejda, Miloslav; Semenko, Evgenij; Bernhard, Klaus; Hümmerich, Stefan; Zhang, Jia; Hubrig, Swetlana; Kuschnig, Rainer; Janík, Jan; Jagelka, Miroslav


    We present a simple phenomenological method for detrending of raw Kepler and MOST photometry, which is illustrated by means of photometric data processing of two periodically variable chemically peculiar stars, KIC 6950556 and HD 37633. In principle, this method may be applied to any type of periodically variable objects and satellite or ground based photometries. As a by product, we have identified KIC 6950556 as a magnetic chemically peculiar star with an ACV type variability.

  5. Fine detrending of raw Kepler and MOST photometric data of KIC 6950556 and HD 37633

    Mikulasek, Zdenek; Zejda, Miloslav; Semenko, Evgenij; Bernhard, Klaus; Hummerich, Stefan; Zhang, Jia; Hubrig, Swetlana; Kuschnig, Rainer; Janik, Jan; Jagelka, Miroslav


    We present a simple phenomenological method for detrending of raw Kepler and MOST photometry, which is illustrated by means of photometric data processing of two periodically variable chemically peculiar stars, KIC 6950556 and HD 37633. In principle, this method may be applied to any type of periodically variable objects and satellite or ground based photometries. As a by product, we have identified KIC 6950556 as a magnetic chemically peculiar star with an ACV type variability.

  6. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Moh Hasan Machfoed


    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  7. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  8. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter


    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  9. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  10. Use of basaltic waste as red ceramic raw material

    T. M. Mendes

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays, environmental codes restrict the emission of particulate matters, which result in these residues being collected by plant filters. This basaltic waste came from construction aggregate plants located in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (State of Paraná, Brazil. Initially, the basaltic waste was submitted to sieving (< 75 μm and the powder obtained was characterized in terms of density and particle size distribution. The plasticity of ceramic mass containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of basaltic waste was measured by Atterberg method. The chemical composition of ceramic formulations containing 0% and 20% of basaltic waste was determined by X-ray fluorescence. The prismatic samples were molded by extrusion and fired at 850 °C. The specimens were also tested to determine density, water absorption, drying and firing shrinkages, flexural strength, and Young's modulus. Microstructure evaluation was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Basaltic powder has similar physical and chemical characteristics when compared to other raw materials, and contributes to ceramic processing by reducing drying and firing shrinkage. Mechanical performance of mixtures containing basaltic powder is equivalent to mixtures without waste. Microstructural aspects such as pore size distribution were modified by basaltic powder; albite phase related to basaltic powder was identified by X-ray diffraction.

  11. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli


    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  12. Confidence scores for prediction models

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; van de Wiel, MA


    modelling strategy is applied to different training sets. For each modelling strategy we estimate a confidence score based on the same repeated bootstraps. A new decomposition of the expected Brier score is obtained, as well as the estimates of population average confidence scores. The latter can be used...... to distinguish rival prediction models with similar prediction performances. Furthermore, on the subject level a confidence score may provide useful supplementary information for new patients who want to base a medical decision on predicted risk. The ideas are illustrated and discussed using data from cancer...

  13. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy


    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality.

  14. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin


    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  15. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...



    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  16. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data from Satellite

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit format due to...

  17. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas A&M University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear...

  18. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    Semak Bohdan B


    The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.


    ... a chemical-balance calculation to determine work from brake-specific fuel consumption and fuel... involve a laminar flow element or a thermal-mass meter. Note that your overall system for measuring raw...

  20. Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared ...

    Microbiological quality of raw and processed farm reared periwinkles from brackish water earthen pond Buguma, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ...

  1. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Zhifen Wang


    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  2. Sustainable sourcing of strategic raw materials by integrating recycled materials

    Rogetzer, Patricia; Silbermayr, Lena; Jammernegg, Werner


    In this paper we investigate a manufacturer's sustainable sourcing strategy that includes recycled materials. To produce a short life-cycle electronic good, strategic raw materials can be bought from virgin material suppliers in advance of the season and via emergency shipments, as well as from a recycler. Hence, we take into account virgin and recycled materials from different sources simultaneously. Recycling makes it possible to integrate raw materials out of steadily increa...

  3. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    Liang Yang; Weidong Yu; Shichao Zheng; Lei Zhang


    Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first t...

  4. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Pernar, E.; Dosen-Sver, D.; Bujevic, I.


    Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline,...

  5. Design of Digital Control System for Cement Raw Material Preparation

    ZHOU Ying; LI Hongsheng


    This paper describes the design of cement raw material prepared digital control system by PROFIBUS. It uses the digital technology to implement the digital control system for raw material prepared of the cement factory. This system improves the communication between the industrial system and locale instrument devices. It applies digital communication to replace the 4-20 mA or 24VDC signal between locale lever device and controller.


    O. E. Khodyreva


    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  7. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    Akkermans, W.


    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is c

  8. Classification of current scoring functions.

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao


    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  9. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    McCurry, Doug


    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  10. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    Krashen, Stephen


    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227,…

  11. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    Wansbeek, T


    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  12. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.


    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  13. Scoring dynamics across professional team sports: tempo, balance and predictability

    Merritt, Sears


    Despite growing interest in quantifying and modeling the scoring dynamics within professional sports games, relative little is known about what patterns or principles, if any, cut across different sports. Using a comprehensive data set of scoring events in nearly a dozen consecutive seasons of college and professional (American) football, professional hockey, and professional basketball, we identify several common patterns in scoring dynamics. Across these sports, scoring tempo---when scoring events occur---closely follows a common Poisson process, with a sport-specific rate. Similarly, scoring balance---how often a team wins an event---follows a common Bernoulli process, with a parameter that effectively varies with the size of the lead. Combining these processes within a generative model of gameplay, we find they both reproduce the observed dynamics in all four sports and accurately predict game outcomes. These results demonstrate common dynamical patterns underlying within-game scoring dynamics across prof...

  14. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence


    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient sliding spotlight SAR raw signal simulation of extended scenes

    Huang Pingping


    Full Text Available Abstract Sliding spotlight mode is a novel synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging scheme with an achieved azimuth resolution better than stripmap mode and ground coverage larger than spotlight configuration. However, its raw signal simulation of extended scenes may not be efficiently implemented in the two-dimensional (2D Fourier transformed domain. This article presents a novel sliding spotlight raw signal simulation approach from the wide-beam SAR imaging modes. This approach can generate sliding spotlight raw signal not only from raw data evaluated by the simulators, but also from real data in the stripmap/spotlight mode. In order to obtain the desired raw data from conventional stripmap/spotlight mode, the azimuth time-varying filtering, which is implemented by de-rotation and low-pass filtering, is adopted. As raw signal of extended scenes in the stripmap/spotlight mode can efficiently be evaluated in the 2D Fourier domain, the proposed approach provides an efficient sliding spotlight SAR simulator of extended scenes. Simulation results validate this efficient simulator.

  16. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part I


    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  17. 弹性成像评分联合超声造影鉴别桥本甲状腺炎背景下结节良恶性临床价值的研究%Clinical value of elastography scores combining with contrast-enhanced ultrasound in identifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules co-existed with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis

    于风霞; 王建红; 王彦华; 李萍; 牛晓燕; 王宏桥


    分析160个桥本甲状腺炎背景下结节的弹性成像及超声造影特点。良、恶性结节的弹性成像评分及造影模式差异有统计学意义。弹性成像联合超声造影能较好地鉴别诊断桥本甲状腺炎背景下结节的良恶性。%[Summary] Elastographic and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic features were reviewed in 160 thyroid nodules co-existed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Significant differences in the elastography scores and enhancement pattern were found between malignant and benign thyroid nodules. For the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules co-existed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the combined scores of elastography scores and contrast-enhanced ultrasound features may offer greater values.

  18. Brucellosis outbreak due to unpasteurized raw goat cheese in Andalucia (Spain), January - March 2002.

    Méndez Martínez, C; Páez Jiménez, A; Cortés-Blanco, M; Salmoral Chamizo, E; Mohedano Mohedano, E; Plata, C; Varo Baena, A; Martíinez Navarro, F


    Eleven brucellosis cases were identified in three municipalities of Cordoba (Andalucia, Spain). A case-control study was conducted, selecting three cases per control. Persons having eaten unpasteurized raw goat cheese produced in a farmhouse located in the epidemic territory, were at higher risk for presenting brucellosis (OR=21.6, IC95%=1.6-639.8). Brucella melitensis serovar 3 was identified in clinical specimens and in goat tissue and milk samples from the herd's farmhouse. Preventive measures were implemented and the outbreak was stopped after the withdrawal of all suspicious cheeses from the market, additional sanitation of the farmhouse and health promotion activities.

  19. The use of foresight methods in strategic raw materials intelligence - an international review

    Konrat Martins, Marco Antonio; Bodo, Balazs; Falck, Eberhard


    Foresight methods are systematic attempts to look into the longer term future of science, society, economy and technology. There is a range of tools and techniques that can be used individually or combined, most commonly classified into qualitative, quantitative or semi-quantitative methods, that follow an exploratory or normative approach. These tools can help to identify the longer term visions, orienting policy formulation and decisions, triggering actions, among other objectives. There is an identified lack of European strategic foresight knowledge in the raw materials domain. Since the European Raw Materials Initiative was launched in 2008, the EU has been attempting to overcome challenges related to the future access of non-energy and non-agricultural raw materials. In this context, the ongoing H2020 project, MICA (Mineral Intelligence Capacity Analysis, Grant Agreement No. 689648), has been launched to answer to stakeholders needs by consolidating relevant data, determining relevant methods and tools, and investigating Raw Materials Intelligence options for European mineral policy development, all tailored to fit under the umbrella of a European Raw Materials Intelligence Capacity Platform (EU-RMICP). As part of the MICA activities, an assessment of best practices and benchmarks of international raw materials foresight case studies has been carried out in order to review how EU and non-EU countries have employed foresight. A pool of 30 case studies has been collected and reviewed internationally, one third of which were selected for detailed assessment. These were classified according to their background and goals, in function of methods employed, and to the purpose of each method in the study: a total of 12 different methods were identified in these studies. For longer time frames, qualitative predictive methods such as Scenario Development have been repeatedly observed for mineral raw materials foresight studies. Substantial variations were observed in

  20. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Kobayashi, Takao


    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  1. What Is the Apgar Score?

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... 2 being the best score: A ppearance (skin color) P ulse (heart rate) G rimace response (reflexes) ...

  2. Multi-GNSS precise point positioning (MGPPP) using raw observations

    Liu, Teng; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Baocheng; Wang, Ningbo; Tan, Bingfeng; Chen, Yongchang


    A joint-processing model for multi-GNSS (GPS, GLONASS, BDS and GALILEO) precise point positioning (PPP) is proposed, in which raw code and phase observations are used. In the proposed model, inter-system biases (ISBs) and GLONASS code inter-frequency biases (IFBs) are carefully considered, among which GLONASS code IFBs are modeled as a linear function of frequency numbers. To get the full rank function model, the unknowns are re-parameterized and the estimable slant ionospheric delays and ISBs/IFBs are derived and estimated simultaneously. One month of data in April, 2015 from 32 stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) tracking network have been used to validate the proposed model. Preliminary results show that RMS values of the positioning errors (with respect to external double-difference solutions) for static/kinematic solutions (four systems) are 6.2 mm/2.1 cm (north), 6.0 mm/2.2 cm (east) and 9.3 mm/4.9 cm (up). One-day stabilities of the estimated ISBs described by STD values are 0.36 and 0.38 ns, for GLONASS and BDS, respectively. Significant ISB jumps are identified between adjacent days for all stations, which are caused by the different satellite clock datums in different days and for different systems. Unlike ISBs, the estimated GLONASS code IFBs are quite stable for all stations, with an average STD of 0.04 ns over a month. Single-difference experiment of short baseline shows that PPP ionospheric delays are more precise than traditional leveling ionospheric delays.

  3. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)


    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  4. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score


    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  5. Textile Raw Material Quality and Ecological Security Management

    Semak Bohdan B.


    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the role of management and marketing in formation and assessment of quality and ecological security of the domestic textile raw material and use of the obtained information for the needs of development of this raw material market and products manufactured on its basis. It was established in the result of the conducted study that the process of marketing management should be built on the basis of a deep study of needs of textile raw material and manufactured on its basis products consumers and is a key factor of successful development of the market of ecological textile in Ukraine. The article shows the role and justifies a necessity of introduction of ecological standardisation as a necessary prerequisite of formation of the system of textile raw material quality and ecological security management for manufacturing ecological textile. Further studies should be carried out in spheres of development of systems of control over the textile raw material quality and ecological security level for ensuring its correspondence with domestic and international regulatory documents.

  6. Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in Raw Cow Milk in Tuscany

    D’Alonzo, Alessia; Senese, Matteo; Fabbri, Ilaria; Cirri, Cristina; Milioni, Carla; Valenza, Valeria; Tolli, Rita; Campeis, Francesca; Fischetti, Roberto


    Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9%) were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed. PMID:27800320

  7. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Jovanović, S.


    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.


    Juraj Čuboň


    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  9. Identification and correction of previously unreported spatial phenomena using raw Illumina BeadArray data

    Tavaré Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key stage for all microarray analyses is the extraction of feature-intensities from an image. If this step goes wrong, then subsequent preprocessing and processing stages will stand little chance of rectifying the matter. Illumina employ random construction of their BeadArrays, making feature-intensity extraction even more important for the Illumina platform than for other technologies. In this paper we show that using raw Illumina data it is possible to identify, control, and perhaps correct for a range of spatial-related phenomena that affect feature-intensity extraction. Results We note that feature intensities can be unnaturally high when in the proximity of a number of phenomena relating either to the images themselves or to the layout of the beads on an array. Additionally we note that beads neighbour beads of the same type more often than one might expect, which may cause concern in some models of hybridization. We highlight issues in the identification of a bead's location, and in particular how this both affects and is affected by its intensity. Finally we show that beads can be wrongly identified in the image on either a local or array-wide scale, with obvious implications for data quality. Conclusions The image processing issues identified will often pass unnoticed by an analysis of the standard data returned from an experiment. We detail some simple diagnostics that can be implemented to identify problems of this nature, and outline approaches to correcting for such problems. These approaches require access to the raw data from the arrays, not just the summarized data usually returned, making the acquisition of such raw data highly desirable.

  10. Characterization of Raw and Decopperized Anode Slimes from a Chilean Refinery

    Melo Aguilera, Evelyn; Hernández Vera, María Cecilia; Viñals, Joan; Graber Seguel, Teófilo


    This work characterizes raw and decopperized slimes, with the objective of identifying the phases in these two sub-products. The main phases in copper anodes are metallic copper, including CuO, which are present in free form or associated with the presence of copper selenide or tellurides (Cu2(Se,Te)) and several Cu-Pb-Sb-As-Bi oxides. During electrorefining, the impurities in the anode release and are not deposited in the cathode, part of them dissolving and concentrated in the electrolyte, and others form a raw anode slime that contains Au, Ag, Cu, As, Se, Te and PGM, depending on the composition of the anode. There are several recovery processes, most of which involve acid leaching in the first step to dissolve copper, whose product is decopperized anode slime. SEM analysis revealed that the mineralogical species present in the raw anode slime under study were mainly eucarite (CuAgSe), naumannite (Ag2Se), antimony arsenate (SbAsO4), and lead sulfate (PbSO4). In the case of decopperized slime, the particles were mainly composed of SbAsO4 (crystalline appearance), non-stoichiometric silver selenide (Ag(2- x)Se), and chlorargyrite (AgCl).

  11. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos


    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  12. TRII: A Probabilistic Scoring of Drosophila melanogaster Translation Initiation Sites

    Rice Michael D


    Full Text Available Relative individual information is a measurement that scores the quality of DNA- and RNA-binding sites for biological machines. The development of analytical approaches to increase the power of this scoring method will improve its utility in evaluating the functions of motifs. In this study, the scoring method was applied to potential translation initiation sites in Drosophila to compute Translation Relative Individual Information (TRII scores. The weight matrix at the core of the scoring method was optimized based on high-confidence translation initiation sites identified by using a progressive partitioning approach. Comparing the distributions of TRII scores for sites of interest with those for high-confidence translation initiation sites and random sequences provides a new methodology for assessing the quality of translation initiation sites. The optimized weight matrices can also be used to describe the consensus at translation initiation sites, providing a quantitative measure of preferred and avoided nucleotides at each position.

  13. Wastewater Treatment After Improved Scourings of Raw Wool

    Pernar, E.


    Full Text Available Textile industry processes need high amounts of water for wet treatment of textiles. Therefore, high amounts of wastewater also appear containing different inorganic and organic substances depending on the used materials and processes. Raw wool is contaminated with wool wax, suint, skin flakes, dirt, sand, vegetable matter, urine and various microorganisms. The methods for raw wool scouring and cleaning today often in use are: scouring in the suint, scouring with soaps or tenside in alkaline, extraction by organic solvents and freezing. The different methods for wastewater purification after scouring in use are: settling/floculation, biological treatment, adsorptionand catalytic oxidation. In this work, wastewater treatments after improved raw wool scouring with enzymes and EDTA have been investigated. Isothermal adsorption on zeolite A, active carbon and a natural and H+ type of bentonite for removal of the obtained wastewater impurities was used. The results were determined by means of different physical-chemical test methods.

  14. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey


    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  16. Scan patterns and accuracy of a Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS)

    Song, Shuxian; Beh, Beng; Moore, Richard K.


    The Radar Wind Sensor (RAWS) was proposed as a complement to laser wind sensors, allowing coverage in cloudy regions excluded from laser coverage. Previous University of Kansas studies showed the feasibility of the wind measurement at various levels in the atmosphere and indicated that RAWS can also measure rain rates and ocean-surface winds. Here we discuss measurement of the wind vector in terms of the scan patterns for a conically scanned antenna. By using many measurements from cells about 66 km square and 132 km square, a least-squares algorithm gives results that are reasonable for insertion into global atmospheric models. For RAWS to be used successfully as a complement to a laser wind sensor, the design of the two sensors should be integrated and radial velocity measurements in a given atmospheric cell should be combined to get the most accurate results.

  17. 2011 China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium Held in Zhengzhou


    @@ On April 20-22,2011,China's Refractories Raw Materials Symposium,co-sponsored by Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and China Henan Refractory Industry Association,was held successfully in Zhengzhou,Henan Province.Over 150 delegates from 100 refractory raw materials and products enterprises,testing equipment manufacturers,raw materials trade companies,institutes,universities,testing institutions,and industrial organizations attended the symposium.Wang Shouye,secretary-general of Refractories Branch of The Chinese Society for Metals and vice president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.,made the address of welcome.Zhang Yazhong,vice chairman of Henan Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and honorary chairman of China Henan Refractory Industry Association,gave a speech.

  18. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M


    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  19. Water reservoir as resource of raw material for ceramic industry

    Irie, M.; Tarhouni, J.


    The industries related to the ceramics such as construction bricks, pottery and tile are the important sectors that cover the large part of the working population in Tunisia. The raw materials, clay or silt are excavated from opencast site of limestone clay stratum. The opencast site give the negative impact on landscape and environment, risks of landslide, soil erosion etc. On the other hand, a most serious problem in water resource management, especially in arid land such as Tunisia, is sedimentation in reservoirs. Sediment accumulation in the reservoirs reduces the water storage capacity. The authors proposed the exploitation of the sediment as raw material for the ceramics industries in the previous studies because the sediment in Tunisia is fine silt. In this study, the potential of the water reservoirs in Tunisia as the resource of the raw material for the ceramics industries is estimated from the sedimentation ratio in the water reservoirs.

  20. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul


    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein.


    Natalia Dąbkowska


    Full Text Available Industrial laundries are one of the largest consumers of water, which is associated with significant generation of laundry wastewater. Water is one of the most important technological factors in the laundry industry. The amount of laundry wastewater generated is the result of the quantity of textile laundered and is roughly equal to the amount of technological water used to reduce the losses caused by evaporation. The quality of raw laundry wastewater depends on the quantity of impurities removed during the textile washing process and on the amount and quality of detergents added to the washing bath. The aim of the research was to conduct a determination analysis of raw laundry wastewater from industrial laundry located in Nowe Czarnowo. The subject of the study was raw laundry wastewater cleaned mechanically from a 500 ml autosampler tank to obtain a representative test sample. Raw wastewater quality designations were made using photometric methods Hach Lange's cuvette tests. The following determinations were made: anionic detergents, nonionic detergents, COD, BOD5, chlorides, total phosphate, total nitrogen and total organic carbon. The pH was also determined. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that industrial laundry wastewater contains organic compounds at the level of 126 to 153 mg/dm3. In addition, the analyzed raw wastewater is characterized by the presence of surfactants such as anionic and nonionic detergents ranging from 11.0 to 54.6 mg/dm3. The increased content of surfactants is closely related to the specific characteristics of industrial laundries. According to the literature, the values of individual indicators of raw laundry wastewater do not deviate from the values found in other types of industrial laundry.

  2. Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use

    Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova


    Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and

  3. Recent advances in microbial raw starch degrading enzymes.

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhao, Pingjuan; Ge, Xiangyang; Xia, Yongjun; Hao, Zhikui; Liu, Jianwen; Peng, Ming


    Raw starch degrading enzymes (RSDE) refer to enzymes that can directly degrade raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. These promising enzymes can significantly reduce energy and simplify the process in starch industry. RSDE are ubiquitous and produced by plants, animals, and microorganisms. However, microbial sources are the most preferred one for large-scale production. During the past few decades, RSDE have been studied extensively. This paper reviews the recent development in the production, purification, properties, and application of microbial RSDE. This is the first review on microbial RSDE to date.

  4. Dawn Vesta Raw Gravity Science V1.0

    Buccino, D. R.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Asmar, S. W.


    This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Dawn mission while the spacecraft was in orbit around the asteroid Vesta. The radio observations were carried out using the Dawn spacecraft and Earth-based receiving stations of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The data set was designed primarily to support generation of high-resolution gravity field models for Vesta. Of most interest are likely to be the Orbit Data Files in the ODF directory, which provided the raw input to gravity investigations, as well as the ionospheric and tropospheric media calibration files in the ION and TRO directories, respectively.

  5. Shape Detection from Raw LiDAR Data with Subspace Modeling.

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Kevin Kai


    LiDAR scanning has become a prevalent technique for digitalizing large-scale outdoor scenes. However, the raw LiDAR data often contain imperfections, e.g., missing large regions, anisotropy of sampling density, and contamination of noise and outliers, which are the major obstacles that hinder its more ambitious and higher level applications in digital city modeling. Observing that 3D urban scenes can be locally described with several low dimensional subspaces, we propose to locally classify the neighborhoods of the scans to model the substructures of the scenes. The key enabler is the adaptive kernel-scale scoring, filtering and clustering of substructures, making it possible to recover the local structures at all points simultaneously, even in the presence of severe data imperfections. Integrating the local analyses leads to robust shape detection from raw LiDAR data. On this basis, we develop several urban scene applications and verify them on a number of LiDAR scans with various complexities and styles, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods.

  6. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score: A Pilot Study.

    Jurdi, Shadi R; Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D


    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  7. Diversity of thermophilic bacteria in raw, pasteurized and selectively-cultured milk, as assessed by culturing, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing.

    Delgado, Susana; Rachid, Caio T C C; Fernández, Elena; Rychlik, Tomasz; Alegría, Angel; Peixoto, Raquel S; Mayo, Baltasar


    Thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus helveticus, enjoy worldwide economic importance as dairy starters. To assess the diversity of thermophilic bacteria in milk, milk samples were enriched in thermophilic organisms through a stepwise procedure which included pasteurization of milk at 63 °C for 30 min (PM samples) and pasteurization followed by incubation at 42 °C for 24 h (IPM samples). The microbial composition of these samples was analyzed by culture-dependent (at 42 °C) and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons) microbial techniques. The results were then compared to those obtained for their corresponding starting raw milk counterparts (RM samples). Twenty different species were scored by culturing among 352 isolates purified from the counting plates and identified by molecular methods. Mesophilic LAB species (Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae) were dominant (87% of the isolates) among the RM samples. However, S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii were found to be the dominant recoverable organisms in both PM and IPM samples. The DGGE profiles of RM and PM samples were found to be very similar; the most prominent bands belonging to Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus species. In contrast, just three DGGE bands were obtained for IPM samples, two of which were assigned to S. thermophilus. The pyrosequencing results scored 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% sequence divergence in an RM sample, while only 13 were encountered in two IPM samples. This technique identified Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant microorganism in the RM sample, while S. thermophilus constituted more than 98% of the reads in the IPM samples. The procedure followed in this study allowed to estimate the bacterial diversity in milk and afford a suitable strategy for the isolation of new thermophilic LAB strains, among which adequate

  8. Occurrence of an Affinity Site apart from the Active Site on the Raw-Starch-Digesting but Non-Raw-Starch-Adsorbable Bacillus subtilis 65 α-Amylase

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji; Inoue, Takehiro; MITSUIKI, Shinji


    α-Cyclodextrin specifically inhibited raw starch digestion by Bacillus subtilis 65 α-amylase. The raw starch digestibility and α-cyclodextrin-Sepharose 6B adsorbability of this α-amylase were simultaneously lost when the specific domain corresponding to the affinity site essential for raw starch digestion was deleted by proteolysis. Occurrence of the affinity site on raw-starch-digesting enzymes was proven also with bacterial amylase.

  9. The Utility of Scoring Systems in Predicting Early and Late Mortality in Alcoholic Hepatitis: Whose Score Is It Anyway?

    Naaventhan Palaniyappan


    Full Text Available Background. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH is a distinct clinical entity in the spectrum of alcoholic liver disease with a high short-term mortality. Several scoring systems are being used to assess the severity of AH but the ability of these scores to predict long-term survival in these patients is largely unknown. Aims. We aim to assess the utility of five different scoring systems Child Pugh (CP, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD, Maddrey’s discriminant function (mDF, Glasgow AH score (GAHS, and age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC score in predicting shot-term and long-term survival in patients with AH. Methods. Patients with histological evidence of AH were identified from our database. The clinical and biochemical parameters were used to calculate the 5 different scores. The prognostic utility of these scores was determined by generating an ROC curve for survival at 30 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Results and Conclusions. All 5 scores with the exception of CP score have a similar accuracy in predicting the short-term prognosis. However, they are uniformly poor in predicting longer-term survival with AUROC not exceeding 0.74. CP score is a very poor predictor of survival in both short and long term. Abstinence from alcohol was significantly (<0.05 associated with survival at 1 year.

  10. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars


    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  11. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars


    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...




    Full Text Available AIM : To evaluate the prognostic value of OTS in open globe injuries. MATERIAL METHOD : Retrospective analysis of 77 eyes with open globe injuries was done from 01/07/2013 to 31/12/2014. Patients were assigned raw score sum based on initial V/A, and ocular findings then classified into 5 categories for predicting final visual outcome based on ocular Trauma score (OTS. RESULT : We estimated final V/A in 77 cases of open globe injuries (64.93% had raw sc ore between 65.91 (category 3, 4 Six months after the injury, 42.85% patients of categories 1 (raw score 0 - 44 achieved V/A of PL/HM as compared to 17% in OTS study. 16 patients with raw compared to OTS study. We reported comparable visual outcome with OT S study except in category 1 & 2. CONCLUSION: OTS score is valuable in triage, patient counseling and decision making for the management of ocular trauma. We recommend that OTS should be used routinely for open globe injuries as it is a simple guide

  13. Molecular screening of bovine raw milk for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC on dairy farms

    Tatiane Vendramin


    Full Text Available Milkborne transmission of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of STEC in bovine raw milk. To identify E. coli (ATCC 25922 contamination, the gene uspA was used, and PCR sensitivity and specificity were accessed by testing diluted samples ranging from 2 to 2.0 × 10(6 CFU/mL. To detect STEC, the stx1 and stx2 genes were selected as targets. After reaction standardization, the multiplex assay was tested in raw milk collected from 101 cows on dairy farms. PCR assay for E. coli detection had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 79% (P<0.0001, with a lower detection limit of 2 CFU/mL. Multiplex PCR assay had 100% sensitivity for E. coli positive raw milk samples, and 31.1% were contaminated with STEC, 28.3% of stx2, and 1.9% of stx1. The multiplex PCR assay described in the present study can be employed to identify and screen E. coli harboring stx1 and stx2 genes in raw milk on dairy farms and in industries.


    Manoel Pereira Neto


    Full Text Available We analyzed the quality of raw milk from eight dairy property in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, stored in a cooling tank, in order to evaluate methods for determining somatic cell counts (SCC. The Somaticell® kit and a portable Direct Cell Counter (DCC were compared with each other and with the MilkoScanTM FT+ (FOSS Denmark, which uses Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIS. Direct cell counter data were processed for somatic cell scores (log-transformed somatic cell count and analyzed with the SAS®, Statistical Analysis System. Comparison of means and correlation of somatic cell scores were conducted using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the Tukey Test at 1%. No significant difference was observed for comparison of means. The correlation between somatic cell scores was significant, that is, 0.907 and 0.876 between the MilkoScanTM FT + and the Somaticell® kit and Direct Cell Count (DCC respectively, and 0.943 between the Somaticell® kit and Direct Cell Count (DCC. The methods can be recommended for monitoring the quality of raw milk kept in a cooling tank in the production unit.

  15. “In bacteria land”: the battle over raw milk.

    Mendelson, Anne


    Beginning at around 1893, America’s initial raw milk wars pitted proponents of pasteurized milk against advocates of a complex scheme for “certifying” clean, uncontaminated raw milk. The certification program, unsuited to modern commercial economies of scale, soon faded into obscurity. When a new version of the raw milk movement began gathering strength in the 1970s, scarcely anyone remembered the terms on which a certain amount of rational debate had once taken place. Part of the reason is that over the course of the twentieth century, the scale and structure of the fluid milk industry had undergone drastic changes that turned a highly variable, fragile product into a nearly featureless one poorly understood by consumers, regulators, or polemicists. Meanwhile, new dairying and processing practices had begun creating hospitable conditions for pathogens that were unknown during the first controversies but that urgently need to be considered today. Unfortunately, discussion of the raw milk question is now almost wholly dictated by intolerant ideologues on both sides, in an atmosphere of profound historical amnesia. Given the great complexity of the issues involved and the serious implications for public health, the general tone of debate is at best counterproductive.


    N. I. Didenko


    Full Text Available The article gives a methodology for assessing the strategy of export-raw material orientation of the Russian economy, from the point of impact on the social sphere, directly to the person. The dynamics of oil production in Russia, dynamics of export of Russian oil, the price of oil on the world market and the dynamics of the social sphere in Russia were analyzed using data for 1990–2012.The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of raw material export-oriented strategy of Russia. Possibility raw export-oriented strategy was evaluated dependence of the social sphere - the index GINI, the average wage of household savings from the development of fuel – energy complex. Finding the functional dependence of each of these indicators of social sphere both of oil production and oil exports from Russia plus the price of oil on the world market were tasks.Empirical estimates show the ability of the raw material export-oriented strategy of the Russian economy to ensure the development of the social sphere of the country under condition increasing in the growth rate of energy consumption. Resource-rich countries should pursue a policy of reducing their exports and thus increase their domestic consumption.

  17. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.


    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  18. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish...

  19. Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and ...

    Evaluation of nutritional value and protein quality of raw and differentially ... as a source of protein in the diets of both human beings and animals, but their production is ... under-utilized food legume, sword bean (SB) (Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) ...

  20. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Abdolmajid Fadaei


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. coli. Results: Out of 300 samples of raw milk, contamination with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus was observed in 237 (79%, 207 (69% and 125 (41.66% samples, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was in the samples from southwest region with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus were present in 30 (100%, 29 (96.66%, and19 (63.33% samples, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusions: Considering the high rate of raw milk contamination with S. aureus, E. Coli, and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting, transporting, and storage especially in the summer season is recommended.

  1. Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick


    Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products.  Created: 3/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/5/2012.

  2. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    ... situations back to top Raw Foods Can Also Affect Human Health Consumers also run the risk of getting sick if ... Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report ... FDA Browse by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices ...

  3. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi


    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materials range from 2.6 to 93.2, 1.3 to 172.8 and 6.3 to 997 Bq/kg, respectively with higher activity concentrations in pozzolan and lower in gypsum. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (excluding some materials from Songwe deposits in Mbeya region are comparative with the worldwide average concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the cements are 46, 28 and 228 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated values of radiological indices are below 60% of the upper recommended values for building materials. The average annual effective dose to an occupant from use of these materials equals to 0.45 mSv. Average activity concentrations of the mentioned radionuclides in Tanzania cements are in the middle of the variability interval of the national averages.

  4. Raw milk quality control - European and Croatian experience

    Samir Kalit; Jasmina Havranek


    @@ Introduction Milk is a raw material used in the fabrication of a very large range of products. The modalities of payment are designed to orientate milk production according to technological needs and hygiene and food security requirements. The processors seek milk witch is adapted for all types of processing ( Beguin, 1994 ).

  5. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Weijie Xia


    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Hydrogenated cottonseed oil as raw material for biobased materials

    There has been a lot of recent interest in using vegetable oils as biodegradable and renewable raw materials for the syntheses of various biobased materials. Although most of the attention has been paid to soybean oil thus far, cottonseed oil is a viable alternative. An advantage of cottonseed oil...

  7. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.


    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  8. China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials


    <正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.

  9. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Monika Božiková


    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  10. Behavior of foodborne pathogens in Teewurst raw spreadable sausage

    Teewurst is a traditional raw spreadable sausage of Germanic origin that is widely consumed in different countries worldwide including the United States. According to the USDA/FSIS Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book teewurst is an uncooked product processed with or without curing that is cold s...

  11. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  12. Amplicon-based profiling of bacteria in raw and secondary treated wastewater from treatment plants across Australia.

    Ahmed, Warish; Staley, Christopher; Sidhu, Jatinder; Sadowsky, Michael; Toze, Simon


    In this study, we investigated the use of Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons to explore microbial diversity and community structure in raw and secondary treated wastewater (WW) samples from four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs A-D) across Australia. Sequence reads were analyzed to determine the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities in raw and secondary treated WW samples across the four WWTPs. In addition, sequence reads were also characterized to phenotypic features and to estimate the abundance of potential pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic-resistant genes in total bacterial communities. The mean coverage, Shannon diversity index, observed richness (S obs), and abundance-based coverage estimate (ACE) of richness for raw and secondary treated WW samples did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among the four WWTPs examined. Generally, raw and secondary treated WW samples were dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Bacteroides. Evaluation of source contributions to secondary treated WW, done using SourceTracker, revealed that 8.80-61.4% of the bacterial communities in secondary treated WW samples were attributed to raw WW. Twenty-five bacterial genera were classified as containing potential bacterial pathogens. The abundance of potentially pathogenic genera in raw WW samples was higher than that found in secondary treated WW samples. Among the pathogenic genera identified, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter had the greatest percentage of the sequence reads. The abundances of antibiotic resistance genes were generally low (treated WW samples from four WWTPs across Australia and demonstrated that Illumina high-throughput sequencing can be an alternative approach for monitoring WW quality in order to protect environmental and human health.

  13. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state.

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu


    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P < 0.05). Around 38.9 % of TBCs and 88.2 % CCs in contaminated raw camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  14. Use of 3D adaptive raw-data filter in CT of the lung: effect on radiation dose reduction.

    Kubo, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Gautam, Shiva; Lin, Pei-Jan P; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hatabu, Hiroto


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 3D adaptive raw-data filter in improving image quality and the role of the filter in radiation dose reduction in lung CT. Fifty-eight chest CT examinations were performed with a 16-MDCT scanner. Two acquisitions were performed with different tube current-exposure time settings (50 and 150 mAs, 120 kVp). Four series of lung images were prepared from two sets of raw data with and without application of a 3D adaptive filter (50 mAs, 50 mAs with filter, 150 mAs, 150 mAs with filter). Three blinded readers using a 5-point scale from 1 (nondiagnostic) to 5 (excellent) independently evaluated image quality in five lobes and the lingula. A set of images was considered acceptable when scores in all six regions were 3 (acceptable) or higher. The SD of attenuation was calculated in 24 regions of interest. The overall mean image quality scores were 3.09, 3.53, 4.02, and 4.38 for the 50 mAs, 50 mAs with filter, 150 mAs, and 150 mAs with filter sets, respectively. Scores were significantly better with filter application (p filter application (p images, 18, 52, 50, and 58 sets were judged acceptable with no significant difference in acceptability between images obtained at 50 mAs with a filter and at 150 mAs (p = 0.72). With filter application, the acceptability of 50-mAs images became comparable with that of 150-mAs images, making dose reduction to 50 mAs practical. Use of a 3D adaptive raw-data filter improved the quality of lung images, making dose reduction to 50 mAs attainable with use of the filter.

  15. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter


    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self...... that a compatible integration of global and local goals in the ludonarrative contributes to a motivational-emotional reinforcement that can be gained through musical feedback. Shedding light on the implications of music dramaturgy within a semantic ecology paradigm, the perception of varying relational attributes...

  16. Anticipating pulmonary complications after thoracotomy: the FLAM Score

    Anziani Marylene


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Pulmonary complications after thoracotomy are the result of progressive changes in the respiratory status of the patient. A multifactorial score (FLAM score was developed to identify postoperatively patients at higher risk for pulmonary complications at least 24 hours before the clinical diagnosis. Methods The FLAM score, created in 2002, is based on 7 parameters (dyspnea, chest X-ray, delivered oxygen, auscultation, cough, quality and quantity of bronchial secretions. To validate the FLAM score, we prospectively calculated scores during the first postoperative week in 300 consecutive patients submitted to posterolateral thoracotomy. Results During the study, 60 patients (20% developed pulmonary complications during the postoperative period. The FLAM score progressively increased in complicated patients until the fourth postoperative day (mean 13.5 ± 11.9. FLAM scores in patients with complications were significantly higher (p Conclusion Changes in FLAM score were evident at least 24 hours before the clinical diagnosis of pulmonary complications. FLAM score can be used to categorize patients according to risk of respiratory morbidity and mortality and could be a useful tool in the postoperative management of patients undergoing thoracotomy.

  17. Scoring ordinal variables for constructing composite indicators

    Marica Manisera


    Full Text Available In order to provide composite indicators of latent variables, for example of customer satisfaction, it is opportune to identify the structure of the latent variable, in terms of the assignment of items to the subscales defining the latent variable. Adopting the reflective model, the impact of four different methods of scoring ordinal variables on the identification of the true structure of latent variables is investigated. A simulation study composed of 5 steps is conducted: (1 simulation of population data with continuous variables measuring a two-dimensional latent variable with known structure; (2 draw of a number of random samples; (3 discretization of the continuous variables according to different distributional forms; (4 quantification of the ordinal variables obtained in step (3 according to different methods; (5 construction of composite indicators and verification of the correct assignment of variables to subscales by the multiple group method and the factor analysis. Results show that the considered scoring methods have similar performances in assigning items to subscales, and that, when the latent variable is multinormal, the distributional form of the observed ordinal variables is not determinant in suggesting the best scoring method to use.

  18. [Validation of a diagnostic scoring system (Ohmann score) in acute appendicitis].

    Zielke, A; Sitter, H; Rampp, T A; Schäfer, E; Hasse, C; Lorenz, W; Rothmund, M


    A diagnostic scoring system, recently published by Ohmann et al. in this journal, was validated by analyzing the clinicopathological data of a consecutive series of 2,359 patients, admitted for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The results of the scoring system were compared to the results of clinical evaluation by junior (provisional) and senior surgeons (final clinical diagnosis). To assess the diagnostic ability of the score, the accuracy and positive predictive value were defined as the major diagnostic performance parameters; the rate of theoretical negative laparotomies and that of diagnostic errors served as the major procedural performance parameters. Of 2,359 patients admitted for suspected acute appendicitis, 662 were proven to have acute appendicitis by histology, for a prevalence of 28%. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the provisional clinical diagnosis were 0.50, 0.94, 0.77, 0.83, and 0.82; 0.93, for the score 0.63, 0.93, 0.77, 0.86 and 0.84, and for the final clinical diagnosis 0.90, 0.94, 0.85, 0.96, and 0.93, respectively. Of the main diagnostic performance parameter, the accuracy of the score was significantly better than that of provisional clinical diagnosis (P apendicitis, the score demonstrated a superior performance, with only 6 cases missed (0.9%). However, the number of patients with acute appendicitis, including those with perforated disease, who were not identified by the score, was almost four times that of the final clinical diagnosis (245 vs 63). With regard to the main procedural performance parameter, the score resulted in a significantly smaller number of diagnostic errors than the provisional clinical investigator (P < 0.05, chi 2 test). The results of this study indicate that the diagnostic scoring system might be helpful when experienced investigators or additional diagnostic modalities such as ultrasonography are not available. It may therefore be of value

  19. Genetic effect on apgar score

    Carla Franchi-Pinto


    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients for one- and five-min Apgar scores of 604 twin pairs born at a southeastern Brazilian hospital were calculated, after adjusting these scores for gestational age and sex. The data support a genetic hypothesis only for 1-min Apgar score, probably because it is less affected by the environment than 4 min later, after the newborns have been under the care of a neonatology team. First-born twins exhibited, on average, better clinical conditions than second-born twins. The former showed a significantly lower proportion of Apgar scores under seven than second-born twins, both at 1 min (17.5% vs. 29.8% and at 5 min (7.2% vs. 11.9%. The proportion of children born with "good" Apgar scores was significantly smaller among twins than among 1,522 singletons born at the same hospital. Among the latter, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores under seven were exhibited by 9.2% and 3.4% newborns, respectively.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para os índices de Apgar 1 e 5 minutos após o nascimento de 604 pares de gêmeos em uma maternidade do sudeste brasileiro, depois que esses índices foram ajustados para idade gestacional e sexo. Os dados obtidos apoiaram a hipótese genética apenas em relação ao primeiro índice de Apgar, provavelmente porque ele é menos influenciado pelo ambiente do que 4 minutos depois, quando os recém-nascidos já estiveram sob os cuidados de uma equipe de neonatologistas. Os gêmeos nascidos em primeiro lugar apresentaram, em média, melhor estado clínico que os nascidos em segundo lugar, visto que os primeiros mostraram uma proporção de índices de Apgar inferiores a 7 significativamente menor do que os nascidos em segundo lugar, tanto um minuto (17,5% contra 29,8% quanto cinco minutos após o nascimento (7,2% contra 11,9%. A proporção de recém-nascidos com índices de Apgar que indicam bom prognóstico foi significativamente menor nos gêmeos do que em 1.522 conceptos

  20. Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.

    Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders


    Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products.

  1. Who shares? Who doesn't? Factors associated with openly archiving raw research data.

    Heather A Piwowar

    Full Text Available Many initiatives encourage investigators to share their raw datasets in hopes of increasing research efficiency and quality. Despite these investments of time and money, we do not have a firm grasp of who openly shares raw research data, who doesn't, and which initiatives are correlated with high rates of data sharing. In this analysis I use bibliometric methods to identify patterns in the frequency with which investigators openly archive their raw gene expression microarray datasets after study publication. Automated methods identified 11,603 articles published between 2000 and 2009 that describe the creation of gene expression microarray data. Associated datasets in best-practice repositories were found for 25% of these articles, increasing from less than 5% in 2001 to 30%-35% in 2007-2009. Accounting for sensitivity of the automated methods, approximately 45% of recent gene expression studies made their data publicly available. First-order factor analysis on 124 diverse bibliometric attributes of the data creation articles revealed 15 factors describing authorship, funding, institution, publication, and domain environments. In multivariate regression, authors were most likely to share data if they had prior experience sharing or reusing data, if their study was published in an open access journal or a journal with a relatively strong data sharing policy, or if the study was funded by a large number of NIH grants. Authors of studies on cancer and human subjects were least likely to make their datasets available. These results suggest research data sharing levels are still low and increasing only slowly, and data is least available in areas where it could make the biggest impact. Let's learn from those with high rates of sharing to embrace the full potential of our research output.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the consumption of raw drinking milk

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ


    Full Text Available Raw drinking milk (RDM has a diverse microbial flora which can include pathogens transmissible to humans. The main microbiological hazards associated with RDM from cows, sheep and goats, horses and donkeys and camels were identified using a decision tree approach. This considered evidence of milk-borne infection and the hazard being present in the European Union (EU, the impact of the hazard on human health and whether there was evidence for RDM as an important risk factor in the EU. The main hazards were Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus, and there are clear links between drinking raw milk and human illness associated with these hazards. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for these hazards could not be undertaken because country and EU-wide data are limited. Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in several EU countries in some of the main bacterial hazards isolated from raw milk or associated equipment and may be significant for public health. Sale of RDM through vending machines is permitted in some EU countries, although consumers purchasing such milk are usually instructed to boil the milk before consumption, which would eliminate microbiological risks. With respect to internet sales of RDM, there is a need for microbiological, temperature and storage time data to assess the impact of this distribution route. Intrinsic contamination of RDM with pathogens can arise from animals with systemic infection as well as from localised infections such as mastitis. Extrinsic contamination can arise from faecal contamination and from the wider farm environment. It was not possible to rank control options as no single step could be identified which would significantly reduce risk relative to a baseline of expected good practice, although potential for an increase in risk was also noted. Improved risk communication to

  3. Correlation of Visual Prostate Symptom Score with International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry Parameters in Nepalese Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Bhomi, K K; Subedi, N; Panta, P P


    International prostate symptom score is a validated questionnaire used to evaluate the lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Visual prostate symptom score is a new simplified symptom score with pictograms to evaluate the same. We evaluated the correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters in Nepalese male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Male patients aged ≥40 years attending the Urology clinic were enrolled in the study. They were given international prostate symptom score and visual prostate symptom score questionnaires to complete providing assistance whenever needed. Demographic data, examination findings and uroflowmetry parameters were noted. Correlation and regression analysis was used to identify correlation of the two scoring systems and uroflowmetry parameters. Among the 66 patients enrolled, only 10 (15.15%) patients were able to understand English language. There was a statistically significant correlation between total visual prostate symptom score and international prostate symptom score (r= 0.822; Pcorrelations between individual scores of the two scoring systems related to force of urinary stream, frequency, nocturia and quality of life were also statistically significant. There was also a statistically significant correlation of both scores with maximum flow rate and average flow rate. There is a statistically significant correlation of visual prostate symptom score with international prostate symptom score and uroflowmetry parameters. IPSS can be replaced with simple VPSS in evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly male patients.

  4. The APPLE Score – A Novel Score for the Prediction of Rhythm Outcomes after Repeat Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

    Kornej, Jelena; Hindricks, Gerhard; Arya, Arash; Sommer, Philipp; Husser, Daniela; Bollmann, Andreas


    Background Arrhythmia recurrences after catheter ablation occur in up to 50% within one year but their prediction remains challenging. Recently, we developed a novel score for the prediction of rhythm outcomes after single AF ablation demonstrating superiority to other scores. The current study was performed to 1) prove the predictive value of the APPLE score in patients undergoing repeat AF ablation and 2) compare it with the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Methods Rhythm outcome between 3–12 months after AF ablation were documented. The APPLE score (one point for Age >65 years, Persistent AF, imPaired eGFR (Leipzig Heart Center AF Ablation Registry (60±10 years, 65% male, 70% paroxysmal AF) undergoing repeat AF catheter ablation were included. Arrhythmia recurrences were observed in 133 patients (35%). While the CHADS2 (AUC 0.577, p = 0.037) and CHA2DS2-VASc scores (AUC 0.590, p = 0.015) demonstrated low predictive value, the APPLE score showed better prediction of arrhythmia recurrences (AUC 0.617, p = 0.002) than other scores (both p<0.001). Compared to patients with an APPLE score of 0, the risk (OR) for arrhythmia recurrences was 2.9, 3.0 and 6.0 (all p<0.01) for APPLE scores 1, 2, or ≥3, respectively. Conclusions The novel APPLE score is superior to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores for prediction of rhythm outcomes after repeat AF catheter ablation. It may be helpful to identify patients with low, intermediate or high risk for recurrences after repeat procedure. PMID:28085921

  5. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Vincent P. Coletta


    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  6. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Jeffrey J. Steinert


    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  7. Prognostic scores in brain metastases from breast cancer

    Astner Sabrina T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic scores might be useful tools both in clinical practice and clinical trials, where they can be used as stratification parameter. The available scores for patients with brain metastases have never been tested specifically in patients with primary breast cancer. It is therefore unknown which score is most appropriate for these patients. Methods Five previously published prognostic scores were evaluated in a group of 83 patients with brain metastases from breast cancer. All patients had been treated with whole-brain radiotherapy with or without radiosurgery or surgical resection. In addition, it was tested whether the parameters that form the basis of these scores actually have a prognostic impact in this biologically distinct group of brain metastases patients. Results The scores that performed best were the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA classes and the score index for radiosurgery (SIR. However, disagreement between the parameters that form the basis of these scores and those that determine survival in the present group of patients and many reported data from the literature on brain metastases from breast cancer was found. With the four statistically significant prognostic factors identified here, a 3-tiered score can be created that performs slightly better than RPA and SIR. In addition, a 4-tiered score is also possible, which performs better than the three previous 4-tiered scores, incl. graded prognostic assessment (GPA score and basic score for brain metastases (BSBM. Conclusion A variety of prognostic models describe the survival of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer to a more or less satisfactory degree. However, the standard brain metastases scores might not fully appreciate the unique biology and time course of this disease, e.g., compared to lung cancer. It appears possible that inclusion of emerging prognostic factors will improve the results and allow for development and validation

  8. Neurointerventional Treatment in Acute Stroke. Whom to Treat? (Endovascular Treatment for Acute Stroke: Utility of THRIVE Score and HIAT Score for Patient Selection)

    Fjetland, Lars, E-mail:; Roy, Sumit, E-mail:; Kurz, Kathinka D., E-mail: [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Norway); Solbakken, Tore, E-mail: [Stavanger University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Norway); Larsen, Jan Petter, E-mail:; Kurz, Martin W., E-mail: [The Norwegian Center for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital (Norway)


    Purpose: Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) is used increasingly as a treatment option for acute stroke caused by central large vessel occlusions. Despite high rates of recanalization, the clinical outcome is highly variable. The authors evaluated the Houston IAT (HIAT) and the totaled health risks in vascular events (THRIVE) score, two predicting scores designed to identify patients likely to benefit from IAT. Methods: Fifty-two patients treated at the Stavanger University Hospital with IAT from May 2009 to June 2012 were included in this study. We combined the scores in an additional analysis. We also performed an additional analysis according to high age and evaluated the scores in respect of technical efficacy. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluated by the THRIVE score and 51 by the HIAT score. We found a strong correlation between the level of predicted risk and the actual clinical outcome (THRIVE p = 0.002, HIAT p = 0.003). The correlations were limited to patients successfully recanalized and to patients <80 years. By combining the scores additional 14.3 % of the patients could be identified as poor candidates for IAT. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome. Conclusions: Both scores showed a strong correlation to poor clinical outcome in patients <80 years. The specificity of the scores could be enhanced by combining them. Both scores were insufficient to identify patients with a good clinical outcome and showed no association to clinical outcome in patients aged {>=}80 years.

  9. Bone T-scores and functional status: a cross-sectional study on German elderly.

    Shoma Berkemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We explore the association between bone T-scores, used in osteoporosis diagnosis, and functional status since we hypothesized that bone health can impact elderly functional status and indirectly independence. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study (2005-2006 on community dwelling elderly (> = 75 years from Herne, Germany we measured bone T-scores with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, and functional status indexed by five geriatric tests: activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, test of dementia, geriatric depression score and the timed-up-and-go test, and two pooled indexes: raw and standardized. Generalized linear regression was used to determine the relationship between T-scores and functional status. RESULTS: From 3243 addresses, only 632 (19% completed a clinical visit, of which only 440 (male:female, 243:197 could be included in analysis. T-scores (-0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1-0.9 predicted activities of daily living (95.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, instrumental activities of daily living (7.3 CI, 94.5-96.2, and timed-up-and-go test (10.7 CI, 10.0-11.3 (P < = 0.05. Pooled data showed that a unit improvement in T-score improved standardized pooled functional status (15 CI, 14.7-15.3 by 0.41 and the raw (99.4 CI, 97.8-101.0 by 2.27 units. These results were limited due to pooling of different scoring directions, selection bias, and a need to follow-up with evidence testing. CONCLUSIONS: T-scores associated with lower functional status in community-dwelling elderly. Regular screening of osteoporosis as a preventive strategy might help maintain life quality with aging.

  10. Performance of Polygenic Scores for Predicting Phobic Anxiety

    Stefan Walter; M Maria Glymour; Karestan Koenen; Liming Liang; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Marilyn Cornelis; Shun-Chiao Chang; Eric Rimm; Ichiro Kawachi; Kubzansky, Laura D.


    CONTEXT: Anxiety disorders are common, with a lifetime prevalence of 20% in the U.S., and are responsible for substantial burdens of disability, missed work days and health care utilization. To date, no causal genetic variants have been identified for anxiety, anxiety disorders, or related traits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a phobic anxiety symptom score was associated with 3 alternative polygenic risk scores, derived from external genome-wide association studies of anxiety, an interna...

  11. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o questionário padronizado escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, módulo sobre asma, para pesquisa de prevalência de asma, estabelecendo seu escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de adultos asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Entrevistamos pacientes ambulatoriais adultos, 40 asmáticos e 38 controles, pareados por sexo e idade, utilizando o módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, composto por oito aspectos dicotômicos de asma. Determinamos o escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de asmáticos, definindo sua sensibilidade, especificidade e índice de Youden. Validamos o método em contraposição ao diagnóstico clínico e funcional. A reprodutibilidade das questões individuais foi testada por meio de reentrevistas de metade dos pacientes após algumas semanas. RESULTADOS: O escore variou de 0 a 14 pontos. Um escore = 5 pontos permitiu discriminar pacientes asmáticos (sensibilidade = 93%, especificidade = 100% e índice de Youden = 0,93. A maioria das questões apresentou boa reprodutibilidade, observada em reentrevista após 48,2 ± 11,1 dias (Kappa e Kappa ponderado variando de 0,43 a 1,00 para as questões individuais. CONCLUSÃO: A validação de uma nota de corte permite uma interpretação alternativa às informações fornecidas pelo módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, levando em conta o conjunto das informações e não somente as respostas individuais de cada questão em estudos de prevalência de asma em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. METHODS: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls

  12. Comparative Study on Histopatological and Histomorphometric Effect of Raw and Cooked Garlic on Spermatogenesis in Testis and Epidydims of Rats

    khadijeh bahrami


    Full Text Available Background &Objective: The present study aims at studying two forms of raw and cooked garlic to identify the effect of this plant on the amount of change in histopatological of spermatogenesis of wistar rat.Materials & Methods: 40 male rats were divided into five equal groups (4 treatment 1 control group the first and second treatment were received palete food consisted of 5% and 15% of raw garlic every day. The third and fourth reatment were received palete food consisted of 5%and 15% of cooked garlic as a food . The control group received standard palete food every day in a month. Finally,the testis were taken out of stomach and after preparing tissue and coloring, they were gone under microscopic studies. Thence, the data were analyzed using SPSS and Duncan test.Results: The study indicated that the amount of sexual cells in the group having cook garlic for 15% compared with that of controlled group had a significant increase and the amount of sexual cells in the group using raw garlic as a food had a significant decrease compared with that of the controlled group.Conclusion: Prescription of cooked garlic has an influence on Proliferation of sexual cells in testicular tubules and epidydymes and so increased spermatogenesis in this group in caparison with the control group. However, prescribing raw garlic has harmful effects on tissue of testis and process of spermatogenes in empric compared with the control group.


    Ilona Jastrzebska


    Full Text Available Hydration of various commercially available magnesia raw materials were studied under hydrothermal conditions. Raw materials were characterized by XRD, XRF, TG/DTA and SEM/EDS methods. Subsequently, they were subjected to hydration test conducted at temperature of 162oC and presuure of 552 kPa according to ASTM C 554-92 standard. The evolution of phase, microstructure and physicochemical behaviour after hydration test were analysed by XRD, DTA/TG and SEM/EDS. The results showed that presence of the specific secondary phases plays a crucial role in preventing MgO grains against the hydration. Merwinite, monticellite, magnesioferrite and srebrnodolskite were found to constitute protector-like phases that inibit hydration process of magnesia.

  14. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F


    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  15. Improving the specifications of Syrian raw phosphate by thermal treatment

    Abdullah Watti


    In this research we treated the Syrian raw phosphate by thermal way in order to: (1 Enriching of studied Syrian raw phosphate that contains proportions of 28.60% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, 6.12% of carbonate, which we got after treatment at 850 °C for 30 min on a phosphate containing proportion of 33.95% of phosphorus pentoxide P2O5, small amount of carbonate 0.75% and almost free of organic materials. (2 Preparing phosphate fertilizer by thermal treatment in the presence of sodium carbonate, where it was found that the best conditions are adding 40% of sodium carbonate by weight of phosphate ore; temperature 1100 °C; time 120 min.

  16. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  17. Efficient Bistatic SAR Raw Signal Simulator of Extended Scenes

    Liang Yang


    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR system is a new mode that allocates the radar transmitter and receiver on different platforms and has more advantages compared to the monostatic case. However, the existing bistatic SAR raw data simulator in the frequency domain can only handle the case of translation invariant system. In this paper, an efficient 2D frequency-domain raw data simulator of extended scenes for bistatic SAR of translation variant system is proposed by a geometric transformation method for the first time, where inverse STOLT interpolation is used to formulate the range migration terms. The presented simulator can accommodate the translation variant bistatic SAR system compared with existing bistatic SAR simulator. And it is more efficient than the time domain one by making use of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Simulation results for point targets and a real SAR image demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.

  18. [PCR detection of transgenic elements in feed raw material].

    Wang, Ying; Yu, Dao-Jian; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Gui-Ming; Jin, Xian-Zhong; Yang, Wei-Dong; Huang, Pei-Qing; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Cheng, Ying-Hui


    Based on the heterogeneous genes usually used in transgenic crops, the PCR technique was performed with primers derived from CaMV 35S promoter (35S-promoter,originated from cauliflower mosaic virus), NOS terminator (nopaline synthase-terminator,derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens), EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene, and CryIA(b) (delta-endotoxin,evolved from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki) gene to detect transgenic agents from feed raw materials of soybean dregs and corn gluten meal, respectively. Endogenous corn Zein (a protein extracted from corn gluten) gene, soybean Lectin (chitin-binding protein) gene and negative, positive control were applied for avoiding false results. The method established here has been successfully applied in detecting transgenic elements in imported feed raw material.

  19. Modeling and Optimization of Cement Raw Materials Blending Process

    Xianhong Li


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling and solving the ingredient ratio optimization problem in cement raw material blending process. A general nonlinear time-varying (G-NLTV model is established for cement raw material blending process via considering chemical composition, feed flow fluctuation, and various craft and production constraints. Different objective functions are presented to acquire optimal ingredient ratios under various production requirements. The ingredient ratio optimization problem is transformed into discrete-time single objective or multiple objectives rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. A framework of grid interior point method is presented to solve the rolling nonlinear constraint optimization problem. Based on MATLAB-GUI platform, the corresponding ingredient ratio software is devised to obtain optimal ingredient ratio. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to study and solve ingredient ratio optimization problems.

  20. Validation of Walk Score for estimating access to walkable amenities.

    Carr, Lucas J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marcus, Bess H


    Proximity to walkable destinations or amenities is thought to influence physical activity behaviour. Previous efforts attempting to calculate neighbourhood walkability have relied on self-report or time-intensive and costly measures. Walk Score is a novel and publicly available website that estimates neighbourhood walkability based on proximity to 13 amenity categories (eg, grocery stores, coffee shops, restaurants, bars, movie theatres, schools, parks, libraries, book stores, fitness centres, drug stores, hardware stores, clothing/music stores). The purpose of this study is to test the validity and reliability of Walk Score for estimating access to objectively measured walkable amenities. Walk Scores of 379 residential/non-residential addresses in Rhode Island were manually calculated. Geographic information systems (GIS) was used to objectively measure 4194 walkable amenities in the 13 Walk Score categories. GIS data were aggregated from publicly available data sources. Sums of amenities within each category were matched to address data, and Pearson correlations were calculated between the category sums and address Walk Scores. Significant correlations were identified between Walk Score and all categories of aggregated walkable destinations within a 1-mile buffer of the 379 residential and non-residential addresses. Test-retest reliability correlation coefficients for a subsample of 100 addresses were 1.0. These results support Walk Score as a reliable and valid measure of estimating access to walkable amenities. Walk Score may be a convenient and inexpensive option for researchers interested in exploring the relationship between access to walkable amenities and health behaviours such as physical activity.

  1. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption.

    Wang, Jiun-Jye; Chung, Li-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lee, June-Der; Lin, Chaio-Wen; Yen, Chuan-Min


    In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7%) and 233 (69.3%), respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  2. Essential fatty acids in extruded and raw dog foods

    Karlsen, Juni S.


    This thesis is divided into two sections: section 1 explaining the theory about fat and fatty acids functions, health effects and sources, section 2 includes a study of commercial extruded and raw dog foods. Fat is the most energy dens nutrient and functions as energy, structural components in cell membranes, source of essential fatty acids (EFA), precursor to biological active substrates and carrier of fat-soluble vitamins. EFA cannot be synthesized by the animal, and needs to be added ...

  3. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Nan Liu; Chongming Wu; Lizhong Sun; Jun Zheng; Peng Guo


    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicit...


    Jana Petrová


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  5. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health

    Froelich, Brett A.; Noble, Rachel T.


    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest pol...

  6. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

    Letiţia Oprean; Ramona Iancu; Eniko Gaşpar; Ecaterina Lengyel


    Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteur...

  7. Analysis of L5 phase variations in GPS IIF satellites by the raw observation PPP approach

    Liu, Sha; Becker, Matthias


    GPS modernization along with Glonass modernization and the emerging Galileo and Compass system has been highly anticipated by every GNSS user since several years. The third civilian L5 signal transmitted by the modernized GPS satellites brings us to the GNSS multi-frequency era. The first GPS IIF satellite was launched in May 2010, until now there are eight block IIF satellites in service and the remaining four IIF satellites are planned to be launched by 2016. The introduction of the third frequency to GPS and the usage of advanced atomic clocks not only provide the users more possibilities but also enable higher positioning accuracy. Nevertheless phase variations are found on the new L5 observation of GPS SVN62. Further investigations suggest that the variations of this satellite are strongly dependent on the satellite inner temperature variation caused by sun illumination. Besides achieving precise positioning accuracy, PPP is also frequently used as a tool to analyze and evaluate various GNSS errors, for instance, tropospheric delays and receiver clock errors. Other than with differential GNSS, it is possible to separate different errors and to identify the error sources with PPP. Conventional PPP is based on the ionosphere-free linear combination, in order to eliminate the first-order ionospheric delays. However only dual frequencies can be used to build ionosphere-free linear combination, which leads to the waste of the information on the third frequency. Furthermore, the frequency dependent errors can not be separated and traced. A new PPP approach that avoids using any linear combination is proposed recently, which is called the raw observation PPP. One advantage of the raw observation PPP approach is that data of all frequencies and all GNSS systems can be jointly used. In addition, the frequency dependent errors are possible to be separated, identified and analyzed. In this paper the raw observation PPP is utilized to analyze the phase variations on L5

  8. Oil spill sorption using raw and acetylated sugarcane bagasse

    Reza Behnood; Bagher Anvaripour; Nematollah Jaafarzadeh; Masoome Farasati


    In the recent decades oil spills in the aquatic environments are one of the major sources of environmental pollutions, which are steadily growing with the increase in oil consumption. Adsorption is a rapid and cost effective processto minimize the environmental impacts of oil spills andcleanup these pollutants. In this work, the crude oil sorption capacity was examined with raw sugarcane bagasse and acetylated sugarcane bagasse. Results show that the acetylated bagasse was significantly more oleophilic than the raw bagasse and acetylation reaction can increase bagasse oil sorption ability by about 90%. The maximum sorption capacities of acetylated bagasse were obtained about 11.3 g and 9.1 g in dry system (crude oil sorption) and oil layer sorption, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the sorbents such as composition, water solubility, moisture content and density were measured according to ASTM standard methods. Also Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of raw and acetylated bagasse was performed to investigate the effect of acetylation on sugarcane bagasse structure.


    Zinina O. V.


    Full Text Available In the research we have given a detailed description of certain structural components of the model system when adding fermented raw material into it. As the raw material we used collagen containing by-products of bovine animals of the 2nd category – lips and ears were used. The lactulose syrup and linseed flour were used as growth-promoting substances. The fermentation of the raw material was conducted by freeze-dried starter of the bacteria of Propionic Culture PS–4 and Probio–Tec ВВ–12, and also bacterial concentrate Bifilact-Pro. The fermentation parameters: the temperature 37°С, the time of the fermentation is 3 hours. The changes, taking place in the tissues under the biotechnological processing, were established with the method of the histological samples test. As the result of the conducted microstructure tests of prototypes it was determined that in the biomodification process under the influence of the propionic and bifidus bacteria marked changes occurred in the histological structure of modeling systems in the comparison with the control sample. At the same time it was ascertained that under the influence of the ferment processing a loosening of collagen fascicles happens to isolated fibrils and their fragmentation occurs. As the result, when composing protein compositions an emulsion (which is homogeneous by the structure comes out. In the future it is recommended to use the emulsion in the receipts of boiled sausages and minced half-finished goods

  10. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina


    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Indicators for the use of raw materials in the context of sustainable development in Germany; Indikatoren/Kennzahlen fuer den Rohstoffverbrauch im Rahmen der Nachhaltigkeitsdiskussion

    Giegrich, Juergen; Liebich, Axel; Lauwigi, Christoph; Reinhardt, Joachim [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Raw material productivity is a key indicator in the German strategy for sustainable development located in the chapter about ''conservation of resources''. Raw material productivity relates the gross domestic product (GDP) to the sum of domestically extracted abiotic raw materials and imported abiotic raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. The main objective of this research project was to further develop or supplement this existing indicator. First of all the basic concepts of ''natural resource'' and ''raw material'' was clearly defined and put into the context of existing resource strategies. The broad concept of natural resource was adopted and six types of natural resources were identified (raw material, energy, water, land, biodiversity and the sink function of environmental media) Headline indicators were suggested for each of them. An aggregated indicator was developed and discussed which was called Environmental Impact Load (EVIL). The pressures represented by four resource indicators and four environmental indicators for the sink function were calculated for all imported goods with the help of 130 resource and environmental profiles and the German import statistics of the year 2005. This step was necessary to resolve the asymmetric approach of calculating the pressures caused by imports and domestic production and consumption. The ''rucksacks'' of the imports were accounted with domestic figures and the export ''rucksacks''. The raw material demand of imported goods expressed in raw material equivalent was derived to be twice as high as the domestic material extraction. Finally the function of the different resource indicators to represent each other was tested with the help of correlations. As a first approximation a certain correlation exists between some indicators. But it is recommended that each resource indicator should be kept

  12. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    F. Mesinger


    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  13. The HEART score for chest pain patients

    Backus, B.E.


    The HEART score was developed to improve risk stratification in chest pain patients in the emergency department (ED). This thesis describes series of validation studies of the HEART score and sub studies for individual elements of the score. The predictive value of the HEART score for the occurrence

  14. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Norcini, John J.; And Others


    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  15. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to produce biodiesel from raw starch.

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Dulermo, Thierry; Nicaud, Jean Marc


    In the last year, the worldwide concern about the abuse of fossil fuels and the seeking for alternatives sources to produce energy have found microbial oils has potential candidates for diesel substitutes. Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a paradigm organism for the production of bio-lipids in white biotechnology. It accumulates high amounts of lipids from glucose as sole carbon sources. Nonetheless, to lower the cost of microbial oil production and rival plant-based fuels, the use of raw and waste materials as fermentation substrate is required. Starch is one of the most abundant carbohydrates in nature and it is constituted by glucose monomers. Y. lipolytica lacks the capacity to breakdown this polymer and thus expensive enzymatic and/or physical pre-treatments are needed. In this work, we express heterologous alpha-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes in Y. lipolytica. The modified strains were able to produce and secrete high amounts of active form of both proteins in the culture media. These strains were able to grow on starch as sole carbon source and produce certain amount of lipids. Thereafter, we expressed both enzymes in an engineered strain able to overaccumulate lipids. This strain was able to produce up to 21 % of DCW as fatty acids from soluble starch, 5.7 times more than the modified strain in the wild-type background. Media optimization to increase the C/N ratio to 90 increased total lipid content up to 27 % of DCW. We also tested these strains in industrial raw starch as a proof of concept of the feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess. Lipid production from raw starch was further enhanced by the expression of a second copy of each enzyme. Finally, we determined in silico that the properties of a biodiesel produced by this strain from raw starch would fit the established standards. In this work, we performed a strain engineering approach to obtain a consolidated bioprocess to directly produce biolipids from raw starch. Additionally, we proved

  16. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L


    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  17. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Gianfranco Piva


    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  18. VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, Version 1

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Suomi NPP Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) developed at the NOAA NCDC is an intermediate product processing level (NOAA Level 1b) between a Raw Data Record (RDR)...

  19. Renewable raw materials in the field of industry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in der Industrie

    Peters, D.


    Being used to the practiced processing of raw materials for many decades the industry had to tap the advantage of renewable raw materials again. Conventional processing methods had to be changed and to be newly developed. This has been a rewarding task considering the ecological advantages but also considering the interesting markets for products based upon renewable raw materials. Today the German industry above all the chemical industry again processes agricultural and forestal raw materials to a considerable extent. Ten percent of the raw materials processed by the chemical industry are renewable. The wood processing industry is an important economic sector that achieves a value creation with the raw material wood exceeding the value creation of other industries by far. This brochure gives an overview of the possible substances, which are processed from renewable raw materials in Germany and it shows the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play for the industry nowadays. (orig.)

  20. Listeria monocytogenes Prevalence and Characteristics in Retail Raw Foods in China

    Wu, Shi; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Chen, Moutong; Yan, Ze An; Hu, Huijuan


    The prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes in retail raw foods covering most provincial capitals in China were studied with testing of 1036 samples of vegetables, edible mushrooms, raw meat...

  1. Lecture Evaluations by Medical Students: Concepts That Correlate With Scores.

    Jen, Aaron; Webb, Emily M; Ahearn, Bren; Naeger, David M


    The didactic lecture remains one of the most popular teaching formats in medical education; yet, factors that most influence lecturing success in radiology education are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of narrative student feedback that are associated with relatively higher and lower evaluation scores. All student evaluations from our core radiology elective during 1 year were compiled. All evaluation comments were tagged, to identify discrete descriptive concepts. Correlation coefficients were calculated, for each tag with mean evaluation scores. Tags that were the most strongly associated with the highest- versus lowest-rated (> or lectures were identified. A total of 3,262 comments, on 273 lectures, rated by 77 senior medical students, were analyzed. The mean lecture score was 8.96 ± 0.62. Three tags were significantly positively correlated with lecture score: "interactive"; "fun/engaging"; and "practical/important content" (r = 0.39, r = 0.34, and r = 0.32, respectively; all P lectures yielded similar results. Several factors were identified that were strongly associated with lecture score. Among the actionable characteristics, interactive lectures with appropriately targeted content (ie, practical/useful) were the most highly rated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Open availability of articles and raw research data in Spanish pediatrics journals].

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Vidal-Infer, A; Alonso-Arroyo, A; González de Dios, J; Ferrer-Sapena, A; Peset, F


    The open Access to publications and the raw data allows its re-use and enhances the advancement of science. The aim of this paper is to identify these practices in Spanish pediatrics journals. We reviewed the author's instructions in 13 Spanish pediatrics journals, identifying their open access and deposit policy. Eight journals allow open access without restriction, and 5 provide information on the ability to re-use and depositing data in repositories or websites. Most of the journals have open access, but do not promote the deposit of additional material or articles in repositories or websites. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Score lists in multipartite hypertournaments

    Pirzada, Shariefuddin; Iványi, Antal


    Given non-negative integers $n_{i}$ and $\\alpha_{i}$ with $0 \\leq \\alpha_{i} \\leq n_i$ $(i=1,2,...,k)$, an $[\\alpha_{1},\\alpha_{2},...,\\alpha_{k}]$-$k$-partite hypertournament on $\\sum_{1}^{k}n_{i}$ vertices is a $(k+1)$-tuple $(U_{1},U_{2},...,U_{k},E)$, where $U_{i}$ are $k$ vertex sets with $|U_{i}|=n_{i}$, and $E$ is a set of $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples of vertices, called arcs, with exactly $\\alpha_{i}$ vertices from $U_{i}$, such that any $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$ subset $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$ of $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}$, $E$ contains exactly one of the $(\\sum_{1}^{k} \\alpha_{i})!$ $\\sum_{1}^{k}\\alpha_{i}$-tuples whose entries belong to $\\cup_{1}^{k}U_{i}^{\\prime}$. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for $k$ lists of non-negative integers in non-decreasing order to be the losing score lists and to be the score lists of some $k$-partite hypertournament.

  4. Performance of polygenic scores for predicting phobic anxiety.

    Stefan Walter

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anxiety disorders are common, with a lifetime prevalence of 20% in the U.S., and are responsible for substantial burdens of disability, missed work days and health care utilization. To date, no causal genetic variants have been identified for anxiety, anxiety disorders, or related traits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a phobic anxiety symptom score was associated with 3 alternative polygenic risk scores, derived from external genome-wide association studies of anxiety, an internally estimated agnostic polygenic score, or previously identified candidate genes. DESIGN: Longitudinal follow-up study. Using linear and logistic regression we investigated whether phobic anxiety was associated with polygenic risk scores derived from internal, leave-one out genome-wide association studies, from 31 candidate genes, and from out-of-sample genome-wide association weights previously shown to predict depression and anxiety in another cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Study participants (n = 11,127 were individuals from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Anxiety symptoms were assessed via the 8-item phobic anxiety scale of the Crown Crisp Index at two time points, from which a continuous phenotype score was derived. RESULTS: We found no genome-wide significant associations with phobic anxiety. Phobic anxiety was also not associated with a polygenic risk score derived from the genome-wide association study beta weights using liberal p-value thresholds; with a previously published genome-wide polygenic score; or with a candidate gene risk score based on 31 genes previously hypothesized to predict anxiety. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial gap between twin-study heritability estimates of anxiety disorders ranging between 20-40% and heritability explained by genome-wide association results. New approaches such as improved genome imputations, application of gene expression and biological

  5. Description of a new species, Bifidobacterium crudilactis sp. nov., isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses.

    Delcenserie, V; Gavini, F; Beerens, H; Tresse, O; Franssen, C; Daube, G


    A new Bifidobacterium species is described based on the study of ten Gram-positive strains with fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. They are part of a phenotypic group comprising 141 strains isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses in French raw milk cheese factories. This group was separated by a numerical analysis based on API 50CH, API 32A tests and growth at 46 degrees C. A strong similarity of 16S rRNA sequences (99.8%) was shown between strain FR62/b/3(T) and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum LMG 21775(T). However, low DNA-DNA relatedness was observed between their DNAs (31%). The new isolates are able to grow at low temperatures (all ten strains up to 5 degrees C) and strain FR62/b/3(T) grows under aerobic conditions, as does B. psychraerophilum. However, contrary to B. psychraerophilum, they do not ferment L-arabinose, D-xylose, arbutin or melezitose, but they do acidify lactose. The DNA G+C content of FR62/b/3(T) is 56.4mol%. Therefore, the name Bifidobacterium crudilactis sp. nov. is proposed, with its type strain being FR62/b/3(T) (=LMG 23609(T)=CNCM I-3342(T)).

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Purchase Price of Raw Milk in the World



    This paper selects 20 countries from the major dairy producing continents such as Oceania, the Americas, Europe and Asia, for the comparative analysis of the purchase price of raw milk in the world. Based on the summarization of general features of the world raw milk prices, this paper elaborates the fluctuations in the purchase price of raw milk in Oceania, the Americas, Europe and Asia, respectively, and carries out the comparative study of the gap between the domestic purchase price of raw...

  7. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in Scottish raw and drinking waters during a one-year monitoring period.

    Nichols, R A B; Connelly, L; Sullivan, C B; Smith, H V


    We analyzed 1,042 Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive slides (456 from raw waters and 586 from drinking waters) of which 55.7% contained 1 or 2 oocysts, to determine species/genotypes present in Scottish waters. Two nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays targeting different loci (1 and 2) of the hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene were used for species identification, and 62.4% of samples were amplified with at least one of the PCR assays. More samples (577 slides; 48.7% from raw water and 51.3% from drinking water) were amplified at locus 1 than at locus 2 (419 slides; 50.1% from raw water and 49.9% from drinking water). PCR at loci 1 and 2 amplified 45.4% and 31.7% of samples containing 1 or 2 oocysts, respectively. We detected both human-infectious and non-human-infectious species/genotype oocysts in Scottish raw and drinking waters. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium parvum, and the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype (now Cryptosporidium ubiquitum) were most commonly detected in both raw and drinking waters, with C. ubiquitum being most common in drinking waters (12.5%) followed by C. parvum (4.2%) and C. andersoni (4.0%). Numerous samples (16.6% total; 18.9% from drinking water) contained mixtures of two or more species/genotypes, and we describe strategies for unraveling their identity. Repetitive analysis for discriminating mixtures proved useful, but both template concentration and PCR assay influenced outcomes. Five novel Cryptosporidium spp. (SW1 to SW5) were identified by RFLP/sequencing, and Cryptosporidium sp. SW1 was the fourth most common contaminant of Scottish drinking water (3%).

  8. The high-density lipoprotein-adjusted SCORE model worsens SCORE-based risk classification in a contemporary population of 30 824 Europeans

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    AIMS: Recent European guidelines recommend to include high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in risk assessment for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), using a SCORE-based risk model (SCORE-HDL). We compared the predictive performance of SCORE-HDL with SCORE in an independent......, contemporary, 'low-risk' European population, focusing on ability to identify those in need of intensified CVD prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2008, 46,092 individuals without CVD, diabetes, or statin use were enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS). During a mean of 6.......8 years of follow-up, 339 individuals died of CVD. In the SCORE target population (age 40-65; n = 30,824), fewer individuals were at baseline categorized as high risk (≥5% 10-year risk of fatal CVD) using SCORE-HDL compared with SCORE (10 vs. 17% in men, 1 vs. 3% in women). SCORE-HDL did not improve...

  9. Effectiveness of Propensity Score Methods in a Multilevel Framework: A Monte Carlo Study

    Bellara, Aarti P.


    Propensity score analysis has been used to minimize the selection bias in observational studies to identify causal relationships. A propensity score is an estimate of an individual's probability of being placed in a treatment group given a set of covariates. Propensity score analysis aims to use the estimate to create balanced groups, akin to a…

  10. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.


    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  11. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  12. Selection of Raw Materials for the Reactive Sinterling of Zircon Porous Ceramics

    SHENYi; ZHANGWenli; 等


    The effect of three kinds of zircon raw materials on the sinterability and properties of porous zircon ceramics have been investigated.The results have shown that all the tested fired compacts are of high porosity,However,the sintering process are different for different raw materials.The preferable selected raw materials for porous zircon ceramics were commercials zircon and quartz.

  13. Raw Data (FASTA format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us PLACE Raw Data (FAST...A format) Data detail Data name Raw Data (FASTA format) Description of data contents The document in FAST...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Raw Data (FASTA format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  14. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  15. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products


    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  16. Raw Data (Signal scan format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available List Contact us PLACE Raw Data (Signal scan format) Data detail Data name Raw Data (Signal scan format) DOI ...10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00168-004 Description of data contents The document in Signal scan format that contains b...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Raw Data (Signal scan format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Regenerative raw materials - High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe - Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Wenig, Barbara


    Regenerative raw materials are the basis for a multiplicity of environmentally friendly products. Regenerating raw materials fascinate by special qualities and offer the possibility of preserving only restricted existing fossil resources and climatic friendly managing. The review under consideration reports on areas in which vegetable raw materials already are established as well as on future prospects.

  18. The FAT Score, a Fibrosis Score of Adipose Tissue: Predicting Weight-Loss Outcome After Gastric Bypass.

    Bel Lassen, Pierre; Charlotte, Frederic; Liu, Yuejun; Bedossa, Pierre; Le Naour, Gilles; Tordjman, Joan; Poitou, Christine; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Genser, Laurent; Zucker, Jean-Daniel; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Clément, Karine


    Bariatric surgery (BS) induces major and sustainable weight loss in many patients. Factors predicting poor weight-loss response (PR) need to be identified to improve patient care. Quantification of subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) fibrosis is negatively associated with post-BS weight loss, but whether it could constitute a predictor applicable in clinical routine remains to be demonstrated. To create a semiquantitative score evaluating scAT fibrosis and test its predictive value on weight-loss response after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We created a fibrosis score of adipose tissue (FAT score) integrating perilobular and pericellular fibrosis. Using this score, we characterized 183 perioperative scAT biopsy specimens from severely obese patients who underwent RYGB (n = 85 from a training cohort; n = 98 from a confirmation cohort). PR to RYGB was defined as loss at 1 year (lowest tertile). The link between FAT score and PR was tested in univariate and multivariate models. FAT score was directly associated with increasing scAT fibrosis measured by a standard quantification method (P for trend FAT score interobserver agreement was good (κ = 0.76). FAT score ≥2 was significantly associated with PR. The association remained significant after adjustment for age, diabetes status, hypertension, percent fat mass, and interleukin-6 level (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.2; P = 0.003). The FAT score is a new, simple, semiquantitative evaluation of human scAT fibrosis that may help identify patients with a potential limited weight-loss response to RYGB.

  19. Prognostic factors and scoring system for death from visceral leishmaniasis: an historical cohort study in Brazil.

    Wendel Coura-Vital


    Full Text Available In Brazil, case-fatality rates attributable to visceral leishmaniasis (VL are high and knowledge of the risk factors associated with death may help reduce mortality. The aim of this study was to construct and validate a scoring system for prognosis of death from VL by using all cases reported in Brazil from 2007 to 2011.In this historical cohort study, 18,501 VL cases were analyzed; of these, 17,345 cases were cured and 1,156 cases caused death. The database was divided into two series: primary (two-thirds of cases, to develop the model score, and secondary (one-third of cases, to validate the scoring system. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to identify factors associated with death from VL, and these were included in the scoring system.The factors associated with death from VL were: bleeding (score 3; splenomegaly (score 1; edema (score 1; weakness (score 1; jaundice (score 1; Leishmania-HIV co-infection (score 1; bacterial infection (score 1; and age (≤0.5 years [score 5]; >0.5 and ≤1 [score 2]; >19 and ≤50 [score 2]; >50 and <65 [score 3]; ≥65 [score 5]. It was observed that patients with a score of 4 had a probability of death of approximately 4.5% and had a worse prognosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of this score were 89.4, 51.2, and 53.5, respectively.The scoring system based on risk factors for death showed good performance in identifying patients with signs of severity at the time of clinical suspicion of VL and can contribute to improving the surveillance system for reducing case fatalities. The classification of patients according to their prognosis for death may assist decision-making regarding the transfer of the patients to hospitals more capable of handling their condition, admission to the intensive care unit, and adequate support and specific treatment.

  20. Non-wood plants as raw material for pulp and paper



    Full Text Available This study was begun in 1990 when there was a marked shortage of short fibre raw material for the pulp industry. During the last ten years the situation has changed little, and the shortage is still apparent. It was estimated that 0.5 to 1 million hectares of arable land would be set aside from cultivation in Finland during this period. An alternative to using hardwoods in printing papers is non-wood fibres from herbaceous field crops. The study aimed at determining the feasibility of using non-wood plants as raw material for the pulp and paper industry, and developing crop management methods for the selected species. The properties considered important for a fibre crop were high yielding ability, high pulping quality and good adaptation to the prevailing climatic conditions and possibilities for low cost production. A strategy and a process to identify, select and introduce a crop for domestic short fibre production is described in this thesis. The experimental part of the study consisted of screening plant species by analysing fibre and mineral content, evaluating crop management methods and varieties, resulting in description of an appropriate cropping system for large-scale fibre plant production. Of the 17 herbaceous plant species studied, monocotyledons were most suitable for pulping. They were productive and well adapted to Finnish climatic conditions. Of the monocots, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L. and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. were the most promising. These were chosen for further studies and were included in field experiments to determine the most suitable harvesting system and fertilizer application procedures for biomass production. Reed canary grass was favoured by delayed harvesting in spring when the moisture content of the crop stand was 10-15% of DM before production of new tillers. When sown in early spring, reed canary grass typically yielded 7-8 t ha-1 within three years on clay soil. The yield

  1. Occurrence of virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from raw cow's milk from two commercial dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I; Ndip, Roland N; Green, Ezekiel


    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows' raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  2. MIS Score: Prediction Model for Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Jingwei; Hou, Xianzeng; Liu, Guangcun


    Reports suggest that patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can benefit from minimally invasive surgery, but the inclusion criterion for operation is controversial. This article analyzes factors affecting the 30-day prognoses of patients who have received minimally invasive surgery and proposes a simple grading scale that represents clinical operation effectiveness. The records of 101 patients with spontaneous ICH presenting to Qianfoshan Hospital were reviewed. Factors affecting their 30-day prognosis were identified by logistic regression. A clinical grading scale, the MIS score, was developed by weighting the independent predictors based on these factors. Univariate analysis revealed that the factors that affect 30-day prognosis include Glasgow coma scale score (P MIS score was developed accordingly; 39 patients with 0-1 MIS scores had favorable prognoses, whereas only 9 patients with 2-5 MIS scores had poor prognoses. The MIS score is a simple grading scale that can be used to select patients who are suited for minimal invasive drainage surgery. When MIS score is 0-1, minimal invasive surgery is strongly recommended for patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage. The scale merits further prospective studies to fully determine its efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of prognostic factors and scoring system in colonic perforation

    Atsushi Horiuchi; Yuji Watanabe; Takashi Doi; Kouichi Sato; Syungo Yukumi; Motohira Yoshida; Yuji Yamamoto; Hiroki Sugishita; Kanji Kawachi


    AIM: To study the significance of scoring systems assessing severity and prognostic factors in patients with colonic perforation.METHODS: A total of 26 patients (9 men, 17 women;mean age 72.7±11.6 years) underwent emergency operation for colorectal perforation in our institution between 1993 and 2005. Several clinical factors were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluationⅡ (APACHE Ⅱ),Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI) and peritonitis index of Altona (PIA Ⅱ) scores were calculated preoperatively.RESULTS: Overall postoperative mortality rate was 23.1% (6 patients). Compared with survivors, nonsurvivors displayed low blood pressure, low serum protein and high serum creatinine preoperatively, and low blood pressure, low white blood cell count, low pH,low PaO2/FiO2, and high serum creatinine postoperatively.APACHE Ⅱ score was significantly lower in survivors than in non-survivors (10.4±3.84 vs19.3±2.87, P= 0.00003). Non-survivors tended to display high MPI score and low PIA Ⅱ score, but no significant difference was identified.CONCLUSION: Pre- and postoperative blood pressure and serum creatinine level appear related to prognosis of colonic perforation. APACHE Ⅱ score is most associated with prognosis and scores ≥ 20 are associated with significantly increased mortality rate.


    Pablo Rogers


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  5. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter


    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.


    V. Spanu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in raw sheep milk cheese and to assess the enterotoxigenic profile of the isolated strains. N.16 raw milk sheep cheese, collected from 8 artisan dairies, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (CPS. In the frame of Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 cheese samples were tested for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs when a CPS count >105 cfu/g was detected. CPS isolates identified as S. aureus were analyzed using multiplex PCR for the detection of classical (sea-see and enterotoxins-like (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep genes. S. aureus was recovered in all cheese samples and in 50% with levels >105 cfu/g. 14 strains carried at least one of the genes coding for enterotoxins. In none of the cheese samples SEs were detected. Although a correct acidification (pH 5.1-5.4 at 6 hours was observed in dairies using natural starter culture, in cheese samples obtained from these dairies, CPS counts were greater (P<0.05 as compared with those where starter culture were not used. This result might be related to the main role of microbial competition on the control of S. aureus in early stage of cheesemaking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of lactic acid bacteria competition on the growth of S. aureus.

  7. Stone Tool Manufacture Strategies and Lithic Raw Material Exploitation in Coastal Patagonia, Argentina: A Multivariate Approach

    Marcelo Cardillo


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to characterize strategies of artifact manufacture and lithic raw material exploitation along San Matías Gulf coast, Argentina, using multifactorial and cluster analysis. Multifactorial analysis is a relatively new method that has yet to be used for archaeological analysis; it has the advantage that it allows us to describe data using different groups of qualitative or quantitative variables at the same time. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted on multifactorial axis in a bid to identify grouping patterns. The results obtained from the combination of these two methods suggest that they may be useful in characterizing technological strategies in the study area. Furthermore, they may also be a powerful exploratory and characterization tool able to generate explanations at low spatial scales. The application of these methods on San Matías Gulf study case suggests that along the western and northern coasts of this Gulf the most important variables in determining differences in resource use were the fragmentation ratio and lithic raw materials used in artifact manufacture.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus species in chicken and beef raw meat in Egypt.

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A


    Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia


    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  10. Microbiological Quality of Raw Dried Pasta from the German Market, with Special Emphasis on Cronobacter Species.

    Akineden, Ömer; Murata, Kristina Johanna; Gross, Madeleine; Usleber, Ewald


    The microbiological quality of 132 dried pasta products available on the German market, originating from 11 different countries, was studied. Sample materials included soft or durum wheat products, some of which produced with other ingredients such as eggs, spices, or vegetables. Parameters included hygiene indicators (aerobic plate count, mold count, the presence of Enterobacteriaceae) and pathogenic/toxinogenic bacterial species (Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, presumptive Bacillus cereus, and Cronobacter spp.). The overall results of hygiene parameters indicated a satisfactory quality. Salmonella was not found in any sample. Three samples were positive for S. aureus (10(2) to 10(4) colony forming unit (CFU)/g). Presumptive B. cereus at levels of 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g were detected in 3 samples. Cronobacter spp. were isolated from 14 (10.6%) products. Of these, 9 isolates were identified as C. sakazakii, 2 each as C. turicensis and C. malonaticus, and 1 as C. muytjensii. The isolates were assigned to 9 multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types and to 14 different PFGE profiles. Although pasta products are typically cooked before consumption, some consumers, and children in particular, may also eat raw pasta as nibbles. Raw pasta seems to be a relevant source of exposure to dietary Cronobacter spp., although health risks are probably restricted to vulnerable consumers. High numbers of presumptive B. cereus as found in some samples may be a risk after improper storage of cooked pasta products because toxinogenic strains are frequently found within this species.

  11. Chemical composition and potential health risks of raw Arabian incense (Bakhour

    Yehya Elsayed


    Full Text Available Burning Arabian incense (Bakhour is a common indoor practice in the Middle East and the Arabian Gulf region. However, the chemical composition of this substance has never been studied. Three different Bakhour brands were selected for this study. A complete chemical profile for the raw samples was determined using carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry techniques. A wide range of elements and compounds were identified, many of which are hazardous to health. Nitrogen was found in all samples which should raise concerns due to the known health implications of amines, nitrogen oxides and nitrites. In addition toxic metals such as cobalt, copper, iron, nickel, lead, and zinc were also determined in all samples. The amounts of these metals are equivalent to those in raw tobacco, where they are known to pose health risks. Three types of solvents (acetone, dichloromethane and toluene were used for the extraction of organic compounds. Carcinogens, toxins and irritants were found along others of different health implications. Isolation of these compounds provides preliminary evidence on the harmful consequences of being exposed to Bakhour.

  12. Mycobiota and aflatoxins in raw materials and pet food in Brazil.

    Campos, S G; Cavaglieri, L R; Fernández Juri, M G; Dalcero, A M; Krüger, C; Keller, L A M; Magnoli, C E; Rosa, C A R


    Commercial feedstuffs are a basic element in modern pet husbandry in the world. In dogs, the effect of mycotoxins is severe and can lead to death. Few reports on the influence of dietary mycotoxins were found in the scientific literature. The aims of this work were to isolate and identify the mycoflora and to determine the aflatoxins (AFs) natural occurrence in raw materials and ready dry pet food. Therefore, the aflatoxigenic capacity of Aspergillus flavus species was investigated. Aspergillus was the prevalent genera (65-89%) followed by Penicillium and Fusarium spp. Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species, followed by Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus versicolor. Aspergillus flavus frequencies ranged from 58% to 86% except in sorghum meal. All samples assayed (except corn grains and ready pet food) showed Fusarium spp. contamination. Corn meal and corn meal and gluten samples had 100% Fusarium verticillioides. Fusarium graminearum was isolated from sorghum meal. Aspergillus flavus strains (75%) isolated from raw materials and 57% from pet food were able to produce AFs. All samples showed AFs contamination percentages over 70%; corn and sorghum meal obtained the highest AFs levels. Ready pet food did not show quantitative levels of the tested toxins. This is the first report of the aflatoxigenic capacity by A. flavus from Brazilian pet food.

  13. Contamination profiles and characterisation of Bacillus species in wheat bread and raw materials for bread production.

    Rosenkvist, H; Hansen, A


    The Bacillus counts in white and wholemeal wheat loaves produced without preservatives or sour dough were consistently 10(6) cfu/g after two days of storage at ambient summer temperatures (25-30 degree C). Identified species were B. subtilis (70%), B. licheniformis (24%), B. pumilus (2%) and B. cereus (2%). The dominance of B. subtilis in bread could be explained by the higher resistance to heat of this species as determined by inoculation studies. Among 14 species isolated from retail bread and wheat grains, B. subtilis was the only species associated with ropiness. Samples of raw materials, particularly bran, seeds and oat products, contained low levels (10(0) - 10(2) cfu/g) of Bacillus spores, surviving a heat treatment (100 degree C, 10 min) corresponding to a baking process. Even low spore levels in raw materials with the frequently isolated species, B. licheniformis (49%) and B. subtilis (10%), resulted in 10(7) Bacillus per g bread crumb in two days as determined by test bakings. The results indicate a need for controlling growth of Bacillus in bread.

  14. Identification a Novel Raw-Starch-Degrading-α-Amylase from a Tropical Marine Bacterium

    Zeily Nurachman


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bacteria from the surface of the tropical marine hard coral Acropora sp. were screened for producing raw-starch-degrading-á-amylase. Approach: Based on its 16s rDNA sequence, a bacterium that produced the highest amylolitic activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquifaciens ABBD. The bacterial isolate secreted a á-amylase extracellularly and then the enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange chromatography. Results: Electrophoresis results both SDS-PAGE and native PAGE suggested that the enzyme was a heterodimeric protein (97 kDa consisting of 45 and 55 kDa subunits. The á-amylase had an optimum pH of 7.0 and temperature of 60°C. More than 80% activity of the enzyme was retained under high salt conditions (up to 20% NaCl. The enzyme remained stable at 50°C for 1 h. Starch hydrolysis by the enzyme at 70°C yielded oligosaccharides (G2-G4 and at room temperature yielded glucose/maltose (G1 and G2. Conclusion: The B. amyloliquifaciens ABBD á-amylase was capable of degrading various raw starch granules from corn, rice, cassava and sago at room temperature.

  15. Clinical utility of metabolic syndrome severity scores: considerations for practitioners

    DeBoer, Mark D; Gurka, Matthew J


    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup. These scores are correlated with long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical use of scores like these provide a potential opportunity to identify patients at highest risk, motivate patients toward lifestyle change, and follow treatment progress over time.

  16. The scoring bias in reverse docking and the score normalization strategy to improve success rate of target fishing

    Luo, Qiyao; Zhao, Liang; Hu, Jianxing; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren


    Target fishing often relies on the use of reverse docking to identify potential target proteins of ligands from protein database. The limitation of reverse docking is the accuracy of current scoring funtions used to distinguish true target from non-target proteins. Many contemporary scoring functions are designed for the virtual screening of small molecules without special optimization for reverse docking, which would be easily influenced by the properties of protein pockets, resulting in scoring bias to the proteins with certain properties. This bias would cause lots of false positives in reverse docking, interferring the identification of true targets. In this paper, we have conducted a large-scale reverse docking (5000 molecules to 100 proteins) to study the scoring bias in reverse docking by DOCK, Glide, and AutoDock Vina. And we found that there were actually some frequency hits, namely interference proteins in all three docking procedures. After analyzing the differences of pocket properties between these interference proteins and the others, we speculated that the interference proteins have larger contact area (related to the size and shape of protein pockets) with ligands (for all three docking programs) or higher hydrophobicity (for Glide), which could be the causes of scoring bias. Then we applied the score normalization method to eliminate this scoring bias, which was effective to make docking score more balanced between different proteins in the reverse docking of benchmark dataset. Later, the Astex Diver Set was utilized to validate the effect of score normalization on actual cases of reverse docking, showing that the accuracy of target prediction significantly increased by 21.5% in the reverse docking by Glide after score normalization, though there was no obvious change in the reverse docking by DOCK and AutoDock Vina. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of score normalization to eliminate the scoring bias and improve the accuracy of target

  17. Applicability of unconventional energy raw materials in ethanol production

    Małgorzata Gumienna


    Full Text Available Background. The difficult position of Polish agriculture, including one of its branches, i.e. sugar industry, is conducive of search for solutions aiming at an improvement of the condition of industry. One of the potential solutions in this respect may be to focus on alternative raw materials and search for ways to overcome recession in renewable energy sources. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using non-starchy materials – sugar materials, without enzymatic treatment for ethanol production using selected yeast strains. Material and methods. Sugar beet pulp and thick juice, as a semi product from sugar beet, were fermented. The efficiency of the process was assessed using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae preparations – Ethanol Red, Fermiol. Fermentation was run for 72 h at 30°C. Quality of produced raw distillates was evaluated using the GC method. Results. The research on fermentation processes showed that sugar beet pulp let obtain higher ethanol yield – 87% of theoretical than sugar beet thick juice – 84% of theoretical, both for Ethanol Red and Fermiol yeast preparations. Moreover, it was exhibited that the increase of sugar concentration in the fermentation medium obtained from thick juice, statistically importantly influenced ethanol yield decrease, for both yeast preparations. The distillates’ quality analysis showed the influence of raw materials and microorganism used for fermentation on pollution degree. Distillate obtained from thick juice was characterised with the lowest by-products content after fermentation with Ethanol Red. Conclusions. The results make additional possibilities for sugar beet utilization in distillery industry and new markets using production surpluses both for sugar beet and its semi-product – thick juice.

  18. Determination of impurities in raw light pyridine bases

    Novikov, E.G.; Dybkin. L.A.; Galleway, B.J.; Lisina, L.A.; Tsaur, A.G.


    An estimate has been made of the annual average content of phenols, cyanides, rhodanides and chlorides in the raw light pyridine bases of the works in the East of the USSR. The mean values of the content of every component in the tests are given, and the amount of water in them is indicated. The bases with the highest content of phenols were those of the Cherepovets Metallurgical Works and the Gubakhin Coke and Chemical Works, and some specimens of the Karagandinsk Metallurgical Works. For most enterprises, the concentration of phenols depended on the time of the year: the phenol content in the specimens was mostly higher in the summer than in the winter. For the works in the East of USSR, the mean annual content of cyanides was 1.5 g/lit. Some enterprises supplied light pyridine bases whose cyanide content was almost ten times less. The pyridine bases of the Karagandinsk Metallurgical Works, especially those with phenolates, have an especially high content of cyanides. For instance, the cyanide content in one test was 8.9 g/lit. The mean annual content of rhodanides in the tested bases was 3.5-4.0 g/lit. The raw light pyridine bases of the Karagandinsk Metallurgical Works, from which a large amount of crystalline salt mixtures precipitates during storage when they contain phenolates, have the highest rhodamine content. The bases of the Chelyabin Metallurgical Works and the Gubakhin Coke and Chemical Works contain the least amount of salts. The mean annual content of phenols in the tests of the works in the East of the USSR is 5%. This is probably less than in the specimens of the works in the Sought of the USSR. It has been established that, besides the above-mentioned impurities, raw light pyridine bases have components which form a dark flake-like precipitate of an unknown composition during storage.

  19. Discrepancies between modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score and COPD assessment test score in patients with COPD

    Rhee CK


    more symptomatic. We aimed to identify the ideal CAT score that exhibits minimal discrepancy with the mMRC score.Methods: A receiver operating characteristic curve of the CAT score was generated for an mMRC scores of 1 and 2. A concordance analysis was applied to quantify the association between the frequencies of patients categorized into GOLD groups A–D using symptom cutoff points. A κ-coefficient was calculated.Results: For an mMRC score of 2, a CAT score of 15 showed the maximum value of Youden’s index with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.70 and 0.66, respectively (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70–0.77. For an mMRC score of 1, a CAT score of 10 showed the maximum value of Youden’s index with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.77 and 0.65, respectively (AUC 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72–0.83. The κ value for concordance was highest between an mMRC score of 1 and a CAT score of 10 (0.66, followed by an mMRC score of 2 and a CAT score of 15 (0.56, an mMRC score of 2 and a CAT score of 10 (0.47, and an mMRC score of 1 and a CAT score of 15 (0.43.Conclusion: A CAT score of 10 was most concordant with an mMRC score of 1 when classifying patients with COPD into GOLD groups A–D. However, a discrepancy remains between the CAT and mMRC scoring systems. Keywords: COPD, CAT, mMRC, concordance, discrepancy

  20. A Scoring Tool for Websites – A Case of Sustainable Organizations

    Ahmed GOMAA


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a scoring tool to analyse company sustainability marketing efforts. We identify the expected scores for the companies selected on Corporate Responsibility Magazine’s list of 100 Best Corporate Citizens of the year. The scoring tool is based on the aspects of sustainability and website quality and is divided into three categories: a user friendly, b transparency, and c content. The automation of the scoring tool benefits from a sustainability taxonomy to extract and evaluate the sustainability concepts and efforts mentioned by the companies. The tool scores the selected companies websites to determine the extent and quality of a company’s marketing of sustainability efforts. The result of applying the scoring tool shows that all companies in the list scored 8 to 14 in the user friendly section. In the transparency section, they scored 5 to 7, and in the content section they scored 6 to 10.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Radar Raw Signals Simulation of Extended Scenes

    Sun Jin-yao; Sun Hong


    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) raw signal simulation algorithm for extended scenes is presented. This algorithm is based on the SAR two-dimensional system transform function (STF). To cope with range-variant nature of SAR STF and increase the speed of this algorithm, new formulas for range-variant phase corrections in range Doppler (RD) domain are developed. In this way, many azimuth lines can be simulated with the same SAR STF. It only needs twodimensional fast Fourier transform code and complex multiplications. Comparing with time-domain simulation algorithm, it is very simple and thus efficient. Simulation results have shown that this algorithm is accurate and efficient.

  2. Secondary raw materials for synthesising new kind of cements

    Goñi, S.; Macías, Mª A., Peña, E.; Fernández-Escalante, E.


    [EN]The present paper is a comparative study of some characteristics of new belite cements obtained from two kind of wastes, which were used as secondary raw materials: fly ash (FA), of low CaO content, from coal combustion, and ash from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSWIA). Cements were synthesised in a range of temperature between 700 °C and 900 ""C from MSWIA and FA, which were previously activated by hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C The evolution of cement...

  3. Vegan Triple-Ironman (Raw Vegetables/Fruits)

    Roman Leischik; Norman Spelsberg


    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. I...

  4. Sound absorption study of raw and expanded particulate vermiculites

    Vašina, Martin; Plachá, Daniela; Mikeska, Marcel; Hružík, Lumír; Martynková, Gražyna Simha


    Expanded and raw vermiculite minerals were studied for their ability to absorb sound. Phase and structural characterization of the investigated vermiculites was found similar for both types, while morphology and surface properties vary. Sound waves reflect in wedge-like structure and get minimized, and later are absorbed totally. We found that thanks to porous character of expanded vermiculite the principle of absorption of sound into layered vermiculite morphology is analogous to principle of sound minimization in "anechoic chambers." It was found in this study that the best sound damping properties of the investigated vermiculites were in general obtained at higher powder bed heights and higher excitation frequencies.

  5. Monopoly power and the recycling of raw materials

    Martin, R.E.


    A leader-follower model of monopolist recycling in the case of the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) shows that industry output in the presence of raw-material recycling will be at least as great and sometimes significantly greater than when there is no recycling. Monopoly rents will drop as the technology for scrap recovery or conversion improves, and rise if the scrap leaks into export markets. The consumer benefits if the scrap-recovery sector is separate from the monopolist, but will not be worse off if production is integrated. The monopolist has no incentive for partial integration even if there are no entry barriers. 7 references. (DCK)

  6. Toxin-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Caused by Raw Cashew Nuts

    Stueck, Ashley; Bansal, Meena


    A 64-year-old man with no past medical history presented with abnormally elevated liver enzymes 1 year after developing a diffuse rash thought to be related to eating large quantities of raw cashew nuts. Liver biopsy was performed, which revealed features concerning for drug- or toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient began treatment with azathioprine and prednisone, and liver enzymes normalized. We describe a unique case of a toxin-induced autoimmune hepatitis precipitated not by a drug or dietary supplement but by a food product.

  7. Open data in science and research : raw data now

    Giles, Jeremy


    Open Data in science and research is an emerging priority for governments and public bodies across the western world. In 2009 Tim Berners-Lee (inventor of the World Wide Web) called for “raw data now” – for governments, scientists and institutions to make their data openly available on the web. That message is rippling around the world and government and public bodies from EU to NERC are responding. Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the European Commission, recently said: "Taxpayers should not ...

  8. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai


    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  9. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Diego Breviario


    Full Text Available The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  10. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

    Letiţia Oprean


    Full Text Available Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteurized milk is used in the food industry.

  11. Vegan Triple-Ironman (Raw Vegetables/Fruits)

    Roman Leischik; Norman Spelsberg


    Endurance sport requires a healthy and balanced diet. In this case report we present the findings of an ultra-triathlete (three times Ironman, means 11.4 km swim, 540 km bike, 125 km run in 41:18 h as a whole) living on a raw vegan diet and having finished the competitions under these nutritional conditions. To this end, the vegan ultra triathlete and a control group of 10 Ironman triathletes of similar age living on a mixed diet were investigated, using echocardiography and spiroergometry. I...

  12. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    Su, Shuochen


    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique signatures of the material, i.e. the degree of subsurface scattering inside a volume. Subsequently, it offers an orthogonal domain of feature representation compared to conventional spatial and angular reflectance-based approaches. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and efficiency of our method through experiments and comparisons of real-world materials.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Purchase Price of Raw Milk in the World

    Xiaoxia; DONG


    This paper selects 20 countries from the major dairy producing continents such as Oceania,the Americas,Europe and Asia,for the comparative analysis of the purchase price of raw milk in the world. Based on the summarization of general features of the world raw milk prices,this paper elaborates the fluctuations in the purchase price of raw milk in Oceania,the Americas,Europe and Asia,respectively,and carries out the comparative study of the gap between the domestic purchase price of raw milk and the world purchase price of raw milk.

  14. Characterization of the Key Aroma Compounds in Raw Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) by Means of Molecular Sensory Science.

    Wagner, Juliane; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter


    Application of the molecular sensory science concept including aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the basis of gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidated the key odorants of raw licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). Fifty aroma-active compounds were located via AEDA; 16 thereof were identified in raw licorice for the first time. γ-Nonalactone, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde showed the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 1024. Forty-three compounds were quantitated by means of stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA; 6 more compounds were quantitated using labeled standards with structures similar to the respective analytes) and odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to the respective odor threshold) were calculated revealing OAVs ≥1 for 39 compounds. Thereby, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, hexanal, and linalool showed the highest OAVs. On the basis of the obtained results, an aqueous reconstitution model was prepared by mixing these 39 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. The recombinate elicited an aroma profile very similar to the profile of raw licorice, proving that all key aroma compounds were correctly identified and quantitated.

  15. Optimization and validation of post-column assay for screening of radical scavengers in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations.

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Bumblauskiene, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras


    On-line method, which combines HPLC distribution and post-column reaction, was designed for the search of individual antioxidants. Optimization of the assay was performed evaluating optimal ABTS(+) radical cation concentration in the reactor, reaction time, impact of flow rate, reaction coil length. HPLC-ABTS assay validation in this work was performed by assessing reference antioxidant negative peak areas in radical scavenging chromatogram. Sample free radical scavenging activity is expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Optimized and validated method was applied in detection of compounds possessing free radical scavenging ability in complex mixtures. Antioxidant compounds were studied in perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa f. viridis) herbal raw material and its preparations. The HPLC-separated antioxidant compounds were identified using HPLC-photodiode array coupled to mass spectrometer, using a reference mass for determining accurate masses. Radical scavenging characteristics of rosmarinic acid, which is the dominant phenolic compound in medicinal herbal raw material of perilla and its preparations, were confirmed by the calculated TEAC values. Compounds responsible for antioxidant effect in herbal raw materials and herbal preparations were identified, evaluated and compared.

  16. My max score AP statistics maximize your score in less time

    Ross, Phd, Amanda


    The only study guide to offer expert, customized study plans for every student's needs You've had a year to study...but also a year to forget. As the AP test approaches, other guides reexamine the entire year of material. But only one guide identifies your strengths and weaknesses, then points you directly to the review you need most My Max Score, a new concept developed by AP teachers and exam graders, offers separate review materials for long-term prep and last-minute cram sessions-no matter when you start studying, This is just what you need-plus str

  17. Prediction of IOI-HA Scores Using Speech Reception Thresholds and Speech Discrimination Scores in Quiet

    Brännström, K Jonas; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme


    BACKGROUND: Outcome measures can be used to improve the quality of the rehabilitation by identifying and understanding which variables influence the outcome. This information can be used to improve outcomes for clients. In clinical practice, pure-tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds (SRTs......), and speech discrimination scores (SDSs) in quiet or in noise are common assessments made prior to hearing aid (HA) fittings. It is not known whether SRT and SDS in quiet relate to HA outcome measured with the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). PURPOSE: The aim of the present study...

  18. Algae consumption and nitrate removal in a raw water transport system by Limnoperna fortunei and its associated microorganisms.

    Zhang, Ruijian; Cui, Bin; Huang, Shaobin


    This laboratory-scale study investigated the effect of Limnoperna fortunei on chlorophyll a, phosphates, ammonia, and nitrates in a simulated raw water transport system, with a special focus on the isolation and identification of microbes in the biofilm attached to the shell surface. These microbes appear to be involved in the decreased concentration of nitrates observed in the water. The microbial communities in the raw water and on the surface of the mussel's shell were investigated through various methods, including a 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, which revealed significant diversity in terms of the structure and abundance of microbial species present. Two aerobic denitrifying bacteria (I-N38 and I-N45) were identified in shell biofilm that were capable of removing 95.5 and 100% of nitrates, respectively, within 24 hours.

  19. Molecular identification of naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like lactic acid bacteria in raw milk and soft cheese.

    Ortolani, M B T; Moraes, P M; Perin, L M; Viçosa, G N; Carvalho, K G; Silva Júnior, A; Nero, L A


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are currently used by food industries because of their ability to produce metabolites with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to identify naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic or bacteriocinogenic-like LAB in raw milk and soft cheese and to detect the presence of nisin-coding genes in cultures identified as Lactococcus lactis. Lactic acid bacteria cultures were isolated from 389 raw milk and soft cheese samples and were later characterized for the production of antimicrobial substances against Listeria monocytogenes. Of these, 58 (14.9%) LAB cultures were identified as antagonistic; the nature of this antagonistic activity was then characterized via enzymatic tests to confirm the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial substances. In addition, 20 of these antagonistic cultures were selected and submitted to genetic sequencing; they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (n=2) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (n=18). Nisin genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 7 of these cultures. The identified bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like cultures were highly variable concerning the production and activity of antimicrobial substances, even when they were genetically similar. The obtained results indicated the need for molecular and phenotypic methodologies to properly characterize bacteriocinogenic LAB, as well as the potential use of these cultures as tools to provide food safety.

  20. The Role of Routine Whole Volume SPECT Reconstruction in Comparison to Cine Raw Data in the Detection of Extracardiac Uptake on Myocardial Perfusion Scans.

    Maharaj, M; Korowlay, N A


    The objective of this study was to determine the role of routine whole volume reconstructed single-photon emission tomography (rSPECT) compared to cine raw data to detect extracardiac uptake of Sestamibi (MIBI). In a retrospective study, the myocardial perfusion studies of 426 patients were inspected separately for extracardiac uptake on cine raw data and rSPECT. The acquisition parameters for all the images were done according to departmental protocol. The whole volume SPECT data was selected and processed by HOSEM iterative reconstruction using the HERMES computer software system. The images were assessed by two observers, a student in training and a senior consultant nuclear medicine physician. The overall mean age and standard deviation of the 426 patients at the time of the study was 60 ± 12 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kappa and McNemars tests. The clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was evaluated using hospital folders and /or laboratory results after viewing images. rSPECT detected 25 patients (5.9%) and cine raw data identified 18 patients (4.2%) with extracardiac uptake. All the areas of extracardiac uptake noted on cine raw data were seen on the rSPECT images. Only 21 of the 25 patients had complete 5-year clinical follow-up. The value of the clinical significance of the extracardiac uptake was limited due to the study being retrospective. The proportion of positives identified by rSPECT was significantly larger than those identified by cine raw data (P = 0.0082). Although our study demonstrates that rSPECT is more sensitive than cine raw data in detecting extracardiac uptake, it also shows that there is no benefit in routine whole volume rSPECT in daily clinical practice.

  1. Project W-519 CDR supplement: Raw water and electrical services for privatization contractor, AP tank farm operations

    Parazin, R.J.


    This supplement to the Project W-519 Conceptual Design will identify a means to provide RW and Electrical services to serve the needs of the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) at AP Tank Farm as directed by DOE-RL. The RW will serve the fire suppression and untreated process water requirements for the PC. The purpose of this CDR supplement is to identify Raw Water (RW) and Electrical service line routes to the TWRS Privatization Contractor (PC) feed delivery tanks, AP-106 and/or AP-108, and establish associated cost impacts to the Project W-519 baseline.

  2. Predictive Power of Primary and Secondary School Success Criterion on Transition to Higher Education Examination Scores

    Atilla ÖZDEMİR


    Full Text Available It is seen that education has a significant effect that changes an individual’s life in our country in which education is a way of moving up the social ladder. In order to continue to a higher education program after graduating from high school, students have to succeed in transition to higher education examination. Thus, the entrance exam is an important factor to determine the future of the students. In our country, middle school grades and high school grade point average that is added to university placement score are also determinants. When spiral structure of our curriculum is considered, it is expected that related courses’ grades at middle school will predict the scores obtained from the first stage of transition to higher education exam (YGS. Since high school grade point average forms university placement score, being aware of how related courses’ achievement scores at secondary school predict raw scores of YGS subtests is significant in terms of our education system’s feedback and integrity. As a result, observing students’ achievement scores in related courses during their middle and high school education longitudinally and predicting raw scores on the subtests of the first stage of university entrance exam, YGS, from middle school and high scool achievement scores are substantial with regards to provide feedback to our education system. Because of those reasons, the predictive power of 7th - 12th grade year-end grade point averages ofstudents who took YGS in 2013 on their 2013 YGS subtests’ raw scvores is examined. Students who took YGS exam in Ankara province at 2012-2013 school year formed the aimed population of this study and 533 students who took YGS exam in 2013 in Altındağ district of Ankara formed target population of the study. Data was obtained from 533 students at three different schools in Altındağ district of Ankara province. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to answer research questions

  3. Volatile chemical spoilage indexes of raw Atlantic salmon (salmo salar)stored under aerobic condition in relation to microbiological and sensory shelf lives

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify and quantify the volatile chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) for raw Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets stored under aerobic storage conditions at 4, 10 and 21 degrees C in relation to the determined microbial and sensory shelf lives. The volatile o...

  4. Comparison of the response of raw wool to simultaneous neutron and {gamma}-ray (neugat) transmission and simultaneous dual energy {gamma}-ray (gamgat) transmission

    Bartle, C.M


    Dual radiation beam methods are important for composition measurement where the material can be described as a binary mixture. In this paper the neutron/gamma transmission (neugat) response to the wool yield of raw wool has been determined to identify potential value in specifying this multicomponent product by this approach. A comparison is made with the gamma/gamma transmission (gamgat) method.

  5. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki


    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  6. Raw-data display and visual reconstruction validation in ALICE

    Tadel, M


    ALICE Event Visualization Environment (AliEVE) is based on ROOT and its GUI, 2D & 3D graphics classes. A small application kernel provides for registration and management of visualization objects. CINT scripts are used as an extensible mechanism for data extraction, selection and processing as well as for steering of frequent event-related tasks. AliEVE is used for event visualization in offline and high-level trigger frameworks. Mechanisms and base-classes provided for visual representation of raw-data for different detector-types are described. Common infrastructure for thresholding and color-coding of signal/time information, placement of detector-modules in various 2D/3D layouts and for user-interaction with displayed data is presented. Methods for visualization of raw-data on different levels of detail are discussed as they are expected to play an important role during early detector operation with poorly understood detector calibration, occupancy and noise-levels. Since September 2006 ALICE applies ...

  7. Raw-data display and visual reconstruction validation in ALICE

    Tadel, M.


    ALICE Event Visualization Environment (AliEVE) is based on ROOT and its GUI, 2D & 3D graphics classes. A small application kernel provides for registration and management of visualization objects. CINT scripts are used as an extensible mechanism for data extraction, selection and processing as well as for steering of frequent event-related tasks. AliEVE is used for event visualization in offline and high-level trigger frameworks. Mechanisms and base-classes provided for visual representation of raw-data for different detector-types are described. Common infrastructure for thresholding and color-coding of signal/time information, placement of detector-modules in various 2D/3D layouts and for user-interaction with displayed data is presented. Methods for visualization of raw-data on different levels of detail are discussed as they are expected to play an important role during early detector operation with poorly understood detector calibration, occupancy and noise-levels. Since September 2006 ALICE applies a regular visual-scanning procedure to simulated proton-proton data to detect any shortcomings in cluster finding, tracking and primary & secondary vertex reconstruction. A high-level of interactivity is required to allow in-depth exploration of event-structure. Navigation back to simulation records is supported for debugging purposes. Standard 2D projections and transformations are available for clusters, tracks and simplified detector geometry.

  8. Sesamin Enhances Cholesterol Efflux in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Nan Liu


    Full Text Available Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 μM significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1 pathway.

  9. Sesamin enhances cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Liu, Nan; Wu, Chongming; Sun, Lizhong; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Peng


    Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL) in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 μM) significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPARγ. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCG1 pathway.

  10. Vibrated fluidized bed air classification of moist raw coal

    杨国华; 赵跃民; 陈清如


    Vibrated fluidized bed air classification is completely different from traditional screening in principle. It extracts fine coal from moist raw coal by entrainment of an ascending airflow in a vibrated fluidized bed. Pilot tests showed that air classification efficiencies varied from 74.85% to 93.84% at cut-size 6, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0.5 mm when free moisture of coal is in the range of 1.7% to 9.5%, and ash contents of fine coal products were 2%~3% lower than those of the same size fractions in feed, and 4%~10% lower than those of feeds for most cases because of the density differences between coal and waste, which is beneficial to producing lower ash fine coal from raw coal as fuel of blast furnaces or pulverized coal firing boilers. A commercial unit of 100 t/h has been in smooth operation, and several 300~400 t/h units are in plan or construction.

  11. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Negin Torabi


    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  12. BTEX and MTBE adsorption onto raw and thermally modified diatomite.

    Aivalioti, Maria; Vamvasakis, Ioannis; Gidarakos, Evangelos


    The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) from aqueous solution by raw (D(R)) and thermally modified diatomite at 550, 750 and 950 degrees C (D(550), D(750) and D(950) respectively) was studied. Physical characteristics of both raw and modified diatomite such as specific surface, pore volume distribution, porosity and pH(solution) were determined, indicating important structural changes in the modified diatomite, due to exposure to high temperatures. Both adsorption kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried out. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo-second order model. Maximum values for the rate constant, k(2), were obtained for MTBE and benzene (48.9326 and 18.0996 g mg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in sample D(550). The isotherm data proved to fit the Freundlich model more closely, which produced values of the isotherm constant 1/n higher than one, indicating unfavorable adsorption. The highest adsorption capacity, calculated through the values of the isotherm constant k(F), was obtained for MTBE (48.42 mg kg(-1) (mg/L)(n)) in sample D(950). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Piecewise linear mapping algorithm for SAR raw data compression

    QI HaiMing; YU WeiDong; CHEN Xi


    When the saturation degree (SD) of space-borne SAR raw data is high, the performance of conventional block adaptive quantization (BAQ) deteriorates obviously. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper studies the mapping between the average signal magnitude (ASM) and the standard deviation of the input signal (SDIS) to the A/D from the original reference. Then, it points out the mistake of the mapping and introduces the concept of the standard deviation of the output signal (SDOS) from the A/D. After that, this paper educes the mapping between the ASM and SDOS from the A/D. Monte-Carlo experiment shows that none of the above two mappings is the optimal in the whole set of SD. Thus, this paper proposes the concept of piecewise linear mapping and the searching algorithm in the whole set of SD. According to the linear part, this paper gives the certification and analytical value of k and for nonlinear part, and utilizes the searching algorithm mentioned above to search the corresponding value of k. Experimental results based on simulated data and real data show that the performance of new algorithm is better than conventional BAQ when raw data is in heavy SD.

  14. Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

    Á. Guzmán A


    Full Text Available In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%, alkaline oxides (K2O (10.53% and alkaline earth oxides (CaO (2.80%. It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar and inert (quartz materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

  15. Hygienic Control of Raw Milk from Small Farms



    Full Text Available The production of raw high quality milk is a requirement not only to the consumer as a safe and healthy product but also to support a profitable dairy industry. The Albanian law "On rules of producing and selling milk and milk-based products" and the Regulation No. 853 / EC / 2004, defines the criteria of raw milk hygiene. This legal basis requires that the number of somatic cells per ml (cytological indicator must not exceed 400,000 (SSC and Total Bacterial Count (TBC must not be more than 100.000 UFC / ml. This study was conducted by testing of 108 samples of milk collected in farms in Lushnja, Fier and Kavaja. This study was supported by the center of "Livestock and Rural Development". The results obtained showed that 54/108 milk samples had values over the limits for cytological indicator, while 68/108 showed values above the limits prescribed by law for the total bacterial load. In positive samples were verified changes in physical and chemical indicators, resulting in decrease of lactose content in 37 samples of milk and of protein percentage decline in 41 samples. Given the fact that the production of milk and its derivates of these areas provides most of milk production of Albania, this situation calls for effective measures to help farmers to produce milk that meets the standards for customer and for milk industry.

  16. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A


    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect.

  17. Differentiation and comparison of raw, prepared and dross opium.

    Lim, H Y; Kwok, S F


    Comparative studies involving colour tests, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) were made on raw, prepared and dross opium with a view to establishing means for their differentiation. Analysis of a large number of samples found in south-east Asia showed the typical patterns and results to be quite distinctive in the qualitative and quantitative aspects. The relative proportions of the major alkaloids in the two chromatographic systems were used to advantage in the comparison. Prepared opium was found to have a characteristic yellow fluorescent spot on the TLC plate when viewed under long-wavelength ultraviolet light. No positive marker was found for dross opium, its unusual features being the relatively high morphine and codeine content and the absence of narcotine, meconic acid and especially thebaine. Most of the prepared opium samples were found to have been made from a mixture of raw and dross opium. The modified hallucinogen reagent of Maunder was found to be a suitable alternative chromogenic spray in the TLC analysis.

  18. Minicolumn detection methods for aflatoxin in raw peanuts: collaborative study.

    Shotwell, O L; Holaday, C E; Athnasios, A K; Ayres, J L; Baxley, J R; Bean, G A; Chisholm, T; Edds, G T; Erickson, R; Holaday, C E; Johnson, H S; Lowie, D M; Minyard, J P; Nesheim, S; Rashmawi, K J; Romer, T R; Shannon, G M; Soloman, W; Teague, R T; Wilson, D M


    The Holaday-Velasco method and a modified Holaday method have been compared. The former method combines the speed and simplicity of the Holaday extraction and cleanup with the sensitivity of the minicolumn originally described by Velasco. The combination method has been approved by the AOAC and the AACC for determining aflatoxin in corn. The Holaday method was modified by substituting toluene for benzene in the solvent partition, and methylene chloride for chloroform in the minicolumn development to eliminate use of hazardous solvents. The neutral alumina in the Holaday minicolumn was changed from activity V to activity III to provide a more stable column. At aflatoxin levels in raw peanuts of 13-20 ng/g, the presence of aflatoxin was missed by the modified Holaday method in 4 analyses (3 laboratories) of 42 reported. There were no misses in this contamination range by the Holaday-Velasco method. There were no misses by either method with samples containing greater than 20 ng total aflatoxins/g. Analysis of uncontaminated raw peanuts by the modified Holaday method resulted in 2 false positives of 14 reports; the Holaday-Velasco method produced no false positive reports from 15 analyses of uncontaminated peanuts. The Holaday-Velasco method was adopted official first action for peanuts.


    S. B. Evseeva; B. B. Sysuev


    The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite) in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.


    S. B. Evseeva


    Full Text Available The application of mineral raw materials (brine lakes, thermal springs, sea water, bischofite in cosmetics is presented in this article. The assortment of cosmetics that contain mineral salts is presented. The technological characteristics of production of these cosmetic formulations, in particular the ability of mineral salts to influence the stability of formulation and the sensory properties of products are given. The main approaches of that formulation development are described.

  1. Automated Scoring in Context: Rapid Assessment for Placed Students

    Klobucar, Andrew; Elliot, Norbert; Deess, Perry; Rudniy, Oleksandr; Joshi, Kamal


    This study investigated the use of automated essay scoring (AES) to identify at-risk students enrolled in a first-year university writing course. An application of AES, the "Criterion"[R] Online Writing Evaluation Service was evaluated through a methodology focusing on construct modelling, response processes, disaggregation, extrapolation,…

  2. Comparing State SAT Scores Using a Mixture Modeling Approach

    Kim, YoungKoung Rachel


    Presented at the national conference for AERA (American Educational Research Association) in April 2009. The large variability of SAT taker population across states makes state-by-state comparisons of the SAT scores challenging. Using a mixture modeling approach, therefore, the current study presents a method of identifying subpopulations in terms…

  3. Using Propensity Score Methods to Approximate Factorial Experimental Designs

    Dong, Nianbo


    The purpose of this study is through Monte Carlo simulation to compare several propensity score methods in approximating factorial experimental design and identify best approaches in reducing bias and mean square error of parameter estimates of the main and interaction effects of two factors. Previous studies focused more on unbiased estimates of…

  4. Grades and Test Scores: Accounting for Observed Differences.

    Willingham, Warren W.; Pollack, Judith M.; Lewis, Charles


    Proposed a framework of possible differences between grades and test scores and tested the framework with data on 8,454 high school seniors from the National Education Longitudinal Study. Identified differences and correlations among achievement factors. Differences between grades and tests give these measures complementary strengths in…

  5. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S


    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KO...

  6. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W


    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with diffi

  7. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.


    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  8. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko


    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  9. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko


    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  10. Semiparametric score sevel susion: Gaussian sopula approach

    Susyanyo, N.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.


    Score level fusion is an appealing method for combining multi-algorithms, multi- representations, and multi-modality biometrics due to its simplicity. Often, scores are assumed to be independent, but even for dependent scores, accord- ing to the Neyman-Pearson lemma, the likelihood ratio is the opti

  11. Enumeration and characterization of standard plate count bacteria in chlorinated and raw water supplies.

    LeChevallier, M W; Seidler, R J; Evans, T M


    Nearly 700 standard plate count (SPC) bacteria were isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water and identified according to a scheme developed to permit the rapid, simple classification of microorganisms to genus, species, or group. Actinomycetes and Aeromonas species were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in chlorinated distribution water. Aeromonas spp. and Enterobacter agglomerans were the two most common groups of SPC bacteria in raw water. Identification of bacterial populations before and after contact with chlorine (1 to 2 mg/liter) for 1 h revealed that chlorination selected for gram-positive bacteria. Water that contained high densities of bacteria known to be antagonistic to coliforms had low coliform isolation rates. The membrane filtration technique for enumerating SPC bacteria recovered significantly higher numbers (P standard pour plate technique.

  12. Foodborne outbreak of human brucellosis caused by ingested raw materials of fetal calf on Jeju Island.

    Yoo, Jeong Rae; Heo, Sang Taek; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Young Ree; Yoo, Seung Jin


    Since the first reported case of human brucellosis in 2002 in South Korea, its incidence has been increasing nationally. However, bovine brucellosis has not been present from 2005 to date on Jeju Island. Despite Jeju Island being considered a clean area for bovine brucellosis, we experienced an outbreak of human brucellosis between 2012 and 2013. Herein, we report cases with human brucellosis after ingestion of raw materials of fetal calf at a restaurant. Patients were identified by isolation of the Brucella abortus in their blood and joint tissue. Because all patients developed zoonosis by a faulty folk remedy, we emphasize the importance of educational programs to increase the awareness of zoonosis, and the need for active surveillance and detection of illegal distribution channels of the infected animal. After the outbreak, we took control of the involved restaurant and its illegal distribution channel, and there have been no further outbreaks.

  13. Branding Raw Material to Improve Human Rights: Intel’s Ban on Conflict Minerals

    Osburg Thomas


    Full Text Available Many companies seek to take over more responsibility for their supply chain and their raw materials. Intel was one of the first companies investigating the origin of conflict minerals like tin, tantalum, gold or tungsten, which are used in many electronic products. Their path to ultimately offering conflict-free microprocessors took more than five years of consistent preparation and intensive reengineering of the business process. They identified smelters as a bottleneck in the supply chain and started cooperating closely with them to trace their minerals’ supply. By developing a bag-and-tag system the company is now able to ensure that their minerals are not sourced from illegal mines, which often finance illegal warlords, for example, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The cooperation with the smelters brings about higher demand and in consequence higher prices for the legally sourced minerals. Many small miners and their families in the region directly benefit from the higher earnings.

  14. Prognostic scores for use in African meningococcal epidemics.

    Ajayi-Obe, E. K.; Lodi, E.; Alkali, A. S.; Galbati, M.; Rooney, C.; Mannoni, B.; Grim, P.; Nasidi, A.; Mohammed, I.


    Current WHO guidelines for the case management of meningococcal infections during epidemics in developing countries often cannot be applied, largely because of the limited health resources in such countries. Several scoring scales based on clinical and laboratory features in numerous combinations have been developed for the management of meningococcal infections in developed countries, and these have facilitated early identification of patients with fulminant disease and thus early intervention and reduction in mortality. Unfortunately such scoring scales are not appropriate for use in developing countries. We identified hypotension, tachycardia, tachypnoea, delay in capillary refill time, coma, absence of neck stiffness and petechiae and/or purpura as simple prognostic factors of meningococcal disease. Two scores were developed: score I, which includes all seven prognostic factors, had a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 94%, respectively. Score II, which excluded hypotension, had a sensitivity and specificity of 73.3% and 89.7%, respectively. Quick and simple scoring scales are therefore not only applicable but useful for the case management of patients in meningococcal epidemics in developing countries. PMID:9648355

  15. Does parental physical violence reduce children's standardized test score performance?

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Maxwell, Leah; Stromquist, Ann; Whitten, Paul; Limbos, Mary Ann; Merchant, James


    Many negative cognitive and behavioral outcomes have been identified among children living in households with parental violence, but few studies have examined academic performance. In a rural population-based cohort, we examine the role of parental violence on standardized test score performance. The cohort included 306 children ages 6 through 17. Parents responded to a health interview that included questions about physical violence. Children's standardized test scores were collected prospectively for 5 years after the parent interview. Hierarchical multivariate models clustering on school, household, and repeated individual test scores and controlling for children's and parent's characteristics were run to predict test score performance. One in five children lived in a household in which parents reported at least one act of physical violence. Children whose parents reported intimate partner violence (IPV) performed an average of 12.2 percentile points lower than children whose parents reported no IPV (95% CI, -19.2--5.2; p Parent-reported IPV led to larger test score reductions for girls than for boys and for children less than 12 years old than for older children. Parental physical violence was common, and children in homes with violence had significantly poorer performance on standardized test scores.

  16. Committee Opinion No. 644: The Apgar Score.


    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions.

  17. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Ali Dabiri


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  18. The FACT score in predicting pneumococcal antibody levels in asthmatics.

    Podjasek, Jenna C; Jung, Ji A; Kita, Hirohito; Park, Miguel A; Juhn, Young J


    There is no measure currently available to identify asthmatics with potential immune incompetence. We propose use of a novel scoring system called the FACT score, which is formulated based on four parameters: (1) Family history of asthma, (2) Atopic conditions, (3) Bacterial colonization and (4) Th1 versus Th2 immune profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 16 asthmatics and 14 non-asthmatics. The first two parameters of the FACT score were obtained via a chart review and interview. For the third parameter, nasopharyngeal swab samples were cultured. The ratio of interleukin-5 to interferon-gamma for each patient was measured by peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with house dust mite. Antibodies to 23 pneumococcal antigens were used for humoral immunity. The FACT scores for asthmatics (mean ± SD: 5.2 ± 1.87) were higher than those for non-asthmatics (mean ± SD: 3.3 ± 1.5) (p = 0.008). Of the 16 asthmatics, 7 (44%) had 12 or more positive serotype-specific polysaccharide antibodies, whereas 12 of 14 (86%) of non-asthmatics subjects had 12 or more positive serotype-specific polysaccharide antibodies (p = 0.014). Overall, the FACT score was inversely correlated with the number of positive serotype-specific antibody levels [rho (ρ) = -0.38, p = 0.04]. The proportions of subjects with 12 or more positive serotype-specific antibodies among non-asthmatics and asthmatics below and above the median of the FACT scores were 86, 50 and 38%, respectively (p = 0.052). The FACT score may help us identify a subset of asthmatics with immune incompetence. Study findings need to be replicated in a larger study.

  19. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji


    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  20. Association between alexithymia, neuroticism, and social desirability scores among Italian graduate students.

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria; Paradiso, Sergio


    An inverse correlation between social desirability and alexithymia has been observed in undergraduate students in Japan and Australia. It is not clear how this association is influenced by the personality dimension of neuroticism. This study examined the association of scores on social desirability with those on alexithymia controlled for neuroticism, in a sample of 111 Italian graduate students, with age range of 24 to 58 years. Students completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (short form) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20). Social desirability scores inversely correlated with TAS-20 total scores, neuroticism scores, and the TAS-20 subscale, Difficulty identifying feelings. Neuroticism directly correlated with TAS-20 total score, Difficulty identifying feelings, and Difficulty describing feelings. Students with higher alexithymia and neuroticism scores seem to present themselves in less socially desirable ways. The correlation of social desirability with alexithymia was moderated by higher neuroticism scores.

  1. Sensory quality of selected raw ripened meat products

    Ewelina Węsierska


    Full Text Available Background. A demand on raw fermented meat products depends on their availability, price and the culture. In Poland, raw meat products have a several hundred years, although limited to the Podlasie region, tradition of manufacturing. Therefore, in spite of widening of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German and recently even the Czech Republic products assortment on the Polish market, the consumption of them increases slowly. The aim of the study was to compare the sensory quality of raw ripened smoked products and sausages, sold on the Polish foodstuffs market as “traditional”. Material and methods. The study included the basic chemical content, water activity, pH, the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative cocci, as well as selected texture and sensory parameters. The analysis was conducted in compliance with Polish Standards, and the cutting strength was measured with the use of the TA-XT2 texture-meter. The sensory analysis was conducted by a 12-person panel using the 5-point method. Results. The differences in the amount of water, protein, fat and salt resulted from the wide variability of ingredients among both groups of the analysed cold meats. The smoked products were characterised by a higher pH (5.6-5.9, smaller amount of bacilli (2-5.5 log cfu/g and lactic cocci (3.3 to 6.6 log cfu/g in comparison with the sausages. The amount of both populations of bacteria in the sausages of a pH of 4.5-5.5 ranged from 6.8-8.9 log cfu/g and 5.9-7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. Among the analysed smoked products and sausages the greatest TPA hardness (respectively 128.6-140.3 N and 91.3-139.7 N, TPA chewiness (28.9-54.2 N and 16.1-36.0 N and cutting strength (11.0-12.9 kG and 8.2-8.5 kG was observed in those with a 0.81-0.86 water activity. The overall quality of the analysed cold meats was at a good level (3.9-4.1 pt. Conclusions. Distinguishing features which determined the quality of products are hardness, juiciness as well as odour

  2. Comparative physico-chemical, proximate and mineral analysis on raw and roasted seeds of groundnut

    Bhanu Saravan Kumar


    Full Text Available Physico-chemical, proximate and nutritionally valuable minerals were determined aiming to compare raw and roasted groundnut seeds. The results indicated that total ash content of raw groundnut (4.6% was higher than the roasted groundnut (4.1% seeds. Crude protein content of roasted groundnut was higher (26.1% when compared to that of raw groundnut (24.9%. Crude carbohydrates levels of raw groundnut (25.3% are lower when compared with that of roasted groundnut (26.5%. Crude fat ranged from 39.1% in raw groundnut to 39.6% in roasted groundnut. Crude fiber percentage both in raw (2.9% and roasted (3.1% conditions were good. The moisture content of the raw groundnut (4.1% was more than the roasted groundnut (3.6% because of not exposure to heat. Seeds showed higher energy values both in raw and roasted conditions. Significant amount of minerals like potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc were present both in raw and roasted conditions. Based on statistical analysis the results showed highly significant differences (P < 0.05 between the raw and roasted seeds.

  3. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    Nicewander, W Alan


    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. School Readiness and the Draw-a-Man Test: An Empiricaly Derived Alternative to Harris' Scoring System.

    Simner, Marvin L.


    An abbreviated scoring system for the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test found that three items had the same overall potential for correctly identifying at-risk kindergarteners as more time-consuming scoring methods. (CL)

  5. Quality aspects of raw goat milk in Lower Southern Thailand

    Siriwat Wasiksiri


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the quality and safety of raw goat milk in Lower Southern Thailand duringAugust to September 2008. Milk samples were collected from five farms in Songkhla, Yala, and Pattani Province of which thepH, acidity, specific gravity, milk fat, solid not fat, total solid, total plate count, Coliform count, and antibiotic residue weretested. The results did not show any significant difference (p>0.05 on pH and total plate count among samples from eachfarm. However, acidity, specific gravity, milk fat, solid not fat, and total solid varied between farms depending on feed supplyand management. Means of total bacteria count and Coliform count of most samples were in TACF standard quality (log3.720 cfu/ml and log 1.892 cfu/ml, respectively, except four samples had higher Coliform contamination. Additionally,a higher proportion (22.7 % of samples with antibiotic residue was found.

  6. Characterization and evaluation of golpata fronds as pulping raw materials.

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Chowdhury, D A Nasima; Islam, M Khalidul


    The chemical, morphological and anatomical studies of golpata fronds have been discussed. The lignin, pentosan and alpha-cellulose in golpata fronds were comparable to some common nonwood and hardwood raw materials. The alkali, water and dichloromethane solubility were higher than wood and common nonwood. The fiber length 1.73 mm was observed, which is little bit shorter than softwood and longer than hardwood but fiber diameter was very short. The pulpability of golpata fronds has also been studied. The pulp yield was very low and Kappa number was high. The strength properties were better than that of some common nonwood pulps. FT-IR spectrum and alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation products showed that golpata fronds lignin mainly consist of syringyl (S) and guaiacyl units (V).

  7. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.


    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  8. Homogeneous sample preparation of raw shrimp using dry ice.

    Bunch, E A; Altwein, D M; Johnson, L E; Farley, J R; Hammersmith, A A


    Sample homogeneity is critical to accurate and reproducible analysis of trace residues in foods. A method of uniform sample preparation using dry ice is described for shrimp. Other sample preparation techniques for raw shrimp produce nonhomogeneous samples. Sample homogeneity was determined through analysis of chloramphenicol added to intact tiger or white shrimp prior to sample preparation. Simulated chloramphenicol residue levels were 50, 15, 10, and 5 ppb. No significant differences were noted when analyses of shrimp inoculated with chlor-amphenicol prior to sample preparation with dry ice were compared with analyses of shrimp spiked after grinding with dry ice. Grinding shrimp with dry ice produced samples with homogeneous chloramphenicol residues. This technique should be applicable to other tissues and vegetable products.

  9. Discoloration in raw and processed fruits and vegetables.

    Adams, J B; Brown, H M


    Discoloration in fruits and vegetables is reviewed in relation to the chemical and biochemical causes of black, brown, red, yellow, and green discolorations. In raw materials, only a limited understanding has so far been achieved of the internal black and brown discolorations. The biochemical signaling pathways triggered by wounding or chilling-storage, the nature of the enzymes and reactive oxygen species involved, and the identity of the phenolic compounds oxidized are areas where further information is desirable. In processed materials, a greater comprehension is needed of the role of ascorbic acid reactions in the browning of fruits and "pinking" of Brassicaceous vegetables, and more information is desirable on the structure and properties of the discoloring pigments in many products. It is concluded that a greater knowledge of these areas, and of the naturally-occurring constituents that can accelerate or inhibit the causative reactions, would lead to the development of more efficient methods of controlling fruit and vegetable discolorations.

  10. TWRS privatization phase I - raw and potable water service

    Shord, A.L.


    The U.S. Department of Energy has chosen to accomplish the Tank Waste Remediation System disposal mission via privatization. The disposal mission has been divided into two phases. Phase 1, a `proof of concept` phase, will establish and demonstrate the technical, commercial, and procurement capabilities necessary for privatization to proceed. Once established on this relatively small scale, privatization will be expanded, through a second competition, in the form of a second phase (Phase II) to dispose of the remainder of the tank waste. The Phase I privatization site will be located in the former Grout Disposal Site area. To prepare the site for use for the private contractors, utilities must be extended from the 200 East Area infrastructure. This study evaluates and recommends the systems to supply raw, fire suppression, and sanitary (potable) water services to the boundary of the area to be assigned to each private contractor.

  11. Aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity in raw milk.

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Andersen, Henrik J; Nielsen, Jacob H


    In the present study, the aldehyde-induced pro-oxidative activity of xanthine oxidase was followed in an accelerated raw milk system using spin-trap electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The aldehydes acetaldehyde, propanal, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-heptenal, trans-2-nonenal, and 3-methyl-2-butenal were all found to initiate radical reactions when added to milk. Formation of superoxide through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity is suggested as the initial reaction, as all tested aldehydes were shown to trigger superoxide formation in an ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk model system with added xanthine oxidase. It was found that addition of aldehydes to milk initially increased the ascorbyl radical concentration with a subsequent decay due to ascorbate depletion, which renders the formation of superoxide in milk with added aldehyde. The present study shows for the first time potential acceleration of oxidative events in milk through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity.

  12. Editorial opinion: public dissemination of raw turbulence data

    Sillero, Juan A.; Jiménez, Javier


    Many of the papers in this issue deal with processing of pre-existing large-scale turbulence data. We argue here that there is a certain urgency to the discussion of whether raw data should be made publicly available within the turbulence community, and of which are the best procedures, technology and rules for possible dissemination. Besides expressing the personal opinion that such sharing would be advantageous for the field, the urgency mostly arises from the danger that funding agencies and other institutions would otherwise set standards without proper community input. The experience of the Madrid School of Aeronautics with the dissemination of numerical simulation results is briefly reviewed, including the present technological solutions and usage statistics.

  13. Bundle adjustment with raw inertial observations in UAV applications

    Cucci, Davide Antonio; Rehak, Martin; Skaloud, Jan


    It is well known that accurate aerial position and attitude control is beneficial for image orientation in airborne photogrammetry. The aerial control is traditionally obtained by Kalman filtering/smoothing inertial and GNSS observations prior to the bundle-adjustment. However, in Micro Aerial Vehicles this process may result in poor attitude determination due to the limited quality of the inertial sensors, large alignment uncertainty and residual correlations between sensor biases and initial attitude. We propose to include the raw inertial observations directly into the bundle-adjustment instead of as position and attitude weighted observations from a separate inertial/GNSS fusion step. The necessary observation models are derived in detail within the context of the so called ;Dynamic Networks;. We examine different real world cases and we show that the proposed approach is superior to the established processing pipeline in challenging scenarios such as mapping in corridors and in areas where the reception of GNSS signals is denied.

  14. Evaluation methods for ceramic suitability of raw clays

    Hajjaji M.


    Full Text Available Ceramic suitability of kaolinitic-illitic and chloritic-illitic raw clays was assessed by methods involving microstructure investigation and ceramic properties measurements, some reported diagrams and response surface methodology (RSM. Results of the former method showed that all clays are suitable for red stoneware tiles. The stoneware manufacturing is facilitated by the marked reduction of porosity due to the flow of melt, mainly originated from the breakdowns of illite. This result was partially supported by the use of a diagram involving the chemical composition of clays as well as by the RSM results. According to the later method, bricks may be manufactured under restricted firing conditions and stoneware tiles could be prepared at temperatures as low as 950°C.

  15. Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov., isolated from raw fermented sausage.

    Kröckel, L; Schillinger, U; Franz, C M A P; Bantleon, A; Ludwig, W


    Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. (KU-3T) was isolated from raw fermented sausages. The new species was present in high numbers, and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. 16S rDNA sequence data revealed that the isolates are closely related to the species Lactobacillus kimchii DSM 13961T, Lactobacillus paralimentarius DSM 13238T, Lactobacillus alimentarius DSM 20249T and Lactobacillus farciminis DSM 20184T. DNA-DNA reassociation data, however, clearly distinguished the new isolates from these species; they showed a low degree of DNA relatedness with the type strains of this group of phylogenetically closely related lactobacilli. These results warrant separate species status for strain KU-3T, for which the name Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KU-3T (=DSM 14857T =NCCB 100034T =ATCC BAA-478T).

  16. Brucella contamination in raw milk by polymerase chain reaction

    Mohammad Khalili


    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. Brucella organisms, which are small aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacilli, localize in the reproductive organs of host animals, causing abortions and sterility. They are shed in large numbers in the animal’s urine, milk, placental fluid, and other fluids. Dairy product from raw milk are a potential threat to public health in endemic developing countries. The gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation of Brucella species. However, isolation Brucella species is time consuming and needed to level 3 biocontainment facilities and highly skilled technical personnel to handle samples and live bacteria for eventual identification. Handling Brucella species increase risk of laboratory infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with high sensitivity and specifity overcomed to these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to detect Brucella species in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman province, Iran by PCR technique. Methods: Forty and eight bulk tank milk (BTM were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cows. DNA of milk samples extracted by lysis buffer and proteinase K method. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA targeting IS 711. Positive samples must be showed 317 bp amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the IS 711 genome region in all Brucella species. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp. from 48 BTM samples in this area. Conclusion: The results indicate that brucellosis by Brucella species is endemic in the Kerman province dairy farms. Consumption of raw milk dairy products by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an high risk to public health. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of

  17. The uptake of tocopherols by RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Papas Andreas M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-Tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol are the two major forms of vitamin E in human plasma and the primary lipid soluble antioxidants. The dietary intake of gamma-tocopherol is generally higher than that of alpha-tocopherol. However, alpha-tocopherol plasma levels are about four fold higher than those of gamma-tocopherol. Among other factors, a preferential cellular uptake of gamma-tocopherol over alpha-tocopherol could contribute to the observed higher plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. In this investigation, we studied the uptake and depletion of both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (separately and together in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Similar studies were performed with alpha-tocopheryl quinone and gamma-tocopheryl quinone, which are oxidation products of tocopherols. Results RAW 264.7 macrophages showed a greater uptake of gamma-tocopherol compared to alpha-tocopherol (with uptake being defined as the net difference between tocopherol transported into the cells and loss due to catabolism and/or in vitro oxidation. Surprisingly, we also found that the presence of gamma-tocopherol promoted the cellular uptake of alpha-tocopherol. Mass balance considerations suggest that products other than quinone were formed during the incubation of tocopherols with macrophages. Conclusion Our data suggests that gamma-tocopherol could play a significant role in modulating intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. Moreover, we found the presence of gamma-tocopherol dramatically influenced the cellular accumulation of alpha-tocopherol, i.e., gamma-tocopherol promoted the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol. If these results could be extrapolated to in vivo conditions they suggest that gamma-tocopherol is selectively taken up by cells and removed from plasma more rapidly than alpha-tocopherol. This could, in part, contribute to the selective maintenance of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared to gamma-tocopherol.

  18. Complex Dietary Supplements from Raw Plants Provide Nutrition for Athletes

    Dmitriy M. Uvarov


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mechanically activated complexes from plant substances to enhance athletes’ adaptability to intense physical activity. Methods: The object of the study was the dietary supplement Kladorod, which is based on the reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina and Rhodiola rosea in weight ratio of 10:1. To test the dietary supplement, we developed a special scheme for the experiment and selected 10 elite athletes (boxers and mixfighters. Athletes were divided into 2 groups and were under the same conditions (nutrition, medical monitoring, living conditions and training process. Athletes of the experimental group were given the dietary supplement Kladorod (capsule of 0.4 g by mouth between meals 4 times a day for 28 days. The control group was given placebo (Ringer-Locke powder capsules in the same terms in a similar way. During the experiment, the athletes were medically examined 3 times: at the beginning, in the middle, and after the course of intervention. We measured muscle performance, fat mass, muscle mass, and serum concentrations of cortisol and total testosterone. Results: It was established that during the intensive training of boxers and mixfighters for rating fights, administration of the dietary supplement Kladorod for 28 days stabilized the absolute and relative muscle mass, preventing its reduction, in comparison with the placebo group. At the same time, indicators of fat mass decreased significantly in the experimental group. After administering the course of Kladorod, we did not observe a significant decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio, compared to the control group Thus, the use of biologically active supplements based on lichen raw materials and complexes of lichen raw materials with different plant substances enables the body to increase its adaptive potential and physical capacity.

  19. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    A. Moosavi


    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  20. Prevalence, enumeration and pheno- and genotypic characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China

    Moutong eChen


    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause serious illness in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, the elderly, and newborns. The aim of this study was to: (i evaluate the prevalence and contamination level (most probable number, MPN of L. monocytogenes in 567 retail raw foods (fishery products, n=154; raw/fresh meat, n=123; frozen foods, n=110; edible fungi, n=108; vegetables, n=72 collected from South China and (ii to gain further knowledge on the phenotype and genotype distributions of this important foodborne pathogen. Approximately 22% of the samples were positive for L. monocytogenes. The contamination levels were between 0.3 and 10 MPN/g in 75.0%, between 10 and 100 MPN/g in 11.0% and less than 100 MPN/g in 14.0% of the countable samples. Five serogroups were identified among the177 foodborne L. monocytogenes isolates, with1/2a-3a (42.4% and1/2b-3b (26.0% serogroups being the most dominant. Serogroup I.1 and II.2 were only found in the edible mushrooms, while serogroup III was dominant in the fishery products, suggesting that specific serogroups of L. monocytogenes may have distinct ecological niches. Ten (5.6% L. monocytogenes isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genetic relatedness analysis revealed the absence of distinct associations between specific food types, antibiotic resistance, serogroups, and genetic diversity. The present study provided the first baseline data on the prevalence, contamination level, and characteristics of L. monocytogenes isolated from raw foods in South China. Some multidrug resistant strains belonged to the epidemiologically important serogroups (I.1 and II.1, implying a potential public health risk. In addition, these findings also provide basic information for the Chinese food safety associated authorities to draft appropriate standards to control L. monocytogenes contamination and improve microbiological safety of raw foods.