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Sample records for raw oil removes

  1. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  2. Coated kapok fiber for removal of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jintao; Zheng, Yian; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A low-cost and biodegradable oil absorbent based on kapok fiber was prepared. ► The polymer-coated kapok fiber showed higher oil sorption capacity. ► Coated kapok fiber can be reused and the absorbed oil can be easily recovered. ► Adsorption of oil is spontaneous and exothermic physisorption and chemisorption. -- Abstract: Based on raw kapok fiber, two kinds of oil absorbers with high sorption capacity were prepared by a facile solution–immersion process. The coated polymer with low surface energy and rough fiber surface play important role in the retention of oil. The as-prepared fiber can quickly absorb gasoline, diesel, soybean oil, and paraffin oil up to above 74.5%, 66.8%, 64.4% and 47.8% of oil sorption capacity of raw fiber, respectively. The absorbed oils can be easily recovered by a simple vacuum filtration and the recovered coated-fiber still can be used for several cycles without obvious loss in oil sorption capacity. The thermodynamic study indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic, with complex physisorption and chemisorption. The results suggest that the coated fiber can be used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of oil spilled on water surface

  3. Assessment of raw luffa as a natural hollow oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Abdelwahab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a global concern due to its environmental and economical impact. Various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. However, plant biomass is renewable resource that can be converted into useful materials and energy. Luffa, an agricultural waste, was used as a sorbent material. The present study examines the adsorption capacity of raw luffa fibers for different types of oil and water pickup. The investigation revealed that the efficiency of fibers to remove crude oil from sea water was related to the surface properties of the fibers, concentration of the oil, amount of the fibers, as well as the temperature of the crude oil. The results show high sorption efficiency of luffa fibers for different kinds of oil. This sorbent also exhibited a good reusability since the decrease in sorption efficiency did not exceed 50% of the initial value after three sorption cycles.

  4. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  5. Chromatography Analysis of Jatropha Curcas L Oil Raw and Refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250 °C and 260 °C respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  6. Chromatography analysis of Jatropha Curcas L oil raw and refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250℃ and 260℃ respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  7. Removal of oil from water by bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazed, H.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many materials, included activated carbon, peat, coal, fiberglass, polypropylene, organoclay and bentonite have been used for removing oils and grease from water. However, bentonite has been used only rarely for this purpose. In this study Na-bentonite was used to remove oil from oil-in-water emulsions of various kinds such as standard mineral oil, cutting oils, refinery effluent and produced water from production wells at Estevan, Saskatchewan. Removal efficiencies obtained were 85 to 96 per cent for cutting oils, 84 to 86 per cent for produced water and 54 to 87 per cent for refinery effluent. Bentonite proved to be more effective in the removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions than from actual waste waters; up to 96 percent from oil-in-water emulsions to only 87 per cent from actual waste water. The percentage of oil removed was found to be a function of the amount of bentonite added and the adsorption time up to the equilibrium time. Result also showed that the Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms are well suited to describe the adsorption of oil by bentonite from the various oily waters employed in this study. 15 refs

  8. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolite are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOGs (Free Oil and Grease) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powdered organoclay is employed. Organoclay removes mechanically emulsified oil and grease at 5--7 times the rate of activated carbon, or 50% of its dry weight. Oil and grease and other large sparingly soluble chlorinated hydrocarbons and NOMs (Natural Organic Matter) blind the pores of activated carbon (and ion-exchange resins), reducing its effectiveness significantly. It is therefore economically advantageous for the end user to prepolish the water before it enters carbon vessels. Operating costs can often be reduced by 50% or more

  9. Organically modified clay removes oil from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alther, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    When bentonite or other clays and zeolites are modified with quaternary amines, they become organophilic. Such modified bentonites are used to remove mechanically emulsified oil and grease, and other sparingly soluble organics. If the organoclay is granulated, it is placed into a liquid phase carbon filter vessel to remove FOG's and chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this application the clay is mixed with anthrazite to prevent early plugging of the filter by oil or grease droplets. In batch systems a powered organoclay is employed. Types of oil found in water can include fats, lubricants, cutting fluids, heavy hydrocarbons such as tars, grease, crude oil, diesel oils; and light hydrocarbons such as kerosene, jet fuel, and gasoline

  10. Oil Extraction from “Morelos Rice” Bran: Kinetics and Raw Oil Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zúñiga-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available “Morelos rice” is a variety of rice with certificate of denomination of origin. It is a large grain of opaque appearance and extra large size that is grown exclusively in Morelos state (Mexico. Thus, the quality and characteristics of its rice bran may affect the kinetic of the extraction process of its oil as well as its stability. Therefore, this work is oriented to determine the extraction kinetics of its oil and its oxidative stability. The latter one is obtained through the proposal of a method based on open-circuit potential measurements. The results showed that the rice bran has 21.44% of raw oil, with a chemical composition (based on fatty acids of 48.48% oleic acid, 35.26% linoleic acid, and 14.54% palmitic acid, as well as a free fatty acid content of 8.15%. A high percentage of its oil content can be recovered in a short time at room temperature, and its extraction kinetics is a function of both the washing and the diffusion of its oil. Under storage conditions the raw oil has a high stability, at least 8 months, and its oxidative stability was of 24, 9, and 7 hours at 50°C, 80°C, and 110°C, respectively.

  11. Method of removing radioactive waste from oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing particulates, radioactive contaminants, and moisture from oil, which consists of: straining out the particulates by passing the oil through a coarse filter screen to a receiving vessel; forming an upper stratum of oil and a lower stratum of sludge, consisting of mud, oil, particulates, and moisture, by heating the upper two-thirds of the receiving vessel; skimming off the stratum of oil from the receiving vessel; transferring the sludge from the receiving vessel to a container; transferring additional separated oil to the receiving vessel; conveying the oil skimmed from the receiving vessel to a mixing vessel; adding an effective amount of Calcium Hypochlorite crystals containing 65% free Chlorine to the mixing vessel to initiate salt formation with the radioactive contaminants; mixing the contents of the mixing vessel for at least ten minutes; transferring the mixture from the mixing vessel to a circulating heater; outputting the mixture from the circulating heater to a second mixing vessel; removing moisture from the oil; and filtering from the oil, the solid radioactive contaminant-salts and residual particulate matter

  12. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  13. Coagulation effectiveness of graphene oxide for the removal of turbidity from raw surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubaraka, Abdelmeguid E; Aboelfetoh, Eman F; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the performance of graphene oxide (GO) as a coagulant in turbidity removal from naturally and artificially turbid raw surface water. GO is considered an excellent alternative to alum, the more common coagulant used in water treatment processes, to reduce the environmental release of aluminum. Effects of GO dosage, pH, and temperature on its coagulation ability were studied to determine the ideal turbidity removal conditions. The turbidity removal was ≥95% for all levels of turbid raw surface water (20, 100, and 200 NTU) at optimum conditions. The role of alkalinity in inducing turbidity removal by GO coagulation was much more pronounced upon using raw surface water samples compared with that using artificially turbid deionized water samples. Moreover, GO demonstrated high-performance removal of biological contaminants such as algae, heterotrophic bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria by 99.0%, 98.8% and 96.0%, respectively, at a dosage of 40 mg/L. Concerning the possible environmental release of GO into the treated water following filtration process, there was no residual GO in a wide range of pH values. The outcomes of the study highlight the excellent coagulation performance of GO for the removal of turbidity and biological contaminants from raw surface water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview of Raw Materials for Oil Field Chemicals and Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local content contribution to the oil industry is however presently not up to five percent. The concept of the local content development is not about awarding of contracts to Nigerians with foreign counterparts, but developing and expanding the industry for the benefit of the majority. Comparative study of the local materials ...

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. Utilization of Liquid Smoke from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Raw Rubber Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research utilization of liquid smoke from oil palm empty fruit bunches of raw rubber has been made to utilize solid waste from industrial processing of oil palm empty fruit bunches of oil palm so that it becomes economically valuable products. This research has been done by pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches at a temperature of 400oC for 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours. The results show that the pyrolysis liquid smoke oil palm empty fruit bunches for 8 hours give a high concentration of phenol and acetic acid, respectively 5% and 0.454%. Liquid smoke that has been obtained is used as a coagulant in raw rubber plantation crops of the people residing in the village of Ambawang, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan. Results of treatment of liquid smoke on raw rubber  show that the rubber products that have been frozen and dried are superior in terms of color, smell and drying time compared with the treatment of formic acid and water battery which has been added so far on raw rubber by the local rubber farmers.

  17. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Numerical Comparison of Spray Combustion between Raw and Water-in-Oil Emulsified Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tarlet

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy fuel-oils, used engine oils and animal fat can be used as dense, viscous combustibles within industrial boilers. Burning these combustibles in the form of an emulsion with water enables to decrease the flame length and the formation of carbonaceous residue, in comparison with raw combustibles. These effects are due to the secondary atomization among the spray, which is a consequence of the micro-explosion phenomenon. This phenomenon acts in a single emulsion droplet by the fast (< 0.1 ms vaporization of the inside water droplets, leading to complete disintegration of the whole emulsion droplet. First, the present work demonstrates a model of spray combustion of raw fuel. Secondly, the spray combustion of water-in-oil emulsified fuel is exposed to the same burning conditions, taking into account the micro-explosion phenomenon. Finally, the comparison between the results with and without second atomization shows some similar qualitative tendencies with experimental measurements from the literature.

  20. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of oil films from stainless steel tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.F.; Saez, A.E.; Grant, C.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    The contamination of metal surfaces with oil is a widespread problem in the chemical, metalworking, and automotive industries. The main source of oil fouling comes from the process fluids in various operations. For example, in a heat exchanger, the oil contaminates the equipment surface causing a lower heat-transfer efficiency. The fouled equipment leads to increased costs due to added heat-transfer area, maintenance, energy, and production losses caused by unit downtime. The removal of oil films from the inner surface of a stainless steel tube cell using aqueous cleaning solutions was studied. The two oils used in the cleaning experiments, Sunquench 1042 and heavy mineral oil, contained P{sup 32} labeled tributyl phosphate (TBP) as a radioactive tracer. The {beta}{sup {minus}} particles emitted from the radioactive TBP were detected by a CaF{sub 2} scintillator and used as a measure of the amount of oil remaining in the tube cell. Cleaning experiments performed at different flow rates, surface treatment, and surfactant concentrations indicated that initially the oil films were removed rapidly. At the end of the experiments, the oil removal rate reduced significantly, eventually becoming negligible. The stainless steel morphology affected oil removal significantly, and the rougher tube tended to retard the oil removal. The rate and extent of the decontamination were significantly increased in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a nonionic surfactant. Experimental data were compared to a hydrodynamic model based on the removal of a liquid contaminant from a solid surface by an immiscible fluid. The model deviated from the experimental data due to the presence of instabilities at the oil-water interface.

  2. Removal of aniline and phenol from water using raw and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C D; Zhang, J Y; Wang, L; He, M H

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of using raw diatomite and aluminum hydroxide-modified diatomite (Al-diatomite) for removal of aniline and phenol from water was investigated. Their physicochemical characteristics such as pHsolution, point of zero charge (pHPZC), surface area, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy was determined. After the raw diatomite was modified, the surface area of Al-diatomite increases from 26.67 to 82.65 m(2) g(-1). The pHPZC and pHsolution (10%) occurred around pH 5.2 and pH 8.6, respectively. The removal rates of aniline and phenol on diatomite and Al-diatomite decreased with increasing solution pH, while surface charge density decreased. The adsorption of aniline and phenol on diatomite presented a good fit to the Langmuir and Freundlich models, but the models are not fit to forecast the adsorption of aniline and phenol on Al-diatomite. The study indicated that electrostatic interaction was a dominating mechanism of aniline and phenol sorption onto Al-diatomite.

  3. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  4. Pretreatment of Raw Biochar and Phosphate Removal Performance of Modified Granular Iron/Biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ren; Nan Li; Lin Zhao; Lei Li

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is a potential carrier for nutrients due to its porous nature and abundant functional groups. However, raw biochar has a limited or even negative capacity to adsorb phosphate. To enhance phosphate removal and reduce phos-phate releases, acidic, alkaline, and surfactant pretreatments, followed by granulation and ferric oxide loading, were applied to raw biochar powder (Bp). The alkaline pretreatment proved to be the most effective method and exhibited significant pore expansion and surface oxidation. Bg-OH-FO showed the highest phosphate removal efficiency at 99.2%(initial phos-phate concentration of 20 mg/L) after granulation and ferric oxide loading. Static adsorption results indicated that a pH value of 4 was the most suitable for phosphate adsorption because of the surface properties of Bg-OH-FO and the dis-tribution of P (V) in water. Higher temperatures and a larger initial phosphate concentration led to better adsorption;the adsorption capacity of Bg-OH-FO was 1.91 mg/g at 313 K with an initial phosphate concentration of 50 mg/L. The Bg-OH-FO adsorption process was endothermic in nature. The Freundlich model seemed to be the optimum isotherm model for Bg-OH-FO. Under continuous adsorption, the flow rate and bed depth were changed to optimize the operation con-ditions. The results indicate that a slow flow rate and high bed depth helped increase the removal efficiency (η) of the fixed bed. The breakthrough curves fitted well with the Yoon–Nelson model.

  5. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  6. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; McKeough, P; Tapola, E; Haekkinen, R; Kuoppala, E; Koskela, K [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  7. Uppgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by-product of kraft pulping, originates mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidulation with sulphuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralised refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulphur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulphur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50% of the energy content of the tall oil soap). In the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process. (orig.)

  8. The potential of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms to remove 241Am from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar; Sakata, Solange K.

    2013-01-01

    In the Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) vegetal biomass has been studied as adsorbent to remove radioisotopes from radioactive liquid wastes as part of the radioactive waste treatment program. In this work coconuts fiber was evaluate as biosorbent to remove 241 Am from aqueous solutions and many different parameters were studied such as particle size (35 and 80 mesh) and contact time (between 5 and 60 minutes). In order to evaluate if the treated biomass could remove more 241 Am the experiments were also performed using raw biomass and treated with H 2 O 2 in basic conditions. When the experiment was carried out using raw coconuts fiber with 80 mesh, neutral conditions after 5 minutes of contact time 99% of the radionuclide was removed from the aqueous solution. This result shows the potential of this biomass to remove 241 Am from radioactive liquid wastes. (author)

  9. The potential of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms to remove {sup 241}Am from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) vegetal biomass has been studied as adsorbent to remove radioisotopes from radioactive liquid wastes as part of the radioactive waste treatment program. In this work coconuts fiber was evaluate as biosorbent to remove {sup 241}Am from aqueous solutions and many different parameters were studied such as particle size (35 and 80 mesh) and contact time (between 5 and 60 minutes). In order to evaluate if the treated biomass could remove more {sup 241}Am the experiments were also performed using raw biomass and treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in basic conditions. When the experiment was carried out using raw coconuts fiber with 80 mesh, neutral conditions after 5 minutes of contact time 99% of the radionuclide was removed from the aqueous solution. This result shows the potential of this biomass to remove {sup 241}Am from radioactive liquid wastes. (author)

  10. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  11. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Can, O. T.; Hammed, M.; Nawarathna, D.; Simsek, H.

    2018-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from vegetable oil industries contain a high concentration of organic pollutants that are detrimental to the aquatic ecosystem. Electrochemical processes are gaining importance in the treatment of inorganic and resistant organic pollutants in wastewaters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was applied to remove organic pollutants and oil and grease from canola oil wastewater using aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes. The application of EC in the wastewater achieved more than 80% removal of organic carbon and nearly 100% removal of suspended solids (SS). The effectiveness of EC is influenced mainly by current density, pH, electrolyte (NaCl), electrode contact time and electrode type. It was observed that Al electrode combination yielded better removal at a lesser time compared to that of Fe electrodes. However, varying current densities had its significance in terms of coagulation time only. Increase in current density achieved decrease in coagulation time. Both Al and Fe could remove between 52-59% of oil and grease from canola oil wastewater

  12. Satellite refrigerator compressors with the oil and moisture removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    There are twenty-eight compressors installed around the Main Accelerator Ring in seven locations. Drawing 9140-ME-129720 shows the piping and the components schematic for four Mycom compressor skids per building with each having an independent oil and moisture removal system. The Mycom skids each consist of an oil injected screw compressor of 750 SCFM capacity with a 350 hp motor, oil pump, oil cooler, and oil separator. Helium gas returning from the heat exchanger train is compressed from 1 atm to 20 atm in the compressor. The compressed gas is then passed through the three coalescer de-mister where oil mist is separated from the helium gas. The helium gas then flows through the charcoal adsorber and molecular sieve where any residual oil vapor and water vapor are removed. The final stage of purification is the final filter which removes any remaining particulates from the compressed helium gas. The end product of this system is compressed and purified helium gas ready to be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAW AND MODIFIED SAWDUST FOR THEIR USE AS ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF ACID DYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate the physical characteristics of sawdust relative to its use as an adsorbent for removal of an acid dye (Orange G from aqueous solutions. The raw sawdust was sieved to have a uniform size and was activated by sulphuric acid by refluxing the content at 60 oC for 4 h. Surface morphology and surface functional groups of both raw and modified sawdust samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR, and elemental analysis. All these analyses displayed significant change in the structure of the sawdust. The data obtained from batch adsorption experiments for the removal of the selected dye confirmed that adsorption characteristics of the modified sawdust were better than those of raw sawdust.

  14. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  15. Oil adsorbing package, also procedure to remove oil from a water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1971-05-01

    A method is given to remove oil from water to prevent water pollution. Use is made of an oil-adsorbing packet having a specific gravity which is lower than the specific gravity of water. The hull is manufactured from any material which is not a water-insoluble nonpolar material. The hull is partly permeable to water and encloses a solid oil-adsorbing compound having a large adsorbing surface. (10 claims)

  16. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  17. Organo-clay/anthracite filtration for oil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazed, H.; Viragahavan, T.

    1999-01-01

    An advantage of organo-clay compared to other sorbents is that it can selectively remove organic pollutants from contaminated waters. An investigation was conducted to determine the potential of an organo-clay/anthracite mixture as a filter media for the removal of oil from synthetic and real oily waters. Also included in the study were column filtration studies using synthetic and real waste waters to determine the sorptive capacity of the material. In general, oil removal efficiencies in a 300 mm organo-clay/anthracite bed decreased with an increase in flow rates. Results of eight hour studies indicated that the depth of an organo-clay/anthracite bed has a direct effect on oil removal efficiency. The Thomas equation provides a reasonable fit of the data based on breakthrough studies. The model can be used to determine the parameters needed to design full-scale filtration columns. The uptake of oil by an organo-clay/anthracite mixture is well described by an equation including time such as the Weber or Moris model. The maximum solid-phase concentration of the solute values obtained from the Thomas equation were comparable to the values found by a mass balance approach. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: comparing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. S.; Dell'omo, R.; Mura, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the outcome of silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery, and to compare results of a two-port (infusion-extraction) versus a three-port (full vitrectomy) approach. Methods Primary outcome measure was the rate of redetachment. Secondary outcome

  19. Characterization of raw materials and manufactured binderless particleboard from oil palm biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, Rokiah; Nadhari, Wan Noor Aidawati Wan; Sulaiman, Othman; Kawamura, Fumio; Hiziroglu, Salim; Sato, Masatoshi; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Seng, Tay Guan; Tanaka, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extractive, holocellulose, alpha cellulose, lignin, starch, and sugar contents of oil palm biomass and to evaluate its suitability in binderless particleboard production. In this study, bark, leaves, fronds, mid-parts and core-parts of the trunks were used to produce experimental binderless particleboard panels. Binderless particleboard panels were made with a target density of 0.80 g/cm 3 at a temperature of 180 o C and a pressure of 12 MPa in a computer controlled hot press. The modulus of rupture, the internal bond strength, the thickness swelling and the water absorption of the panels were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the properties of the raw materials and the manufactured panels. The chemical composition of the oil palm biomass consisted of high holocellulose, lignin, starch and sugar contents that have been found to aid in the production of binderless particleboard. The core-part of the trunk contained the highest amount of starch and total sugar. Samples made from the core-parts and fronds had sufficient modulus of rupture and internal bond strength to meet the Japanese Industrial Standard. The internal bond strength of the mid-part panels also met the standard. However, binderless board prepared from bark and leaves showed poor modulus of rupture and internal bond strength. Samples from the core-parts had the lowest thickness swell and water absorption but did not meet the above standard. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra did not show any substantial difference between the raw materials and the manufactured panels. Field emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that the compressed cells varied between raw material types and showed the presence of compressed cells with some starch granules that facilitated adhesion. Based on the findings of this study, oil palm has the potential to be used to

  20. Removal of oil palm trunk lignin in ammonium hydroxide pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Az-Zahraa, Balqis; Zakaria, Sarani; Daud, Muhammad F. B.; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed

    2018-04-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH serves as one of a process to remove lignin from lignocellulosic biomass such as oil palm trunk fiber. In this study, the effect of NH4OH pretreatment on removal of oil palm trunk lignin was investigated. The oil palm trunk fiber was dissolved in NH4OH with different concentrations (6, 8 and 10 %), different duration (3, 5 and 7 h) and temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C). The samples were analyzed by using UV-Vis to estimate the concentration of extracted lignin. The result indicates that the optimum conditions to gain maximum extracted lignin were 8% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 64 mgL-1 while the lowest was at 6% NH4OH, 100 °C and 5 h with concentration of 62.5 mgL-1.

  1. Essential oils of thyme and Rosemary in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Maciel Mattos de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in order to evaluate two alternatives for the control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine meat pieces, both based on the use of Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (EOs. The antilisterial activity of different concentrations of the EOs was tested in vitro using agar dilution and disk volatilization techniques. In addition, L. monocytogenes was inoculated in meat pieces, which were submerged in edible gelatin coatings containing 2% (v/v EOs or submitted to the vapor of EOs (0.74 μL.cm-3. L. monocytogenes was quantified after one, 48 and 96 hours of storage (7 °C. In the in vitro tests, the EO of T. vulgaris presented higher activity. The two options used (edible gelatin coating and vapor activity, in spite of exercising effects with differentiated behaviors, presented antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05. Greatest antibacterial activity were obtained in the experiment that used edible coatings containing EOs, at 48 hours of storage reductions in bacterial counts between 1.09 and 1.25 Log CFU.g-1 were obtained. In the vapor effect experiment, the EO of T. vulgaris caused the highest reduction in the population of bacteria inoculated in raw bovine meat (p < 0.05, 0.40 Log CFU.g-1 at 96 hours of storage. This study supplied important information regarding new and promising natural alternatives, based on the concept of active packaging, for the control of L. monocytogenes in the meat industry.

  2. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  3. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators.

  4. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  5. Diesel oil removal by immobilized Pseudoxanthomonas sp. RN402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopcharoenkul, Wannarak; Netsakulnee, Parichat; Pinyakong, Onruthai

    2013-06-01

    Pseudoxanthomonas sp. RN402 was capable of degrading diesel, crude oil, n-tetradecane and n-hexadecane. The RN402 cells were immobilized on the surface of high-density polyethylene plastic pellets at a maximum cell density of 10(8) most probable number (MPN) g(-1) of plastic pellets. The immobilized cells not only showed a higher efficacy of diesel oil removal than free cells but could also degrade higher concentrations of diesel oil. The rate of diesel oil removal by immobilized RN402 cells in liquid culture was 1,050 mg l(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the immobilized cells could maintain high efficacy and viability throughout 70 cycles of bioremedial treatment of diesel-contaminated water. The stability of diesel oil degradation in the immobilized cells resulted from the ability of living RN402 cells to attach to material surfaces by biofilm formation, as was shown by CLSM imaging. These characteristics of the immobilized RN402 cells, including high degradative efficacy, stability and flotation, make them suitable for the purpose of continuous wastewater bioremediation.

  6. Recalcitrant Compounds Removal in Raw Leachate and Synthetic Effluents Using the White-Rot Fungus Bjerkandera adusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recalcitrant compounds limit the efficiency of conventional biological processes for wastewater treatment, representing one of the major issues in the field. This study focused on the treatment of three effluents with White-Rot-Fungus (WRF Bjerkandera adusta MUT 2295 in batch tests, with biomass cultivated in attached form on polyurethane foam cubes (PUFs to test its efficiency in the removal of the target effluents’ recalcitrant fraction. Treatment efficiency of B. adusta was evaluated on landfill leachate (Canada and two solutions containing synthetic recalcitrant compounds, which were prepared with tannic and humic acid. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and color removal, the production of manganese peroxidases, and the consumption of a co-substrate (glucose were monitored during the experiment. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and fungal dry weight were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. After co-substrate addition, effluent COD was 2300 ± 85, 2545 ± 84, and 2580 ± 95 (mg/L in raw leachate and tannic and humic acids, respectively. COD removal of 48%, 61%, and 48% was obtained in raw leachate and in the synthetic effluents containing tannic and humic acids, respectively. Color removal of 49%, 25%, and 42% was detected in raw leachate and in tannic and humic acid solutions, respectively. COD and color removals were associated with the increase of fungal dry weight, which was observed in all the trials. These results encourage the use of the selected fungal strain to remove tannic acid, while further investigations are required to optimize leachate and humic acid bioremediation.

  7. Electrochemical removal of phenol from oil refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, O; Amin, N K; El-Ashtoukhy, E-S Z

    2009-04-30

    This study explores the possibility of using electrocoagulation to remove phenol from oil refinery waste effluent using a cell with horizontally oriented aluminum cathode and a horizontal aluminum screen anode. The removal of phenol was investigated in terms of various parameters namely: pH, operating time, current density, initial phenol concentration and addition of NaCl. Removal of phenol during electrocoagulation was due to combined effect of sweep coagulation and adsorption. The results showed that, at high current density and solution pH 7, remarkable removal of 97% of phenol after 2h can be achieved. The rate of electrocoagulation was observed to increase as the phenol concentration decreases; the maximum removal rate was attained at 30 mg L(-1) phenol concentration. For a given current density using an array of closely packed Al screens as anode was found to be more effective than single screen anode, the percentage phenol removal was found to increase with increasing the number of screens per array. After 2h of electrocoagulation, 94.5% of initial phenol concentration was removed from the petroleum refinery wastewater. Energy consumption and aluminum Electrode consumption were calculated per gram of phenol removed. The present study shows that, electrocoagulation of phenol using aluminum electrodes is a promising process.

  8. The use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells to remove metals from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Sun Changbin; Xu Jin; Li Youzhi

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater is not only to protect living organisms in the environment but also to conserve resources such as metals and water by enabling their reuse. To overcome the disadvantage of high cost and secondary pollution by the conventional physico-chemical treatment techniques, environmentally benign and low-cost adsorbents are in demand. In this study, the use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells (BMSs) to remove metals from aqueous solutions with single or mixed metal was evaluated at different BMSs doses, pH and temperatures in batch shaking experiments in laboratory conditions. When the BMSs were used to treat CuSO 4 .5H 2 O solution, the copper sorption capacities of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were approximately 38.93 mg/g and 138.95 mg/g, respectively. The copper removal efficiency (CRE) of the raw BMSs became greatly enhanced with increasing initial pH, reaching 99.51% at the initial pH 5. Conversely, the CRE of the acid-pretreated BMSs was maintained at 99.48-99.52% throughout the pH range of 1-5. Furthermore, the CRE values of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were not greatly changed when the temperature was varied from 15 deg. C to 40 deg. C. In addition, the CRE value of the raw BMSs was maintained for 12 cycles of sorption-desorption with a CRE of 98.4% being observed in the final cycle. Finally, when the BMSs were used to treat electroplating wastewater, the removal efficiencies (REs) of the raw BMSs were 99.97%, 98.99% and 87% for Fe, Zn and Cu, respectively, whereas the REs of the acid-pretreated BMSs were 99.98%, 99.43% and 92.13%, respectively. Ion exchange experiments revealed that one of mechanisms for metal sorption by the BMSs from aqueous solution is related to ion exchange, especially between the metal ions in the treated solution and Ca 2+ from BMSs. Infrared absorbance spectra analysis indicated that the acid pretreatment led to occurrence of the groups (i.e. -OH, -NH, C=O and S=O) of

  9. The use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells to remove metals from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Changbin; Xu, Jin; Li, Youzhi

    2009-08-30

    Heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater is not only to protect living organisms in the environment but also to conserve resources such as metals and water by enabling their reuse. To overcome the disadvantage of high cost and secondary pollution by the conventional physico-chemical treatment techniques, environmentally benign and low-cost adsorbents are in demand. In this study, the use of raw and acid-pretreated bivalve mollusk shells (BMSs) to remove metals from aqueous solutions with single or mixed metal was evaluated at different BMSs doses, pH and temperatures in batch shaking experiments in laboratory conditions. When the BMSs were used to treat CuSO(4)x5H(2)O solution, the copper sorption capacities of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were approximately 38.93 mg/g and 138.95 mg/g, respectively. The copper removal efficiency (CRE) of the raw BMSs became greatly enhanced with increasing initial pH, reaching 99.51% at the initial pH 5. Conversely, the CRE of the acid-pretreated BMSs was maintained at 99.48-99.52% throughout the pH range of 1-5. Furthermore, the CRE values of the raw and acid-pretreated BMSs were not greatly changed when the temperature was varied from 15 degrees C to 40 degrees C. In addition, the CRE value of the raw BMSs was maintained for 12 cycles of sorption-desorption with a CRE of 98.4% being observed in the final cycle. Finally, when the BMSs were used to treat electroplating wastewater, the removal efficiencies (REs) of the raw BMSs were 99.97%, 98.99% and 87% for Fe, Zn and Cu, respectively, whereas the REs of the acid-pretreated BMSs were 99.98%, 99.43% and 92.13%, respectively. Ion exchange experiments revealed that one of mechanisms for metal sorption by the BMSs from aqueous solution is related to ion exchange, especially between the metal ions in the treated solution and Ca(2+) from BMSs. Infrared absorbance spectra analysis indicated that the acid pretreatment led to occurrence of the groups (i.e. -OH, -NH, C=O and S

  10. Removal of oil products from fitters in water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.B.; Olander, M.A.; Arvin, E.

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline and oil spills cause aromatic hydrocarbon pollution of ground water. Benzene, toluene and naphtalene can be found in water wells. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the filtering of water and biological degradation of aromatics on water treatment filters. These filters were proved to reduce benzene, toluene and naphtalene concentration from 5-12 μg/l to 0,3-0,6 μg/l (86-98 % removal). (EG)

  11. Sulphur removal from used automotive lubricating oil by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2007-01-01

    Following the worldwide evolution with the purpose of a higher control of vehicular emissions, the specialists have looked for clean technologies and efficient procedures to make vehicular emissions free of pollutants. Much attention is given to the sulphur concentration in the gasoline, diesel and lubricating oils. The ionizing radiation is a promising technology for the removal of this pollutant when compared to other conventional treatment methods. In this work, the ionizing radiation was used to remove in significant levels the presence of sulphur in automotive motor oil. A 1000 mL sample of used automotive lubricating oil from a gas station was collected. This sample was fractioned and irradiated with 10, 20 50, 100, 200 and 500 kGy doses in a 60 Co irradiator (GAMMACELL-220 - 12 kCi). The 50 and 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water and 30% (v/v) of hydrogen peroxide was used to improve the radiolysis The sulphur element before and after the irradiation was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique (WDXRF) using the Fundamental Parameters Method. The results showed approximately 70% sulphur removal at 500 kGy irradiation dose with 70% (v/v) of MilliQ water addition. (author)

  12. Electrocoagulation with polarity switch for fast oil removal from oil in water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Lorena C A; Nascimento, Izabela L; Muniz, Eduardo P; Rocha, Sandra M S; Porto, Paulo S S

    2018-05-01

    An electrocoagulation technique using a 3.5 L reactor, with aluminum electrodes in a monopolar arrangement with polarity switch at each 10 s was used to separate oil from synthetic oily water similar in oil concentration to produced water from offshore platforms. Up to 98% of oil removal was achieved after 20 min of processing. Processing time dependence of the oil removal and pH was measured and successfully adjusted to exponential models, indicating a pseudo first order behavior. Statistical analysis was used to prove that electrical conductivity and total solids depend significantly on the concentration of electrolyte (NaCl) in the medium. Oil removal depends mostly on the distance between the electrodes but is proportional to electrolyte concentration when initial pH is 8. Electrocoagulation with polarity switch maximizes the lifetime of the electrodes. The process reduced oil concentration to a value below that stipulated by law, proving it can be an efficient technology to minimize the offshore drilling impact in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  14. Spontaneous resolution of macular edema after silicone oil removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyyup Karahan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the macular changes in eyes filled with silicone oil (SO and course of these changes after SO removal.METHODS:A retrospective optical coherence tomography scan review was conducted for twenty-four patients who underwent uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy with SO tamponade for complex retinal detachments were detected with optical coherence tomography before, and one week, one month and three months after SO removal.RESULTS:Mean duration of SO tamponade was 3.6±1.0mo (range:3-7mo. Cystoid macular edema (CME was detected in 3 eyes before SO removal. Submacular fluid was represented in 1 eye before silicone SO removal. Resolution of CME and submacular fluid was achieved 1mo after SO removal in all eyes. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 1.15±0.65 (range, hand movement to 0.2 before SO removal in the eyes without macular changes. After SO removal, the mean BCVA values at 1wk and 1 and 3mo, and 0.82±0.23, 0.76±0.21, and 0.70±0.19, all of which were significantly better than baseline (P=0.030, 0.017, 0.006 respectively. In the eyes with macular CME and subretinal fluid the mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3mo after SO removal compared with baseline (P=0.037.CONCLUSION:Decreased visual acuity in eyes filled with SO could be caused by macular complications due to SO. CME and subretinal fluid may resolve without any additional macular surgery after SO removal.

  15. Turbidity and oil removal from oilfield produced water, middle oil company by electrocoagulation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Thamer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantity of produced water is salty water trapped in the oil wells rock and brought up along with oil or gas during production. It usually contains hydrocarbons as oil and suspended solids or turbidity. Therefore the aim of this study is to treat produced water before being discharge to surface water or re injected in oil wells. In this paper experimental results were investigated on treating produced water (which is obtained from Middle Oil Company-Iraq, through electrocoagulation (EC. The performance of EC was investigated for reduction of turbidity and oil content up to allowable limit. Effect of different parameters were studied; (pH, current density, distance between two electrodes, and electrolysis time. The experimental runs carried out by an electrocoagulation unit was assembled and installed in the lab and the reactor was made of a material Perspex, with a capacity of approximately 2.5 liters and dimensions were 20 cm in length, 14 cm in width and 16 cm height. The electrodes employed were made of commercial materials. The anode was a perforated aluminum rectangular plate with a thickness of 1.72 mm, a height of 60 mm and length of 140 mm and the cathode was a mesh iron. The current was used in the unit with different densities to test the turbidity removing efficiency (0.0025, 0.00633, 0.01266 and 0.0253 A/cm2.The experiment showed that the best turbidity removing was (10, 9.7, 9.2, 18 NTU respectively. The distance between the electrodes of the unit was 3cm. The present turbidity removing was 92.33%. A slight improvement of turbidity removing was shown when the distance between the electrodes was changed from 0.5 to 3 cm with fixation of current density. The best turbidity removing was 93.5% , (7.79 NTU when the distance between the electrodes were 1 cm. The experimental results found that concentration of oil had decreased to (10.7, 11.2, 11.7, 12.3 mg/l when different current densities (0.00253, 0.00633, 0.01266, 0.0253 A/cm2

  16. The removal of metals from edible oil by a membrane extraction procedure 355

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Bosklopper, T.G.J.; Dorp, van L.J.; Riet, van 't K.

    1990-01-01

    Edible oils may contain traces of metals. In oil refining procedures these metals have to be removed to guarantee oxidatively stable products. In this study we present a hollow fiber membrane extraction system for the removal of metals from an oil. Several extraction liquids were tested, of which an

  17. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  18. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  19. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  20. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  1. Experimental data for aluminum removal from aqueous solution by raw and iron-modified granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mahdavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset deals with the modification of granular activated carbon (GAC with FeCl3 under basic conditions (pH ≈ 12 for removal of aluminium (Al from aqueous solution. The structural properties and operational parameters including Al ion concentration (2.15 and 10.3 mg/L, pH solution (2–10, adsorbent dosage (0.1–5 g/L, and contact time (0–10 h was investigated for raw and modified GAC. This dataset provides information about Al removal by GAC and modified GAC at conditions including: pH = 8, contact time = 6 h, initial Al concentration = 2.15 mg/L. The characterization data of the adsorbents was analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET test. The data showed that Freundlich isotherm with and Pseudo second order kinetic model were the best models for describing the Al adsorption reactions. The acquired data indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GAC and modified GAC to uptake Al (C0 = 10.3 mg/L was 3 and 4.37 mg/g respectively. Keywords: Aluminium removal, Adsorption, Iron-modified GAC, Water treatment

  2. Application of Raw and Alkaline-modified Coconut Shaft as a Biosorbent for Pb2+ Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Andrew Ofudje

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sorption capacity of untreated and alkaline-treated coconut shaft biosorbents for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution was investigated in batch experiments. Effects of contact time, biosorbent dose, initial metal concentration, and pH on the sorption capacity were investigated. Optimum Pb2+ removal of 17.6 and 22.1 mg/g by untreated and alkaline-treated biomass was achieved at an initial metal concentration of 150 mg/L, a biomass dose of 0.7 g, a contact time of 80 min, and a pH of 4.0. The sorption data fitted well into the Langmuir isotherm, while kinetic modeling of the data from untreated biomass indicated conformity with the Lagergren pseudo-first-order model, whereas data from the treated biomass fit well with the Elovich model. FT-IR results gave indications of possible functional groups on the cell walls of the coconut shaft, including alcohols, amines, carboxylic acids, ester, and ethers. Thus, alkaline treatment of the coconut shafts enhanced the biosorption ability of Pb2+ onto the coconut shaft biomass.

  3. Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A biorefinery, considered a chemical process plant under the Clean Air Act permitting program, could be classified as a major or minor source based on the size of the facility and magnitude of regulated pollutants emitted. Our previous analysis indicates that a biorefinery using fast pyrolysis conversion process to produce finished gasoline and diesel blendstocks with a capacity of processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day would likely be classified as a major source because several regulated pollutants (such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) are estimated to exceed the 100 tons per year (tpy) major source threshold, applicable to chemical process plants. Being subject to a major source classification could pose additional challenges associated with obtaining an air permit in a timely manner before the biorefinery can start its construction. Recent developments propose an alternative approach to utilize bio-oil produced via the fast pyrolysis conversion process by shipping it to an existing petroleum refinery, where the raw bio-oil can be blended with petroleum-based feedstocks (e.g., vacuum gas oil) to produce gasoline and diesel blendstocks with renewable content. Without having to hydro-treat raw bio-oil, a biorefinery is likely to reduce its potential-to-emit to below the 100 tpy major source threshold, and therefore expedite its permitting process. We compare the PTE estimates for the two biorefinery designs with and without hydrotreating of bio-oils and examine the air permitting implications on potential air permit classification and discuss the best available control technology requirements for the major source biorefinery utilizing hydrotreating operation. Our analysis is expected to provide useful information to new biofuel project developers to identify opportunities to overcome challenges associated with air permitting.

  4. Adsorption of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) by using Raw and Modified Kapok Fibre through Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, N. H.; Hasan, S. I. Z.

    2018-05-01

    UCO is one of the domestic wastes in our daily life. Normally, UCO are produced by hawkers, restaurants and household in a large quantity. The UCO usually exist in water mixture and eventually can cause water drainage problem which can lead to the environmental problem. Therefore, in order to overcome this problem, a study was conducted to test the adsorption of RKF and MKF towards the UCO. As for the MKF, the adsorption was tested by using different concentrations of Calcium Oxide (CaO) in percentage during the esterification. The oil removal percentages were calculated for RKF and MKF. Based on the results, it was found that the RKF has adsorbed 25.32g of UCO with a 50.64% of adsorption. As compared to MKF, it was able to increase the hydrophobic properties which resulted more UCO adsorption by 26.78g of UCO with the increment in the adsorption of 53.56% by using CaO of 5 wt% of RKF mass. However, when the percentage of CaO was increased, the UCO adsorption was also increased. The results showed that by using CaO of 10 wt% and 15 wt% of RKF mass, the UCO adsorption was increased to 28.50g (56.84%) and 31.73g (63.46%), respectively. Thus, MKF has higher adsorption of UCO compared to RKF. The highest amount of UCO adsorption has been achieved by using CaO of 15 wt% in the esterification, which was 31.73g corresponded to 63.46%.

  5. Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution: A comparative study of raw attapulgite clay and a reusable waste–struvite/attapulgite obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ma, Jinxing, E-mail: jinxing.ma@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Xia, Peng; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Both nutrient recovery and Cd(II) removal were achieved by MAP/APT. • The nutrient recovery process was used as a novel method of modification. • Compared with raw APT, MAP/APT enhanced Cd(II) adsorption capacity. • Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms from aqueous solution were extensively investigated. - Abstract: In this study, raw attapulgite (APT) and a novel adsorbent, struvite/attapulgite (MAP/APT) obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO modified APT, were applied as the absorbent for Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The two adsorbents were characterized by BET, SEM-EDS, XRD, FT-IR. Raw APT and MAP/APT separately presented the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 10.38 mg/g and 121.14 mg/g at pH of 5.45. The Cd(II) adsorption on raw APT and MAP/APT could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second order equation was able to properly describe the kinetics of Cd(II) adsorption by raw APT and MAP/APT. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cd(II) adsorption onto raw APT and MAP/APT were spontaneous and endothermic. An economic evaluation revealed that the treatment costs of the adsorption process by raw APT and MPA/APT were 0.013 $ per 1000 mg Cd and 0.004 $ per 1000 mg Cd, respectively.

  6. Upgrading of raw tall oil soap into fuel oils and lubricants. Final report; Raakasuovan jalostus poltto- ja voiteluoeljyksi. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; McKeough, P.

    1997-12-31

    Thermochemical processing of tall oil soap originating from various mixtures of birch and pine has been experimentally investigated. The organic matter of tall oil soap, which is a by- product of Kraft pulping, originated mainly from wood extractives. Conventional processing of tall oil soap involves acidification with sulfuric acid to yield crude tall oil and subsequent distillation of the oil at centralized refineries. Because tall oil originating from birch wood is far less valuable than that from pine, there is an economic incentive in the Nordic Countries to develop alternative conversion processes for the tall oil soap produced at pulp mills where birch is widely used as feedstock. Furthermore, thermochemical processing of tall oil soap does not introduce sulfur into the chemical recovery cycle. This would be a significant advantage in future mills employing closure of water circuits and/or sulfur-free pulping. In small-scale experiments tall oil soaps from wood mixtures with high birch content have been processed using both liquid-phase thermal treatment and pyrolysis. The liquid-phase thermal treatment at 450 deg C under a nitrogen atmosphere yielded a good-quality oil product at high yield (about 50 % of the energy content of the tall oil soap). Also in the atmospheric pyrolysis of birch tall oil soap a separation of inorganic and organic constituents was obtained. The energy value of the product gases was high. Both processes are promising, but the pyrolysis alternative has the greater economic potential, providing that the promising preliminary experimental results have given a true picture of the performance of the full-scale pyrolysis process Bioenergy Research Programme; 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. Possibility of removing condensate and scattered oil from gas-condensate field during bed flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, N.A.; Yagubov, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is set of evaluating the possible removal from the bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed. For this purpose, an experimental study was made of the displacement by water from the porous medium of the oil and condensate saturating it. The obtained experimental results permit evaluation of the possible removal from the gas-condensate bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed.

  9. Removal of emulsified oil in residual waters by means of dissolved air flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    In this article is consigned a theoretical and experimental study on the treatment of industrial residual waters with emulsified oil, through the flotation process for dissolved air (FAD), changing some operation parameters and some importance topics, related with the process. The experimental results and the theoretical pattern, show that the removal of oil depends fundamentally on the chemical pretreatment. Efficiencies of removal of oil up of 99% they were obtained, using the dissolved air flotation with the help of coagulants

  10. A simple filtration method to remove plankton-associated Vibrio cholerae in raw water supplies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, A; Xu, B; Chowdhury, M A; Islam, M S; Montilla, R; Colwell, R R

    1996-07-01

    Plankton to which cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and/or O139 were attached was introduced into 0.5% Instant Ocean microcosms maintained at 25 degrees C. The bulk of the plankton and associated particulates was removed with a filter constructed from either nylon net and one of several different types of sari material, the latter being very inexpensive and readily available in villages in Bangladesh, where V. cholerae is endemic. V. cholerae was enumerated before and after filtration to evaluate the efficiency of the filtration procedure. The results obtained indicate that 99% of V. cholerae, i.e., those cells attached to plankton, were removed from the water samples. Epidemic strains of V. cholerae O1 and O139 from various geographical sources, including Bangladesh, Brazil, India, and Mexico, were included in the experiments. Removal of vibrios from water by this simple filtration method was found to yield consistent results with all strains examined in this study. Thus, it is concluded that a simple filtration procedure involving the use of domestic sari material can reduce the number of cholera vibrios attached to plankton in raw water from ponds and rivers commonly used for drinking. Since untreated water from such sources serves as drinking water for millions of people living in developing countries (e.g., Bangladesh), filtration should prove effective at reducing the incidence and severity of outbreaks, especially in places that lack fuel wood for boiling water and/or municipal water treatment plants. The results of this study provide the basis for determining such reductions, which are to be carried out in the near future.

  11. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiéry, Vincent; Bourdot, Alexandra; Bulteel, David

    2015-01-01

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements

  12. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  15. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  17. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X - Ray ...

  18. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  19. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  20. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou

    2016-09-07

    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  1. Removal of oil pollutants in seawater as pretreatment of reverse osmosis desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jian; Nishijima, Wataru; Baes, Aloysius U.; Okada, Mitsumasa [Hiroshima Univ., Environmental Science Dept., Hiroshima (Japan); Kitanaka, Atsushi [Fuji-Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Weathered oil contaminated seawater (WOCS) was used to investigate the behaviour of soluble oil components in seawater in various pretreatment processes for removal of oil pollutants in seawater. The various pretreatment processes were a reverse osmosis desalination process in combination with advanced oxidation processes, ultrafiltration, coagulation, GAC adsorption, biological treatment and separation with a low pressure RO membrane. WOCS was prepared by mixing oil, nutrients and fresh seawater which was exposed to sunlight to simulate photooxidation and microbial degradation of oil in the marine environment. It was found that WOCS contained soluble components with relatively small molecular size, which are refractory to biodegradation and difficult to remove by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UF membrane or coagulation using FeCl{sub 3} or PAC as flocculants. However, DOC in WOCS (OCWOCS) was easily adsorbed to GAC. Low pressure RO membranes with higher salt rejection rate could remove more OCWOCS compared to those of lower salt rejection rate. (Author)

  2. Removal of oil pollutants in seawater as pretreatment of reverse osmosis desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jian; Nishijima, Wataru; Baes, Aloysius U.; Okada, Mitsumasa [Hiroshima Univ., Environmental Science Dept., Hiroshima (Japan); Kitanaka, Atsushi [Fuji-Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Weathered oil contaminated seawater (WOCS) was used to investigate the behaviour of soluble oil components in seawater in various pretreatment processes for removal of oil pollutants in seawater. The various pretreatment processes were a reverse osmosis desalination process in combination with advanced oxidation processes, ultrafiltration, coagulation, GAC adsorption, biological treatment and separation with a low pressure RO membrane. WOCS was prepared by mixing oil, nutrients and fresh seawater which was exposed to sunlight to simulate photooxidation and microbial degradation of oil in the marine environment. It was found that WOCS contained soluble components with relatively small molecular size, which are refractory to biodegradation and difficult to remove by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UF membrane or coagulation using FeCl{sub 3} or PAC as flocculants. However, DOC in WOCS (OCWOCS) was easily adsorbed to GAC. Low pressure RO membranes with higher salt rejection rate could remove more OCWOCS compared to those of lower salt rejection rate. (Author)

  3. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  4. Vision loss associated with the use and removal of intraocular silicone oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Williams

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick D Williams1, Christopher G Fuller1, Ingrid U Scott2, Dwain G Fuller1, Harry W Flynn Jr31Texas Retina Associates, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Departments of Ophthalmology and Health Evaluation Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To describe vision loss associated with the use or removal of silicone oil retinal tamponade.Methods: Records were reviewed of all patients with a decrease in visual acuity of at least 3 Snellen lines from best acuity with 5000 centistoke silicone oil in place or after removal of silicone oil at a single retina-only practice between 1996 and 2006.Results: Nine patients (6 men, 3 women with a mean age of 48 years (range, 16–61 met study inclusion criteria. Seven patients lost at least three Snellen lines of vision while the silicone oil was in place. Four patients had late modest improvements in acuity when compared to their final recorded Snellen vision before silicone oil removal, however no patients exhibited visual improvement when comparing their final recorded visual acuities after oil removal with best recorded acuities under oil tamponade. Loss of the foveal depression was a consistent feature on optical coherence tomography.Conclusions: Vision loss is a possible complication of silicone oil use and removal. Late visual improvement may occur in some patients. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s of vision loss associated with the use or removal of silicone oil.Keywords: retinal tamponade, visual acuity, snellen vision, silicone oil

  5. Study on the effect of innovative leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily drilling cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Cha; Hao, Weiwei; Li, Mu; Huang, Zhao; Liu, Yushuang

    2018-02-01

    A new type of leaching solvent for oily drilling cuttings was developed, and the effect of leaching solvent on the oil removal for oily cuttings was investigated. The results indicated that the leaching solvent had good capacity of oil removal for oily cuttings, and the oil content of treated cuttings is less than 0.6%. The leaching solvent could be separated from the oil phase through distillation, and the recyclable solvent could be reused to treat other cuttings. Moreover, oil resources adsorbed on the oily cuttings could be recycled and reused to prepare new drilling fluids, so the drilling cost could be reduced greatly. As a result, the leaching solvent could treat the oily cuttings effectively, and recycle and reuse oil resources, and thus produce great economic benefits. It can play an essential role in safe drilling jobs and improvement of drilling efficiency in the future.

  6. Emu Oil Reduces LPS-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and TNF-α but not Phagocytosis in RAW 264 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tadayoshi; Minami, Kazuhiro; Ito, Minoru; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Niwa, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    Emu is the second-largest extant bird native to Australia. Emu oil, obtained from the emu's fat deposits, is used as an ingredient in cosmetic skincare products. Emu oil has been reported to improve several inflammatory symptoms; however, the mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. This study investigated the effects of emu oil on the inflammatory macrophage response in vitro. A murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264, was incubated in culture media supplemented with or without emu oil and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We determined phagocytic activity by measuring the number of fluorescent microspheres taken up by the cells. The phagocytic activity of RAW 264 cells in the presence of LPS was unaffected by emu oil. We also determined production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the culture medium using the Griess reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and the protein expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) using western blotting. The results indicated that emu oil reduced the LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, and iNOS expression in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggested that emu oil does not reduce the phagocytic clearance rate of inflammatory matter; however, it does reduce the production of NO and TNF-α in macrophages. These latter products enhance the inflammatory response and emu oil thereby demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties.

  7. Utilization of Cocoa Peel as Biosorbent for Oil and Color Removal in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Hutagalung, A. T.; Siahaan, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discover the effectiveness of cocoa peel as biosorbents for oil and color removal in POME. This study used biosorbent from cocoa peel with variation of particle size which passed through 70 mesh, 100 mesh, and 120 mesh and was activated with the ratio of biosorbent and 0,6 M HNO3 of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:6 (m/v). The adsorption process was carried out using biosorbent with the highest iodine number in varying biosorbent mass and contact time. The highest iodine number was 596,684 mg/g and obtained at particle size 120 mesh and the ratio of biosorbent : HNO3 as 1 : 4. The resulting biosorbents were analyzed for their characterization, such as vapor content, ash content, and volatile matter, including FT-IR and SEM-EDX. The POME were analyzed for their oil and color content, using gravimetric method and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best removal is were 80,88% for oil and 83.45% for color at 1.5 g biosorbent mass and 3 h contact time. The resullt for oil removal was close to the standard of Indonesian Environment Minister for oil in effluent. Also the adsorption of oil and color behaves as a pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

  8. Radiolytic removal of PCBs from isooctane and hydraulic oil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Schwendimann, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has shown the ability to degrade PCBs by exposure to gamma radiation in a number of solvents, including hydraulic oils. Radiolysis with gamma-rays may be achieved in the absence of activation or contamination and does not result in a radiologically contaminated product. While much of the original work was done in isopropanol, recent studies have been performed in isooctane as an oil surrogate. Use of isooctane permits radiolysis studies in a surrogate reasonably similar to oils yet one in which analytical work is considerably simplified. Results in both isopropanol and isooctane show the mechanism to be one of reductive dechlorination, probably associated with electron capture of solvated electrons by the PCBs. The electrons are generated by radiolysis of the solvent. Data is presented showing rate constants for the radiolysis of individual PCB congeners, in isooctane and the decomposition of Aroclor 1260 in hydraulic oil

  9. Produced water treatment for beneficial use : emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  10. Fermilab satellite refrigerator compressors with the oil- and moisture-removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satti, J.A.; Andrews, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    We have designed and tested a helium purification system for the Energy Doubler and the experimental areas. A purification system is installed after each screw compressor in the satellite refrigerators. The purification system removes oil mist, oil vapor, water vapor, and particulate from the compressed helium. The units were designed with consideration of modularity and necessary redundancy (i.e., guard purification). Test results which led to the final configuration are presented, along with achieved performance of the oil removal in the operating system

  11. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de, E-mail: fgsj@ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LaBioS/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biopolímeros e Sensores; Furtado, Evandro Goncalves [Alfa Rio Química Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Fabrício Machado [Universidade de Brasília (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  12. Green polyurethane synthesis by emulsion technique: a magnetic composite for oil spill removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Raphael Maria Dias da; Hungerbühler, Gabriela; Saraiva, Thiago; De Jong, Gabriel; Moraes, Rafael Silva; Ferreira, Luciana Spinelli; Souza Junior, Fernando Gomes de; Silva, Fabrício Machado; Oliveira, Geiza Esperandio de

    2017-01-01

    After the consolidation of the Brazilian biodiesel industry, issues related to the final destination of the glycerin, the by-product from the biodiesel industrial process, drawing the attention of several researchers. There are several uses to this byproduct. Among them, the obtaining of polymers, such as polyurethane (PU), are very encouraged since the glycerin ca be used, as well as the castor oil, in the replacement of petrochemical polyols. The aim of this work was to propose a new route for the obtainment of a petroleum sorbent based on polyurethane resin from glycerin and castor oil, through the emulsion technique. In addition, maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) was mixed to the polymer matrix, producing a magnetic composite, able to make easier the oil cleanup process. The products synthesized were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, simultaneous Thermogravimetry (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. The magnetic material was used to remove oil from water, exhibited a good oil removal capability. In a typical test, 1g of the composite containing 5wt% of maghemite was able to remove 10g of oil from water. (author)

  13. Removing heavy fuel oil from the submerged wreck of the Jacob Luckenbach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, C [PCCI Inc./GPC, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Beaver, T [Global Diving and Salvage Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Snyder, B [PCCI Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The Jacob Luckenbach cargo carrier sank in July 1953 just west of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California after being struck by another vessel. It was carrying a cargo of military vehicles and railroad parts and was topped with heavy No.6 residual oil in deep and double bottom tanks. In 2002, the sunken ship was named as the source of mystery oil spills along the California coast. In response, the United States Coast Guard contracted Titan Maritime LLC and PCCI Inc. to conduct a vessel assessment and removal available oil. Diving services were provided by Seattle-based Global Diving and Salvage. The recovery operation proved difficult due to cold-water saturation diving at depths to 55 metres, strong currents, bad weather and poor subsea visibility. Pumping the heavy residual oil from the tanks also proved to be difficult because some tanks contained oil that was much more viscous than normal No.6 fuel oil, and the tanks had to be heated to more than 78 degrees C to allow for better fluid flow. Some of the abnormal differences in fuel oil rheologies were described along with the tools used to find and recover the oil and to minimize leaks in the wreck. The project, although more difficult than expected, was successful in removing all accessible oil and mitigating the potential for a catastrophic oil release. More than 460 metric tons of heavy fuel oil and emulsified water-in-oil product was removed from the wreck. One of the most important lessons learned was that cohesiveness and a united front are very much needed when a diverse group of salvage personnel are brought together. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. Removal of 14C-Prothiofos Insecticide from Chamomile Oil Using Agricultural and Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazi, B.; Abdel-Gawad, H.; Zayed, S.M.D.; Nowwar, G.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil has been investigated as a function of adsorbent type, adsorbent concentration, time and temperature. Therefore, 14 C-prothiofos was prepared in our laboratory. Low cost adsorbent such as agricultural wastes (Rice bran, rice husk, and watermelon peels), industrial by-products (sawdust-bagasse) in addition to calcium oxide as a chemical adsorbent were used. It was found that, the best adsorbent concentration for the insecticide removal is 0.016 g adsorbent/g oil. The maximum removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil was 87%, 90% by using calcium oxide and watermelon peels, respectively at 30 degree C for 2 hours. Saw dust, bagasse and rice bran proved to be better for the insecticide removal at 40 degree C

  15. Breakthrough Adsorption Study of Crude Oil Removal Using Buffing Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L. W. N.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Prasetyo, A.; Arimanintan, S. K.; Putri, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of leather industry solid waste as adsorbent to separate oil from water emulsions of surfactant flooding process is a solution that is relatively inexpensive. This study was conducted aiming to obtain a mathematical model that is appropriate for the adsorption process of crude oil by buffing dust in emulsion phase with a continuous adsorption method. Variations in the column adsorption experiments were carried out, such as: flow rate of feed of water-crude oil-surfactant, the concentration of crude oil in the feed, and mass of adsorbent used. Data were evaluated using three models: Adams Bohart, Thomas and Yan. Best results are obtained on the following conditions, the feed flow rate of 60 mL/minute, the crude oil concentration in feed is 1.5% volume and the mass of adsorbent used was 10 g. The values of kinetic constant and adsorption capacity obtained from Yan Model was 21.7774 mL/mg/minute and 220.9581 mg/g with the relative error obtained is 5.4424%.

  16. A Survey on the Removal Efficiency of Fat, Oil and Grease in Shiraz Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Fat, oil and grease (FOG in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP caused many problems. Objectives This study aimed to determine the removal efficiency of FOG in Shiraz MWWTP. Materials and Methods The removal efficiencies of FOG in the MWWTP were studied from June 2011 to September 2011 in Shiraz (Iran. The influent and effluent wastewater samples were collected in a volume of one liter (4 samples per week and analyzed according to the standard methods. Samples are transferred to the laboratory immediately. The concentration of FOG was determined using the solvent extraction and separating funnel and then compared with the effluent standards. To analyze the data, SPSS (version 11.5, Chi-square test and t test were used. Results The results showed that the FOG amount in input raw sewage in the MWWTP from June 2011 to September 2011 was around 25.5 mg/L and the amount in treated wastewater was about 8.1 mg/L. The FOG removal efficiency in this refinery was about 70% and met the environmental standards for the discharge (less than 10 mg/L (P < 0.05. Conclusions The effluent can be discharged to surface waters or used for irrigation. In order to the FOG concentration met the effluent standards, it is very crucial to control the entrance of industrial wastewater to the municipal wastewater collection networks. Otherwise, the MWWTP should be upgraded and the special techniques used to reduce FOG.

  17. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl ...

  18. High-rate oil removing scouring agent. Koyubun jokyoyo seirenzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K.; Sato, Y. (Dai-Ichi Kogyo Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    Fiber forming, scutching and knitting processes in recent years are performed three to five times faster than in the conventional processes. Associated therewith, oil solutions are taken importantly for their stability and workability, such as smoothing properties, heat resistance and abrasion resistance. On the other hand, difficulty is increasing in removing the oils after scutching and knitting. This paper explains basic rinsing activities required in oil removal, and describes various test characteristics and compatibility of various high-rate oil removing scouring agents. An oil-in-water rinsing mechanism relies upon comprehensive actions of a surfactant in wetting, permeation, emulsified dispersion and solubilization. The most importantly taken among them is the emulsifying action, which largely depends upon its chemical structure. Therefore, for a high-rate oil removing scouring agent, creation of activators is required that make the above basic characteristics and activities compatible for various applications. For example, the above product covers a great variety of kinds for diverse applications, based on non-ionic and anion-based activators. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Removal of Free Fatty Acid from Plant Oil by the Adsorption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tsair-Wang; Wu, Yi-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Hong

    2018-05-01

    The food oil refinery process for deacidification is ususally conducted by the neutralization after degumming. In this study, commercialized resins will be used as adsorbents to remove the free fatty acid (FFA) in food oil without using any solvent. Applying this environmental friendly green process, the energy efficiency will be increased and the waste water will be reduced compared to the traditional process. The selected adsorbent can be reused which may reduce the process cost. Instead of using alkali neutralization, the proposed process may reduce the concern of food oil security. The commercial resins A26OH and IRA900Cl were compared as adsorbents to remove the FFA in deacidification for refinery of food oil without adding any alkali chemicals. This process will be conducted to remove the FFA form peanut oil in this study. Besides, this study will get the adsorption isotherms for one of the better sorbents of A26OH or IRA900Cl to remove FFA from peanut oil under 25, 35, and 45°C. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were compared to fit the experimental data. The obtained isotherm data is important for the adsorption system design.

  20. Passive Removal of Silicone Oil with Temporal Head Position through Two 23-Gauge Cannulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a new approach for removal of silicone oil. Methods. All surgeries were performed using 23-gauge vitrectomy system with two transconjunctival sutureless cannulas. At the beginning, most of the silicone oil was removed by traditional microinvasive vitrectomy system through inferior-temporal cannula. Then, the blood transfusion tube is removed from the inferior-temporal cannula, and the fluid-air exchange is performed. A passive fluid-air exchange was performed to aspirate the residual silicone oil after gradually turning the patient’s head temporally by approximately 90° gradually. Results. After the surgery, all patients had a clear anterior chamber and vitreous cavity on slit lamp and B scan examination, respectively. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal and total surgery was 8.0±1.4 minutes and 12.4±2.5 minutes, respectively. The mean intraocular pressure 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery was 9.0±5.8 mmHg, 11.3±7.6 mmHg, 16.1±6.9 mmHg, 17.7±4.8 mmHg, and 17.1±3.5 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion. This new approach may provide a safe and fast method to remove the silicone oil.

  1. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  2. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  3. Synergistic Effect of the Lactoperoxidase System and Cinnamon Essential Oil on Total Flora and Salmonella Growth Inhibition in Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraz Abbes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its antibacterial and antipathogenic effects, the heat treatment of milk induces undesirable changes that can be noted in the overall properties of ultrahigh temperature (UHT milk, such as changes in nutritional and organoleptic properties. Our goal is to find new nonthermal antibacterial technologies for the preservation of raw milk (RM. This study investigates the possible synergistic effect of using a combination of the lactoperoxidase system (LS and 3 μg mL−1 of cinnamon essential oil (cinnamon EO to inactivate the total flora of milk and Salmonella Hadar (S. Hadar. The LS was activated with 30 mg L−1 sodium percarbonate and 14 mg L−1 of sodium thiocyanate. Using this approach, we obtained a synergistic effect with a complete inhibition of the activity of the total flora of the milk and S. Hadar after 12 hours at 25°C. In addition, the attainment of synergy was defined when the inhibitory effect of the two compounds together was greater than the effect observed by each compound added alone. Moreover, the monitoring of the synergistic effect at 4°C for 5 days showed complete inhibition of total flora for 3 days and for S. Hadar it was up to 5 days. To summarize, the current study clearly identified a new inhibitory combination that may be used in food-based applications.

  4. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  5. Ceramic pore channels with inducted carbon nanotubes for removing oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinwei; Hong, Liang; Xu, Yanfang; Ong, Zheng Wei

    2012-04-01

    Water contaminated with tiny oil emulsions is costly and difficult to treat because of the colloidal stability and deformable nature of emulsified oil. This work utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in macro/mesopore channels of ceramic membrane to remove tiny oil droplets from water. The CNTs were implanted into the porous ceramic channels by means of chemical vapor deposition. Being hydrophobic in nature and possessing an interfacial curvature at nanoscale, CNTs enabled tiny oil emulsion in submicrometer and nano scales to be entrapped while permeating through the CNTs implanted pore channels. Optimizing the growth condition of the CNTs resulted in a uniform distribution of CNT grids, which allowed the development of lipophilic layers during filtration. These lipo-layers drastically enhanced the separation performance. The filtration capability of CNT-ceramic membrane was assessed by the purification of a dilute oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion containing ca. 210 ppm mineral oil 1600 ppm emulsifier, and a trace amount of dye, a proxy polluted water source. The best CNT-tailored ceramic membrane, prepared under the optimized CNT growth condition, claimed 100% oil rejection rate and a permeation flux of 0.6 L m(-2) min(-1), driven by a pressure drop of ca. 1 bar for 3 days on the basis of UV measurement. The CNT-sustained adsorption complements the size-exclusion mechanism in removing soluble oil.

  6. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal, A. M.; Harinarayanan Nampoothiri, M. G.; Soloman, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Wastewater from automobile garages and workshops is an important contributor to the water pollution. Oil and grease is one of the major content of wastewater from vehicle garages. Wastewater from a public transport depot at Thrissur district in Kerala, India was collected for the study. A batch reactor has been devised to assess the efficacy of electrocoagulation in removing oil and grease from the wastewater. Aluminium and iron were tested as the anode material with stainless steel as cathode. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various operating parameters such as current density, pH, time and salt concentration on oil and grease removal. The results shown that aluminium is superior to iron in removing the oil and grease from the wastewater. The reactor with aluminium as anode was able to remove 90.8 % of the oil and grease at a current density of 0.6 A/dm2 in 15 minutes. The calculated specific energy consumption is also less for aluminium in comparison with iron.

  7. Removal costs and claims under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), enacted on August 18, 1990, changed the nature of federal response to oil spills and substantially increased the remedies available to those damaged by oil spills. Prior to OPA 90, the authority for federal oil spill response was found in section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), and the funding for federal responses was provided through a revolving fund established under section 311(k). OPA 90 modified section 311 to authorize the President to open-quotes direct and monitor all Federal, State, and private actions to remove a dischargeclose quotes of oil. OPA 90 also authorized the use of the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund (OSLTF) for federal removal costs, among other uses, thereby significantly increasing the funding available for federal response activities. The effect of OPA 90 is evolving. There are more cases, more removal costs, and more efforts to recover those costs from responsible parties. There are provisions for compensation for claims but relatively few claims so far. It is expected that the next two years will see substantial increases in the number of claims

  8. Exploratory study on prevaporation membranes for removal of water from water-crude oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-11

    The main objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of removing water from oil/water and water/oil emulsions by means of prevaporation. Simulated oil/water and water/oil emulsions were prepared by mixing water and kerosene of various concentrations and stabilized by adding sodium lauryl sulfate. Preliminary experiments were conducted on 12 membranes fabricated from two different materials. One membrane of each type of material was chosen for further work based on the results of preliminary tests, in which two different kinds of membranes, cellulose and polyvinylalcohol, were used. All experiments were carried out under two different down-stream pressures and various temperatures. The tests showed clearly that permeation rate increases at increasing temperatures. It was demonstrated that over 97% of water can be recovered from synthetic oil emulsions. The results also proved that both cellulose and polyvinylalcohol membranes produced permeates relatively free of oil even when the synthetic or crude oil emulsions had oil content higher than 90%. The study concluded that prevaporation was effective, but more extensive studies on various field oil emulsions with improved membrane material and systems were necessary due to the complex and site-specific characteristics of the actual field emulsions. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison among the rice bark in the raw and active forms in the removal of 241Am and 137Cs from liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Bellini, Maria Helena; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    New techniques involving treatment of radioactive wastes which associate simplicity and low cost have been directed the attention for the bio sorption, which is a process were solid vegetable or micro-organism for the retention, removing, or recovering of heavy metals from a liquid environment. This study evaluated the capacity of a bio sorbent to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive waste. The chosen material was the rice bark employed in the raw or activated forms. The obtained results suggest that the bio sorption, with the activated rice bark, can be a viable technique for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137 present in liquid radioactive wastes

  11. Brazilian clay organophilization aiming its use in oil / water removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, M.F.; Lima, W.S.; Oliveira, G.C.; Silva, M.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays when subjected to modification with the addition of organic surfactant are called organoclays acquire hydrophobic character, they have an affinity for organic compounds. The organoclays can be used as adsorbents are considered promising agents in environmental control. The objective is to prepare organoclays clays from commercial use in order to remove organic contaminants. The clay used was gray, as polycationic, supplied by Süd-Chemie company and the quaternary ammonium salt was cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Cetremide). The fresh samples and organoclay were characterized by the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Cation Exchange Capacity, testing expansion and affinity with organic compounds: Swelling of Foster and adsorption capacity. The results showed appropriate conditions organophilic process. Through XRD confirmed the increase in basal spacing for the modified clay in relation to the clay in nature. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 109.5 - Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regional oil removal contingency plans. Criteria for the development and implementation of State, local and... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Development and implementation criteria for State, local and regional oil removal contingency plans. 109.5 Section 109.5 Protection of...

  13. Oil palm biomass-based adsorbents for the removal of water pollutants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanweer; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ghazali, Arniza; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  14. Effective Removal of Oil-mist and Odorous Component By Using Photocatalyst with Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Teruo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Onishi, Hajime; Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira

    The air cleaning is one of the social problems from the view of the living environment and the health recently. A commercial kitchen and food factory generate the exhaust gas including the odorous components and the oil-mist, but it is difficult to clean this gas without frequent maintenance for disposal of oil. Various ideas have been suggested and used for it, but the decisive solution has not been found yet. This paper is concerning of proposal of the photocatalyst method which used the condensation together to clean the gas including oil-mist and odorous component, and it was clarified experimentally about the influence of operation condition and surface shape of the condensation side for the removal of oil-mist and the odorous components of formaldehyde, amine and ammonia.

  15. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: saebomko@austin.utexas.edu [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  16. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Angelidaki, Irini, E-mail: ria@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  17. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  18. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the possibility of copper removal from industrial leachate by raw and calcined phosphogypsum: D-optimal and Taguchi designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesci, Basak; Turan, Nurdan Gamze; Ozgonenel, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the removal of Cu(II) was evaluated by raw and calcined phosphogypsum (PG) as an industrial product. The role of experimental factors on the removal of Cu(II) was examined by using D-optimal and Taguchi designs. The experimental factors and their related levels were selected as initial pH of 3-6-8, adsorbent content of 5, 10, and 25 g L -1 , contact time of 5, 10, and 20 min, and temperature of 20, 40, and 60 C. The results are evaluated by ANOVA test to extract important experimental factors and their levels. The performances of the suggested factorial designs were then compared and regression models that took into account the significant main and interaction effects were suggested. Taguchi design was found as a reliable solution with less number of experiments for adsorption studies with the optimized values. The resultant removal efficiency is calculated as 78.34%. The results revealed that calcined PG is an appropriate adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from leachate of industrial waste. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. The examination of the seasonal influence on the efficiency in oil and fats removal through primary treatment from the wastewater of edible oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the seasonal change of the air temperature, chemical oxygen demand as well as efficiency of suspended matter removal on the efficiency of oil and fats removal (h, % during primary treatment. The parameters are monitored in the period of time from 2006 to 2011. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the first and in the fourth quartal is proportional to the efficiency of the removal of suspended matter and of total organic matter, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD. The measured values for oil and fat are: η (IV quartal = 0.96 % - 50.8 % and η (I quartal = 5.06 % - 95.97 %. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the second and third quartal is proportional to air temperature so the measured efficiency of fat and oil removal are, η (II quartal = 3.93 % - 82.86 % and η (III quartal = 6.82% - 71.51%. The results of investigation have shown the existence of the correlation between the air temperature during various seasons and the efficiency of the oil and fats removal (h, % as well as the removal of the suspended matter and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  1. Improvements in and relating to a device for removing oil slicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanoff, A

    1975-09-10

    The invention relates to a means for removing oil floating as an oil slick on a body of water. The device is a water craft consisting of a hull including side walls and a stern wall joining the side walls. The bow end of the hull is open, the side walls channelling oil entering between them toward the stern wall as the craft moves. A means for removing oil accumulating between the side walls is provided. An antisurging means is mounted between the side walls. The antisurging means is disposed to reduce the amplitude of waves prior to reaching the stern wall so as to calm oil covered water between the side walls of the hull. The antisurging means consists of a plate mounted between the side walls, the plate extends horizontally and sternwardly from adjacent to the bow end of the hull and below the surface of calm water relative to the side walls of the hull, at least when the craft moves. (16 claims)

  2. Adsorption Removal of Glycidyl Esters from Palm Oil and Oil Model Solution by Using Acid-Washed Oil Palm Wood-Based Activated Carbon: Kinetic and Mechanism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Wang, Xuede; Han, Lipeng

    2017-11-08

    Acid-washed oil palm wood-based activated carbon (OPAC) has been investigated for its potential application as a promising adsorbent in the removal of glycidyl esters (GEs) from both palm oil and oil model (hexadecane) solution. It was observed that the removal rate of GEs in palm oil was up to >95%, which was significantly higher than other adsorbents used in this study. In batch adsorption system, the adsorption efficiency and performance of acid-washed OPAC were evaluated as a function of several experimental parameters such as contact time, initial glycidyl palmitate (PGE) concentration, adsorbent dose, and temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption equilibrium isotherm, and the equilibrium data were fitted best by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of acid-washed OPAC was found to be 36.23 mg/g by using the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption of PGE on acid-washed OPAC was an endothermic and physical process in nature. The experimental data were fitted by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the kinetic of PGE adsorption onto acid-washed OPAC followed well the pseudo-second-order model for various initial PGE concentrations and the adsorption process was controlled by both film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion. The desorption test indicated the removal of GEs from palm oil was attributed to not only the adsorption of GEs on acid-washed OPAC, but also the degradation of GEs adsorbed at activated sites with acidic character. Furthermore, no significant difference between before and after PGE adsorption in oil quality was observed.

  3. Vehicle for removing pollutants, especially oil, from the surface of waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, J

    1968-11-28

    A vessel for removing pollutants from the surface of water consists of wings extending transversally from the axis of the vessel. The wings are partially immersed in the water and are arranged at an angle, so that when the vessel is in motion, the oil is driven over the upper edge of the wing into a separation chamber. The chamber has a circular cross section and ends in an opening in the hull of the ship, where the polluting oil is collected. The opening and the channel have such a shape that the mixture of water and pollutant enters the opening in a turbulent stream. (8 claims)

  4. Factors having implications on re-retinal detachments after silicone oil removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish P Nagpal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate factors having implications on re-retinal detachments (reRD after silicone oil removal (SOR. Materials and Methods: A retroprospective study of 412 eyes (with attached retina after vitrectomy with silicone oil for rhegmatogenous RD which underwent SOR was conducted and were followed up for six months after SOR. They were studied for various factors like encirclage, 360° retinopexy, oil emulsification at the time of SOR, duration of oil tamponade and previous retinal surgeries prior to SOR with their implications on reRD after SOR. Results: Encirclage, 360 laser barrage, both, emulsification of oil (P=0.021, P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.001, respectively were associated with lower risks of reRD after SOR whereas duration of tamponade (P=0.980 was not. Conclusion: Factors like encirclage, 360 retinopexy, their combination, oil emulsification reduced the incidence of re RD after SOR whereas duration of tamponade does not have statistical significant correlation with re RD after SOR.

  5. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  6. Safety of Silicone Oil Removal in Cases of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoraba, Hammouda Hamdy; Elgouhary, Sameh Mohamed; Mansour, Hosam Osman; Abdel-Fattah, Hitham Mamoun; Heikal, Mohamed Amin; Elgemaey, Emad Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of silicone oil (SO) removal in cases of gunshot perforating eye injuries (PEI). A retrospective, consecutive, interventional study from medical records regarding cases of gunshot PEI during the periods of Egyptian political instability (January 2011 until December 2013). The main outcomes were to evaluate the feasibility of SO removal in cases of gunshot PEI and management of retinal detachment (RD) after SO removal in such cases. One hundred ninety-six eyes of 193 patients were reviewed. SO was removed in 72 eyes of 70 patients (36.7%). After SO removal, five eyes (6.9%) developed RD. One case refused any other intervention. RD in the remaining four cases was treated with revision surgery and SO reinjection. The retina remained stable throughout follow-up. None of the eyes developed phthisis bulbi after SO removal. Mean follow-up after SO removal was 10.86 months (range: 3 months to 30 months). Mean follow-up after management of RD after SO removal was 17.7 months (range: 13 months to 21 months). Patients aged younger than 20 years were associated with extensive fibrous proliferation, which might affect the safety profile of SO removal in cases of gunshot PEI. Rate of RD after SO removal in cases of apparent retinal stability and localized fibrous proliferation was 6.9%. Retinal detachment after SO removal in such cases can be treated with revision surgery and SO reinjection. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:242-250.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Occurrence and fate of micropollutants in the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Part II: micropollutant removal between wastewater and raw drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Barbara; Bonvin, Florence; Reiser, Hans; Grandjean, Dominique; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Perazzolo, Chiara; Chèvre, Nathalie; Kohn, Tamar

    2010-08-01

    The occurrence and removal of 58 pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and pesticides, were assessed in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, as well as in the effluent-receiving water body, the Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva. An analytical screening method to simultaneously measure all of the 58 micropollutants was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The selection of pharmaceuticals was primarily based on a prioritization study, which designated them as environmentally relevant for the Lake Geneva region. Except for the endocrine disruptor 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, all substances were detected in 24-h composite samples of wastewater entering the WWTP or in the treated effluent. Of these compounds, 40% were also detected in raw drinking water, pumped from the lake 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The contributions of dilution and degradation to micropollutant elimination between the WWTP outlet and the raw drinking water intake were established in different model scenarios using hypothetical residence times of the wastewater in Vidy Bay of 1, 4, or 90 d. Concentration decrease due to processes other than dilution was observed for diclofenac, beta-blockers, several antibiotics, corrosion inhibitors, and pesticides. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) of pharmaceuticals were compared to the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) determined in the prioritization study and agreed within one order of magnitude, but MECs were typically greater than the corresponding PECs. Predicted no-effect concentrations of the analgesic paracetamol, and the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole, were exceeded in raw drinking water samples and therefore present a potential risk to the ecosystem. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  8. Procedure to remove a dirt and/or oil film from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, T; Jager, G P.A.; Jager, K L.E.

    1970-12-11

    A procedure is described to remove dirt and/or oil films from a water surface. A number of rotating wiper scoops moves through the water. The top of the polluted water is brought into motion by the scoops and directed to a gutter system where it is removed. The advantage of the system is that the wiper scoops can be lowered selectively to the depth of the pollutant, thereby avoiding moving large quantities of unnecessary unpolluted liquid which later has to be separated. (12 claims)

  9. Vanadium Recovery from Oil Fly Ash by Carbon Removal and Roast-Leach Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myungwon; Mishra, Brajendra

    2018-02-01

    This research mainly focuses on the recovery of vanadium from oil fly ash by carbon removal and the roast-leach process. The oil fly ash contained about 85% unburned carbon and 2.2% vanadium by weight. A vanadium-enriched product was obtained after carbon removal, and the vanadium content of this product was 19% by weight. Next, the vanadium-enriched product was roasted with sodium carbonate to convert vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium metavanadate. The roasted sample was leached with water at 60°C, and the extraction percentage of vanadium was about 92% by weight. Several analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), were utilized for sample analyses. Thermodynamic modeling was also conducted with HSC chemistry software to explain the experimental results.

  10. Kinetics of Sulfur, Vanadium and Nickel Removal from Basra Crude Oil Hydro Treating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     Basra crude oil was hydro treated in trickle–bed reactor using cobalt - molybdenum alumina as a Catalyst. The reaction range temperatures was598 – 648 k, while LHSV was 0.7 – 2 hr-1. The pressure and H2/Oil for all experiments keep constant at 3Mpa and 300 L/L respectively.    Desulphurization and demutualization kinetics were studied and found that the kinetics of sculpture removal is of first – order, and the kinetic of vanadium and nickel removal is of second – order.    Activation energy were calculated and their value are 24.03, 745.86, 63.90 KJ / mole, respectively for sculpture, vanadium, and nickel.

  11. Application of edible paraffin oil for cationic dye removal from water using emulsion liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereshki, Sina; Daraei, Parisa; Shokri, Amin

    2018-05-18

    Using an emulsion liquid membrane based on edible oils is investigated for removing cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. There is a great potential for using edible oils in food industry extraction processes. The parameters affecting the stability of the emulsion and the extraction rate were studied. These parameters were the emulsification time, the stirring speed, the surfactant concentration, the internal phase concentration, the feed phase concentration, the volume ratio of internal phase to organic phase and the treat ratio. In order to stabilize the emulsion without using a carrier, edible paraffin oil and heptane are used at an 80:20 ratio. The optimum conditions for the extraction of methylene blue (MB), crystal violet and methyl violet (CV and MV) cationic dyes using edible paraffin oil as an environment friendly solvent are represented. A removal percentage of 95% was achieved for a mixture of dyes. The optimum concentration of sodium hydroxide in the internal phase, which results a stabile emulsion with a high stripping efficiency of 96%, was 0.04 M. An excellent membrane recovery was observed and the extraction of dyes did not decrease up to seven run cycles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from aqueous solution by raw and modified lignocellulosic materials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, P; Cirelli, A Fernandez

    2010-08-15

    In aqueous systems, chromium usually exists in both trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states, being Cr(VI) of particular importance and concern due to its great toxicity. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) are leather tanning, mining of chrome ore, production of steel and alloys, etc. The most common conventional method for Cr(VI) removal is reduction to Cr(III) at pH 2.0 and precipitation of Cr (OH)(3) with lime at pH 9-10. The disadvantage of precipitation is the disposal of the solid waste. Adsorption of Cr by different low cost materials seems to be a suitable choice for wastewater treatment. Many by-products of agriculture have proved to be suitable low cost adsorbents for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from water. Lignocellulosic residues, which include both wood residues and agricultural residues, have adsorption capacity comparable to other natural sorbents, but they have the advantage of very low or no cost, great availability and simple operational process. This study is a review of the recent literature on the use of natural and modified lignocellulosic residues for Cr adsorption. The Cr maximum adsorption capacity and the adsorption mechanism under different experimental conditions are reported when possibly. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of modified two incisions silicone oil removal with a 23G transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of silicone oil removal with a 23G transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system linked disposable transfusion tube and self-made suction tip. METHODS: The suction tip was made with a 23G infusion tube be cut from the end of the 5mm. It was used to connect the disposable transfusion tube and 23G puncture cannula. The disposable transfusion tube which was cut from the end of the MaiFei's pipe was connected with the effusion box of the vitreous cutter. Intraocular silicone oil was proactive suction and removed through two incisions on pars plana ciliaris with the vitreous cutter suction system. RESULTS: Only 13 cases(9.8%need suture puncture ports in 132 cases in the operation. Operation time was 7-28min. The average operation time was 15.1± 6.2min. In early postoperative, there were 107 cases(81.1%appeared lower intraocular pressure(CONCLUSION: The surgery that silicone oil is removed through two incisions with a 23G transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system linked disposable transfusion tube and self-made suction tip has the advantages of safe, effective, fast, economic, and it is worthy of popularization and application in clinical.

  14. Removal of Silicone Oil From Intraocular Lens Using Novel Surgical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I.; Eliott, Dean; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To design, fabricate, and evaluate novel materials to remove silicone oil (SiO) droplets from intraocular lenses (IOL) during vitreoretinal surgery. Methods Three different designs were fabricated using soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), three-dimensional (3D) inverse PDMS fabrication using water dissolvable particles, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina (Al2O3) on surgical cellulose fibers. Laboratory tests included static and dynamic contact angle (CA) measurements with water and SiO, nondestructive x-ray microcomputer tomography (micro-CT), and microscopy. SiO removal was performed in vitro and ex vivo using implantable IOLs and explanted porcine eyes. Results All designs exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. Static CA measurements with water ranged from 131° to 160° and with SiO CA approximately 0° in 120 seconds following exposure. Nondestructive x-ray analysis of the 3D PDMS showed presence of interconnected polydispersed porosity of 100 to 300 μm in diameter. SiO removal from IOLs was achieved in vitro and ex vivo using standard 20-G vitrectomy instrumentation. Conclusion Removal of SiO from IOLs can be achieved using materials with lower surface energy than that of the IOLs. This can be achieved using appropriate surface chemistry and surface topography. Three designs, with enhanced hydrophobic properties, were fabricated and tested in vitro and ex vivo. All materials remove SiO within an aqueous environment. Preliminary ex vivo results were very promising, opening new possibilities for SiO removal in vitreoretinal surgeries. Translational Relevance This is the first report of an instrument that can lead to successful removal of SiO from the surface of IOL. In addition to the use of this instrument/material in medicine it can also be used in the industry, for example, retrieval of oil spills from bodies of water. PMID:25237593

  15. Removal of Silicone Oil From Intraocular Lens Using Novel Surgical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Eliott, Dean; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2014-09-01

    To design, fabricate, and evaluate novel materials to remove silicone oil (SiO) droplets from intraocular lenses (IOL) during vitreoretinal surgery. Three different designs were fabricated using soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), three-dimensional (3D) inverse PDMS fabrication using water dissolvable particles, and atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) on surgical cellulose fibers. Laboratory tests included static and dynamic contact angle (CA) measurements with water and SiO, nondestructive x-ray microcomputer tomography (micro-CT), and microscopy. SiO removal was performed in vitro and ex vivo using implantable IOLs and explanted porcine eyes. All designs exhibited enhanced hydrophobicity and oleophilicity. Static CA measurements with water ranged from 131° to 160° and with SiO CA approximately 0° in 120 seconds following exposure. Nondestructive x-ray analysis of the 3D PDMS showed presence of interconnected polydispersed porosity of 100 to 300 μm in diameter. SiO removal from IOLs was achieved in vitro and ex vivo using standard 20-G vitrectomy instrumentation. Removal of SiO from IOLs can be achieved using materials with lower surface energy than that of the IOLs. This can be achieved using appropriate surface chemistry and surface topography. Three designs, with enhanced hydrophobic properties, were fabricated and tested in vitro and ex vivo. All materials remove SiO within an aqueous environment. Preliminary ex vivo results were very promising, opening new possibilities for SiO removal in vitreoretinal surgeries. This is the first report of an instrument that can lead to successful removal of SiO from the surface of IOL. In addition to the use of this instrument/material in medicine it can also be used in the industry, for example, retrieval of oil spills from bodies of water.

  16. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  17. Removal of Oil and Grease as Emerging Pollutants of Concern (EPC in Wastewater Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alade Abass O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater characteristics, which depend on wastewater source, are increasingly becoming more toxic in recent times. The concentrations of oil and grease in wastewater streams have been observed to increase in wastewater stream with increasing adverse effects on the ecology. This results from the increasing use of oil and grease in high-demanded oil-processed foods, establishment and expansion of oil mills and refineries worldwide, as well as indiscriminate discharge of oil and grease into the water drains, domestically and industrially. This study reports the applications, efficiencies and challenges of the wastewater treatment techniques currently employed in the removal of oil and grease from the industrial wastewater and municipal water stream. The results shows that the concentrations of oil and grease injected into the ecosystem are of higher environmental impact and this needs to be given the desired attention. The desired development for effective removal of oil and grease as emerging pollutants of concern (EPC in wastewater stream are thus proposed. ABSTRAK: Ciri-ciri air sisa, bergantung kepada punca air sisa tersebut, menjadi semakin toksik akhir-akhir ini. Kepekatan minyak dan gris dalam air sisa anak sungai dilihat makin bertambah dalam air sisa anak sungai dengan bertambahnya kesan negatif ke atas ekologi. Ini disebabkan oleh peningkatan penggunaan minyak dan gris dalam makanan berproses yang tinggi permintaannya, penubuhan dan perkembangan kilang pertroleum dan loji penapisan di seluruh dunia. Minyak dan gris juga dibuang sewenang-wenangnya ke dalam parit air, dari kalangan domestik dan industry. Kajian ini membentangkan tentang aplikasi, keberkesanan dan teknik cabaran rawatan air buangan yang kini digunakan dalam pembuangan minyak dan gris dari air sisa industry dan air sungai perbandaran. Keputusan menunjukkan kepekatan minyak dan gris yang wujud dibuang ke dalam ekosistem mempunyai impak yang lebih tinggi terhadap persekitaran

  18. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K.; Di Vitta, Patricia B.

    2013-01-01

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  19. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Di Vitta, Patricia B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  20. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferre-Aracil, J. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Valcárcel, Y. [Environmental Health and Ecotoxicology Research Group, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Avd. Atenas s/n, Móstoles, 28922 Alcorcón (Spain); Negreira, N.; López de Alda, M. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, D. [Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Cardona, S.C. [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain); Navarro-Laboulais, J., E-mail: jnavarla@iqn.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València – EPSA, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety (ISIRYM), Pl. Ferrandiz i Carbonell, 03801 Alcoi, Alicante (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256 mg O{sub 3} L{sup −1} and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4 M{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7 M{sup −1} s{sup −1} and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3 €/m{sup 3} under given circumstances. - Highlights: • 17 cytostatic compounds were analysed and 4 detected by SPE-LC/MS-MS. • The ozonation is 100% effective on the removal of the detected cytostatics. • The kinetics of cytostatic ozonation reaction is modeled by competitive kinetics. • The economic cost of the treatment of hospital wastewater was assessed.

  1. Ozonation of hospital raw wastewaters for cytostatic compounds removal. Kinetic modelling and economic assessment of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferre-Aracil, J.; Valcárcel, Y.; Negreira, N.; López de Alda, M.; Barceló, D.; Cardona, S.C.; Navarro-Laboulais, J.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of the ozone consumption for the pretreatment of hospital wastewater has been analysed in order to determine the reaction rate coefficients between the ozone and the readily oxidisabled organic matter and cytostatic compounds. The wastewater from a medium size hospital was treated with ozone and peroxone methodologies, varying the ozone concentration, the reaction time and the hydrogen peroxide doses. The analysis shows that there are four cytostatic compounds, i.e. irinotecan, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide and capecitabine, detected in the wastewaters and they are completely removed with reasonably short times after the ozone treatment. Considering the reactor geometry, the gas hydrodynamics, the mass transfer of ozone from gas to liquid and the reaction of all oxidisable compounds of the wastewater it is possible to determine the chemical ozone demand, COzD, of the sample as 256 mg O 3 L −1 and the kinetic rate coefficient with the dissolved organic matter as 8.4 M −1 s −1 . The kinetic rate coefficient between the ozone and the cyclophosphamide is in the order of 34.7 M −1 s −1 and higher for the other cytostatics. The direct economic cost of the treatment was evaluated considering this reaction kinetics and it is below 0.3 €/m 3 under given circumstances. - Highlights: • 17 cytostatic compounds were analysed and 4 detected by SPE-LC/MS-MS. • The ozonation is 100% effective on the removal of the detected cytostatics. • The kinetics of cytostatic ozonation reaction is modeled by competitive kinetics. • The economic cost of the treatment of hospital wastewater was assessed.

  2. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  3. Dwell Time and Surface Parameter Effects on Removal of Silicone Oil From D6ac Steel Using TCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dwell time, surface roughness, and the surface activation state on 1,1,1-trichloroethane's (TCA's) effectiveness for removing silicone oil from D6ac steel. Silicone-contaminated test articles were washed with TCA solvent, and then the surfaces were analyzed for residue, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The predominant factor affecting the ability to remove the silicone oil was surface roughness.

  4. Evaluating the safety of phytosterols removed perilla seed oil-based lipid emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Ren, Tianyang; Lu, De; Guo, Haiyan; Li, Wanqiu; Huang, Chenglong; He, Haibing; Liu, Dongchun; Tang, Xing

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential toxicity of perilla seed oil-based lipid emulsion (POLE) caused by phytosterols and confirm the efficacy of the technique for removing phytosterols from perilla seed oil, and evaluate the safety of a low phytosterol POLE in a long-term tolerance study in dogs. A comparison between a soybean oil lipid emulsion (Intralipid group A) and POLE with high (group B) versus low (group C) levels of phytosterols was made with regard to their effects on the general condition, hematological and biochemical parameters, urinalysis and histopathological changes in nine dogs receiving daily infusions for four weeks at dosage levels of 6, 6, 9 g fat /kg. Dogs in group A and group C remained in good condition and gained weight during the infusion period and no diarrhea or gastrointestinal bleeding occurred. Only a moderate degree of anemia was observed, the biochemical parameters changed only slightly and returned to normal after treatment had ceased. However, the dogs in group B exhibited significant symptoms of 'fat overload syndrome'. Vomiting, diarrhoea and blood in the faeces were observed. Moreover, triglyceridemia, cholesteremia, and dark urine as well as microscopic signs of liver and gastrointestinal tract damage and generalized jaundice were clearly seen. Phytosterols promote 'fat overload syndrome' in long-term tolerance studies of POLE in dogs by producing cholestatic liver injury and interfering with fat metabolism. And the toxicity of POLE was reduced by removing phytosterols.

  5. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  6. Research on removing reservoir core water sensitivity using the method of ultrasound-chemical agent for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Huang, Jiehao

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of water sensitivity often occurs in the oil reservoir core during the process of crude oil production, which seriously affects the efficiency of oil extraction. In recent years, near-well ultrasonic processing technology attaches more attention due to its safety and energy efficient. In this paper, the comparison of removing core water sensitivity by ultrasonic wave, chemical injection and ultrasound-chemical combination technique are investigated through experiments. Results show that: lower ultrasonic frequency and higher power can improve the efficiency of core water sensitivity removal; the effects of removing core water sensitivity under ultrasonic treatment get better with increase of core initial permeability; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using ultrasonic treatment won't get better over time. Ultrasonic treatment time should be controlled in a reasonable range; the effect of removing core water sensitivity using chemical agent alone is slightly better than that using ultrasonic treatment, however, chemical injection could be replaced by ultrasonic treatment for removing core water sensitivity from the viewpoint of oil reservoir protection and the sustainable development of oil field; ultrasound-chemical combination technique has the best effect for water sensitivity removal than using ultrasonic treatment or chemical injection alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  8. Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis and its application to oil removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Jardim Pacheco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nutrients on biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis was investigated. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer from 30 up through 150 mmol/L stimulated an increase in biosurfactant production, which reached a maximum concentration of 285 mg/L in shaken flasks. Statistical analysis showed that glycerol, NaNO3,MgSO4 and yeast extract had significant effects on production. The results were confirmed in a batchwise bioreactor, and semi-growth-associated production was detected. Reduction in the surface tension, which indicates the presence of biosurfactant, reached a value of 38 mN/m at the end of 35 hours. Use of the produced biosurfactant for washing crude oil-contaminated soil showed that 2 and 4 times the critical micellar concentration (CMC were able to remove 97 and 99% of the oil, respectively, after 1 month of impregnation.

  9. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  10. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  11. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  12. Retaining biodiversity in intensive farmland: epiphyte removal in oil palm plantations does not affect yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Graham W; Edwards, David P; Foster, William A

    2015-05-01

    The expansion of agriculture into tropical forest frontiers is one of the primary drivers of the global extinction crisis, resulting in calls to intensify tropical agriculture to reduce demand for more forest land and thus spare land for nature. Intensification is likely to reduce habitat complexity, with profound consequences for biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. Understanding which features of habitat complexity are essential for maintaining biodiversity and associated ecosystem services within agricultural landscapes without compromising productivity is therefore key to limiting the environmental damage associated with producing food intensively. Here, we focus on oil palm, a rapidly expanding crop in the tropics and subject to frequent calls for increased intensification. One promoted strategy is to remove epiphytes that cover the trunks of oil palms, and we ask whether this treatment affects either biodiversity or yield. We experimentally tested this by removing epiphytes from four-hectare plots and seeing if the biodiversity and production of fruit bunches 2 months and 16 months later differed from equivalent control plots where epiphytes were left uncut. We found a species-rich and taxonomically diverse epiphyte community of 58 species from 31 families. Epiphyte removal did not affect the production of fresh fruit bunches, or the species richness and community composition of birds and ants, although the impact on other components of biodiversity remains unknown. We conclude that as they do not adversely affect palm oil production, the diverse epiphyte flora should be left uncut. Our results underscore the importance of experimentally determining the effects of habitat complexity on yield before introducing intensive methods with no discernible benefits.

  13. Photo-assisted removal of fuel oil hydrocarbons from wood and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Kozliak, Evguenii I

    2008-08-01

    A novel photo-treatment to decontaminate building structural elements polluted with fuel oil hydrocarbons as a result of spillage and/or a catastrophic flood was examined. A proof-of-concept study evaluating the photocatalytic removal of hydrocarbons (n-hexadecane and fuel oil #2) from contaminated wood (southern yellow pine) and concrete was conducted using scintillation counting (with (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane) and gas chromatography. Contaminated samples were irradiated by UV or fluorescent light in the absence or presence of a photocatalyst, TiO(2). As a result of the treatment, under various scenarios, up to 80-98% of the originally applied n-hexadecane was removed, within a wide range of contaminant concentrations (4-250 mg/g wood). The essential treatment time increased from 1-7 days for low concentrations to several weeks for high concentrations. Mass balance experiments showed that the only product formed from (14)C-labeled n-hexadecane in detectable amounts was (14)CO(2). For low amounts of applied hydrocarbon (4-20 mg/g wood), the overall process rate was limited by the contaminant transport/mobility whereas for high n-hexadecane concentrations (150-250 mg/g, corresponding to 50-80% filling of wood pores), the key factor was the photochemical reaction. Photodegradation experiments conducted with standard heating fuel oil #2 (a representative real-world contaminant) resulted in a significant (up to 80%) photochemical removal of mid-size hydrocarbons (C(13)-C(17)) in 3 weeks whereas heavier hydrocarbons (> C(17)) were not affected; light hydrocarbons (evaporation. These results point toward a promising technique to reclaim wooden and concrete structures contaminated with semi-volatile chemicals.

  14. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  15. Evaluation of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH in pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials using 1H NMR spectroscopy [version 2; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mineral hydrocarbons consist of two fractions, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH. MOAH is a potential public health hazard because it may include carcinogenic polycyclic compounds. In the present study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was introduced, in the context of official controls, to measure MOSH and MOAH in raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon final products (cosmetics and medicinal products. Quantitative determination (qNMR has been established using the ERETIC methodology (electronic reference to access in vivo concentrations based on the PULCON principle (pulse length based concentration determination. Various mineral hydrocarbons (e.g., white oils, paraffins or petroleum jelly were dissolved in deuterated chloroform. The ERETIC factor was established using a quantification reference sample containing ethylbenzene and tetrachloronitrobenzene. The following spectral regions were integrated: MOSH δ 3.0 – 0.2 ppm and MOAH δ 9.2 - 6.5, excluding solvent signals. Validation showed a sufficient precision of the method with a coefficient of variation <6% and a limit of detection <0.1 g/100 g. The applicability of the method was proven by analysing 27 authentic samples with MOSH and MOAH contents in the range of 90-109 g/100 g and 0.02-1.10 g/100 g, respectively. It is important to distinguish this new NMR-approach from the hyphenated liquid chromatography-gas chromatography methodology previously used to characterize MOSH/MOAH amounts in cosmetic products. For mineral hydrocarbon raw materials or pure mineral hydrocarbon-based cosmetic products, NMR delivers higher specificity without any sample preparation besides dilution. Our sample survey shows that previous methods may have overestimated the MOAH amount in mineral oil products and opens new paths to characterize this fraction. Therefore, the developed method can be applied for routine monitoring of consumer

  16. Nutrient removal and energy production from aqueous phase of bio-oil generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan R; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep

    2017-04-01

    Removal of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) as struvite from bio-oil aqueous phase generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae was evaluated in this study. Effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and reaction time on struvite formation was studied. More than 99% of phosphorus and 40-100% ammonium nitrogen were removed under all experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of struvite, and the struvite recovered from bio-oil aqueous phase can be used as a slow-release fertilizer. Biogas production from struvite recovered bio-oil aqueous phase showed 3.5 times higher CH 4 yield (182±39mL/g COD) as compared to non-struvite recovered aqueous phase. The results from this study indicate that both struvite and methane can be produced from bio-oil aqueous phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  18. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-07-01

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiesel production from waste coconut oil by esterification with ethanol: The effect of water removal by adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Joao Felipe G.; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Saboya, Rosana M. Alves; Rodrigues, Marcelo L.; Torres, Antonio Eurico B.; Fernandes, Fabiano A. Narciso; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Bl. 709, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Parente, Expedito Jose S. Jr. [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas (TECBIO), PARTEC, Rua Prof. Romulo Proenca, s/n, CEP 60455-700, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The production of biodiesel by esterification with ethanol using waste oil generated in the refining of coconut oil was investigated in this study. The reaction was performed with and without adsorption of water in order to verify the effect of removing water on the reaction conversion. Methanol was also evaluated as an esterification agent. For both ethanol and methanol, conversions over 99% mol were observed. Simultaneous water adsorption allowed the use of lower alcohol/oil molar ratios thus enabling better economics to a possible industrial process. (author)

  1. Efficiency of Oil Removal from Real Storm Water With Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Mažeikienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and oil products are considered as the most important pollutants in storm water. Surface water flow and changes in pollutant concentration complicate conventional matching techniques and prolong the duration of technological processes; therefore, a comprehensive study on this area is necessary. For this reason, the research and analysis of three different sorbents (“FIBROIL®”, “Duck”, “Reo-dry” were performed in the laboratory. According to the results of the conducted experiment, all three sorbents have similar treatment efficiency: “FIBROIL®” – 99%, “Reo-dry” – 95%, “Duck” – 98%. Filtering rate had an influence on the effectiveness of removing petrol products (slower speed increases effectiveness.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Coupling of bioaugmentation and phytoremediation to improve PCBs removal from a transformer oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimizadeh, Maryam; Shirvani, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Leili Mohebi Nozar, Seyedeh

    2018-06-07

    This study was carried out to assess the dissipation of 17 selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB i ) congeners in a transformer oil-contaminated soil using bioaugmentation with 2 PCB-degrading bacterial strains, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. S5 and Alcaligenes faecalis, assisted or not by the maize (Zea mays L.) plantation. After 5 and 10 weeks of treatment, the remaining concentrations of the target PCB i congeners in the soil were extracted and measured using GC-MS. Results showed that the bacterial augmentation treatments with Pseudomonas spp. S5 and A. faecalis led to 21.4% and 20.4% reduction in the total concentration of the target PCBs (ΣPCB i ), respectively, compared to non-bioaugmented unplanted control soil. The ΣPCB i decreased by 35.8% in the non-bioaugmented planted soil compared with the control. The greatest degradation of the PCB congeners was observed over a 10-week period in the soil inoculated with Pseudomonas spp. S5 and cultivated with maize. Under this treatment, the ΣPCB i decreased from 357 to 119 ng g -1 (66.7% lower) and from 1091 to 520 ng g -1 (52.3% lower). Overall, the results suggested that the combined application of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation was an effective technique to remove PCBs and remediate transformer oil-contaminated soils.

  3. The removal of fatty acids from edible oil : removal of the dispersed phase of a water-in-oil dispersion by a hydrophilic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Doornbusch, G.I.; Riet, van 't K.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acids can be extracted from an oil phase by forming a dispersed phase of saponified fatty acids/water/isopropanol in oil. This dispersion can be separated in the two phases by two membranes of opposite polarity in series. In this study the separation of the water phase from the dispersion by a

  4. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mokhlesur M.; Adil, Mohd; Yusof, Alias M.; Kamaruzzaman, Yunus B.; Ansary, Rezaul H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II), lead(II) and chromium(VI). Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II) and lead(II) were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II) and lead(II). The removal of chromium(VI) was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cr(VI) by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:28788640

  5. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  6. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  7. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

    2011-01-01

    and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/g......VS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled...

  8. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  9. A Laboratory Screening Study On The Use Of Solidifiers As A Response Tool To Remove Crude Oil Slicks On Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of five solidifiers to remove Prudhoe Bay crude oil from artificial seawater in the laboratory was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The performance of the solidifers was determined by US-V...

  10. Removal of cobalt from lubricant oil by the use of bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption preliminary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Ladeira, Ana Cláudia Queiroz, E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: seless@cdtn.br, E-mail: acql@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides may contaminate lubricant oils in nuclear power plants. In Brazil, this kind of waste has been stored in the generator's facilities, awaiting treatment alternatives. This work intends to investigate a process to treat it for final deposition, using bentonite as sorbent material. This process will result in decontaminated oil, free from radiological control, and radioactive loaded sorbent, with considerable volume reduction of the radioactive waste. The study focuses in cobalt removal from a simulated oil waste (non-active). The production of the simulated waste is described. Bentonite was used for equilibrium time determination, kinetic and adsorption studies. Cobalt adsorption equilibrium was rapidly attained after 30 minutes. The data was used for modelling the system's kinetic, applying the pseudo first and pseudo second order equation models. Experimental data fitted to pseudo second order model, supporting the assumption that the adsorption is due to chemisorption. Batch sorption tests were conducted and the results fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models. Both isotherm models chosen for this work did not fit to the experimental data. Thus, these are preliminary results and the studies must be repeated to evaluate data variability and better statistical inference. Other isotherm models must be evaluated to choose the best fitted one and describe the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in oil matrix. Even though, bentonite has considerable potential as sorbent for the removal of cobalt from lubricant oil. Finally, the results might be extended to other kinds of radioactive oils and radioactive organic wastes. (author)

  11. Magnetic composites based on natural sources used for removal of oil; Compositos magneticos baseados em fontes naturais usados para remocao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grance, E.G.O.; Varela, A.; Daher, E.; Gomes, L.Q.; Michel, R.C.; Souza Junior, F.G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: fernando_gomes@ima.ufrj.br; Rodrigues, C.H.M. [Coordenadoria da Licenciatura em Quimica. Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Aracruz, ES (Brazil); Oliveira, G.E. [Departamento de Quimica - Centro de Ciencias Exatas - Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of a magnetic resin based on lignin from Kraft process. This material, due to this aromatic / aliphatic balance is able to oil spill clean up processes. The resin was prepared through bulk polycondensation of lignin, cashew nutshell liquid and formaldehyde in presence of maghemite nanoparticles. Obtained magnetic composites were studied using ATR, FTIR and SAXS. Magnetic force and oil removal capability tests were also performed. Results showed that obtained materials posses a considerable magnetic force and a good oil removal capability. One part of the best material was able to remove eleven parts of oil from the water, making it a good absorber. (author)

  12. Oil removal of spent hydrotreating catalyst CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via a facile method with enhanced metal recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yue [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Shengming, E-mail: smxu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Zhen [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianlong [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Lab of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhao, Zhongwei [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Xu, Zhenghe, E-mail: zhenghe.xu@ualberta.ca [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel approach for oil removal from spent hydrotreating catalysts has been developed. • Oil removal possibility is analyzed through surface characteristics. • Oil is successfully removed from spent catalysts via aqueous surfactant solution. • Over 98% Mo can be leached after oil removal and thermal treatment. • The proposed deoiling method helps to avoid detrimental impurity generation (CoMoO{sub 4}) and enhance metal recovery. - Abstract: Deoiling process is a key issue for recovering metal values from spent hydrotreating catalysts. The oils can be removed with organic solvents, but the industrialized application of this method is greatly hampered by the high cost and complex processes. Despite the roasting method is simple and low-cost, it generates hardest-to-recycle impurities (CoMoO{sub 4} or NiMoO{sub 4}) and enormous toxic gases. In this study, a novel and facile approach to remove oils from the spent hydrotreating catalysts is developed. Firstly, surface properties of spent catalysts are characterized to reveal the possibility of oil removal. And then, oils are removed with water solution under the conditions of 90 °C, 0.1 wt% SDS, 2.0 wt% NaOH and 10 ml/g L/S ratio for 4 h. Finally, thermal treatment and leaching tests are carried out to further explore the advantages of oil removal. The results show that no hardest-to-recycle impurity CoMoO{sub 4} is found in XPS spectra of thermally treated samples after deoiling and molybdenum is leached completely with sodium carbonate solution. It means that the proposed deoiling method can not only remove oils simply and without enormous harmful gases generating, but also avoid the generation of detrimental impurity and promote recycling of valuable metals from spent hydrotreating catalysts.

  13. Exploratory study on pervaporation membranes for removal of water from water-crude oil emulsions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Study to explore the feasibility of removing water from oil/water (O/W) and water/oil (W/O) emulsions by means of pervaporation. Initial study involved preparation of simulated O/W and W/O emulsions prepared by mixing water and kerosene of various concentrations and stabilized by adding sodium lauryl sulfate. Preliminary experiments were conducted on 12 membranes fabricated from 2 different materials. One membrane of each type of material was chosen for further work based on the results of the preliminary tests. All experiments were carried out under 2 different downstream pressures and various temperatures.

  14. Raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . Although science and technology studies (STS) makes a strong case for associating relationality with certainty, the article argues that a particular form of data, ‘raw data’, complicates this association. It further argues that scientific data is not simply composed out of relations, but is a relation......This article takes scientific ‘raw data’ as its ethnographic object in order to investigate the co-implication of nature and culture in scientific knowledge practices. The article traces out some of the activities that are involved in producing numerical climate data from the Brazilian Amazon...... itself. The article ends with a brief reflection on the possible repercussions of shifting from thinking of science as producing multiple natures and cultures to thinking of it as producing the potential for relations....

  15. Raw Materials Market of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of raw materials is becoming an important concern for the Chinese economy as it continues to grow. This deficit is amended with imports, which – in their own turn – are limited by the high level of global prices. The build-up issue of raw materials imports is going to solve by the measures of monetary policy (RMB’s revaluation against the USD. Analysis of China’s market of raw materials reveals that the largest increase in the physical volume of imports is concentrated in crude oil, LNG, iron ore and coal. As for Russia, its supplies and share in total Chinese imports of raw materials tend to increase. Author employs regression equations based on international statistics data to show that RMB’s revaluation, ceteris paribus, increases physical volumes of raw materials imports. However, the main factor of coal and LNG imports growth is energy consumption by Chinese heavy industry; imports of oil products – producers’ prices; meanwhile imports of steel products tend to decrease with the growth of steel exports. RMB’s revaluation increases physical volumes of imports of low value added raw materials from Russia (coal, crude oil, iron ore

  16. Value of optical coherence tomography in the detection of macular pathology before the removal of silicone oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmad Rashad, Ahmed Abdel Aliem Mohamed, Asmaa Ismail Ahmed Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Purpose: To assess the pathological macular changes with optical coherence tomography (OCT before the removal of silicone oil (SiO in eyes that had undergone pars plana vitrectomy for complicated forms of retinal detachment (RD.Patients and methods: Subjects included 48 patients (51 eyes with complicated RD including proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, recurrent RD, penetrating trauma, uveitis, giant retinal tears, and macular holes. All the eyes had undergone SiO injection. Furthermore, all eyes had been planned for the removal of SiO 6–12 months after the primary surgery. Finally, all eyes had a fundus examination and OCT examination before the silicone oil removal.Results: OCT findings indicated epiretinal membrane in 41% of the eyes, macular edema in 17%, macular detachment in 13.5%, macular thinning in 13.5%, macular holes in 10%, and subretinal membranes in 2%. Preoperative OCT was normal in only 12% of the eyes, while a clinical fundus examination was normal in 43% (P<0.001. Eyes with normal OCT had significantly better mean logMAR (0.35 than eyes with pathological changes detected through OCT (1.28; P<0.001. Surgical modifications were made during the removal of SiO in 74.5% of the eyes.Conclusion: OCT detected significantly more pathological changes than a clinical fundus examination. This had an impact on both surgical step modification during the removal of SiO and predictability of visual outcome after the removal of SiO. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, silicone oil, pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy

  17. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  18. Polyurethane foam impregnated with lignin as a filler for the removal of crude oil from contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, O.S.H. [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP: 31.270-901 (Brazil); Coelho da Silva, Mercês [Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Itajubá—UNIFEI, Campus Universitário de Itabira. Itabira, Minas Gerais, CEP: 35.903-087 (Brazil); Silva, V.R.; Mussel, W.N. [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP: 31.270-901 (Brazil); Yoshida, M.I., E-mail: mirene@ufmg.br [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, CEP: 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The presence of lignin in polyurethane foams increased oil sorption capacity. • The presence of lignin resulted in a decrease in the hydrophobicity of the foams. • Langmuir isotherm predicted a maximum oil adsorption of 28.9 g g{sup −1} by the PUF-10. • ΔG° (−4.4 kJ mol{sup −1}) indicated that adsorption process by PUF-10 was spontaneous. • The recyclability of the foam showed efficiency greater than 95% after five cycles. - Abstract: The present study describes the influence of the concentration of lignin when used as a filler in polyurethane foam for crude oil sorption. The foams (lignin 0–20 wt%) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle and density. The FTIR analysis confirmed urethane linkage formation, showing that the chemical structure of the polymer was preserved, despite the addition of different lignin concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the presence of lignin has altered the onset temperature (T{sub onset}) of the foams, decreasing as the concentration of lignin is increased. The contact angle analysis showed a decrease in the hydrophobicity of the foams with increasing lignin concentration. All modified foams showed an improvement in the oil sorption capacity in a PUF/oil/water system, and the PUF-10 showed an improvement of about 35.5% compared to the PUF-blank. The Langmuir isotherm showed a better fit to the data and predicted a maximum oil adsorption of 28.9 g g{sup −1} by the PUF-10. The ΔG° value of −4.4 kJ mol{sup −1} indicated that crude oil adsorption process by PUF-10 was spontaneous. The results of reuse of the PUF-10 showed that oil removal efficiency remained greater than 95% after five consecutive cycles.

  19. Removal of Basic Nitrogen Compounds from Fuel Oil with [Hnmp]H2PO4 Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid (IL N-methyl pyrrolidone dihydrogen phosphate ([Hnmp]H2PO4 was synthesized and its structure was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The denitrogenation performance of the ionic liquid was investigated using Fushun shale diesel oil that included 0.52 w% basic nitrogen as feedstock. Experiment results showed that under the operating conditions with temperature of 30 °C, 1:7 (w/w IL: oil, reaction time of 20 min, and settling time of 2 h, the ionic liquid exhibited good denitrogenation performance achieving 86.27 % basic N-extraction efficiency and the yield of refined diesel oil can reach more than 90 %. In addition, the basic N-removal efficiency can still reach 54 % during four recycles of the ionic liquid.

  20. Potential Fish Production Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms off the Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, J.; Pondella, D.; Love, M.; Zahn, L.; Williams, C.; Bull, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  1. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  2. Effective adsorption of oil droplets from oil-in-water emulsion using metal ions encapsulated biopolymers: Role of metal ions and their mechanism in oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elanchezhiyan, S Sd; Prabhu, Subbaiah Muthu; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2018-06-01

    Herein, synthesized and compared the three different kinds of hybrid bio-polymeric composites viz., lanthanum embedded chitosan/gelatin (La@CS-GEL), zirconium embedded chitosan/gelatin (Zr@CS-GEL) and cerium embedded chitosan/gelatin (Ce@CS-GEL) in terms of their oil uptake efficiency. The adsorption efficiency was studied under various optimized parameters like contact time, pH, dose, initial oil concentration and temperature. The oil adsorption capacity was found to be 91, 82 and 45% for La@CS-GEL, Zr@CS-GEL and Ce@CS-GEL composites respectively. The metals were used as a bridging material to connect both CS and GEL using the hydrophilic groups to enhance the oil recovery by hydrophobic interaction. Also, the introduction of metal ions on the surface of biopolymers would modify the oil/water properties which in turn, decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water phases. The mechanism of oil uptake was explained using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and heat of combustion. The experimental data confirmed Langmuir isotherm as the best fit for oil adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and standard entropy (ΔS°) indicated that the oil adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The oil adsorption mechanism was established based on isotherm and thermodynamic models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish oil extracted from fish-fillet by-products is weakly linked to the extraction temperatures but strongly linked to the omega-3 content of the raw material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study was to inve......Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the mainspecies produced in Danish fresh water farming. Therefore, a large amount of fileting by-products like heads, bones, and tails (HBT) and intestines are available and can be used to produce high quality fish oil. The main aim in this study...... products, % free fatty acids as well as content of omega-3 PUFA. Furthermore, an experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of extraction temperature on oil produced from raw materials with a different content of omega-3 fatty acids. For this purpose filleting by-products from conventional (low...

  4. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  5. Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) eyeball oil exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and croton oil-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Hyun; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The effect of tuna eyeball oil (TEO) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophage cells was investigated. TEO had no cytotoxicity in cell viability as compared to the control in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. TEO reduced the levels of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by up to 50% in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of NF-κB and MAPKs as well as iNOS and COX-2 proteins was reduced by TEO, which suggests that its anti-inflammatory activity is related to the suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. The rate of formation of ear edema was reduced compared to that in the control at the highest dose tested. In an acute toxicity test, no mice were killed by TEO doses of up to 5000mg/kg body weight during the two week observation period. These results suggested that TEO may have a significant effect on inflammatory factors and be a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Pollution and Treatments Part II: Utilization of Agricultural Wastes to Remove Petroleum Oils From Refineries Pollutants Present in Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.A.; El-Emary, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several natural agricultural wastes, of lignocellulose nature, such as Nile flower plant (ward El-Nil), milled green leaves, sugar cane wastes, palm tree leaves (carina), milled cotton stems, milled linseed stems, fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and palm tree cover were dried and then crushed to suitable size to be evaluated and utilized as adsorbents to remove oils floating or suspended in the waste water effluents from refineries and petroleum installations. The parameters investigated include effect of adsorbent type (adsorptive efficiency), adsorbate (type and concentration), mixing time, salinity of the water, adsorbent ratio to treated water, temperature, ph and stirring. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil were employed in this work in addition to the skimmed oil from the skim basin separator. Most of the agricultural wastes proved to be very effective in adsorbing oils from waste water effluents.

  7. Silicone Oil Removal from Aphakic Eyes Using a Side Irrigating Cannula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touka Banaee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In an interventional case series, 11 aphakic eyes of 11 patients with previous vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade underwent passive silicone oil removal under topical anesthesia through a single clear cornea incision with use of a side irrigating phacoemulsification irrigation cannula without performing a sclerotomy. All procedures were simple, short and uncomplicated. The only observed complication was minimal localized corneal edema the day after the procedure, which resolved within 1-2 days. Use of a side irrigating cannula permits safe and simple removal of silicone oil under topical anesthesia through a single clear cornea incision without need for sclerotomy.

  1. The effect of bevacizumab for anterior segment neovascularization after silicone oil removal in eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y

    2010-07-01

    To report the outcomes of the use of intracameral bevacizumab for iris neovascularization occurring after silicone oil (SO) removal in eyes undergoing vitreoretinal surgery (VRS). This study included 12 eyes that had iris neovascularization after SO removal. The clinical outcomes of 12 eyes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection were reviewed. There were eight men and four women with an average age of 41.58+/-12.68 years. All eyes had VRS for various vitreoretinal diseases. After the mean follow-up period of 9.7+/-5.3 months, SO removal was performed. Then, the patients were followed for more than 2 months and detailed retinal examinations and intraocular pressure (IOP) were normal during this period, but rubeosis iridis (RI) developed. RI was treated with 1 dose of 1.25 mg bevacizumab into the anterior chamber. After a mean follow-up period of 4.8+/-2.2 months, the regression of iris neovacularization was detected and IOP was below 21 mmHg in all eyes. Anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV) may develop through various mechanisms in patients with VRS after SO removal, and anterior chamber injection of bevacizumab may lead to regression of ASNV.

  2. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han; Hsieh, Chu-Chin

    2010-01-01

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K L a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K L a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C NaOCl .

  3. Integration of chemical scrubber with sodium hypochlorite and surfactant for removal of hydrocarbons in cooking oil fume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Han [Graduate School of Engineering Science and Technology, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chu-Chin, E-mail: hsiehcc@yuntech.edu.tw [Department of Environmental and Safety Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Touliu, Yunlin, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    There are many types of technologies to control cooking oil fumes (COFs), but current typical technologies, such as electrostatic precipitator, conventional scrubber, catalyst, or condenser, are unable to efficiently remove the odorous materials present in COFs which are the primary cause of odor-complaint cases. There is also a lack of information about using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and surfactants to remove contaminants in COFs, and previous studies lack on-site investigations in restaurants. This study presents a chemical scrubber integrated with an automatic control system (ACS) to treat hydrocarbons (HCs) in COFs, and to monitor non-methane HCs (NMHC) and odor as indicators for its efficiency evaluation. The chemical scrubber effectively treats hydrophobic substances in COFs by combining surfactant and NaOCl under optimal operational conditions with NHMC removal efficiency as high as 85%. The mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) of NMHC was enhanced by 50% under the NaOCl and surfactant conditions, as compared to typical wet scrubber. Further, this study establishes the fuzzy equations of the ACS, including the relationship between the removal efficiency and K{sub L}a, liquid/gas ratio, pH and C{sub NaOCl}.

  4. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  5. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic polyurethane foam and its application for continuous oil removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Dong; Gu, Bin; Yuan, Wei-Feng; He, Qi

    2018-02-01

    A new polyurethane foam with superhydrophobicity and excellent lipophilicity is presented and demonstrated experimentally in this work. The superhydrophobic foam is synthesized by dip coating the polyurethane foam with a mixture solution of silicone resine and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Its superhydrophobic and oleophilic capacity is characterized and verified via the SEM images, the water contact angle measurement, the adsorption tests and recyclability tests for water and some typical oils. Combining with the vacuum assisted oil-water separation technology (VAST), continuous recovery of oil spill at the lab scale is realized on the new superhydrophobic foam. Moreover, the break through pressure for water penetrating through the superhydrophobic foam is determined experimentally and referred as the maximum operation pressure in the VAST.

  6. Assessment of technological solutions for removal of radium discharged to sea from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, Dag Oeistein [Primus.inter.pares AS, Kongsberggata 20, NO-0468 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [University of Oslo (Norway); Andersen, Knut Inge [Statoil ASA (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh [Institute for Energy Technology - IFE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    On the Norwegian sector of the North-Sea the oil- and gas-producing fields Troll B and C are the main contributors to radium discharged to the sea (190 GBq/a {sup 226}Ra and 150 GBq/a {sup 228}Ra). Thus, to observe effects caused by the emission of radioactivity and to consider remedial action one should focus on these two installations. Both installations are now operated by Statoil. In a previous comprehensive study of the speciation of discharged radium the conclusion was that it is impossible to detect any effect from radiation doses. The incremental doses due to the emissions were found to be in the nSv-range. The study covered precipitation by sulfate in the sea water, absorption on organic and inorganic materials, uptake in cod eggs and in juvenile cod, effect on sediment living organisms, background levels of pelagic fish and in sediments, and modeling of the distribution in the water column as well the distribution along the coastal stream. Despite the lack of radiation effects, an assessment of possible technological solution for removal of the radium has been undertaken. Such methods must meet the severe requirements imposed by the oil recovery process at Troll B and C: High produced water rates (>1000 m{sup 3}/h), high salinity and content of water soluble carboxylic acids originating from the crude oil, in addition to a relatively high content of barium (3 550 tonnes/a). For implementation on an offshore installation the footprint and weight of the equipment would have to be as low as possible. It is also imperative that the radiation doses to operators are as low as possible. This puts strict requirements on the shielding of the absorbents accumulating {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra. No commercially available methods were identified, but one new conceptual method based on absorption of radium on barite has been proposed. Barite is also a good shielding material. Tests performed at Institute for Energy Technology show, however, that the kinetics of the

  7. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsenzadeh Fariba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w. Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  8. Evaluation of Oil Removal Efficiency and Enzymatic Activity in Some fungal Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation.Methods: In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w.Results: Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected asthe most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed thehighest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp.,Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively.Conclusions: Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  9. Innovative in-line separators: removal of water or sand in oil/water and gas/liquid/solid pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jepson, Paul; Cheolho Kang; Gopal, Madan [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In oil and gas production, multiphase mixtures are often separated before downstream processing. The separators are large, often 20 - 40 feet long and large diameter and use sophisticated internals. The costs are in the millions of dollars. Further, the sand and water in the flow can cause severe internal erosion and corrosion respectively before the flow reaches the separators. The CC Technologies/MIST In line Separation System is a cost-effective, efficient device for use in multiphase environments. The device is applicable for gas/solid, gas/liquid/solid and oil/water systems and offers exceptional separation between phases for a fraction of the cost of expensive gravity separators and hydro cyclones. The System contains no moving parts and is designed to be of the same diameter as the pipe, and experiences low shear forces. It can be fabricated with standard pipes. The efficiency of the separator has been determined in an industrial scale, pilot plant test facility at CC Technologies in 4-inch diameter pipes and has been found to be in excess of 98-99% for the removal of sand. Two phase oil/water separation effectiveness is in excess of 90% in 1-stage and 95% in 2 - stage. (author)

  10. Removal of Corrosive Sulfur from Insulating Oils by Natural Sorbent and Liquid-Liquid.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková, Martina; Kaštánek, František; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kužílek, V.; Košanová, L.; Šolcová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2017), s. 2383-2389 ISSN 1070-9878 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04020151 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : oil insulation * sorption * bentonite Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016

  11. Removal of Pah from clay soil contaminated with diesel oil by bioremediation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changas-spinelli, A. C. O.; Kato, M. T.; Lima, E. S.; Gavazza, S.

    2009-01-01

    Diesel oil is one of the most common soil organic pollutants, as a consequence of spilling of storage tank spills and accidental leaks. In Pernambuco State, Northeast part of Brazil, there are several evidences of soil contamination by petroleum derivates due to gas station leaking. (Author)

  12. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  13. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  14. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  15. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1984. Surveys on the possibility of using coal liquefied oil as a raw material, and technological development thereon; 1984 nendo sekitan ekikayu no genryoka no kanosei oyobi sono gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    With an objective to establish an optimal method for utilizing coal liquefied oil, surveys were performed on the current status of applicable separation technologies for effective utilization of the hetero compounds of O and N contained in liquefied oil, the possibility of hetero compound utilization and issues in technological development for the utilization thereof. Since coal liquefied oil reflects greatly the coal composition and its structure, it contains generally a greater amount of hetero compounds, such as nitrogen and sulfur, as well as aromatic compounds than petroleum. If the hetero compounds could be removed from the liquefied oil more effectively before reforming as a result of progress in separation technologies, hydrogen consumption may be reduced. In addition, economic performance of the coal liquefaction business can be relatively improved by establishing a technology to utilize more effectively these by-products. The current fiscal year has performed surveys on the current status of technologies to separate oxygen and nitrogen in liquefied oil, the possibility of utilizing these hetero compounds, and issues in technological development for the utilization thereof. At the same time, surveys were carried out on the compositions, contents, and separation and analysis methods of hetero compounds in oil obtained by using the coal liquefaction systems being practically used. (NEDO)

  16. Report of the FY 1995 research cooperation promotion projects (overall evaluation). Research cooperation in fuel cell utilization/district power generation system and village type technique for simplified continuous production of raw palm oil; 1995 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo (sogo hyoka) hokokusho. Nenryo denchi katsuyo chiiki hatsuden system ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku / sonrakugata kan'i renzoku palm arayu seizo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The research cooperation project for fuel cell utilization/district power generation system is conducted under the research cooperation agreement between NEDO and Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), to demonstrate a 50 kW pilot plant constructed at EGAT's Bang Pakong power station. The fuel cell reforms self-spouted natural gas into H{sub 2} as the fuel. It has produced a total power of 341,921 kWh under the conditions of cumulative operating time: 8,115.4 hours, longest continuous operating time: 1,100 hours, service factor: 89.64%, load ratio: 86.13% and system utilization factor: 77.20%. The fuel technique will be acceptable for Thailand, if it is economically competitive. The project for producing raw palm oil is for Malaysia. The facilities introduced and tested for the new process are a continuous steam-heated fruit remover, fiber/nut separator, and shell cutter. The new process is evaluated to produce higher-quality raw palm oil in higher yield while consuming less energy. The new process, whose steps are automated, saves operating cost, and suitable for Malaysia which is suffering shortage of manpower. (NEDO)

  17. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  18. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  19. Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhoh, N A; Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2010-11-01

    The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 10(5)g(-1) soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad beans revealed that they were affiliated to Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Exiquobacterium aurantiacum, Pseudomonas veronii, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacillus brevis, Arthrobacter sp. and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These rhizobacteria were also diazotrophic, i.e. capable of N(2) fixation, which makes them self-sufficient regarding their nitrogen nutrition and thus suitable remediation agents in nitrogen-poor soils, such as the oily desert soil. The crude oil attenuation potential of the individual rhizobacteria was inhibited by HgCl(2), but about 50% or more of this potential was still maintained in the presence of up to 40 mgl(-1) HgCl(2). Rhizobacteria-free plants removed amounts of mercury from the surrounding media almost equivalent to those removed by the rhizospheric bacterial consortia in the absence of the plants. It was concluded that both the collector plants and their rhizospheric bacterial consortia contributed equivalently to mercury removal from soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Method for removing hydrogen sulphide from oil-containing water and equipment therefore; Fremgangsmaate for aa fjerne hydrogensulfid fra oljeholdig vann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeyvik, H; Hovland, J; Eskilt, J P

    1995-02-27

    The invention relates to an method for removing hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) from oil-containing water and equipment therefore. Oil-containing water and nitrate is conducted through a bioreactor to remove H{sub 2}S. Nitrate is added to the oil-containing water in a dose ratio (sulphide:nitrate) of 1:10 to 1:40. The retention time in the reactor tank is for 10-60 minutes. After this treatment, purified water, where >90% of the H{sub 2}S-amount is removed, is let out of the tank. The equipment for performing the above mentioned method, is based on a bioreactor having large density of denitrifying bacteria. The reactor tank, is filled with carrying material providing large contact area. Even distribution of oil-containing water and nitrate over the carrying material which already may be covered by septic mud, forms an active sulphide oxidizing biofilm having large surface. This biofilm makes an extremely effective equipment for removing sulphide from oil-containing water. 3 figs.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Solbrax-Water Nanoemulsions for Removal of Oil from Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila F. Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, surfactants have been used to clean up soils and aquifers contaminated by petroleum and petroleum derivatives. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate nanoemulsions for remediation of soil contaminated by petroleum, by using a commercial solvent Solbrax. The nanoemulsions were prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT method, using oil phase Solbrax (a solvent extracted from naphtha with low aromatics content and a nonionic ethoxylated lauryl ether surfactant. The surfactant concentrations were varied from 10 to 12 wt% and the oil phase was varied from 5 to 20 wt%. A 23 factorial experimental design with center point run was used to evaluate the soil washing process, varying time, temperature, and shear rate of the system. The results show that the most efficient system (with 90% efficiency was that using the nanoemulsion containing 5 wt% of Solbrax and 12 wt% of surfactant after four hours of washing, on 240 rotation·min−1 of shear rate and at a temperature of 318 K.

  2. Flotation removal of the microalga Nannochloropsis sp. using Moringa protein-oil emulsion: A novel green approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ganesan; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2018-01-01

    A new approach to recover microalgae from aqueous medium using a bio-flotation method is reported. The method involves utilizing a Moringa protein extract - oil emulsion (MPOE) for flotation removal of Nannochloropsis sp. The effect of various factors has been assessed using this method, including operating parameters such as pH, MPOE dose, algae concentration and mixing time. A maximum flotation efficiency of 86.5% was achieved without changing the pH condition of algal medium. Moreover, zeta potential analysis showed a marked difference in the zeta potential values when increase the MPOE dose concentration. An optimum condition of MPOE dosage of 50ml/L, pH 8, mixing time 4min, and a flotation efficiency of greater than 86% was accomplished. The morphology of algal flocs produced by protein-oil emulsion flocculant were characterized by microscopy. This flotation method is not only simple, but also an efficient method for harvesting microalgae from culture medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rubber Fruit Shell (Hevea brasiliensis) as bio sorbent to remove FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Sinaga, M. S.; Masyithah, Z.; Husin, A.; Nurfadilla, S.; Fitriani; Sipahutar, B. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to discover the effectiveness of the shell of rubber fruit as bio sorbent for removing FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil). Methods used in this study were pretreatment, activation (carbonating and chemically) and adsorption process at room temperature. In the beginning, the shell of rubber fruit was cleaned and dried under the sun. Then the shell was cut for about 0.5 cm of length and carbonated in a furnace for 1h at 600°C. After that, they were crushed to pass through 140 meshes and activated using three variations of chemical such as 6 of HNO3, 6N of KOH and 6N of H3PO4 at certain ratio as 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 (b/v). The adsorption process was carried out using bio sorbent with the highest iodine number in varying bio sorbent dosage and contact time. The highest iodine number was 913.680 mg/g and obtained at the ratio of bio sorbent to 6N of KOH as 1:5. The best removal of FFA content was 91.94% and at 1% bio sorbent dose and 30 min of contact time.

  4. Simultaneous inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl: Applications for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Ji-Dong; Ma, Fang; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are widely existed in oil production system, and its H2S product inhibits rhamnolipid producing bacteria. In-situ production of rhamnolipid is promising for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Inhibition of SRB, removal of H2S and production of rhamnolipid by recombinant Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl were investigated. Strain Rhl can simultaneously remove S(2-) (>92%) and produce rhamnolipid (>136mg/l) under S(2-) stress below 33.3mg/l. Rhl reduced the SRB numbers from 10(9) to 10(5)cells/ml, and the production of H2S was delayed and decreased to below 2mg/l. Rhl also produced rhamnolipid and removed S(2-) under laboratory simulated oil reservoir conditions. High-throughput sequencing data demonstrated that addition of strain Rhl significantly changed the original microbial communities of oilfield production water and decreased the species and abundance of SRB. Bioaugmentation of strain Rhl in oilfield is promising for simultaneous control of SRB, removal of S(2-) and enhance oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of Radium isotopes from oil co-produced water using Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Masri, M.S.; Al Attar, L.; Budeir, Y.; Al Chayah, O.

    2010-01-01

    In view of environmental concern, sorption of radium on natural bentonite mineral (Aleppo, Syria) was investigated using batch-type method. Data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. An attempt to increase the selectivity of bentonite for radium was made by preparing M-derivatives. Loss of mineral crystallinity in acidic media and the formation of new phase, such as BaCO 3 , in Ba-derivative were imposed by XRD characterisations. Of the cationic forms, Na-bentonite had shown the highest affinity. Mechanisms of radium uptake were pictured using M-derivatives and simulated radium solutions. The obtained results indicated that surface sorption/surface ion exchange were the predominated processes. The distinct sorption behaviour observed with Ba-form was, possibly, a reflection of radium co-precipitation with barium carbonate. The competing order of macro component, likely present in waste streams, was drawn by studying different concentrations of the corresponding salt media. As an outcome, sodium was the weakest inhibitor. The performance of natural bentonite and the most selective forms, i.e. Ba- and Na-derivatives, to sorb radium from actual oil co-produced waters, collected form Der Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), was studied. This mirrored the influential effect of waters pH over other comparable parameters. (author)

  6. Investigation the Kinetic Models of Biological Removal of Petroleum Contaminated Soil Around Oil Pipeline Using Ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghaheri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution of the past century has resulted in significant damage to environmental resources such as air, water and soil. Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the oil producer countries. Remediation of petroleum contamination of soils is generally a slow and expensive process. Phytoremediation is a potentially less-damaging, cost-effective, but needs longer-term for remediation of contaminated land compared to the alternative methods. In this study the kinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils in Khozestan were investigated. For this paper Ryegrass (Lolium perenne plant selected and the decline of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH was analyzed after growth stage, every 10 days up to 90 days. The results of TPH concentration was fitted with zero-order kinetic, first-order kinetic and Higuchi model. The result indicated that degradation of TPH with presence of plants as a function of time was well fitted with the first-order kinetic model. The first-order rate constants (K and half-lives (T1/2 for TPH degradation were 0.0098 1/day and 71 day; respectively. The results of phytoremediation showed that there were 65% decreases in TPH concentration with Ryegrass during the 17 weeks.

  7. Canopy volume removal from oil and gas development activity in the upper Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania and New York (USA): An assessment using lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Siripoonsup, David

    2018-01-01

    Oil and gas development is changing the landscape in many regions of the United States and globally. However, the nature, extent, and magnitude of landscape change and development, and precisely how this development compares to other ongoing land conversion (e.g. urban/sub-urban development, timber harvest) is not well understood. In this study, we examine land conversion from oil and gas infrastructure development in the upper Susquehanna River basin in Pennsylvania and New York, an area that has experienced much oil and gas development over the past 10 years. We quantified land conversion in terms of forest canopy geometric volume loss in contrast to previous studies that considered only areal impacts. For the first time in a study of this type, we use fine-scale lidar forest canopy geometric models to assess the volumetric change due to forest clearing from oil and gas development and contrast this land change to clear cut forest harvesting, and urban and suburban development. Results show that oil and gas infrastructure development removed a large volume of forest canopy from 2006 to 2013, and this removal spread over a large portion of the study area. Timber operations (clear cutting) on Pennsylvania State Forest lands removed a larger total volume of forest canopy during the same time period, but this canopy removal was concentrated in a smaller area. Results of our study point to the need to consider volumetric impacts of oil and gas development on ecosystems, and to place potential impacts in context with other ongoing land conversions.

  8. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung

    2008-01-01

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the service

  9. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  10. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  11. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  12. O óleo de abacate (Persea americana Mill como matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia The avocado oil (Persea americana Mill as a raw material for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    excellent raw material for the food industry. Besides, the fatty acid composition and the sterols presents in the avocado oil are similar to the olive oil. Thus, the avocado oil can substitute the soybean oil, or it can be mixed with the olive oil offering the Brazilian consumers a product of high quality and low cost.

  13. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Variability of blood pressure and blood glucose during perioperative period for patients with secondary neovascular glaucoma after silicone oil removed in PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To research blood pressure and blood glucose variability during peroperative period for patients with secondary neovasular glaucoma(NVGafter silicone oil removed in proliferative diabetic retinaopathy(PDR.METHODS: Totally, 271 patients(271 eyesundergone surgery of vitrectomy and silicon-oil tamponade combined with cataract were respective analyzed. Fourteen patients(14 eyeswith secondary NVG after silicon oil removed and randomly controlled group of no NVG according with ages, operation method in the same time were studied. The blood pressure and blood glucose variability during peroperative period was analyzed, and did comparison after excluded contralateral eye. The complications of 271 patients were surveyed in following-up period 1~12mo. The incidence of NVG, the time, blood pressure, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin(Hbc%variability during peroperative period was statisticed and compared by software of SPSS 11.0.RESULTS: Fourteen eyes(5.2%of 271 cases was with secondary NVG(female: 4 eyes, 28.6%; male: 10 eyes, 71.4%, average ages was 57.07 years(49~68 years. NVG presented in the 107~ 135d after vitrectomy and 7~45d(average 31.78dafter silicon-oil removed. Diabetes mellitus was 10~15(average 13.2a. In NVG group, the variability of blood glucose was 4.0~10.2mmol/L(mean 8.52±3.24mmol/L, variable coefficient was 0.48. In NNVG group, the variability of blood glucose was 5.0~8.2mmol/L(mean 7.22±0.24mmol/L, variable coefficient was 0.43. It was significantly difference in comparison in variable coefficient(PPPPCONCLUSION: There are significant variability on fasting blood glucose, daytime SBP and night DBP during perioperative in PDR patients with secondary NVG. It might be occurred 1wk after silicone oil removal surgery.

  15. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Norhidayah; Yong, Sing Hung; Ibrahim, Naimah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md; Ridwan, Fahmi Muhammad; Ahmad, Razi

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO) to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC) for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO) from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken Design (BBD) in terms of metal loading (5-20%), sintering temperature (200-800˚C) and sintering time (2-6 hours). The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625) was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature) are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05).

  16. Removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst using membrane ultra-filtration technique: An optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, residual potassium hydroxide catalyst was removed from palm oil-based alkyl esters (biodiesel using membrane separative technique, with the aim of achieving high-quality biodiesel that meets international standard specifications. Further, Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to study the effects of the system variables such as flow rate, temperature and transmembrane pressure (TMP on the retention of potassium. At the optimum conditions, the coefficient of retention (%R of the catalyst was 93.642, and the content of the potassium was reduced from 8.328 mg/L to 0.312 mg/L; a value well below the one specified by both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. In addition, the comparison between predicted and experimental values for the catalyst retention offers a reasonable percentage error of 0.081%. Therefore, this study has proven that membrane technique can be used to post treat crude biodiesel; in order to achieve high-quality biodiesel fuel that can be efficiently used on diesel engines.

  17. Optimisation of Copper Oxide Impregnation on Carbonised Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for Nitric Oxide Removal using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Norhidayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was successfully modified with phosphoric acid hydration followed by impregnation with copper oxide (CuO to synthesize CuO modified catalytic carbon (CuO/EFBC for low-temperature removal of nitric oxide (NO from gas streams. CuO impregnation was optimised through response surface methodology (RSM using Box-Behnken Design (BBD in terms of metal loading (5-20%, sintering temperature (200-800˚C and sintering time (2-6 hours. The model response for the variables was NO adsorption capacity, which was obtained from an up-flow column adsorption experiment with 100 mL/min flow of 500 ppm NO/He at different operating conditions. The optimum operating variables suggested by the model were 20% metal loading, 200˚C sintering temperature and 6 hours sintering time. A good agreement (R2 = 0.9625 was achieved between the experimental data and model prediction. ANOVA analysis indicated that the model terms (metal loading and sintering temperature are significant (Prob.>F less than 0.05.

  18. A facile method to prepare dual-functional membrane for efficient oil removal and in situ reversible mercury ions adsorption from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingdong; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel thiol covered polyamide (nylon 66) microfiltration membrane was fabricated by combining mussel-inspired chemistry and coupling reaction, which owns excellent dual-function that can simultaneously remove oil from water efficiently and adsorb the mercury ions contained in the wastewater reversibly. Such membrane exhibited high oil/water separation efficiency, outstanding mercury adsorption ability, and good stability. Moreover, it can be regenerated in nitric acid solution, and maintain its good adsorption performance. The as-prepared membrane showed great potentials for water purification to reduce the heavy metal ion pollution and complicated industrial oily wastewater and living wastewater.

  19. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  20. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  1. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  2. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  3. Determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils and fats by online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection - Evaluation of automated removal strategies for biogenic olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Marco; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2017-07-07

    The determination of mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in foodstuffs gained in importance over the last years as carcinogenicity cannot be excluded for certain MOAH. The existence of olefins in foodstuffs, such as edible oils and fats, can be problematic for the determination of MOAH by LC-GC-FID. Removal of these interfering substances by HPLC based on polarity differences is not possible. During gas chromatographic separation heavily overloaded peaks are observed rendering the detection of small mineral oil contaminations almost impossible. Therefore, removal of these olefins is necessary before subjection of the sample to LC-GC-FID. Epoxidation of olefins to increase their polarity proved to be a valuable tool in the past. Precision and trueness of the results as shown in a collaborative trial, however, are relying on exact reaction conditions. Additionally, it is known that certain MOAH are oxidized during epoxidation and therefore get lost. In the scope of this work, hydroboration, bromohydrin reaction, and epoxidation were examined for their potential for derivatization of unsaturated hydrocarbons with increased robustness and higher recovery of MOAH. Epoxidation by meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) delivered the best removal of olefins. Factors influencing this reaction were enlightened. Adaption of the reaction conditions and time-controlled automation increased the recovery of polycyclic MOAH. Good precision (RSD r oils spiked with a lubricating mineral oil (at 24.5mg/kg of MOAH). The trueness of the method was verified by analyzing collaborative trial samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  5. Efficacy of ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and orange oil in removing filling material from mesial canals of mandibular molars with and without isthmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Sangoi BARRETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume of remaining filling material after passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and orange oil in mesial canals of mandibular molars, with and without isthmus. Material and Methods Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars were divided according to the presence or absence of isthmus. Canals were prepared and filled (Micro-CT #1. Filling was removed using rotary instruments, and specimens were sub-divided into three groups according to the irrigation procedures: Conventional – conventional irrigation with NaOCl, PUI/NaOCl – PUI of NaOCl (three activations, 20 seconds each, and PUI/orange oil – PUI of orange oil (Micro-CT#2. Specimens were enlarged using the X2 and X3 ProTaper Next instruments and submitted to the same irrigation protocols (Micro-CT #3. Results No differences were found between the experimental groups in each stage of assessment (P>0.05. The volume of residual filling material was similar to that in Micro-CT #2 and Micro-CT #3, but lower than that observed in Micro-CT #1 (P<0.05. When groups were pooled according to the presence or absence of an isthmus, volume of residual filling material was higher in specimens presenting isthmus (P<0.05. Conclusions PUI of NaOCl or orange oil did not improve filling removal. Isthmus consists in an anatomical obstacle that impairs the removal of filling material.

  6. Raw material supply: challenge and chance for economy and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, W

    1976-01-01

    The imprint left by the 1973 oil embargo makes all nations aware of their dependence upon this and other raw materials. The author says the brunt of the embargo has dealt a heavier blow than has been realized on industrial nations and developing countries alike. The drastic decline of raw material prices has had threatening consequences for a number of raw-material-producing developing countries, making some nations unite for the purpose of market regulation. The cartel-like union of copper-producing countries is cited; producers of bauxite, iron ore, and tungsten have united; and some producers of tin have united. So far, the attempt to apply the oil strategy to other raw materials has not achieved the desired results; however, raw materials are no longer just a phase of the industrial process but have become a political matter of prime importance. (MCW)

  7. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ListexTM P100 for the removal of Listeria monocytogenes surface contamination of raw fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of Listex™ P100 to reduce Listeria monocytogenes contamination on raw fish were assessed. The material should not present human toxicological problems because the bacteriophage P100, used as active principle, is not regarded as harmful to consumers nor...

  8. Utilization of two invasive free-floating aquatic plants (Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes) as sorbents for oil removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xunan; Chen, Shanshan; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-01-01

    Free-floating aquatic plants Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes are well-known invasive species in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to utilize the plants as cost-effective and environmentally friendly oil sorbents. Multilevel wrinkle structure of P. stratiotes leaf (PL), rough surface of E. crassipes leaf (EL), and box structure of E. crassipes stalk (ES) were observed using the scanning electron microscope. The natural hydrophobic structures and capillary rise tests supported the idea to use P. stratiotes and E. crassipes as oil sorbents. Experiments indicated that the oil sorption by the plants was a fast process. The maximum sorption capacities for different oils reached 5.1-7.6, 3.1-4.8, and 10.6-11.7 g of oil per gram of sorbent for PL, EL, and ES, respectively. In the range of 5-35 °C, the sorption capacities of the plants were not significantly different. These results suggest that the plants can be used as efficient oil sorbents.

  9. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  10. Investigation of the geothermal state of sedimentary basins using oil industry thermal data: case study from Northern Alberta exhibiting the need to systematically remove biased data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan Gray, D; Majorowicz, Jacek; Unsworth, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface temperature data from industrial sources may contain significant biases that greatly reduce their overall quality. However, if these biases can be identified and removed, the data can provide a good preliminary source of information for further studies. In this paper, industrial thermal data from three sources: bottom hole temperatures, annual pool pressure tests and drill stem tests are evaluated to provide an updated view of the subsurface temperatures below the oil sand regions of Northern Alberta. The study highlights some of the potentially large systematic biases inherent in industrial temperature data which affect estimates of geothermal gradient and regional mapping of the geothermal field. (paper)

  11. Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Zahangir ALAM; Suleyman A. MUYIBI; Juria TORAMAE

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of activated carbon produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches through removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solution was carried out in the laboratory. The activated carbon was produced by thermal activation at 800℃ with 30 min of activation time. The adsorption process conditions were determined with the statistical optimization followed by central composite design. A developed polynomial model for operating conditions of adsorption process indicated that the optimum conditions for maximum adsorption of phenolic compound were: agitation rate of 100 r/min, contact time of 8 h, initial adsorbate concentration of 250 mg/L and pH 4. Adsorption isotherms were conducted to evaluate biosorption process. Langmuir isotherm was more favorable (R2=0.93) for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the activated carbon produced rather than the Freundlich isotherm (R2=0.88).

  12. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India)]. E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in; Mittal, Jyoti [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Kurup, Lisha [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462007 (India); Singh, A.K. [Department of Applied Chemistry, University Institute of Technology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India)

    2006-11-02

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered.

  13. Process development for the removal and recovery of hazardous dye erythrosine from wastewater by waste materials-Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya as adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha; Singh, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Erythrosine is a water-soluble xanthene class of dye. It is widely used as colorant in foods, textiles, drugs and cosmetics. It is highly toxic, causes various types of allergies, thyroid activities, carcinogenicity, DNA damage behaviour, neurotoxicity and xenoestrogen nature in the humans and animals. The photochemical and biochemical degradation of the erythrosine is not recommended due to formation of toxic by-products. The present paper is an attempt to remove erythrosine from wastewater using adsorption over Bottom Ash-a power plant waste and De-Oiled Soya-an agricultural waste. Under the batch studies, effect of concentration of dye, temperature, pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc., have been studied for the uptake of the dye over both adsorbents. The adsorption process verifies Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms in both the cases and based on the data different thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Batch studies also include kinetic measurements, rate constant study, mass transfer behaviour and establishment of mechanistic pathway for both the cases. For the bulk removal of the dye column operations have been carried out and breakthrough capacities of the Bottom Ash and De-Oiled Soya columns have been calculated. Attempts have also been made for the recovery of the adsorbed dye from exhausted columns by eluting dilute NaOH and more than 90% of the dye was recovered

  14. Off-flavors removal and storage improvement of mackerel viscera by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Uddin, M Salim; Chun, Byung Soo

    2008-07-01

    The oil in mackerel viscera was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) at a semi-batch flow extraction process and the fatty acids composition in the oil was identified. Also the off-flavors removal in mackerel viscera and the storage improvement of the oils were carried out. As results obtained, by increasing pressure and temperature, quantity was increased. The maximum yield of oils obtained from mackerel viscera by SCO, extraction was 118 mgg(-1) (base on dry weight of freeze-dried raw anchovy) at 50 degrees C, 350 bar And the extracted oil contained high concentration of EPA and DHA. Also it was found that the autoxidation of the oils using SCO2 extraction occurred very slowly compared to the oils by organic solvent extraction. The off-flavors in the powder after SCO2 extraction were significantly removed. Especially complete removal of the trimethylamine which influences a negative compound to the products showed. Also other significant off-flavors such as aldehydes, sulfur-containing compounds, ketones, acids or alcohols were removed by the extraction.

  15. Rarefaction Shock Wave Cutter for Offshore Oil-Gas Platform Removal Final Report CRADA No. TC02009.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barker, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Alvarado, TX (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (formerly the University of California) and Jet Research Center, a wholly owned division of Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. to design and prototype an improved explosive cutter for cutting the support legs of offshore oil and gas platforms.

  16. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  17. A Simple Refining Technique of Coconut Oil for Small Holder Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Triyono

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple refining equipment and process for small holder industries of edible coconut oil has beeninvestigated. The equipment consisted of 20-L filtering and NaOH neutralization bottles. Filtration wasintended to remove impurities such as gums and pigment, while neutralization was to remove free fattyacids (FFA and other non-fat materials. In the experiment, the crude coconut oil was found to have impurityof 0.16%, FFA of 8.02%, saponification number of 270, and water content of 0.33%. The results showed thateither granular activated carbon (GAC or zeolite filtration can be chosen individually to remove physicalimpurity. The GAC or zeolite-filtered coconut oil contained impurity less than the SNI standard of 0.05%.In term of FFA; however, the NaOH neutralized coconut oil did not meet the SNI standard of 0.3%. AfterNaOH neutralization, the GAC filtered oil contained 1.20% FFA; while the zeolite filtered oil contained1.32%. These FFA contents were definitely higher than the SNI standard, but could satisfy APCC standardfor grade IV coconut oil which is 5%. The refined coconut oils could also satisfy the SNI standard ofsaponification number which is 196 – 206 at minimum. In term of water content, either the filtered or theneutralized oil could also satisfy the SNI standard of 0.3%. In short, the proposed technique could helpfarmers refine their raw coconut oil, and hopefully improve its marketability.

  18. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  19. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going through a multitude of freeze and melt processes with little to no degradation if the appropriate preservative is used. Finally in chapter 9 the PCM is incorporated into a simulated 100 th scale house. A traditional freon based evaporator is used to freeze the PCM at night during electrical-off-peak hours

  20. NanoCrystalline Cellulose isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch and its potential in cadmium metal removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Yong Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NanoCrystalline Cellulose (NCC was isolated via ultrasonic cavitation assisted acid hydrolysis method. Characterization was done using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS together with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM imaging to double prove the existence of NCC. DLS measures length of 236.6 nm with width of 34.40 nm, supported by SEM which showed NCC a rod-like shaped particle with large surface area and high porosity. It was then attempted for heavy metal cadmium ion (Cd2+ removal from aqueous solution. The pH implication to the rate of Cd2+ adsorption was investigated by varying the solution to pH 4, pH 7 and pH 10 over a duration of 120 minutes. The removal efficiency was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS resulting in pH 7 being the most favorable for Cd2+ removal.

  1. Comparison among the rice bark in the raw and active forms in the removal of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs from liquid radioactive wastes; Comparacao entre a casca de arroz nas formas brutas e ativada na remocao de {sup 241}Am e {sup 137}Cs de rejeitos radioativos liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Bellini, Maria Helena; Sakata, Solange Kazumi; Marumo, Julio Takehiro, E-mail: rpadua@ipen.b, E-mail: sksakata@ipen.b, E-mail: jblima@ipen.b, E-mail: mbmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    New techniques involving treatment of radioactive wastes which associate simplicity and low cost have been directed the attention for the bio sorption, which is a process were solid vegetable or micro-organism for the retention, removing, or recovering of heavy metals from a liquid environment. This study evaluated the capacity of a bio sorbent to remove Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive waste. The chosen material was the rice bark employed in the raw or activated forms. The obtained results suggest that the bio sorption, with the activated rice bark, can be a viable technique for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137 present in liquid radioactive wastes

  2. Combined Activity of Colloid Nanosilver and Zataria Multiflora Boiss Essential Oil-Mechanism of Action and Biofilm Removal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirdel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial and biofilm removal potential of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO and silver nanoparticle (SNP alone and in combination on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium and evaluate the mechanism of action. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and optimal inhibitory combination (OIC of ZEO and SNP were determined according to fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC method. Biofilm removal potential and leakage pattern of 260-nm absorbing material from the bacterial cell during exposure to the compounds were also investigated. Results: MICs of SNP for both bacteria were the same as 25 μg/ mL. The MICs and MBCs values of ZEO were 2500 and 1250 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective OIC value for SNP and ZEO against Salm. Typhimurium and Staph. aureus were 12.5, 625 and 0.78, 1250 μg/ mL, respectively. ZEO and SNP at MIC and OIC concentrations represented a strong removal ability (>70% on biofilm. Moreover, ZEO at MIC and OIC concentrations did a 6-log reduction of primary inoculated bacteria during 15 min contact time. The effect of ZEO on the loss of 260-nm material from the cell was faster than SNP during 15 and 60 min. Conclusion: Combination of ZEO and SNP had significant sanitizing activity on examined bacteria which may be suitable for disinfecting the surfaces.

  3. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Classification of goods in the first group of agricultural raw materials ere used. We consider some of the goods are raw agricultural sector as a percentage of GDP and sectors including oil and minerals were removed from it. Therefore, this variable includes food and live animals, beverages and tobacco, crude materials, excluding fuel and other edible animal fats and vegetable oils. The data has been obtained from the global dataset of FAO. Variables such as Animal fats and vegetable oils and the per capita income squared has been omitted because of co linearity. Instrumental variables such as agricultural land (% of land area and agricultural machinery is taken from WDI. These variables include per capita emissions of agricultural methane, per capita emissions of agricultural nitrous oxide gas, and biological oxygen demand (BOD per capita. Methane (CH4 is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming and ozone pollution. More than fifty percent of the methane gas is due to agricultural activities. Results and Discussion: The results of the instrumental variable method show that the export of agricultural products in developing countries will increase the emissions of nitrous oxide and methane gas and reduces water pollution. The coefficients of the variables considered positive for developed countries, but only the coefficient of nitrogen oxide emissions is significant. To investigate which of raw agricultural products, subtypes play a greater role in environmental pollution, we have re-estimated equation with place components of agricultural raw products, beverages and tobacco, crude materials excluding fuels and other edible fats and vegetable and animal oils. The results for the three pollutants reported in the table. This result indicates that only the export of drinking and tobacco increased environmental pollution by increasing methane in developing countries. So, none of the variables have significant impact on water pollution. The logarithm of the per capita

  4. Oil and grease (O&G) removal from commercial kitchen waste water using carbonised grass as a key media

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Siti Nazahiyah; Mohd Ali Ahmad Zurisman; Wan Ibrahim Mohd Haziman; Alias Nur Azrena

    2017-01-01

    Oil and grease (O&G) are usually found in kitchen waste water. O&G are poorly soluble in water and can cause serious problems during the wastewater treatment. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the treatment of kitchen waste water and very economical. Activated carbon is the most effective adsorbent for this application. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to determine the potential of four materials (i.e. sand, gravel, carbonised grass (CG) and clay powder) as filter media for O&G...

  5. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  6. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  7. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  8. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut......’s adolescence without hypostatizing distinctions between inside and outside, or between culture and its raw or primitive origins, while nevertheless not conflating the dissolution of boundaries and hierarchies with a possible end to territoriality and control, nor promoting a resignation of thought...

  9. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  10. The deep processing of oil residues conjunction with shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Maloletnev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of a new process of thermal cracking of tar oil as a slurry with crushed oil shale to obtain components of motor fuels. The results suggest doubtless advantages of the process before the industrial of thermo cracking, since the single-stage processing of raw materials in relatively in the mild conditions (5 MPa, 425ºC, volumetric feed rate 1.0 h-1 is achieved deep destruction of tar oil (the yield petrol fraction with a bp amounts to up to 180ºC - ~12 mass % of middle distillates with a bp 180-360ºC – 43-44 mass %, of raw material for catalytic cracking of a bp 360-520ºC – ~15-16%, based on the initial tar oil. Formed like coke products and raw materials contained in V and Ni is postponed on the mineral part of slate and removed from the reaction zone with the liquid products of the process.

  11. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  12. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  13. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  14. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  15. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  16. Process for desulfurizing shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escherich, F

    1922-12-17

    A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of 100 atmospheres or more.

  17. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  18. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  19. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  20. Chitosan-edible oil based materials as upgraded adsorbents for textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Clayane Carvalho; Mouta, Rodolpho; Junior, Manoel Carvalho Castro; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu; Silva, Hildo Antonio Dos Santos; Bezerra, Cícero Wellington Brito

    2018-01-15

    Biopolymer chitosan is a low cost, abundant, environmentally friendly, very selective and efficient anionic dyes adsorbent, being a promising material for large-scale removal of dyes from wastewater. However, raw chitosan (CS) is an ineffective cationic dyes adsorbent and its performance is pH sensitive, thus, CS modifications that address these issues need to be developed. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of two new CS modifications using edible oils (soybean oil or babassu oil), and their adsorption performance for two dyes, one anionic (remazol red, RR) and one cationic (methylene blue, MB). Both modifications extended the pH range of RR adsorption. The babassu oil modification increased adsorption capacity of the cationic dye MB, whereas the soybean oil modification increased that of RR. Such improvements demonstrate the potential of these two new CS modifications as adsorbent candidates for controlling dyes pollution in effluents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  2. A versatile bio-based material for efficiently removing toxic dyes, heavy metal ions and emulsified oil droplets from water simultaneously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daikun; Li, Qing; Mao, Daoyong; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Developing versatile materials for effective water purification is significant for environment and water source protection. Herein, a versatile bio-based material (CH-PAA-T) was reported by simple thermal cross-linking chitosan and polyacrylic acid which exhibits excellent performances for removing insoluble oil, soluble toxic dyes and heavy metal ions from water, simultaneously. The adsorption capacities are 990.1mgg -1 for methylene blue (MB) and 135.9mgg -1 for Cu 2+ , which are higher than most of present advanced absorbents. The adsorption towards organic dyes possesses high selectivity which makes CH-PAA-T be able to efficiently separate dye mixtures. The stable superoleophobicity under water endows CH-PAA-T good performance to separate toluene-in-water emulsion stabilized by Tween 80. Moreover, CH-PAA-T can be recycled for 10 times with negligible reduction of efficiency. Such versatile bio-based material is a potential candidate for water purification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Search for new ways of production of diesel fuels from fats and oils on the basis of renewable raw materials; Suche nach neuen Wegen zur Gewinnung von Dieselkraftstoffen aus Fetten und Oelen auf der Basis von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Eckhard [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse an der Universitaet Rostock e.V., Rostock (Germany); Schuemann, Ulrike [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Kragl, Udo [Leibniz-Institut fuer Katalyse an der Universitaet Rostock e.V., Rostock (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Fats and oils are one of the oldest classes of chemical compounds used by humans. Natural fats consist of a hydrocarbon chain with double bonds and carboxylic/ester functions. They can be converted by hydrogenation and decarboxylation using heterogeneous catalysts at high temperature (450 C) and high hydrogen pressure (150 bar). Conversion of fats and oils by hydrogenation and decarboxylation with homogeneous noble metal catalysts at essential milder conditions for different applications as hydrotreated vegetable oil is possible as well. The reactions were studied by model compounds for the hydrogenation of double bonds e.g. linolenic acid and the decarboxylation of stearic acid. It was found that palladium nanoparticles can be used as catalyst in a two phase reaction. (orig.)

  4. THE EFFECTS OF POSSIBLE CONTAMINATION ON THE RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS II : EMPIRICAL METHODS TO REMOVE CASTOR OIL AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REDATING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; van der Plicht, Johannes; Doudna, Gregory; Nielsen, Frederik; Hojrup, Peter; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Pedersen, Carl Th; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    While kept at the Rockefeller Museum in East Jerusalem, many Dead Sea Scroll fragments were exposed to castor oil by the original team of editors in the course of cleaning the parchments. Castor oil must be regarded as a serious contaminant in relation to radiocarbon dating. If modern castor oil is

  5. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  6. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  7. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil washing in combination with homogeneous Fenton-like oxidation for the removal of 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl from soil contaminated with capacitor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Ling; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Dong, Yuan-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Detoxification by chemical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils is very difficult and inefficient because PCBs typically associate with the solid phase or exist as non-aqueous-phase liquids due to their low solubility and slow desorption rates, and thus, they are difficult to remove from soils by using traditional, water-based elution techniques. Surfactant can enhance washing efficiency of PCBs from contaminated soils. This study used Brij 58, Brij 30, Tween 80, and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to solubilize 2,4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl (PCB28) from soil contaminated with capacitor oil into solution. The feasibility of PCB28 oxidation in soil washing wastewater through a Fe(3+)-catalyzed Fenton-like reaction was subsequently examined. Washing with 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution showed the highest extraction efficiency (up to 61.5 %) compared with that of the three other surfactants. The total concentration of PCB28 in contaminated soil at 25 °C after 48-h extraction was 286 mg L(-1). In contrast to conditions in which no washing agent was added, addition of the four washing agents decreased the efficiency of PCB28 degradation by the Fenton-like reaction, with the decrease due to addition of 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution being the smallest. The optimal concentration of H2O2 for preventing its useless decomposition was found to be 50 mM. The efficiency of PCB28 removal was lower when the initial concentration of PCB28 treated in the Fenton-like reaction was higher. The degradation efficiencies of PCB28 at initial concentrations of 0.1, 10, and 176 mg L(-1) in 10 g L(-1) Brij 58 solution at 25 °C and pH 3.0 and 9 h of reaction using 50 mM H2O2 were 64.1, 42.0, and 34.6 %, respectively. This result indicates that soil washing combined with Fenton-like oxidation may be a practical approach for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  9. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  10. Mineral raw materials for power production in legislation of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, mineral wealth is a public good of legal interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoys its special protection. The Mining Law establishes that mineral wealth (including mineral resources that are used for power production) is the property of the Republic of Croatia. Among other mineral raw materials, this refers to mineral raw materials that are used for power production: coal, oil, natural gas, radioactive mineral raw materials and geothermal waters. These mineral resources are as almost all other mineral raw materials with the exception of geothermal waters, an unrecoverable natural resource. The right to use that natural resource may be granted only by a concession. The mining legislation provides for exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials. Exploration of oil and gas is considered to comprise operations and testing with the aim to establish the existence, position and form of oil and natural gas deposits, their quality and quantity, as well as exploitation conditions. Exploitation of oil and natural gas is considered to comprise extraction from deposits, refining and transport, as well as disposal in geological structures. Mineral raw materials used in power production amount to 63% of national total primary energy production, and they cover 33% of total power consumption in the country. Legislation in the Republic of Croatia, which refers to exploration and exploitation of oil and natural gas, allows economic utilization of that unrecoverable natural wealth to run smoothly and in compliance with practices in our European environment. (author)

  11. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  12. Metal removal from tailings ponds water using indigenous micro-algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, H.; Ulrich, A.; Liu, Y. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Each barrel of oil produced by oil sands produce 1.25 m{sup 3} of tailings. The tailings are collected in ponds located at mining sites. The tailing pond water (TPW) must be reclaimed and released into the environment. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of removing metals from tailings pond water that used indigenous micro-algae. The in situ experimental method used Parachlorella kessliri to treat 2 ponds. The TPW was enriched with low and high concentrations of nutrients. Dry cell biomass analyses were then conducted, and the pH of the resulting samples was compared. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis methods were used to determine the initial metal concentrations in the raw TPWs. The study showed that the micro-algae remove significantly more metals when high levels of nutrients are used. tabs., figs.

  13. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  14. Development and Evaluation of Oil-based Mud Cake Removal Liquid System%油基泥饼解除液体系研制及性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许定达; 熊邦泰; 王卫平; 潘蕾茗; 万刚; 赵林

    2016-01-01

    针对东海油田钻井过程中油基钻井液在井壁和筛管上形成的泥饼难以清除等复杂问题,室内经过有机溶剂、有机酸、增溶剂等处理剂优化筛选,研制出一套油基泥饼解除液体系,其配方为:55%5#白油+45%增溶剂 HZRJ+5.5%有机酸 HTS+5%有机溶剂 RJ;通过 API 滤失实验、配伍性实验、渗透率恢复值实验对体系迚行了性能评价,结果表明该体系具有良好的泥饼解除效果和较强的储层保护能力,且与钻井液及储层岩石、原油具有较好的配伍性。%To solve the problem that mud cake formed on the wellbore wall and the creen pipe during drilling with oil-based drilling fluid in the East China Sea Oilfield was difficultly removed, organic solvents, acids and solubilizing agents were screened, a set of oil-based mud cake removal fluid system was developed, the formula was as follows:55% 5 # white oil + 45% solubilizer HZRJ + 5.5% organic HTS + 5% organic solvent RJ; Its performance evaluation was carried out by API filtration test, compatibility test, permeability recovery experiment. The evaluation results show that the system has good mud cake removal effect and strong reservoir protection, and good compatibility with the drilling fluid, reservoir rock and crude oil.

  15. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  16. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  17. Method for manufacturing raw mass for gas concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellestam, C J.S.

    1949-06-30

    A method is described for processing a raw mass of oil shale and limestone directly useable for the production of gas concrete, characterized in that the processing is divided into three partial processes, of which the first comprises a pyrolysis with extraction of oil, shale gas, hydrogen sulfide and shale coke; the second, burning of the shale coke while preventing the fusing temperature from being exceeded; and the third partial process is a continued burning at higher temperature in the range of 1100/sup 0/C after the addition of limestone and, if required, extra fuel.

  18. Investigation of activated Al-pillared clay efficiency in vegetable oil purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomić Gizela A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a contribution to the applicability of natural clays and their derivates as adsorbents in the process of purification of vegetable oil. Investigation of textural properties of raw and purified clay samples reveals that during acid activation and Al-pillaring, BET and micropore surface area increases significantly. However, bleaching capacity of clay and its derivates is not determined by using sample surface area, but rather sample total pore volume. Surface area, especially micropore surface area contributes to removal of smaller molecules. This was confirmed by successful elimination of moisture and volatile materials by samples with an appropriate micropore structure. Used samples of clay and its derivates do not significantly influence acid and peroxide values of raw sunflower oil during its treatment.

  19. Natural Zeolite Sample and Investigation Its Use in Oil Bleaching Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Oyku

    2017-12-01

    In the sector of oil bleaching, the stored raw oil is subjected to physical and chemical methods such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, deodorization and winterization. In the process of oil bleaching, the selection of correct bleaching earth in accordance with oil characteristics matters so much. Bleaching earth is an inorganic product used in removing impurities being available within the structures of vegetable, animal oil (sunflower, soya, corn, palm, tallow, rapeseed, fish oils…etc.) and fatty acids, mineral oils (glycerine, paraffin, mineral motor oils. etc.) with the adsorption process. The factors such as low cost of oil bleaching earth, low ratio of oil retaining, high bleaching capacity in spite of using them in small amounts, filter’s delayed blocking by the earth and non-increase of the free acidity of the oil should be taken into consideration. Bleaching earths are processed with some acids in order to widen their surface areas. During this process, a certain amount of acid is left within oil bleaching earths even if it is very little. These acids also increase oil’s acidity by oxidizing oil in the course of bleaching process. In this study, zeolite sample taken from Manisa -Demirci region was used. Following the processes of crushing and sieving, zeolite sample was subjected to chemical analyses according to their grain thickness, microscopic examination, the analyses of XRD and cation exchange capacity and their ore characteristics were determined. Afterwards, it was searched whether zeolite sample has oil bleaching ability or not or whether it can be used as oil bleaching earth or not.

  20. Removal of calcium and magnesium ions from shale gas flowback water by chemically activated zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Haiqing; Liu, Teng; He, Qiping; Li, Duo; Crittenden, John; Liu, Baicang

    2017-07-01

    Shale gas has become a new sweet spot of global oil and gas exploration, and the large amount of flowback water produced during shale gas extraction is attracting increased attention. Internal recycling of flowback water for future hydraulic fracturing is currently the most effective, and it is necessary to decrease the content of divalent cations for eliminating scaling and maintaining effectiveness of friction reducer. Zeolite has been widely used as a sorbent to remove cations from wastewater. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, activation chemical, activation condition, and sorption condition on removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from shale gas flowback water. Results showed that low removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was found for raw zeolite 4A and zeolite 13X, and the efficiency of the mixture of both zeolites was slightly higher. Compared with the raw zeolites, the zeolites after activation using NaOH and NaCl greatly improved the sorption performance, and there was no significant difference between dynamic activation and static activation. Dynamic sorption outperformed static sorption, the difference exceeding 40% and 7-70% for removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. Moreover, powdered zeolites outperformed granulated zeolites in divalent cation removal.

  1. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  2. Topical papers on raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the papers of this working group, the availability of uranium and the long-term supply situation for this raw material are discussed. A problem closely connected with uranium supply are the commercial contracts and their particularities. The points of view of the reporting countries of Great Britain, South Africa, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, and Korea are made clear

  3. Utilização de zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de xisto retortado na remoção de arsênio em águas contaminadas Use of zeolites synthesized from oil shale ash for arsenic removal from polluted water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Regina Camargo Fernandes-Machado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The solid by-product of the oil shale processing (PETROBRAS - Brazil was used as raw material to synthesize zeolites A and faujasite. Alkaline fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment was the synthesis procedure used, and five different starting material compositions were obtained. The more crystalline zeolite-type materials synthesized, the pretreated oil shale ash and commercial zeolites were used as adsorbents in the purification of pollutant solutions with arsenic. The zeolite-type material composed of a mixture of zeolite A (42.6% and faujasite (52.9% presented an ion exchange capacity comparable to the pure zeolites A and faujasite, much better than the pretreated ash.

  4. Refining mineral oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1946-07-05

    A process is described refining raw oils such as mineral oils, shale oils, tar, their fractions and derivatives, by extraction with a selected solvent or a mixture of solvents containing water, forming a solvent more favorable for the hydrocarbons poor in hydrogen than for hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen, this process is characterized by the addition of an aiding solvent for the water which can be mixed or dissolved in the water and the solvent or in the dissolving mixture and increasing in this way the solubility of the water in the solvent or the dissolving mixture.

  5. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, Recep; Cetinkaya, Selim; Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  6. The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altin, Recep [Ministry of Education, Projects Coordination Unit, Ankara (Turkey); Cetinkaya, Selim [Gazi Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Yucesu, Huseyin Serdar [Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomisation and heavy particulate emissions. (Author)

  7. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  8. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. Procedures Determination

  9. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  10. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  11. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  12. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  15. 1996 Activities report on energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity survey of the French General Directory for Energy and Raw Materials, which main objectives are to preserve the competitiveness of French economy, enhance environmental protection, secure the long term supply safety and maintain the public service basis for energy supply, is presented. The main themes of the survey are: the nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the electric power inland market, the evolution of the oil market in 1996, the situation of refining in France, restructuring the BRGM (Mining and Geological Research Bureau), followed by brief facts concerning the sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power, electricity and gas common issues, gas, coal, petroleum products, raw materials and underground materials. A series of global diagrams concludes the survey

  16. Irradiation as an alternative environmentally friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods are recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process. Under the prevailing production and handling conditions, most herbs contain a large number of microorganisms what is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. For several years the most widely used methods for decontamination of herbs was fumigation with ethylene oxide or methyl bromide. Both methods today banned in most countries. Irradiation is an alternative and safe method for effective reducing the microbial contamination of herbal raw materials. The following raw materials have been examined: Folium Cynara, Folium Plantago, Flos Chamomillae, Semen Sylibum Marianum and Folium Farfara. The content of biologically active compounds before and after irradiation of the raw materials did not change in a significant degree after irradiation. The dose of radiation for herbals raw materials was 10 kGy. There are two groups of raw materials: - The raw materials designed for preparing granulates, tablets, dragees, capsules, aqueous extracts, infusions, macerations and preparations for external use; - The raw materials assigned for preparing alcoholic preparations, isolated compounds, oil preparations and essential oils. The medical herbs and herbal raw materials before their

  17. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation on raw materials and perfumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, M.; Pelpel, A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to enlight the strange problem of apparent perfume stability observed in manufactured talc powders sterilized by gamma rays, investigations were made on samples of odorant substances (raw materials, essential oils, or elaborated mixtures). As a rule, no immediate adulteration of olfactive caracteristics resulted at once from gamma irradiation. In several cases, a stabilizing effect appeared immediately and remained effective after long storage in various conditions (of temperature, or light, or oxygen exposure). This unexpected effect seems to be in accordance with previous experiments on gamma or electron irradiations of mixtures of organic molecules, reported in litterature: a mutual inhibition was observed to take place [fr

  19. Calibration and verification of models of organic carbon removal kinetics in Aerated Submerged Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors (ASFBBR): a case study of wastewater from an oil-refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowicz, Karol; Wójcik, Włodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a case-study on the calibration and verification of mathematical models of organic carbon removal kinetics in biofilm. The chosen Harremöes and Wanner & Reichert models were calibrated with a set of model parameters obtained both during dedicated studies conducted at pilot- and lab-scales for petrochemical wastewater conditions and from the literature. Next, the models were successfully verified through studies carried out utilizing a pilot ASFBBR type bioreactor installed in an oil-refinery wastewater treatment plant. During verification the pilot biofilm reactor worked under varying surface organic loading rates (SOL), dissolved oxygen concentrations and temperatures. The verification proved that the models can be applied in practice to petrochemical wastewater treatment engineering for e.g. biofilm bioreactor dimensioning.

  20. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  1. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne's mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  2. National reports on raw materials economy. Vol. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haude, H.; Weber, R.

    1975-06-01

    A review is given of the ore deposits, mine production, and use of mineral resources in Argentina (oil, gas, asphalt, oil shale, coal, uranium, thorium, iron, manganese, chrome, tungsten, vanadium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, gold, silver, aluminium, beryllium, boron, sulfur, and fluorite). Argentina is dependent on imports of nearly all mineral resources. Only exports of zinc, tungsten, fluorite, and borate have been possible and the only other significant production has been of energy resources, iron, manganese, and lead. The extreme concentration of population in the east, the great distances to the Andes in the west, and the as yet inadequate transport network with the west has limited the mining activity up to the present. As part of industrial development, the government has made great efforts to increase the supply of raw materials through intensive prospecting and use of Argentina's own natural resources. Newly discovered ore deposits confirm that extensive parts of the country are prospective for mineral resources. (orig.) [de

  3. Advanced tertiary treatment of municipal wastewater using raw and modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinlu; Yang, Y S; Lin, Jinhua

    2005-12-09

    Advanced technology for more efficient and effective wastewater treatment is always timely needed. The feasibility of using raw and modified diatomite for advanced treatment of secondary sewage effluents (SSE) was investigated in this study. Raw diatomite at a dosing rate of 300 mg/l showed a similar potential as activated carbon for removing most organic pollutants and toxic metals from SSE. Its performance was found poor in removal of arsenic and crop nutrient constituents (e.g. ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphate) and remained unsatisfactory even when the dosing rate increased up to 500 mg/l. Where modified diatomite was in lieu of raw diatomite, the removal efficiency for all target constituents was improved by 20-50%. At the dosing rate of 150 mg/l, modified diatomite enabled the post-treated effluents to satisfy the discharge consents, with the levels of all target constituents below the regulatory limits. Modified diatomite has advantages over raw diatomite in improving removal efficiency and reducing the dosing rate required for satisfactory treatment of SSE. It is concluded that modified diatomite is much more effective and efficient than raw diatomite, as an alternative to activated carbon, for economic treatment of SSE.

  4. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  5. Photoshop CS3 RAW Transforming your RAW data into works of art

    CERN Document Server

    Aaland, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Because RAW files remain virtually untouched by in-camera processing, working with them has given digital photographers greater flexibility and control during the editing process -- for those who are familiar enough with the format. Camera RAW, the plug in for Adobe Photoshop CS3, has emerged as one of the best and most familiar tools for editing RAW images, and the best way to master this workflow is with Photoshop CS3 RAW. Award-winning author Mikkel Aaland explores the entire RAW process, from the practical reasons to shoot RAW, to managing the images with the new features of Bridge 2.0 n

  6. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  7. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  8. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  9. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  10. Raw materials for the energy supply of the future. Geology, markets, environmental influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelueken, Christian; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Buchholz, Peter; Gutzmer, Jens; Littke, Ralf; Angerer, Gerhard; Wellmer, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    More and more metals are needed to expand modern energy technologies, but we can not completely dispense with fossil raw materials and biomass in the near future either. Are the incidence of the conversion of energy sources sufficient? The analysis of the academy project ''Energy Systems of the Future'' (ESYS) comes to the conclusion that geologically enough raw materials are available. The challenge, however, is to make the supply safe, affordable and environmentally and socially compatible. The analysis explains the mechanisms of action on the global commodity markets and identifies supply risks. These include, for example, sudden demand on the international markets as well as the unequal distribution of the world's raw material reserves. This is followed by the analysis approaches, in order to recognize warning signals for potential raw material bottlenecks in time, to develop evasive strategies and to secure the raw material supply for the energy turnarounds. For example, the expansion of recycling can help to reduce the dependence on metal imports. In mining, on the other hand, innovative technologies have to be developed in order to improve the exploration and utilization of the deposits. By establishing binding environmental and social standards, the extraction of raw materials could also become more sustainable. The analysis also highlights the importance of bioenergy and fossil raw materials, such as oil and natural gas, for energy generation. The authors describe the advantages and disadvantages of these energy carriers and the measures that can be used to reduce environmental pollution such as greenhouse gas emissions. [de

  11. THE WORLD OIL MARKET – STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru AnaMaria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For some countries the oil is the main source of income, while for others it represents the main raw material for energetic needs. Thus, the oil price has major influence on their economies and it is important for them that it stabilizes at a level profit

  12. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, B.H.; Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO 2 activation temperature, CO 2 activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO 2 activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO 2 activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m 2 /g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm 3 /g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of oil palm empty fruit bunch-grafted-polyvinyl alcohol (OPEFB-g-PVA) hydrogel for removal of copper ions from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Soh Jing; Rabat, Nurul Ekmi; Osman, Noridah

    2017-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a natural polymer which is potentially used as efficient adsorbents for heavy metal cations. The main objective of this research is to synthesize OPEFB grafted polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel by using ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator and gelatin as crosslinking agent. The grafting temperature, amounts of cross linking agent, initiator and concentration of OPEFB were manipulated in order to optimize the swelling capability of the hydrogel. Comparison of heavy metal adsorption performance between pure PVA hydrogel and optimized OPEFB-g-PVA hydrogel was evaluated by using copper ions solution. The characteristics and structure of the optimized OPEFB-g-PVA hydrogel was studied by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to study its thermal stability. The presence of band at 1088 and 1047cm-1 corresponds to C-O was observed as strong evidence of grafting. Water uptake capacity was evaluated and the maximum water absorption capacity was obtained at 180.67 g/g. PVA hydrogel with OPEFB proved to have better copper ion absorbency and thermal properties compared to pure PVA hydrogel.

  14. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  15. The Making of a Liquid Soap Process From Used Wasted Cooking Oil and Coconut Oil Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    S.T., M.T., Zulkarnain

    2011-01-01

    This Moment, used frying oil has not been used well and only used discarded as household waste or industrial. Therefore, to use of used frying oil as raw material a liquid soap will provide added value for used frying oil. The main purpose of this research is to cultivative used frying oil become a liquid soap way saponification with potassium hidroxide . This research do with variation feed ratio that is used frying oil and coconut oil (0:1; 0,5:1; 1:1; 1,5:1; and 2:1) and time of saponifica...

  16. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  17. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...

  18. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  19. 1996 Progress report on energies and raw materials; 1996 rapport d`activite energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The 1996 annual progress report, from the French Department of Energy, reviews the key points of the French policy for energy and raw materials: competitiveness, environmental protection, long term supply safety, and public service. 1996 was marked by positive results for the French energy industry, difficulties for the oil refining industry, and a new impetus for renewable energies. Five surveys are presented: nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the european directive on electric power domestic market, evolution of the oil market, conditions of refining in France, and restructuring of the Mine bureau (BRGM). 40 prominent facts are briefly reviewed, concerning sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power and gas, coal, oil products, raw materials. Diagrams on energy and raw materials are also included

  20. Oil and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, F

    1974-10-01

    The shift in world income due to the increase in oil prices has resulted in a world economy that has been thrown off balance. Nine papers are presented that explore the background and the main implications of this ''watershed'' in international relations, particularly the extent to which it will affect the development prospects of poor countries and the climate of trade between poor and rich nations in the next few years. Two papers, ''Diary of Events in the Oil Market 1971--1974'' and ''Statistical Background,'' provide information on the financial changes implied by the price increase; some of the figures should be treated as preliminary estimates only. ''Large International Firms in the Oil Industry'' examines the part played by the major oil companies in developments in the oil market leading up to the events of 1973. Two papers, ''Can OPEC Maintain Current Prices'' and ''OPEC As a Model for Other Mineral Exporters,'' present optimistic conclusions, from the viewpoint of developing countries, on their future capability for controlling their own destinies in trade. ''A Note on Some Issues Raised for Science and Technology Policy by the Increase in Oil Prices'' looks at options open to producers and consumers of raw materials. ''Assessing the Economic Impact on Developing Countries and Some Policy Suggestions,'' ''A Note on the Implications of the Oil Price Increases for British Aid Policy,'' and ''Confrontation Versus Co-operation'' are three papers concerned with difficulties of developing countries and particularly India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. (MCW)

  1. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk samp...... from raw milk samples. Arcobacter cryaerophilus was detected less frequently, and Arcobacter skirrowii was detected only as a cocontaminant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Arcobacter spp. prevalence in a diverse range of products of animal origin in Northern Ireland....

  2. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF; average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  3. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  4. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587 mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer.

  5. Optimization of the Clarification System for Raw Water from the Pakra Reservoir Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first step in processing raw water from the Pakra lake for use in fertilizer production at Petrokemija is oxidation of total organic carbon matter with gaseous chlorine, Cl2. Thereupon it is clarified and filtered with the help of a clarification reactor and sand filters. Construction of the clarification reactor and process sand filters enables only the removal of the suspended matter from the raw water, without affecting its overall hardness. Process control of the clarification reactor and removal of the suspended matter from the raw water is achieved by adding corresponding mass concentration water solutions of aluminum sulphate, Al2(SO43 · 18 H2O and organic polyelectrolyte. The effectiveness of flocculation is carried out by laboratory determination of the m-alkalinity difference between inlet and outlet of raw water from the clarification reactor. For the most effective clarification of raw water, the optimal empirical value of the m-alkalinity difference is 0.65 mmol L-1 in the pH range of raw water from 7.0 to 8.0. Prior to processing clarified water by ionic decarbonatisation and demineralisation for protection of the ionic exchange resin from excess free Cl2, a corresponding mass concentration of a sodium bisulfite water solution, NaHSO3, is added. An improved system is proposed for continuous measurement of mass concentrations of free Cl2 in raw and clarified water, and pH difference value at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor. The proposed system can achieve optimal dosage of gaseous Cl2 in the raw water, improving the clarification process in the reactor as well as optimal dosage of water solution of NaHSO3. It is shown that the average pH difference from 0.65 to 0.75 at the inlet and outlet of the clarification reactor in the pH range of the raw water from 7.0 to 8.0 is an equally effective replacement for the laboratory determination of m-alkalinity. Also shown is the connection between dosage mass of the

  6. Treatability and kinetics studies of mesophilic aerobic biodegradation of high oil and grease pet food wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Victor Lei; Nakhla, G.; Bassi, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, batch activated sludge studies were investigated for the treatment of raw pet food wastewater characterized by oil and grease concentrations of 50,000-66,000 mg/L, COD and BOD concentrations of 100,000 and 80,000 mg/L, respectively, as well as effluent from an existing anaerobic digester treating the aforementioned wastewater. A pre-treatment process, dissolved air flotation (DAF) achieved 97-99% reduction in O and G to about 400-800 mg/L, which is still atypically high for AS. The batch studies were conducted using a 4-L bioreactor at room temperature (21 deg. C) under different conditions. The experimental results showed for the DAF pretreated effluent, 92% COD removal efficiency can be achieved by using conventional activated sludge system at a 5 days contact time and applied initial soluble COD to biomass ratio of 1.17 mg COD/mg VSS. Similarly for the digester effluent at average oil and grease concentrations of 13,500 mg/L, activated sludge affected 63.7-76.2% soluble COD removal at 5 days. The results also showed that all kinetic data best conformed to the zero order biodegradation model with a low biomass specific maximum substrate utilization rate of 0.168 mg COD/mg VSS day reflecting the slow biodegradability of the wastewater even after 99% removal of oil and grease

  7. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  8. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of neutral glycerides rich in micronutrients from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumit; Gangopadhyay, Sarbani; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Neutral glycerides with micronutrients like sterols, tocopherols and squalene may be prepared from cheap raw material like rice bran oil fatty acid distillate (RBO FAD). RBO FAD is an important byproduct of vegetable oil refining industries in the physical refining process. Glycerides like triacylglycerols (TAG), diacylglycerols (DAG) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) containing significant amounts of unsaponifiable matter like sterols, tocopherols and hydrocarbons (mainly squalene) may certainly be considered as novel functional food ingredients. Fatty acids present in RBO FAD were esterified with glycerol of varying amount (1:0.33, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 of FAD : glycerol ratio) for 8 h using non-specific enzyme NS 40013 (Candida antartica). After esterification the product mixture containing mono, di- and triglycerides was purified by molecular distillation to remove excess free fatty acids and also other volatile undesirable components. The purified product containing sterols, tocopherols and squalene can be utilized in various food formulations.

  9. Comparative study on the treatment of raw and biologically treated textile effluents through submerged nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Mengsi; Liu, Meihong; Yu, Sanchuan; Gao, Congjie

    2015-03-02

    Raw and biologically treated textile effluents were submerged filtrated using lab-fabricated hollow fiber nanofiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of about 650 g/mol. Permeate flux, chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction, color removal, membrane fouling, and cleaning were investigated and compared by varying the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and volume concentrating factor (VCF). It was found that both raw and biologically treated textile effluents could be efficiently treated through submerged nanofiltration. The increase of TMP resulted in a decline in water permeability, COD reduction, color removal, and flux recovery ratio, while the increase of VCF resulted in both increased COD reduction and color removal. Under the TMP of 0.4 bar and VCF of 5.0, fluxes of 1.96 and 2.59 l/m(2)h, COD reductions of 95.7 and 94.2%, color removals of 99.0, and 97.3% and flux recovery ratios of 91.1 and 92.9% could be obtained in filtration of raw and biologically treated effluents, respectively. After filtration, the COD and color contents of the raw effluent declined sharply from 1780 to 325 mg/l and 1.200 to 0.060 Abs/cm, respectively, while for the biologically treated effluent, they decreased from 780 to 180 mg/l and 0.370 to 0.045 Abs/cm, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  12. Iron removal using an aerated granular filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B.Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Republic of Korea). College of Engineering

    2005-10-01

    Laboratory scale experiments concerning iron removal from artificial raw water by an artificial filter using anthracite as filter media were conducted. The major findings were that iron oxidation and removal by an aerated filter is mainly a catalytic chemical reaction rather than a biological reaction. Further, iron removal does not perform effectively without aeration. Iron removal was very effective when the pH was weakly acidity. Iron oxide attached to the surface of the media is identified as ferrihydrite, which catalyzes the oxidation of iron as shown by Moessbauer spectra analysis.

  13. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  14. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  15. Reflections on prospective raw materials and materials with regard to the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schejbal, C.; Palas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflections on prospective mineral raw materials and materials must rest upon the expected demographic evolution, the evaluation of economic development and the development of manufacturing technologies and materials corresponding to them, trends in the consumption of mineral raw materials and possibilities of securing them. The evaluation of the given factors under conditions of the Czech Republic shows that one of the decisive prerequisites to transforming the Czech economy is to assure the fuel and energy security of the state. In addition to emphasis put on traditional and newly developed technologies of utilization of domestic resources of coal and the development of nuclear power, a diversification of supplies of oil and gas is necessary. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure domestic resources of raw materials to some prospective material areas, or to provide these raw materials by means of imports and/or entrepreneurial activity abroad. As far as raw materials for building and industrial rocks are concerned, it is necessary to support the exploitation and home utilization through laws and suitable economic tools at respecting environmental limitations. With non-traditional prospective raw materials, it will be desirable to promote exploration and mining especially in those cases when a precondition exists for the securing of sufficient reserves or when reserves are already known

  16. Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.

    1989-08-01

    The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Acute Toxicity of Castor Oil Bean Extract and Tolerance Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of raw castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) extract and the tolerance level of raw castor oil bean by broilers. The seeds were ground, defatted with petroleum ether and the residue was subjected to extraction with phosphate-buffered saline. The extract volume ...

  19. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  20. Study of the influences of the zeolites physical and chemical characteristics in the soya oil cracking; Estudo das influencias das caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de zeolitas no craqueamento do oleo de soja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Frances Regiane dos

    1995-10-01

    Vegetable oils have been studied as raw materials to yield fuel hydrocarbons. The catalytic and thermal transformations of these oils have been presented as being able to generate hydrocarbons from which diesel oil and vegetable gasoline may be obtained. (author)

  1. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  2. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  3. raw data collected from Malvern Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These are raw data/image files from the Malvern Zetasizer Instrument. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse, H., J. Hoelle, C. Muhlen, and...

  4. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  5. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  6. Treating oil in a maritime environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebacher, G.

    2002-01-01

    Some details of the International Maritime Organisation's marine pollution regulations are discussed. In simple terms, under IMO regulations oily water must be processed through approved equipment and can be legally discharged if the oil content in the treated effluent is less than 15 ppm. These regulations also make it clear that it is not permitted to use emulsifiers to hide the oil in the effluent. To separate the free oil from water, gravity enhanced separators can be used effectively. With conventional means it is possible to remove free oil from an oily water mixture, to the less than 15 part per million oil content. Conventional IMO certified oil content meters accurately read free oil content in the 0-30 ppm region, to prevent formation of an oil film from treated oily water discharges. Some additional basic rules of thumb worthy of consideration when separating oil from oily water: in general, it is cheaper to prevent oil discharge of oil into the effluent stream than to remove it; emulsifier-enriched lubricating oils emulsify readily and are difficult to remove when present in suspended droplets; the larger the amount of contamination, the greater the difficulty of removing the oil; an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure

  7. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  8. Price stabilization for raw jute in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Varangis, Panos

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuating prices for raw jute have been viewed as contributing to economic problems in the jute subsector. Price fluctuations were thought to reduce the jute farmers'welfare and there has been concern about the costs of parastatals'stocking operations in attempts to stabilize jute prices and incomes. The authors examine these fluctuations and analyze policies that might reduce them. They find that price fluctuations for raw jute reduce farmers'welfare only slightly because farmers'activitie...

  9. The complete raw workflow guide how to get the most from your raw images in Adobe Camera Raw, Lightroom, Photoshop, and Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important technologies a photographer can master is shooting and working with raw images. However, figuring out the best way to work with raw files can be confusing and overwhelming. What's the advantage to working in raw? How do you manage, organize, and store raw files? What's the best way to process your files to meet your photographic needs? How do Photoshop, Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw work together? Is it possible to keep your photos in the raw format and still enhance them extensively? Philip Andrews answers these questions and more in his all-new essential raw workfl

  10. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Results Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research......Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB......, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three...

  11. Spleen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spleen. Sickle cell anemia . Splenic artery aneurysm (rare). Trauma to the spleen. Risks Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general ... removal - series References Brandow AM, Camitta BM. Hyposplenism, splenic trauma, and splenectomy. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...

  12. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s−1, providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which...

  13. Annual report 2001. General direction of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activity of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of finances and industry: 1 - security of energy supplies: a recurrent problem; 2001, a transition year for nuclear energy worldwide; petroleum refining in font of the 2005 dead-line; the OPEC and the upset of the oil market; the pluri-annual planning of power production investments; renewable energies: a reconfirmed priority; 2 - the opening of markets: the opening of French electricity and gas markets; the international development of Electricite de France (EdF) and of Gaz de France (GdF); electricity and gas industries: first branch agreements; 3 - the present-day topics: 2001, the year of objective contracts; AREVA, the future to be prepared; the new IRSN; the agreements on climate and the energy policy; the mastery of domestic energy consumptions; the safety of hydroelectric dams; Technip-Coflexip: the birth of a para-petroleum industry giant; the cleansing of the mining activity in French Guyana; the future of workmen of Lorraine basin coal mines; 4 - 2001 at a glance: highlights; main legislative and regulatory texts; 5 - DGEMP: November 2001 reorganization and new organization chart; energy and raw materials publications; www.industrie.gouv.fr/energie. (J.S.)

  14. Separation of oils from solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Slyke, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for cleaning oil-contaminated particulate solids. It comprises: contacting contaminated solids with a non-aqueous liquid composition comprising a carboxylic acid; then contacting the solids with an aqueous wash containing a reagent for converting the carboxylic acid to a water-soluble carboxylate salt; and removing an aqueous phase containing carboxylate salt and entrained oil

  15. Raw material boom in an industrial country. Rohstoffboom in einem Industrieland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enders, K S

    1984-01-01

    First of all, a theoretical investigation is carried out to discover under which conditions a raw material boom displaces traditional sectors of industry, and which groups win and lose in the process. Subsequently, the peculiarities of the adaption process induced by the boom are analysed. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of transition (short-term) unemployment (Dutch disease). In conclusion, Norway's experiences in the oil and gas boom in the North Sea ar described and then compared with theoretical statements.

  16. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  17. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, N.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  18. Removal of 137Cs in Japanese catfish during preparation for consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how dressing and cooking methods affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity in live fish was removed by washing them, and a further 30.3% of this activity relative to the washed fish was removed by discarding the nonedible body parts (such as the skeleton, fins, visceral mass, liver, and kidney) and by washing the chopped edible remains. Fish curry was cooked with various spices, vegetable oil, and greens and other vegetables following a method commonly used in Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity that had been present in the live fish. During the cooking, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to be distributed throughout the ingredients of the curry. The cooked pieces retained, on average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the raw dressed pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in greens and vegetables was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potatoes). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed much of the radioactivity from the fish. (author)

  19. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  20. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw; Uso de oxidos de aluminio, titanio e cerio na producao de compositos ceramicos para revestimento protetor de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: sheila.abc.rego@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias

    2012-07-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  1. Hair Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  2. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  3. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  4. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  5. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  6. Fiscal 1993 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1993 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    There was a progress in the development of oil based C/C (carbon/carbon) composite technology. Studied in a comprehensive endeavor were coordination between various technology developing activities, surveys of trends of relevant technologies, and technological tasks to discharge for the development of materials usable under extreme environments. Technologies developed for advanced composite materials involved (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fibers, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fibers, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. Under item (1), random structure carbon fibers were examined for high reproducibility of physical properties, continuous surface coating technology for fibers, and weavability. Under item (2), onion structure carbon fibers were studied for development into C/C composite reinforced fibers. Under item (3), the mechanical structure of double structure carbon fibers was clarified, and C/C composite materials were fabricated using experimental prepregs worked out after studying matrix composition and impregnation techniques. (NEDO)

  7. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Zanjan Markets, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Torabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complex surface of vegetables facilitate attachment and transmission of several pathogens. No previous study has been conducted in survey of parasitic contamination of vegetables in Zanjan. This study aimed to detect the parasitic contamination in common raw vegetables in Zanjan markets. Methods: A total of 352 raw vegetable samples, including leek, parsley, basil, mint, radish, cress and dill were collected from grocery stores using cluster sampling in different regions of the city during 2014. The edible parts of vegetables were separated and immersed in normal saline solution. Floating vegetables were removed and the solution was allowed to sediment at room temperature for 24 hours. The pellet was examined following sedimentation and floatation methods. Results:Various Organisms were detected in 54% (190 of the 352 samples, but only 2.8% of samples had pathogenic parasites including; Trichostrongylus eggs (3, Hookworm eggs (2, Eimeria oocysts (2, Sarcocystis oocyst (1, Strongyloides larvae (1, and Fasciola eggs (1. The contamination rate of vegetables was highest (90.4% in the fall (p˂0.05. Conclusion: Vegetable contamination with parasitic organisms in this area was low, maybe due to irrigation of vegetables with sources other than sewage water, but it is still necessary to improve sanitary conditions of vegetables.

  8. BTEX and MTBE adsorption onto raw and thermally modified diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivalioti, Maria; Vamvasakis, Ioannis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-06-15

    The removal of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes) and MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) from aqueous solution by raw (D(R)) and thermally modified diatomite at 550, 750 and 950 degrees C (D(550), D(750) and D(950) respectively) was studied. Physical characteristics of both raw and modified diatomite such as specific surface, pore volume distribution, porosity and pH(solution) were determined, indicating important structural changes in the modified diatomite, due to exposure to high temperatures. Both adsorption kinetic and isotherm experiments were carried out. The kinetics data proved a closer fit to the pseudo-second order model. Maximum values for the rate constant, k(2), were obtained for MTBE and benzene (48.9326 and 18.0996 g mg(-1)h(-1), respectively) in sample D(550). The isotherm data proved to fit the Freundlich model more closely, which produced values of the isotherm constant 1/n higher than one, indicating unfavorable adsorption. The highest adsorption capacity, calculated through the values of the isotherm constant k(F), was obtained for MTBE (48.42 mg kg(-1) (mg/L)(n)) in sample D(950). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  11. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  12. Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjumea, Pedro Nel; Agudelo, Jhon Ramiro; Benavides, Alirio Yovany

    2004-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

  13. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  14. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  15. Purifying and regenerating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-19

    Hydrocarbons are freed from sulfur-containing compounds, colloidal asphaltic bodies and unstable unsaturated substances by treatment with a small amount of dilute sulfuric acid and a salt of a trivalent cation, such as ferric chloride or sulfate. Hydrocarbons specified are petroleum, crude benzol, low temperature tars, shale oil or vapor-phase cracked spirit. Motor spirit or lubricating oil distillates are refined and finally distilled. The acid reagent may be regenerated by filtering through sand or asbestos. Used lubricating oils may be treated similarly and after removal of refining agent, the oil is heated with an adsorbent and decolorizing material and then filtered.

  16. Conversion of tall oil soap and lignin into liquid fuels; Suovan ja ligniinin jalostaminen polttonesteiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the following upgrading processes for producing bio-oils for energy production: catalytic upgrading of kraft black liquor, thermal treatment of tall oil soap, and catalytic hydrotreatment of Milox-lignin. The best-quality product from black liquor was obtained by treating black liquor (20% moisture) at 420 deg C with an ammoniumheptamolybdate (AHM) catalyst under hydrogen for 60 minutes. The product was washed with water (product:water = 1:2) in order to remove the inorganics. The oil product contained 74% of the energy content of the black liquor organics. Regeneration of the AHM catalyst appears technically feasible. Raw tall oil soap cracks at 450 deg C under nitrogen into straight-chain hydrocarbons and naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives. The best-quality oil product was obtained at a residence time of 60 - 120 minutes. This product contained no fatty acids as impurities. The process concept consists of two steps: heat treatment at 450 deg C and product separation. The energy yield of the hydrocarbon oil product is about 50%. The residue slurry (estimated energy content 20%) and gases (energy content 25%) are led to the recovery boiler. Milox lignin can be hydrotreated at 420 deg C (60 minutes) with a mixture (1:1) of sulphided NiMo- and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-catalysts to a high-quality oil product (42 wt% yield of hexane solubles). The activity of catalysts decreased in order: sulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1:1), sulphided NiMo/zeolite, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ATTM (no activity). A decrease in hydrogen partial pressure yielded a lower quality product. (orig.)

  17. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J. [Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia). Dept. of Environmental & Chemical Technology

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  18. Tainting and depuration of taint by lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to water contaminated with a No.2 Fuel Oil: Relationship with aromatic hydrocarbon content in tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, U.P.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Fancey, L.L.; Botta, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) were exposed to a pulse of diesel oil and held for 21 days to depurate. Taste panels revealed a highly significant difference between samples, as well as a preferences for, the untreated samples at days 10 and 11. The odor of the raw treated samples differed significantly from that of the control at each of the sampling times. Cooking appeared to remove the oily odor from the raw lobster. Significantly elevated concentrations of total aromatics were found in the hepatopancreas of both sexes at days 3-4 and 10-11 and in the tail muscle of male and female lobsters 10-11 days after initial exposure and decreased thereafter. Tainting of lobsters can occur within 10 days of exposure to diesel, and this effect can be reversed within 20 days after initial exposure

  19. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  20. Development of a treatment process for the removal of heavy metals from raw water for drinking water supply using chelating ion exchange resins. Subproject 1. Final report; Entwicklung der Verfahrenstechnik zur Eliminierung von Schwermetallen aus Rohwaessern zur Trinkwassergewinnung mit chelatbildenden Kationenaustauscherharzen zur technischen Reife. Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overath, H.; Stetter, D.; Doerdelmann, O.

    2002-07-01

    Chelating cation exchange resins with iminodiacetic acid group (Lewatit TP 207 and Amberlite IRC 748) were tested for the removal of heavy metals in a drinking water treatment plant. The pilot scale filtration experiments were conducted by varying the operating conditions, such as flow rate and feed concentrations. Heavy metal concentrations (nickel, lead, cadmium, zinc) in the feed were adjusted between 20 and 200 {mu}g/L. Different methods for regeneration and conditioning of the resins were developed and investigated. Finally the ion exchange resins were tested according to German health regulations for ion exchangers in drinking water treatment. (orig.)

  1. Crop residues as raw materials for biorefinery systems - A LCA case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N 2 O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well. Results show that the use of crop residues in a biorefinery saves GHG emissions and reduces fossil energy demand. For instance, GHG emissions are reduced by about 50% and more than 80% of non-renewable energy is saved. Land use change effects have a strong influence in the final GHG balance (about 50%), and their uncertainty is discussed in a sensitivity analysis. Concerning the investigation of the other impact categories, biorefinery systems

  2. Oil goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-02-12

    Whole berries, seeds, and pulp/peel of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) were compared in terms of fatty acids, lipid classes, triacylglyerols, phytosterols, fat-soluble vitamins, and beta-carotene. The total lipid contents in the whole berries, seeds, and seedless parts were 2.0, 1.8, and 0.2% (on a fresh weight basis), respectively. Linoleic acid was the dominating fatty acid followed by oleic acid as the second major fatty acid. Palmitic and stearic acids were the major saturates. In pulp/peel oil, the fatty acid profile was characterized by higher amounts of saturates, monoenes, and trienes than in whole berry and seed oils. Neutral lipids comprised >95% of total lipids in whole berry oil and seed oil, while neutral lipids separated in lower level in pulp/peel oil. Triacylglycerols were the predominant neutral lipid subclass and constituted ca. 81.6, 86.6, and 65.1% of total neutral lipids in whole berry, seed, and pulp/peel oils, respectively. Nine triacylglycerol molecular species were detected, wherein three species, C54:3, C52:2, and C54:6, were presented to the extent of approximately 91% or above. The highest level of phytosterols was estimated in pulp/peel oil that contained the highest level of unsaponifiables. In both whole berry and seed oils, campesterol and beta-sitosterol were the sterol markers, whereas Delta5-avenasterol and campesterol were the main 4-desmethylsterols in pulp/peel oil. The tocopherols level was much higher in pulp/peel oil than in whole berry and seed oils. beta- and gamma-tocopherols were the major components in whole berry and seed oils, whereas gamma- and alpha-tocopherols were the main constituents in pulp/peel oil. beta-Carotene and vitamin K(1) were also measured in markedly high levels in pulp/peel oil followed by whole berry oil and seed oil, respectively. Information provided by the present work is of importance for further chemical investigation of goldenberry oil and industrial utilization of the berries as a raw

  3. RAWS II: A MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS PROGRAM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum gives instructions for the use and operation of a revised version of RAWS, a multiple regression analysis program. The program...of preprocessed data, the directed retention of variable, listing of the matrix of the normal equations and its inverse, and the bypassing of the regression analysis to provide the input variable statistics only. (Author)

  4. Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ceramic tableware production in Nigeria. PSA Irabor. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2(1) 2002: 48-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Extraction of protoactinium from silicaceous raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1946-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in March 1946 and is about the Extraction of protoactinium from a silicaceous raw material. In this report the isolation of Pa on Er carrier is described and it includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  6. Parsing and Quantification of Raw Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Data Using RawQuant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; Moggridge, Sophie; Chen, David D Y; Morin, Gregg B; Hughes, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Effective analysis of protein samples by mass spectrometry (MS) requires careful selection and optimization of a range of experimental parameters. As the output from the primary detection device, the "raw" MS data file can be used to gauge the success of a given sample analysis. However, the closed-source nature of the standard raw MS file can complicate effective parsing of the data contained within. To ease and increase the range of analyses possible, the RawQuant tool was developed to enable parsing of raw MS files derived from Thermo Orbitrap instruments to yield meta and scan data in an openly readable text format. RawQuant can be commanded to export user-friendly files containing MS 1 , MS 2 , and MS 3 metadata as well as matrices of quantification values based on isobaric tagging approaches. In this study, the utility of RawQuant is demonstrated in several scenarios: (1) reanalysis of shotgun proteomics data for the identification of the human proteome, (2) reanalysis of experiments utilizing isobaric tagging for whole-proteome quantification, and (3) analysis of a novel bacterial proteome and synthetic peptide mixture for assessing quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags. Together, these analyses successfully demonstrate RawQuant for the efficient parsing and quantification of data from raw Thermo Orbitrap MS files acquired in a range of common proteomics experiments. In addition, the individual analyses using RawQuant highlights parametric considerations in the different experimental sets and suggests targetable areas to improve depth of coverage in identification-focused studies and quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags.

  7. Removing Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and... Bureaucracy ” that focuses on reducing cycle time, staffing time and all forms of inefficiencies. This includes review of those burdens that Congress

  8. Evaluation of the biodiesel production using three sources of raw material and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Angela Patricia; Fracaro, Cristiane; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Fischborn, Marcos; Lobo, Viviane da Silva [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mhanami@utfpr.edu.br; Zara, Ricardo Fiori [Prati Donaduzzi e Cia. Ltda., Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The conversion of different oils in ethyl ester (biodiesel) through the transesterification with anhydrous ethanol, together with its quality and its consumption in mixture with diesel of petroleum in different ratios, they were evaluated using a stationary diesel engine connected to an electric energy generator. The raw materials used in this transformation were oil of refined soybean, oil of refined sunflower and animal fat (swine). In the transesterification reaction it was used an alkaline catalyst (sodium hydroxide), because of its proven effectiveness and the high speed facing other catalyst, beyond being less corrosive and demands less molar' reasons between the alcohol and the vegetal oil. The tests in stationary diesel engine were carried through the dilutions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of biodiesel produced in mixture with diesel of petroleum. The results showed that the yield of biodiesel gotten by different sources is satisfactory. It was also observed that the basic catalysis is adjusted to the production of biodiesel from raw materials with low acidity. The tests in diesel engine appeared to be sufficiently satisfactory once it was not observed any alteration in the functioning of the engine. The consumption was also not modified by the studied dilutions, demonstrating that the biodiesel can be added to the pure diesel reducing the use of the fuel derived from petroleum. (author)

  9. Oil slick skimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karterman, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    A craft for removing an oil slick from a body of water is described comprising: a pair of spacedly arranged paralleled positioned elongated floats, a platform mounted on and extending between said floats, a weir mounted on said platform between said floats and being movable independently and substantially vertical of the longitudinal axis of said floats to a position below the surface of said body of water, a submersible oil receiving and storage means detachedly mounted to said platform between said floats and having an inlet port at one level and comprising a substantially enclosed oil accumulator having an outlet port at a lower level, said weir comprising a sluice gate constructed and arranged to admit into said inlet port of said oil receiving and storage means under the effects of gravity a portion of an oil stick comprising a water and oil mixture skimmed from said body of water, and a first pump connected to said outlet port of said accumulator to control the movement of water from the inside lower level of said accumulator out of said accumulator to thereby control the amount of the oil slick flowing into said accumulator

  10. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  11. Somaclonal variation associated with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... Malaysia and Indonesia together accounting for around. 83% of world palm oil production in 2001 (Wahid et al.,. 2004). The oil palm is an important economic crop, producing food and raw materials for the food, confectionary, cosmetics and ... inherently very slow, and high heterogeneity is still observed ...

  12. Soil washing for brine removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyachamy, J.S.; Atalay, A.; Zaman, M.

    1992-01-01

    During the exploration for oil and thereafter, brine transfer lines get ruptured releasing the brine which contaminates the surrounding soil. The salinity level in brine is very high, sometimes approaching or exceeding that of sea water. Soils contaminated with brine are unproductive and unsuitable for plant growth. Several investigators have documented the pollution of surface water and groundwater due to brine disposal from oil and needed to clean up such sites. The objective of this study is to develop a soil washing technique that can be used to remove brine sites were collected and used in the study. This paper reports on results which indicate that soil washing using various surface active agents is effective in removing the brine

  13. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  14. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza; Manshad, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color.

  15. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color. PMID:27433516

  16. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  17. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Insights on Degumming and Bleaching Process Parameters on The Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-Diol Esters and Glycidyl Esters in Refined, Bleached, Deodorized Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Biow Ing; Muhamad, Halimah; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Yeoh, Chee Beng; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Khor, Yih Phing; Tan, Chin Ping

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the interactions of degumming and bleaching processes as well as their influences on the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters in refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil by using D-optimal design. Water degumming effectively reduced the 3-MCPDE content up to 50%. Acid activated bleaching earth had a greater effect on 3-MCPDE reduction compared to natural bleaching earth and acid activated bleaching earth with neutral pH, indicating that performance and adsorption capacities of bleaching earth are the predominant factors in the removal of esters, rather than its acidity profile. The combination of high dosage phosphoric acid during degumming with the use of acid activated bleaching earth eliminated almost all glycidyl esters during refining. Besides, the effects of crude palm oil quality was assessed and it was found that the quality of crude palm oil determines the level of formation of 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters in palm oil during the high temperature deodorization step of physical refining process. Poor quality crude palm oil has strong impact towards 3-MCPDE and glycidyl esters formation due to the intrinsic components present within. The findings are useful to palm oil refining industry in choosing raw materials as an input during the refining process.

  19. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Baldwin, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products

  20. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  1. Petrochema looks for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    Petrochema Dubova has announced mass redundancies. The company managers, however, keep stressing that this does not mean the end of this Central Slovak refinery. Company management is searching intensely for low-sulphur oil that would help to bring back life to their fractionating column and start up production of light fuels and oils. The company has not used its equipment to produce products directly from oil for over two years. It used to specialise in the sale of oil products it purchased from other producers. About three months ago, the ownership of Petrochema changed once again. Petroinvest Bratislava became the new 100-percent owner of the company. It invested 35 mil. Sk (945-thousand EUR) in Petrochema's registered capital. The new owner has relations with people who used to cooperate with the Slovak investment group, Istrokapital. They bought Petrochema from the Czech company, Annectis. The new owners are talking about restructuring. 'We have not entered into any agreements on the purchase of oil as we did not know what the technical condition of the refinery was. Currently, we are looking for oil that meets the technological parameters of the technology used at Dubova,' said a member of the supervisory board of Petrochema, Miroslav Remeta. It is quite difficult to purchase oil for the company as the technology used for processing dates back to the first half of the last century. It requires low-sulphur oil with minimum paraffin content. In the past, the most suitable raw material used to come from Nafta Gbely. Later, the company started cooperation with Kazakhstan. 'We have to find a long-term partner to make the operation of the fractionating column profitable,' said M. Remeta. The company can process about 12-thousand tons a month. That is about 12 trainloads. In order to launch production it needs to have enough supply to cover for unreliable deliveries from unpredictable countries. 'Funds for the purchase of the oil are available from private sources

  2. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor

    2012-01-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  3. 33 CFR 157.170 - COW equipment: Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW equipment: Removal. 157.170... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.170 COW equipment: Removal. (a) Whenever a deck mounted COW machine is removed from the tank, the master shall ensure that: (1) The supply...

  4. First-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of digested sludge compared with raw sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, A; Imteaz, M

    2008-09-01

    This article presents an assessment of the first-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of a selected digested sludge at subcritical ( 374 degrees C) temperatures in the range of 250-460 degrees C. Furthermore, the results were compared with reported oxidation kinetics of raw sludge treated under identical experimental conditions. In the assessment, oxidation was considered to proceed in two steps: (1) decomposition of the particulate, or non-filterable, chemical oxygen demand (PCOD); followed by (2) ultimate oxidation and removal of the total, particulate and soluble, COD. The accumulation and removal of soluble COD (SCOD) was determined from the difference between the rates of sludge decomposition and ultimate oxidation. Using results from batch and continuous-flow hydrothermal treatment experiments, the reacting organic ingredients were separated into groups according to the ease or difficulty at which they were decomposed or removed, with Arrhenius-type activation energy levels assigned to the different groups. The analysis confirmed that within the treatment range of 75% to more than 97% COD removal, the oxidation kinetics of the digested and raw sludges were nearly identical despite differences in the proportions of their original organic ingredients. The original organic ingredients were mostly removed above 75% COD removal, and the oxidation kinetics appeared to be dominated by the removal of acetic acid, an intermediate by-product which constituted 50% to more than 80% of the remaining COD. Furthermore, the oxidation kinetics of both sludge types were consistent with reported first-order oxidation kinetics of pure acetic acid solutions. The resulting kinetic models adequately represented hydrothermal oxidation of digested sludge, in terms of COD and PCOD removals, as well as accumulation and removal of the soluble SCOD.

  5. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  6. New technologies and raw materials for iron and steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1998-07-01

    The current steelmaking is still mainly based on two alternatives routes. The first one is ore based production route via reduction in blast furnaces (BF) to produce carbon-rich hot metal which is then oxidised in basic oxygen converter process (BOF) to crude steel, then refined and alloyed in several secondary (ladle) metallurgical operations to its final composition, further followed by continuous casting and rolling operations. The second main steelmaking route starts from steel scrap as the main raw material, melting of scrap in electric furnaces to crude steel, the subsequent stages being corresponding to those in ore based steelmaking. Both these processes represent well-established and highly developed technologies. However, they have some drawbacks. Blast furnace process needs sinter or pellets and coke as its raw materials. That means erection of large integrates with high investment costs in the production units themselves as well as to avoid severe environmental issues. Scrap-based steelmaking is ideal from the viewpoint of recycling, but it is limited by the scrap availability and quality problems encountered by the noticeable metallic impurities in purchase scrap. Direct reduction of iron ore in solid state to produce direct reduced iron (DRI) has its roots in the early ironmaking history but was firstly commercialised on a modern concept at the end of the 1960's when the first Midrex installation was run into operation. Most of the DR-processes utilise natural gas as the reducing agent but also some processes utilising coal have been introduced and are used in industrial scale. The oil crises in the 1970's slowed down the progress of DRI production but during the last 15 years the production has steadily grown being nowadays about 35 Mton/year. That corresponds to roughly 10 pct of the total solid material input into the world steel production. No doubt, the growth will continue in the near future as well. Quite recently, a new process

  7. Pentachlorophenol reduction in raw Cauca river water through activated carbon adsorption in water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Hernán Cruz Vélez; Magally González; Héctor Mario Gutiérrez; Luz Edith Barba; Juan Carlos Escobar; Luis Germán Delgado; Patricia Torres

    2008-01-01

    Reducing chemical risk in raw water from the River Cauca (caused by the presence of pentachlorophenol and organic matter (real color, UV254 absorbance)) was evaluated at bench scale by using three treatment sequences: adsorption with powdered ac-tivated coal (PAC); adsorption – coagulation; and, adsorption – disinfection – coagulation. The results showed that although PAC is appropriate for pentachlorophenol removal, and its use together with the coagulant (aluminium sulphate) significantly i...

  8. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Cow Bone Powder for the Adsorption of Cadmium from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulRahman, A.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Daud, Z.; Ridzuan, M. B.; D, N. F. M.; Jagaba, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been conducted on the removal of heavy metals from palm oil mill effluent. In this study, cow bones were developed as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium II from POME. A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the prepared activated cow bone powder for the sorption of cadmium II from raw POME. The experiment was carried out under fixed conditions using 100mg/L raw POME combined with different adsorbent dosage of CBP of 184.471 Ra(nm) surface roughness. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the hydrophobic CBP of average contact angle 890 was determined from the relationship between the initial and equilibrium liquid phase concentrations of POME. The optimum adsorption of cadmium II on CBP was at 10g adsorbent dosage for sample 1 and 2 at 97.8% and 96.93% respectively. The least uptake was at 30g adsorbent weight for both samples at average of 95.1% for both samples. The effective removal of cadmium ion showed that CBP has a great potential for the treatment of heavy metal in POME.

  10. Fiscal 1991 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1991 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Development of oil based C/C (carbon/carbon) composite technology was carried out. In a comprehensive survey, studies were conducted of the trends of associated technologies and tasks to discharge for the development of materials usable under ultrahigh temperature environments. For the development of advanced composite materials, efforts were exerted to develop technologies in the three fields of (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. In Field (1), physical properties and the like of a specimen fiber were clarified by studying conditions for manufacturing random structure carbon fibers, and the specimen was provided with a surface coating for the study of oxidation resisting performance improvement. In Field (2), onion structure carbon fiber forming conditions and basic technologies for structure manifestation were established, and basics of fiber surface coating technology were studied. In Field (3), double structure carbon fiber forming conditions were studied, specimen fabrication was carried out, and fiber surface coating technology was studied. (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1990 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1990 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    Efforts were made to develop technologies of oil based C/C (carbon/carbon) composites. In a comprehensive survey, studies were conducted of the trends of associated technologies and tasks to discharge for the development of materials usable at ultrahigh temperatures. For the development of advanced composite materials, efforts were exerted to develop technologies in the three fields of (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. In Field (1), random structure fiber manufacturing conditions were studied, basics of their relations with fiber thermal properties and the like were understood, carbon fibers were provided with surface coating, and studies were made to enhance the oxidation resistance of carbon fibers. In Field (2), fiber forming conditions were studied and their relations with fiber physical properties, such as strength, in an oxidizing atmosphere were grasped. In Field (3), manufacturing conditions and their relations with fiber physical properties were learned, and a technology was developed to manufacture composite rods. (NEDO)

  12. EFFECT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS ON THE PROPERTIES AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL STRUCTURE PASTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Kolomnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. An important task is the use of catering in the preparation of food products of new types of raw materials, which can solve the problem of nutrition. One way to improve the quality and range of flour culinary products is the use of technology in their enriching additives plant. Among them are a subgroup of additives derived from cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and other plant materials. As a result of researches the technology buns bakery products with the addition of oil and meal of wheat germ, pumpkin seed oil cake. Wheat germ oil cake is a source of complete protein and biologically active substances, is rich in essential amino acids, unsaturated ω-3, ω-6 fatty acids, vitamin E, D, B1, B2, B6, PP, pantothenic and folic acid, carotenoids. The composition of pumpkin seed oil cake include essential oils, phytosterols, resinous substances, organic acids, vitamins C and B, carotenoids, carbohydrate melen. In the composition of wheat germ oil contains: all essential, not synthesized by the human amino acid (tryptophan, methionine, leucine, valine, isoleucine, polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 acid, a large amount of vitamins, micro - and macronutrients. In the development of the experimental basis for the formulation chosen butter bakery products, in which part of the wheat flour (20 % was replaced by wheat germ oil cake (10 % and pumpkin seed oil cake (10 %. Margarine in the classical formulation was replaced by wheat germ oil, sugar - on natural honey. Insertion additives significantly improve the properties of biotech pastry. The proposed method of production of buns bakery products can reduce the duration of the production process, to intensify the process of gas formation in the test to increase gas-retaining capacity and lift test.

  13. Equipment for RAW handling, packaging, transport and storage from ZTS VVU KOSICE a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargovcik, L.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1988, the company ZTS VVU KOSICE has devoted a great part of its activities to the development of equipment for RAW handling, packaging, transport and storage, mainly for application in the decommissioning of NPP A1 at Jaslovske Bohunice in Slovakia. This is a HWGCR NPP shut down following a breakdown in 1977. This incident was caused by disruption of the technological channel serving as a barrier between heavy water moderator and fuel assembly. Damage of this barrier enabled heavy water leakage into the primary circuit with partial fuel elements cladding damage and subsequent additional contamination of the primary circuit. During two consecutive years after the incident main effort was focused on activities related to personnel and environment protection, moderator draining, reactor defuelling, dry cleaning of the primary circuit, repair and maintenance of equipment. The next step was the preparation of the concept of NPP A-1 introduction into dry safe state. The order of importance of RAW liquidation was as follows: 1. Spent fuel - spent fuel assemblies from NPP A-1 were, after short cooling, stored temporarily in storage pipe containers filled at the beginning of NPP operation with ''chrompik'' (an aqueous solution of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 with concentration of 3-5%), later with ''dowtherm'' (mixture of bi-phenyl oxide and bi-phenyl). The containers were placed in a storage pond filled with water. 2. Liquid RAW - combustible (dowtherm, oils) and non-combustible (chrompik, Demi water, decontaminating solutions, sludge, sorbents, etc.) 3. Solid RAW - metallic and non-metallic For this purpose, it was necessary to build RAW processing lines, intermediate storage facilities and systems for manipulation and transport of RAW

  14. Research of losses of oil oil and mineral oil at transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akzhigitov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : All way of hydrocarbonic raw material from a mouth of oil wells up to the consumer is accompanied by losses which occur as a result of evaporation, outflow and change of quality. Therefore preservation of quantity and quality of oil and mineral oil during transportation and storages is the major not only economic, but also an ecological problem. The facilitated fractional structure, the big maintenance concern to prominent features of the majority oil from underground salts adjournment Prycaspi in them of the easy hydrocarbons, the raised gas factor in conditions of deposits and presence in structure of gases, except for hydrocarbons and sour a component, - hydrogen sulphide, carbonic gas, etc. The superficial tests stabilized on phase structure oil depending on conditions of preparation for external transport and the subsequent processing can contain this or that quantity of residual hydrogen sulphide, easy hydrocarbons and the lowest sulfhydrates. For change of temperature and external pressure, during transportation and storage the part of easy hydrocarbons and not hydrocarbonic connections (sulfur organic) can be allocated from oil in a gaseous phase and in case of hit in an atmosphere sharply worsens ecology. In the Western Kazakhstan during the years period the temperature of air sometimes reaches up to 40-45 degrees. As is known, at such temperature there is a strengthened warming up of the open surface of oil tanks, that finally leads to increase evaporation easy oil and oil hydrocarbons. With this purpose experiences by quantitative definition evaporation lungs oil and petromixes of the Western Kazakhstan were spent. As a result of the lead works it is found out, that the size of losses at the given fixed temperature depends on evaporation by nature, fractional and hydrocarbonic structures of oil

  15. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  16. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  17. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  18. Separation of oil and grease from oil sludge using surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Abdul Aziz; Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Zalina Laili

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the experiments was to observe the efficiency of the surfactant to remove oil and grease from oil sludges using various surfactant concentration ranging from 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and 30 %. The surfactant solution consists of two mixtures of Aqua 2000 and D Bond. The oil sludge were subjected to heating and surfactant treatment process. Remaining oil and grease concentration were observed on the oil sludges after treatment. Small scale experiments were conducted by heating process, without heating process and heating process with addition of sodium chloride. Surfactant solution was added in each process. Results shows that there is separation of oil and grease from the oil sludges. There were formation of mini emulsions (oil in water). The higher the concentration of surfactant used, the higher the concentrations of mini emulsion formed as observed. Solid remains after the treatment process were found to contain lesser oil concentration with presence of bitumen, sediment, organic and inorganic materials. After a washing process using distilled water, the solid was still black but less oily than before the treatment. There is no separation of oil occurred in aqueous solution for the control experiment. (Author)

  19. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  20. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  1. Monitoring of psychrotrophic microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of psychrotrophic microorganisms belongs to the microorganisms representing a risk for human health as well as a risk of milk and milk products spoilage. Some genus are considered to be significant producers of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. In this work, we analysed raw milk samples (n = 109 originated from 26 different suppliers from the area of North and Middle Moravia. The screening was performed from March 2007 to February 2008. The total bacterial counts (TBC ranged between 3.2 × 103 to 8.3 × 106 CFU/ml. The psychrotrophic bacterial counts (PBC ranged between 1.0 × 103 to 8.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Total of 48.62 % and 48.62 % of samples exceeded the hygienic limit in raw milk for TBC and PBC, respectively. The correlation between TBC and PBC was highly significant (r = 0.87.Significantly higher (P < 0.05 numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in summer months. The identification of isolates was carried out and all strains were sreened for ability to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The most commonly identified genus in raw milk was of the genus Pseudomonas. The ability to produce proteases or lipases was found at 76 % identified bacterial strains.

  2. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  3. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  4. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  5. Potential Development Essential Oil Production of Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighiri, D.; Eden, W. T.; Supardi, K. I.; Masturi; Purwinarko, A.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is the source of raw essential oil in the world. Essential oils are used in various types of industries such as food and beverage, flavour, fragrance, perfumery, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, the development of Indonesian essential oil industry has not been encouraging for the production of essential oils, further it is unable to meet global demand. Besides that, the quality of volatile oil resulted cannot meet the international market standards. Based on the facts, the potential of Indonesian essential oils needs to be developed to provide added value, through increased production, improved quality and product diversification. One part of Indonesia having abundant of raw essential oil source is Central Java. Central Java has the quite large potential production of essential oils. Some essential oils produced from refining industry owned by the government, private and community sectors include cananga oils (Boyolali district), clove oils (Semarang district), patchouli oils (Brebes district, Pemalang district, and Klaten district). The main problem in the development of plants industries that producing essential oil in Central Java is low crops production, farming properties, quality of essential oils are diverse, providing poor-quality products and volatile oil price fluctuations. Marketing constraints of Central Java essential oils are quite complex supply chain. In general, marketing constraints of essential oils due to three factors, namely the low quality due to type of essential oil business that generally shaped small businesses with different capital and technology, domestic marketing is still a buyer-market (price determined by the buyer) because of weak bargaining position processors businessman, and prices fluctuate (domestic and foreign) due to uncontrolled domestic production and inter-country competition among manufacturers.

  6. Combustion properties, water absorption and grindability of raw/torrefied biomass pellets and Silantek coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matali, Sharmeela; Rahman, Norazah Abdul; Idris, Siti Shawaliah; Yaacob, Nurhafizah

    2017-12-01

    Torrefaction, also known as mild pyrolysis, is proven to convert raw biomass into a value-added energy commodity particularly for application in combustion and co-firing systems with improved storage and handling properties. This paper aims to compare the characteristics of Malaysian bituminous coal i.e. Silantek coal with raw and torrefied biomass pellet originated from oil palm frond and fast growing tree species, Leucaena Leucocephala. Biomass samples were initially torrefied at 300 °C for 60 minutes. Resulting torrefied biomass pellets were analysed using a number of standard fuel characterisation analyses i.e. elemental analysis, proximate analysis and calorific content (high heating values) experiments. Investigations on combustion characteristics via dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), grindability and moisture uptake tests were also performed on the torrefied biomass pellets. Better quality bio-chars were produced as compared to its raw forms and with optimal process conditions, torrefaction may potentially produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity equivalent to raw biomass while having compatible energy density and grindability to coal.

  7. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  8. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preparation and characterization of adsorbents for treatment of water associated with oil production

    KAUST Repository

    Sueyoshi, Mark; Al-Maamari, Rashid S.; Jibril, Baba Y.; Tasaki, Masaharu; Okamura, Kazuo; Kuwagaki, Hitoshi; Yahiro, Hidenori; Sagata, Kunimasa; Han, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Two sets of adsorbents were prepared from locally available raw materials, characterized and tested. The first set consists of crushed natural attapulgite and crushed attapulgite mixed with petroleum tank-bottom sludge and carbonized at 650 °C. Another set was prepared using trunk of date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) activated at 700 and 800°C. Both sets were characterized using BET surface area and pore distributions, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM. Natural attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge composite exhibited different characteristics and adsorptive capacities for oil removal from oily water. Adsorptive capacities were calculated from the breakthrough curves of a column test. An oily water solution of about 500 mg-oil/L was passed through both the attapulgite and attapulgite/sludge columns until the column effluent concentration exceeded a reference limit of 10 mg-oil/L. Uptake was calculated at this limit at 155 and 405 mg-oil/g-adsorbent, respectively. This was lower than the performance of a commercial activated carbon sample (uptake calculated at 730 mg-oil/g-adsorbent). Relatively, the date palm, carbonaceous-based adsorbent samples showed less significant differences in both bulk and surface properties. Uptake significantly improved to 1330-1425 mg-oil/g-adsorbent. Attempt was made to associate this performance with the difference in the surface areas between the two sets. However, other factors are found to be important as the second set has a range of surface area less than that of the commercial sample. As evidenced by FTIR, XRD and TEM, the activated carbonaceous materials developed porous structures which form defective graphitic sheet ensembles that serve as additional adsorption sites in the sample. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  11. The uptake of tocopherols by RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papas Andreas M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-Tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol are the two major forms of vitamin E in human plasma and the primary lipid soluble antioxidants. The dietary intake of gamma-tocopherol is generally higher than that of alpha-tocopherol. However, alpha-tocopherol plasma levels are about four fold higher than those of gamma-tocopherol. Among other factors, a preferential cellular uptake of gamma-tocopherol over alpha-tocopherol could contribute to the observed higher plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. In this investigation, we studied the uptake and depletion of both alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol (separately and together in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Similar studies were performed with alpha-tocopheryl quinone and gamma-tocopheryl quinone, which are oxidation products of tocopherols. Results RAW 264.7 macrophages showed a greater uptake of gamma-tocopherol compared to alpha-tocopherol (with uptake being defined as the net difference between tocopherol transported into the cells and loss due to catabolism and/or in vitro oxidation. Surprisingly, we also found that the presence of gamma-tocopherol promoted the cellular uptake of alpha-tocopherol. Mass balance considerations suggest that products other than quinone were formed during the incubation of tocopherols with macrophages. Conclusion Our data suggests that gamma-tocopherol could play a significant role in modulating intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms. Moreover, we found the presence of gamma-tocopherol dramatically influenced the cellular accumulation of alpha-tocopherol, i.e., gamma-tocopherol promoted the accumulation of alpha-tocopherol. If these results could be extrapolated to in vivo conditions they suggest that gamma-tocopherol is selectively taken up by cells and removed from plasma more rapidly than alpha-tocopherol. This could, in part, contribute to the selective maintenance of alpha-tocopherol in plasma compared to gamma-tocopherol.

  12. Treatment of emulsified oils by electrocoagulation: pulsed voltage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ayten; Bakirci, Busra

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage application on energy consumption during electrocoagulation was investigated. Three voltage profiles having the same arithmetic average with respect to time were applied to the electrodes. The specific energy consumption for these profiles were evaluated and analyzed together with oil removal efficiencies. The effects of applied voltages, electrode materials, electrode configurations, and pH on oil removal efficiency were determined. Electrocoagulation experiments were performed by using synthetic and real wastewater samples. The pulsed voltages saved energy during the electrocoagulation process. In continuous operation, energy saving was as high as 48%. Aluminum electrodes used for the treatment of emulsified oils resulted in higher oil removal efficiencies in comparison with stainless steel and iron electrodes. When the electrodes gap was less than 1 cm, higher oil removal efficiencies were obtained. The highest oil removal efficiencies were 95% and 35% for the batch and continuous operating modes, respectively.

  13. Fiscal 1989 achievement report on next-generation industrial structure technology. Research and development of advanced materials for extreme environments (Research and development of advanced composite materials using oil as raw material); 1989 nendo chotaikankyosei senshin zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekiyu genryokei senshin fukugo zairyo no kenkhyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The research and development of advanced composite materials succeeds the composite material development project initiated in fiscal 1981, and activities were conducted in the two domains of advanced composite material development and comprehensive survey implementation. In the comprehensive survey, trends of associated technologies were investigated, and technical tasks were studied relative to the development of advanced materials. In the effort to develop advanced composite materials, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) oil pitch derived random structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, (2) oil pitch derived onion structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials, and (3) oil pitch derived double structure carbon fiber/carbon based matrix composite materials. In Field (1), relations between conditions of forming carbon fibers out of pitch and carbon fiber random structure were elucidated, and development was started of technologies for providing fibers with oxidation resisting surface coatings. In Field (2), relations between conditions of forming carbon fibers out of pitch and carbon fiber onion structure were elucidated, and development was started of technologies for providing fibers with oxidation resisting surface coatings. In Field (3), efforts were started to elucidate oxidation resistance governing factors. (NEDO)

  14. Combination of Superheated Steam with Laccase Pretreatment Together with Size Reduction to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fatin Athirah Ahmad Rizal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of superheated steam (SHS with ligninolytic enzyme laccase pretreatment together with size reduction was conducted in order to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm biomass into glucose. The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF were pretreated with SHS and ground using a hammer mill to sizes of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mm before pretreatment using laccase to remove lignin. This study showed that reduction of size from raw to 0.25 mm plays important role in lignin degradation by laccase that removed 38.7% and 39.6% of the lignin from OPEFB and OPMF, respectively. The subsequent saccharification process of these pretreated OPEFB and OPMF generates glucose yields of 71.5% and 63.0%, which represent a 4.6 and 4.8-fold increase, respectively, as compared to untreated samples. This study showed that the combination of SHS with laccase pretreatment together with size reduction could enhance the glucose yield.

  15. Oil type and cross-linking influence growth of Aureobasidium melanogenum on vegetable oils as a single carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Loes H M; Huinink, Hendrik P; Voogt, Benjamin; Adan, Olaf C G

    2018-03-12

    Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were equal on linseed oil and olive oil. The fungus was not able to grow on severe cross-linked linseed oil, meaning that the degree of cross-linking of the oil is important for growth of A. melanogenum. Dark coloring of the colony was seen on linseed oil, which might be a stress response on the presence of autoxidation products in linseed oil. The colony on olive oil showed delayed melanin production indicating an inhibitory effect of olive oil on melanin production. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    installation 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning of radwaste' consists mainly of two bituminization plants and Bohunice Conditioning Centre (BSC RAW). Bituminization plants with capacity of 120 l/hour each are determined for bituminization of concentrates from VVER type NPPs and from A1 NPP Bohunice which are put into 200 l drums. The first one has been in operation since 1994 and its modification for discontinuous bituminization of ion-exchange resins and sludge is under way. The second one the commissioning of which has been finished successfully is now under licensing process for operation. At the end of 2001 total amount of concentrates treated by bituminization reached 941,7 m3. BSC RAW is the basic installed facility for final radwaste conditioning is. Besides cementation the technologies of incineration, fragmentation, high-pressure compaction as well as evaporation are used for radwaste treatment and conditioning at BSC RAW. Due to a complexity of commissioning of individual technologies, BSC RAW commissioning was divided in two phases which were realised in 2000. At the beginning of 2001 UJD issued the permission for BSC RAW operation on the basis of assessment of commissioning report. 144 pieces of FRC containers have been filled in during BSC RAW operation in 2001. As much as 51 t of solid radwaste and 3,9 m3 of liquid radwaste were incinerated, 85,7 t of solid radwaste were compacted and 186 m3 of concentrates were treated by cementation. Two treatment facilities are operated by VUJE Trnava. The bituminization plant has been out of operation during 2001 and incinerator with additional cementation facility have been used only for experimental purposes. National near surface repository in Mochovce is determined for the disposal of low and intermediate level short-living radwaste in special FRC containers as additional engineering barrier of repository. The repository construction was finished in November 1992. 52 containers with radwaste were disposed of

  17. Aspects of investment protection in the case of raw material projects; Aspekte des Investitionsschutzes bei Rohstoffprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkewitz, Mathias [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Bereich Recht, Steuern und Versicherungen; TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-04-15

    Addressing the question of investment protection currently is of particular importance under the tree aspects: (a) Due to the financial crisis and economic crisis, foreign investment in the years 2008 and 2009 have been drastically reduced; (b) There is a growing critique at the system of international investment protection; (c) For the first time, the Articles 206 and 207 of the Treaty of Lisbon of the European Union show a competence for foreign direct investment. These three aspects seem partly contradictory, but have a considerable changing potential in the area of investment protection. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the tools of investment protection as those are used for raw material projects. Subsequently the author picks out investment protection agreements and deals with some aspects that are important for practical applications in business companies. Raw material projects are projects for the exploration and production of oil and gas in foreign states.

  18. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  19. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  20. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  1. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  2. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  3. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  4. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  5. Conversion of tall oil soap and lignin into liquid fuels II; Suovan ja ligniinin jalostaminen polttonesteiksi II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; McKeough, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of the project was to evaluate the following upgrading processes for producing bio-oils for energy production: catalytic upgrading of kraft black liquor, thermal treatment of tall oil soap, and catalytic hydrotreatment of Milox-lignin. The best-quality product from black liquor was obtained by treating black liquor (20 % moisture) at 420 deg C with an ammoniumheptamolybdate (AHM) catalyst under hydrogen for 60 minutes.The product was washed with water (product:water = 1:2) in order to remove the inorganics. The oil product contained 74 % of the energy content of the black liquor organics. Regeneration of the AHM catalyst appears technically feasible. Raw tall oil soap cracks at 450 degr. C under nitrogen into straight-chain hydrocarbons and naphthalene and phenanthrene derivatives. The best-quality oil product was obtained at a residence time of 60 - 120 minutes. This product contained no fatty acids as impurities. The process concept consists of two steps: heat treatment at 450 degr. C and product separation. The energy yield of the hydrocarbon oil product is about 50 %. The residue slurry (estimated energy content 20 %) and gases (energy content 25 %) are led to the recovery boiler. Milox lignin can be hydrotreated at 420 deg C (60 minutes) with a mixture (1:1) of sulphided NiMo- and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-catalysts to a high-quality oil product (42 wt% yield of hexane solubles). The activity of catalysts decreased in order: sulphided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1:1), sulphided NiMo/zeolite, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ATTM (no activity). A decrease in hydrogen partial pressure yielded a lower quality product. (author)

  6. Isotherm and kinetic studies on adsorption of oil sands process-affected water organic compounds using granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; McPhedran, Kerry N; Messele, Selamawit A; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2018-07-01

    The production of oil from oil sands in northern Alberta has led to the generation of large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that was reported to be toxic to aquatic and other living organisms. The toxicity of OSPW has been attributed to the complex nature of OSPW matrix including the inorganic and organic compounds primarily naphthenic acids (NAs: C n H 2n+Z O x ). In the present study, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption was investigated for its potential use to treat raw and ozonated OSPW. The results indicated that NA species removal increased with carbon number (n) for a fixed Z number; however, the NA species removal decreased with Z number for a fixed carbon number. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from Langmuir adsorption isotherm based on acid-extractable fraction (AEF) and NAs were 98.5 mg and 60.9 mg AEF/g GAC and 60 mg and 37 mg NA/g GAC for raw and ozonated OSPW, respectively. It was found that the Freundlich isotherm model best fits the AEF and NA equilibrium data (r 2  ≥ 0.88). The adsorption kinetics showed that the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models were both appropriate in modeling the adsorption kinetics of AEF and NAs to GAC (r 2  ≥ 0.97). Although pore diffusion was the rate limiting step, film diffusion was still significant for assessing the rate of diffusion of NAs. This study could be helpful to model, design and optimize the adsorption treatment technologies of OSPW and to assess the performance of other adsorbents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Raw materials for pellets; Rohstoffe fuer Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.

    2008-01-15

    In order to keep the pellet prices stable, producers look for new raw materials. Sawdust as a former basis also competes with the manufacturers of chip boards and paper. Three classes of quality are discussed by the pellet manufacturers: (a) the DINplus pellet as a premium segment for which high-quality sawdust are used; (b) a wood pellet from natural wood with varying quality for the utilization in larger plants with filters; (c) the inexpensive industrial wood pellet which deviates from the DINplus commodity regarding to the ingredients and form and could be fired in larger power stations.

  8. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  9. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available on their visual appearance. In particular, we present a method for an agent to recognise the required unseen raw material images and link them to corresponding novel object images. This capability provides an agent with an increased degree of resourcefulness... construction from component parts, and in doing so we provide a benchmark for future work to compare against within Minecraft and ShapeNet domains. II. BACKGROUND Our model is inspired by Siamese neural networks, a class of neural network that includes multiple...

  11. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  12. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  13. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  15. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for oil content in cottonseed kernel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (next to fiber) which serves as raw material for oil extraction or animal feed production ... systems that control the performance of these traits could facilitate the application of this information for cottonseed improvement that will help ensure ...

  16. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  17. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  18. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model

  19. Oil? Finally, a product like the others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau Defarges, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    As oil is generally considered as a vital element for production and consumption system, without which the one who hasn't any could not live, the author examines whether oil is actually an exceptional raw product which would escape from market rules according to which everything depends on the market and work is the only source of value and power. In order to do so, he discusses whether the present oil price increase is a good or a bad news, whether this increase confirms that oil is finally a product like the others, whether it has been and is a reason for war, and whether oil will remain (if it has ever been) a major geopolitical issue or, in other words, a determining factor of alliances and antagonism

  20. Raw materials for reflector graphite (for reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, G.; Mindermann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing concept for the core components of German high temperature reactor (HTR) types of graphite was previously entirely directed to the use of German tar coke (St coke). As the plants for producing this material no longer complied technically with the current environmental protection requirements, one had to assume that they would soon be shut down. To prevent bottlenecks in the erection of future HTR plants, alternative cokes produced by modern processes by Japanese manufacturers were checked for their suitability for the manufacture of reactor graphite. This report describes the investigations carried out on these materials from the safe delayed coking process. The project work, apart from analysis of the main data of the candidate coke considered, included the processing of the raw materials into directly and secondarily extruded graphite rods on the laboratory scale, including characterisation. As the results show, the material data achieved with the previous raw material can be reproduced with Japanese St coke. The tar coke LPC-A from the Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd was decided on as the new standard coke for manufacturing reflector graphite. (orig.) With 15 tabs., 2 figs [de

  1. Application of UV/H2O2 system to treatment of wastewater arising from thermal treatment of oil-water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented the results of bench scale tests using Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP in a UV/H2O2 system, for the treatment of an industrial effluent with a high concentration of dissolved organic matter, resulted from thermal treatment of oil-water emulsions. Treatability tests were carried out in a batch photochemical system with recycle, and the raw effluent was characterized by the analysis of pH, turbidity, color, COD and TOC. Results from these assays shown that UV/H2O2 process is technically feasible resulting in TOC removal above 90%. However, for one log TOC removal from this effluent the energy required was about 455.5 kw.h.m-3, for an alpha relation of 10 mg H2O2/mg COT, resulting in a higher operational cost, considering the evaluated conditions.

  2. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Joshi-Navare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophorolipids (SLs are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214. This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  3. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  4. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  5. Jatropha oil derived sophorolipids: production and characterization as laundry detergent additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL displayed good surfactant property. It reduced the surface tension of distilled water from 70.7 mN/m to 33.5 mN/m with the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) value of 9.5 mg/L. Keeping the prospective use of the SL in mind, the physicochemical properties were checked along with emulsion stability under temperature, pH stress, and in hard water. Also antibacterial action and stain removal capability in comparison with commercial detergent was demonstrated. SLJO enhanced the detergent performance. Based on the results, it can be said that SLs have utility as fabric cleaner with advantageous properties such as skin friendly nature, antibacterial action, and biodegradability. Therefore SLs are potential green molecules to replace synthetic surfactants in detergents so as to reduce harm caused to environment through detergent usage.

  6. Analysis of microplastics and their removal from water

    OpenAIRE

    Oladejo, Abiola

    2017-01-01

    Removal of microplastics from water was studied using extraction with oil. The aim of the thesis was to remove microplastics from water using an organic medium, and to analyse the amount of microplastics in the media involved. The separation of different microplastic types was done by conducting experiments in the laboratory. The microplastics were made by grinding and sieving plastics with a grinding machine before adding them to water and oil, which serves as the organic medium. Tw...

  7. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    spilled into the soil during use and in accident situations, and they can migrate to groundwater layers. Biodegradation of oils can remove them from the soil or water completely or at least diminish the amount of harmful substances. An automatic, respirometric BOD OxiTop method was used to evaluate the biodegradability of various oils in water and soil media. The biodegradation of certain bio and mineral hydraulic oils was evaluated in groundwater, where bio oils usually biodegraded more effectively than mineral oils. The use of oils in machines weakened especially the biodegradability of bio oils. Biodegradability of bio oils was also studied in standard conditions of OECD 301 F and bio oils usually biodegraded moderately good in these conditions. The biodegradation of forestry chain oils and wood preservative oils was evaluated in forest soils. Linseed oil biodegraded moderately, but certain experimental wood preservatives biodegraded more effectively. Widely used creosote oil biodegraded in a lesser degree. Rapeseed oil-based chain oils biodegraded more effectively than corresponding tall oil. (orig.)

  8. Removal of radionuclides from household water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2003-10-01

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2-3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller particles

  9. Removal of radionuclides from household water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2007-02-01

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2 - 3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller

  10. A novel method for the synergistic remediation of oil-water mixtures using nanoparticles and oil-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabresm, Amjed; Chen, Yung Pin; Decho, Alan W; Lead, Jamie

    2018-07-15

    Releases of crude oil and other types of oil from numerous sources can impose catastrophic physical, chemical, and biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. While currently-used oil removal techniques possess many advantages, they have inherent limitations, including low removal efficiencies and waste disposal challenges. The present study quantified the synergistic interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated magnetite nanoparticles (NP) and oil-degrading bacteria for enhanced oil removal at the laboratory scale. The results showed that at relatively high oil concentrations (375 mg L -1 ), NP alone could remove approximately 70% of lower-chain alkanes (C9-C22) and 65% of higher-chain (C23-C26), after only 1 h, when magnetic separation of NP was used. Removal efficiency did not increase significantly after that, which was likely due to saturation of the NP with oil. Microbial bioremediation, using strains of oil-degrading bacteria, removed almost zero oil immediately but 80-90% removal after 24-48 h. The combination of NPs and oil-degrading bacterial strains worked effectively to remove essentially 100% of oil within 48 h or less. This was likely due to the sorption of oil components to NPs and their subsequent utilization by bacteria as a joint Fe and C source, although the mechanisms of removal require further testing. Furthermore, results showed that the emission of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were reduced after addition of NPs and bacteria separately. When combined, VOC and SVOC emissions were reduced by up to 80%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in October 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.8%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 8.1%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.3%), slowing down increase for gas (+ 2.1%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.4%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a high energy cost level with + 22% on one year, reaching 87.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 72.0 in October 1996

  12. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  13. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  14. Glances on the year 1998. Energies and raw materials; Regards sur 1998. Energies et matieres premieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This report summarizes 14 key-topics of the year 1998 in relation with the French energy and economic policy: the new start-up of energy mastery; the nuclear industry between passion and reason; the labour inspection in nuclear power plants; the law project for the modernizing and development of the electric power public utility; the main gas transportation systems; the future of Gardanne`s mining basin; the raw materials in the upheaval; the French refining activity after the Auto-Oil directive; the oil company fusions; the priorities in petroleum technology research; the policy of automotive fuels distribution; the energy in regions; the mining activity in New Caledonia; the end of the BRGM-Normandy partnership. A calendar of remarkable facts is given at the end. (J.S.)

  15. Proceedings of 1.International scientific and technological conference 'Modern problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials'. v. 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of reports presented on 1.International scientific and technological conference 'Modern problems of geophysics, geology, development, processing and use of Kazakhstan hydrocarbon raw materials', devoted to the 20th anniversary of the Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas (Atyrau, 2000, 18-19 December) are published in 2 volumes. The problems and new methods for prediction of oil and gas as well as different resources in both the coastal lands and the shelf of the Caspian Sea are considered. Scientific problems of drilling and repair of oil and gas wells are highlighted. Results of fundamental and applied studies on problems of oil and oil products processing, its transportation through pipelines with taking into account rheological and physico-chemical properties of oils mining on western fields of the Republic are cited. The points of ecological safety guarantee, reliability of mechanisms and machines operation and others problems are widely discussed

  16. Processing biofuels from farm raw materials - A systems study; Pelletering och brikettering av jordbruksraavaror - En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven

    2008-03-15

    Use of processed biofuels (pellets, briquettes) has greatly increased in Sweden in recent decades, mainly to replace fossil fuels in large boilers, e.g. in coal powder boilers. More recently, the demand from private households and residential heating systems has also increased, mainly due to conversion from fossil heating oil. This increased interest in pellets and briquettes for heating is beginning to cause a shortage of the traditional raw materials, sawdust and wood shavings, and therefore attention is turning to using a variety of agricultural products as raw material. Such raw materials include cultivated energy crops and wastes and by-products from agriculture. This study describes the typical systems currently used for production of pellets and briquettes and investigates the possibility of using energy crops (Salix, reed canary-grass and hemp) and various wastes and by-products from processing of farm products (straw, cereal screenings, rape-seed meal and distiller's waste) as raw materials. Previous experiences of pelletizing and briquetting of these raw materials are reviewed in order to comprehensively identify possible combustion problems that may occur. On the basis of the results obtained, scenarios for possible production systems in a five-year perspective are presented and the costs and energy demands for these systems calculated. These future scenarios include large scale plants and micro-scale plants, as well as static and mobile equipment. The five main conclusions from the study are: - The farm raw materials of greatest interest for large-scale production are pelleted Salix and reed canary-grass. They have competitive prices and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelletizing factories in Sweden. - Straw has low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems. Hemp has too high production costs to be of commercial interest, while distiller's waste and rape-seed meal currently

  17. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  18. Louisiana's oil spill program : new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Tedford, R.; Brolin, J.; Lorentz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office (LOSCO) was established to improve oil spill response, spill prevention and coordination. Louisiana is challenged with having the highest exposure of oil spills because a large portion of its economy is based on oil and gas exploration and production. LOSCO will find ways to minimize the risk of unauthorized oil spills and will address damage assessment and restoration efforts. The aging oil and gas infrastructure in Louisiana has also been recognized as a potential major source for oil spills. LOSCO locates potential spill locations and assesses the risks associated with the sites, some of which are 100 years old. LOSCO also initiated the following two programs: (1) the Abandoned Barge Program initiated in 1993 to remove abandoned barges that pose a high risk for oil discharge, and (2) the Abandoned Non-Hazardous Oil Waste (NOW) Pit and Facility Program initiated in 1992 to locate and remove structures, pits and wells that pose a risk for oil spills. About 25,000 facilities, pits, sumps and reservoirs have been inventoried and evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to human health or the environment. The Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 allocates up to $2 million per year for the abatement of oil spills from abandoned facilities in Louisiana. The state legislature has also created the Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP) to fund oil spill research. Since 1993, OSRADP has granted 68 awards in support of 42 projects, many of which focused on recovery and cleanup methods including in-situ burning, fate and effect of oil in Louisiana environments, bioremediation, phytoremediation, composting, chemical cleaners, dispersants, sorbents, and solidifiers. 3 refs., 1 tab

  19. Cerebral migration of intraocular silicone oil: an MRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Milea, Dan; Løgager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    for retinal detachment. Methods: Nineteen patients included in this study were referred for silicone oil removal after uncomplicated retinal detachment surgery using internal silicone oil tamponade. Patients with a previous history of intraocular silicone oil, glaucoma or optic pit were excluded. After...

  20. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.