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Sample records for raw milk hygiene

  1. Hygienic Control of Raw Milk from Small Farms

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    XHILDA ROKO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of raw high quality milk is a requirement not only to the consumer as a safe and healthy product but also to support a profitable dairy industry. The Albanian law "On rules of producing and selling milk and milk-based products" and the Regulation No. 853 / EC / 2004, defines the criteria of raw milk hygiene. This legal basis requires that the number of somatic cells per ml (cytological indicator must not exceed 400,000 (SSC and Total Bacterial Count (TBC must not be more than 100.000 UFC / ml. This study was conducted by testing of 108 samples of milk collected in farms in Lushnja, Fier and Kavaja. This study was supported by the center of "Livestock and Rural Development". The results obtained showed that 54/108 milk samples had values over the limits for cytological indicator, while 68/108 showed values above the limits prescribed by law for the total bacterial load. In positive samples were verified changes in physical and chemical indicators, resulting in decrease of lactose content in 37 samples of milk and of protein percentage decline in 41 samples. Given the fact that the production of milk and its derivates of these areas provides most of milk production of Albania, this situation calls for effective measures to help farmers to produce milk that meets the standards for customer and for milk industry.

  2. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

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    DANIEL, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  3. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

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    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  4. Goat Production in El Salvador: A Focus on Animal Health, Milking Hygiene, and Raw Milk Quality

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    Kristina Linderot de Cardona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Often referred to as “the poor man’s cow,” goats are important livestock in developing countries and in El Salvador goat management and milk are growing in popularity. This study focuses on the general health of Salvadoran goats and national husbandry systems as well as goat products and milking hygiene. The survey was submitted in western and central parts of the country: 191 goat owners were interviewed on animal management and production, 434 goats underwent a basic clinical exam, and raw milk samples were taken from 60 lactating does. Milk samples were examined for total plate count, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of goats were managed under a traditional husbandry system naming milk production as their main purpose. Based on the physical exam, the overall goat health was acceptable but in need of improvement. The results of the raw milk samples did not indicate a mayor microbial contamination. Development programs and education of Salvadoran goat owners are recommended to improve goats’ health and productivity in El Salvador. Further studies on the microbial quality on raw goat’s milk are necessary to determine the health risk when consumed. The information obtained in this investigation will serve as a base for future projects.

  5. Hygiene of Raw Milk from Austrian Spotted, Holstein and Romanian Spotted Breeds, in Three Farms from Central Romania

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    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis strictly medical, objective and impartial demonstrate that none of the foods considered to be basic, it is an ideal food, and milk can have some adverse effects on consumers, if the product is subject to changes caused by the improper welfare and health of the animals, but not least the processing technology. This study aimed the analyzing of raw cow milk related to the quality indicators on hygiene. There were considered the samples collected from three farms of the Central part of Romania, each of 24 samples of raw milk. The cows breed were farm A - Austrian spotted, farm B - Holstein and farm C - Romanian spotted. The parameters investigated here were total bacteria count and somatic cell count. The range of the non-conforming milk samples was 1:5.

  6. Impact of applying hygienic practices at farm on bacteriological quality of raw milk

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    N. Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to explore the potential source of contamination and the efficacy of different washing practices towards quality milk production. Materials and Methods: Probable sources of contamination viz. stored water, potable water, milker’s hands, milking pail, udder of individual buffalo and milk cans were subjected to different types of bacterial counts before the actual experiment to start. Twenty milch buffaloes thereafter were divided randomly into four treatment groups where washing was performed in each step viz. milker hands, udder of individual buffalo, milking pail and milk cans before milking either with water (T0: stored water, T1: potable water or sanitizers (T2: 200 ppm chlorine solution, T3: 50 ppm iodophore solution for 60 days. Bacterial counts again were performed for last 5 alternate days for all the sources involved along with the microbial load of raw milk. Data obtained were subjected to standard statistical analysis. Results: It was found that for all bacterial count stored water contributed significantly higher as compared to the potable water. Among the other potential sources of contamination (log/6 cm2, standard plate count (SPC and coliform count were significantly highest for milking pail (6.73±0.02 and udder of milch buffaloes (3.77±0.12, respectively, while for Staphylococci count both milking pail (3.24±0.02 and milking can (3.22±0.04 were contributed maximally (p0.05 for most of the parameters, even for the raw milk quality. Conclusion: Study revealed that milker hands, milking pails, udder of animals, milk cans and stored water used for washing of equipment are the potential source of contamination in raw milk. These were counted as critical point which needs attention for the production of high-quality milk. Potable water was found to be better than stored water. The use of either chlorine 200 ppm and iodophor 50 ppm is highly effective in reducing the bacterial population for

  7. Hygienic characteristics and microbiological hazard identification in horse and donkey raw milk.

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    Colavita, Giampaolo; Amadoro, Carmela; Rossi, Franca; Fantuz, Francesco; Salimei, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Today the interest toward horse (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) milk for human consumption is receiving a renewed attention because of its particular composition, hypoallergenicity, and nutraceutical properties. The realistic perspective of global use of this aliment in balanced diets, especially for infancy and geriatrics, poses the need for a more in depth knowledge on milk hygiene and on the health status of dairy animals, as a prerequisite of consumers' safety. The aim of this paper was to review the available literature on the health and hygiene parameters as well as on the potential microbiological hazards in horse and donkey milk and the risks related to their consumption. Both microbial contamination and somatic cell count are reasonably low in equine milk and also the presence of pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Rhodococcus equi, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Clostridium difficile and Burkholderia mallei is low. However, in those regions of the world where the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Rhodococcus equi is high, the alimentary risks could increase. Similarly, in areas with higher incidence of immunocompromised people, the increased risks should be warned not only for pathogens but also for opportunistic microbiota.

  8. Isolation of microbial pathogens of subclinical mastitis from raw sheep's milk of Epirus (Greece) and their role in its hygiene.

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    Fotou, K; Tzora, A; Voidarou, Ch; Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Avgeris, I; Bezirtzoglou, E; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2011-12-01

    The natural raw milk microflora is a factor that expresses its sensorial characteristics. The microbial charge into the mammary gland of healthy animal is low and the application of right and healthy conditions during milking and cheese making procedure, prevents from contaminating as well as maintains the natural microflora in order to lend the particular characteristics of milk. The purpose of the present project was the study of the Total Viable Count (T.V.C.) and the count of total psychrotropic bacteria of raw sheep milk from Boutsiko and Karamaniko breeds, collected from healthy animals, as well as the isolation, identification and enumeration of pathogenic bacteria related with the hygiene and the quality of raw sheep milk (with a particular interest in bacteria that may cause human infection). During the experiment we examined two hundred forty (240) samples of raw sheep milk. In these samples a) Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens (vegetative cells and spores) and Bacillus sp. were isolated and identified b) the Total Viable Count and the total number of psychrotropic bacteria were also specified. The sampling, the preparation of samples and decimal dilutions were based on international methods. The Total viable count was determined using the standard methods of the American Public Health Association, 2002. The total number of psychrotropic bacteria was determined using APHA 1976, 1978 rules. The identification of the bacteria was carried out according to the Bergey's manual. Microscopic examination of Gram stained cells, catalase, oxidase and biochemical tests were performed when necessary to further identify. From the 240 milk samples tested, only 5% were E. coli positive, with mean counts ranged from 2 × 10(3) to 2.4 × 10(4) cfu/ml. S. aureus was isolated from 24% of the samples and the mean count per ml was ranged from milk samples such as Salmonella, which was only detected in 5% of the samples. Listeria

  9. Food Safety and Raw Milk

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    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  10. Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.

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    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance.

  11. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

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    Soumeya Adjlane-Kaouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05 was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB, about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05 for yeasts and (P<0.05 for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05 for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001 for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit.

  12. Nutritional and Hygienic Quality of Raw Milk in the Mid-Northern Region of Algeria: Correlations and Risk Factors

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    Adjlane-Kaouche, Soumeya; Benhacine, Rafik; Ghozlane, Faiçal; Mati, Abderrahmane

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to study the overall quality of raw milk in the mid-northern region of Algeria. The analysis results showed a decrease in the average temperature for the delivery of 1,54°C with P0.05) was observed in almost all the physical and nutritional parameters studied (pH, fat content, and protein content) between M1 and M2. The average contamination by total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), coliforms, yeasts, molds, and different pathogens in samples taken at M1 showed significant changes at M2. This was confirmed by the decrease of reduction time of methylene blue (RTMB), about 54%. The variation was described as follows: (P>0.05) for yeasts and (P<0.05) for molds in M1 and M2, (P<0.05) for TMAB in M1, and (P<0.001) for TC, FC, and TMAB in M2. The analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. showed no contamination in all samples tested, while antibiotic residues were detected in 35% of milks delivered. In conclusion, several risk factors have been identified in this study, namely, the effect of the season and the distance between the farm and the dairy unit. PMID:25374932

  13. Raw milk quality control - European and Croatian experience

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    Samir Kalit; Jasmina Havranek

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Milk is a raw material used in the fabrication of a very large range of products. The modalities of payment are designed to orientate milk production according to technological needs and hygiene and food security requirements. The processors seek milk witch is adapted for all types of processing ( Beguin, 1994 ).

  14. Raw milk consumption and health.

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    Vranješ, Anka Popović; Popović, Milka; Jevtić, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39%) outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%), bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79%) outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market.

  15. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

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    Letiţia Oprean; Ramona Iancu; Eniko Gaşpar; Ecaterina Lengyel

    2011-01-01

    Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteur...

  16. Raw milk consumption and health

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    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  17. Pathogenic Microorganisms from Raw Milk of Different Animals

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    Letiţia Oprean

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an ideal environment for microbial growth and for this reason the separation of some pathogens is very important. The analysis of milk regarding pathogenic microorganisms is a clear indicator of hygienic quality and this influences the dairy production. Samples of raw milk from cow, goat and sheep were analyzed for pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The microorganisms found in milk directly affect the human health and can cause a public illness if the unpasteurized milk is used in the food industry.

  18. of raw milk

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    O. Hanuš

    2016-09-01

    The content of monounsaturated FAs was higher in S (30.69 g 100 g−1 than in W (27.72 g 100 g−1, P <  0.05. Milk yield in grazing herds (G, 5197.50 kg was lower (P <  0.05 than in non-grazing herds (N, 7203.75 kg. The sum of saturated and hypercholesterolemic FAs was lower and the sum of monounsaturated and odd-chain FAs was higher in G than in N (P <  0.05. Content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and C18:3n3 was higher in G (0.93 and 0.64 g 100 g−1 than in N (0.42 and 0.39 g 100 g−1, respectively, P <  0.001.

  19. Discrepancies in Evaluating Farm Management Routines as Risk Factors of Raw Milk and Udder Hygiene in Selected Dairy Farms of Fars Province, Iran

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    Mehdi MOHEBBI-FANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The management practices relevant to bulk tank milk quality were studied in 29 dairy farms of Fars Province, Iran. Farm management practices were obtained by completion of a questionnaire and direct observation. Bulk milk was evaluated by performing standard plate count (SPC, preliminary incubation count (PIC, laboratory pasteurization count (LPC, coliform count (CC, somatic cell count (SCC and detection of the contagious mastitis agents. The farms were divided into low and high SPC groups (below and above 100,000 CFU/mL based on Iranian standards. Comparisons of the laboratory results between groups were done using two independent samples t-test. The relationships between the laboratory results were studied by Pearson’s correlation coefficients, all after logarithmic transformation. Associations of managerial risk factors (obtained by the questionnaire and one time of observation with laboratory results were investigated using two independent samples t-test. P-values 0.05. Strong correlations were detected between SPC and PIC, SPC and CC, and PIC and CC, but many of the well explained risk factors of undesired milk quality lacked any relation with high bacterial counts of raw milk. This could be due to the small number of the studied farms, almost similar faults in the farms, wrong answers of the employees to the questions and modification of the milking practices in the presence of an inspector. Infections with Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma bovis could be potential problems in the studied farms, contributing to the elevation of SCC and/or SPC levels. Veterinary interventions could not be based on the questionnaire results. Direct and frequent observations of farm routines could be recommended.

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE SOMATIC CELLS NUMBER FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

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    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that by milk production hygiene must be assure: milk microbiological security, increase the sensorial and nutritive properties, increase term of availability and consumption. The milk hygienic national strategies involved: raw material risk contamination avoiding and reducing as can is possible and the microorganisms destroying or stopping development of those. In this paper it is presented the results of somatic cells number determination by raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological processes within 5 research stations. Determinations were effectuated on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception phase in summer and winter seasons.

  1. VALORACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD HIGIÉNICA DE LA LECHE CRUDA EN LA ASOCIACIÓN DE PRODUCTORES DE LECHE DE SOTARÁ - ASPROLESO, MEDIANTE LAS PRUEBAS INDIRECTAS DE RESAZURINA Y AZUL DE METILENO RAW MILK HYGIENIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN THE MILK PRODUCERS ASOCIATION OF SOTARÁ - ASPROLESO, THROUGH INDIRECT TESTS OF REZASURIN AND METHYLENE BLUE

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    JHON JAIRO ZAMBRANO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación permitió encontrar la relación entre las dos pruebas colorimétricas empleadas como métodos indirectos en la determinación de la calidad higiénica de la leche cruda, como son la prueba de Resazurina en una hora y el Tiempo de Reducción del Azul de Metileno. Para ello se analizaron 315 muestras por duplicado, conducentes a la realización de ambas pruebas de manera paralela, encontrándose diferencias significativas para los siguientes estadísticos: rangos con signo de Wilcoxon y t-student con PThis investigation allowed to find the relation between the two colorimetric tests used as indirect methods in the determination of the hygienic quality of raw milk, as it is, One hour Resazurin test and Methylene blue reduction time. To do that 315 samples in duplicate were analized, leading to the perform of both tests in a parallel way, allowing to find significant diferences for the next statistics: ranges with Wilcoxon signs and t-student with P<0.001. The obtained samples resulted from the pursuit along 6 months of the raw milk storage process in the milk producers Asociation of Sotara (ASPROLESO, located in Paispamba, Sotara´s town - Department of Cauca. Parallely to this research, raw milk transportation effect in the hygienic quality was determinate, through a comparative between the quality of the delivered milk to gathering vehicles in farms and the quality in the moment of the reception in the storage center (Cooling plant in the municipality of Paispamba. For this assessment 280 samples coming from the 4 production and recolection zones of raw milk (Chapa, Piedra León,Ullocos and Paispamba were analized. The Data obtained were analized by Marginal averages for the fourth routes. The researching allowed to identify that between both tests Resazurin and Methylene blue, Methylene blue reduction time resulted in a wider accuracy degree for the hygienic quality determination particularly because it demands a mayor

  2. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

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    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk.

  3. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

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    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  4. [Influence of milking technique, milking hygiene and environmental hygiene parameters on the microbial contamination of milking machines].

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    Feldmann, M; Zimmermann, A; Hoedemaker, M

    2006-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of various factors of the milking technique, milking hygiene and environment on microbial contamination of the milking machine. In 31 dairy herds, the degree of bacterial contamination was examined by taking swabs at four locations (teat cup liner, claw, short and long milk tube) before the milking procedure was started using a standardized protocol (DIN ISO 6887-1:1999). Furthermore, the total germ count was determined in the first milk entering the bulk tank as well as in the bulk tank milk following milking. For each farm, the quality of the milking process and the condition of the milking machine as well as of various environmental factors were recorded. A subjective evaluation of the status of the milking cluster or other parts of the milking machine ("good" or "moderate-poor") gave more information about bacterial contamination than the determination of age and type of material used. A temperature of the rinsing water of teat cleaning before milking or of postmilking teat disinfection did not affect the contamination of the milking machine and the bulk tank milk with environmental bacteria. Furthermore, type of bedding material affected bacterial contamination of milking clusters and bulk tank milk. In conclusion, our results suggest that the microbial contamination of the milking machine is not only influenced by the sanitation pro-

  5. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

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    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  6. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

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    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  7. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  8. ESTIMATION OF QUALITY OF RAW MILK (OPEN & BRANDED BY MILK ADULTERATION TESTING KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Kandpal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a compulsory part of daily diet for the expectant mothers as well as growing children. Milk is very important due to its special nutritive value and important role for human and animal health. Adulteration is practised either to substitute cheaper ingredients or to impress the buyer to think the product is more valuable or of better quality. Methods: The present study was conducted by the Department of Community Medicine at HIHT, Dehradun. All the samples of the raw milk (open and branded supplied by the vendors in 5 Km radius of HIHT . The samples of milk were also collected from the Girls and Boys Hostel Mess and canteen. 500ml of each variety of open milk and 500 ml packet of branded milk were purchased from the milk vendors. The specific gravity of the milk was assessed by lactometer and chemically tested by Adulteration Test Kit supplied by NICE Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. ( an ISO 9001 Certified Company. Results: It was observed that out of 60 samples of milk, only 12 samples (20 % had specific gravity of 26 and more which is considered as undiluted milk while 48 (80% had specific gravity of less than 26 clearly indicating the dilution of milk with water. It was also observed that all the milk samples including double toned milk collected from different places showed presence of urea and detergents as common adulterants. Conclusion:The findings of this study highlights the need to implement improved hygiene practices and to apply effective monitoring throughout the production to delivery chain. Training and education is also needed for all persons who deal with milk production, marketing and processing.

  9. Brucella contamination in raw milk by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. Brucella organisms, which are small aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacilli, localize in the reproductive organs of host animals, causing abortions and sterility. They are shed in large numbers in the animal’s urine, milk, placental fluid, and other fluids. Dairy product from raw milk are a potential threat to public health in endemic developing countries. The gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation of Brucella species. However, isolation Brucella species is time consuming and needed to level 3 biocontainment facilities and highly skilled technical personnel to handle samples and live bacteria for eventual identification. Handling Brucella species increase risk of laboratory infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with high sensitivity and specifity overcomed to these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to detect Brucella species in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman province, Iran by PCR technique. Methods: Forty and eight bulk tank milk (BTM were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cows. DNA of milk samples extracted by lysis buffer and proteinase K method. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA targeting IS 711. Positive samples must be showed 317 bp amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the IS 711 genome region in all Brucella species. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp. from 48 BTM samples in this area. Conclusion: The results indicate that brucellosis by Brucella species is endemic in the Kerman province dairy farms. Consumption of raw milk dairy products by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an high risk to public health. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of

  10. Caracterización de un proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda, con equipos automatizados BactoScan FC 50 y CombiFoss FT+ 200, en un laboratorio de calidad de leche (Characterization of the operative process for the analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality the raw bovine milk, with automated equipment BactoScan FC 50 and CombiFoss FT+ 200, in a quality milk laboratory .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaona Yira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa caracterización del proceso operativo de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche bovina cruda con los equipos automatizados BactoScanFC50 y CombiFossFT+200, se realizó de forma separada para las fase preanalítica, analítica y postanalítica del proceso, para cada una de ellas se presentan las condiciones y especificaciones requeridas en equipos, personal, documentación , procedimientos, infraestructura y ambiente de trabajo que permiten la transformación de las muestras de leche bovina cruda desde su ingreso al laboratorio de calidad de leche, hasta la emisión de un resultado final de calidad para el usuario solicitante del servicio de análisis de calidad higiénica y sanitaria de la leche.SummaryThe characterization the operative process analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality the raw bovine milk with the automated equipment BactoScanFC50 and CombiFossFT+200, was carried out separate form for the phase preanalytic, analytic and postanalytic the process, for each one them the conditions and specifications are presented equired in equipments, personal, documentation, procedures, infrastructure and atmosphere work that allow the transformation the samples raw bovine milk from its entrance to the laboratory quality milk, until the emission final result quality for the userapplicant the service analysis the hygienic and sanitary quality milk.

  11. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery.

  12. The impact of changes in the milk payment system and season on the hygienic quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat PAŠIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to investigate the impact of changes in the milk payment system and the season on the hygienic quality of raw milk. The bulk cow’s milk samples were collected throughout the whole area of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the period of four years (2010-2013, from farms that deliver milk to the dairy industry. The total bacterial count (TBC was analysed in 52,999 milk samples and the somatic cell count (SCC in 53,363 milk samples. The results of the research showed that the proportion of bulk milk with the SCC < 300,000 mL-1 significantly increased in the observed period, as well as the proportion of farms that produce milk of EU quality (P < 0.05. The season had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the SCC; in April the proportion of bulk milk with SCC < 300,000 mL-1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05. A significant increase (P < 0.05 in the proportion of milk with the TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL -1 was perceived, as well as the proportion of farms which deliver that type of milk (P < 0.05. A Significant lower (P < 0.05 proportion of milk in the summer period with TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL-1 was determined. It can be concluded that consistent appliance of regulations which determine the quality of milk, leads to the improvement of the hygienic quality of redeemed milk, as illustrated by the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of milk payment system is important for both, the higher economic benefit of farms and the dairy processing industry.

  13. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    OpenAIRE

    Lotte Bach Larsen; Morten Dam Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the forma...

  14. Bacteriological quality of raw milk used for production of a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; Marçal de Faria, Camila Andreata; Silva Pinheiro, Julia; Gonçalves de Almeida, Héllen; Vieira Pires, Christiano; Silva Santos, Aline

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacteriological quality of raw cow's milk utilized for the production of Traditional Minas Serro cheese, a Brazilian farmstead raw milk cheese. Raw milk samples were collected from six farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's milk. Coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli counts were determined using Petrifilm™ EC plates, and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined using Petrifilm™ Staph Express count plates. The standard plate count (SPC) was determined using plate count agar. The somatic cell count (SCC) was determined with a DeLaval cell counter. The detection of Listeria monocytogenes was based in the ISO 11290-1 protocol. A total of 165 samples were analyzed, and the SPC was 1.85-7.88 log CFU/mL. Coliform were detected in 140 (84.8%) of the 165 samples, with counts of 1-6.39 log CFU/mL. E. coli was detected in 17 (10.3%) samples, with counts of 1-2.18 log CFU/mL. The SCC in raw milk was 10,000-1,390,000 cells per mL, with mean and geometric mean values of 247,000 and 162,181, respectively. The SCC did not differ significantly between the seasons (p>0.05), but differed between different farms (pcount was 1.47-5.03 log CFU/mL. The median of SPC, CC, and S. aureus counts differed significantly between seasons and between farms (pbacterial (including pathogenic) presence.

  15. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  16. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk...... samples (n = 101) were kindly provided by the Milk Research Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Presumptive arcobacters were identified by previously described genus-specific and species-specific PCR assays. Arcobacter spp. were found to be common...... contaminants of retail raw meats and raw milk in Northern Ireland. Poultry meat (62%) had the highest prevalence, but frequent isolations were made from pork (35%), beef (34%), and raw milk (46%). Arcobacter butzleri was the predominant species isolated from retail raw meats and was the only species isolated...

  17. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PONKA ROGER

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  18. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Civera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  19. Effect of Modified Pre-Milking Sanitizing Approaches on Raw Milk Quality Obtained from the Dairy Farmers of Tawau Area, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Kheng Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the raw milk hygiene and quality among the small holder dairy farmers in Tawau area. A total of 216 samples were collected from the respective dairy farmers and milk collecting centre located at Mile 15, Tawau. Preliminary results indicated that the quality of the raw milks obtained at farm level contained were inferior with high bacteria load (> than 107 CFU/ml. The total coliform (2.9-3.8 CFU/mL and Staphylococcus count (2.3-3.6 CFU/mL were relatively high in certain samples. However, none of the food borne pathogens was found. Trace back study revealed that the causes of contamination were attributed by poor hygienic handling among the dairy farmers and insufficient for immediate chilling of raw milk. A significant reduction in bacteria load was observed if the raw milk chilled immediately at farm. The implementation of modified pre-milking sanitizing practices improved the microbiology quality of the raw milks obtained from respective dairy farms. Future study will focus more on the effect of prolong storage towards the microbiological quality of raw milk.

  20. Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

    2011-12-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log₁₀ TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pcounts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  2. Effect of post - milking teat dipping on hygienic quality of cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of teat disinfection (dipping treatment) after milking on hygienic quality of row milk. The research was conducted on the farm with 30 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Animals were kept in a tied housing system. Milking is done by a bucket milking units using vacuum line. The research was carried out during the period of 2 months from 26.11.2012 till 25.01.2013. Results showed that milk immediately after leaving the u...

  3. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swai ES; Schoonman L

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania. Methods: A microbial quality assessment of marketed raw milk was undertaken by evaluating 59 samples of milk from selling points (collecting centres =15), bicycle boys (12) and kiosks/restaurants (32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005. Quality and milk-borne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence ofBrucellosis well as standard plate count (SPC). Specific gravity (SG) determination was used as an indicator of adulteration. Results: The mean coliform plate count (c.f.u/mL) of milk handled by bicycle boys (4.2×106) was significantly higher than that handled by collecting centres (3.0×106) and kiosk/ restaurants (1.4×106), respectively (P < 0.05). Of the 59 milk samples collected, 33 (56%) were Brucella milk ring test (MRT)-positive and 78% and 17% of the samples graded satisfactorily based on SG and coliform plate counts as prescribed by East African Community standards for raw milk. There was no verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) O157: H7 in any of the milk samples collected and analysed during the present study. Conclusions: It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp.) and other harmful microorganisms. (milk ring test), Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 (culture), the coliform bacteria as

  4. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  5. Microbiological Analysis, Detection of Adulterants and Contaminants in Raw Milk at Farms in Central Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Ștețca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk hygiene strongly depends on the compliance with basic principles of food safety, starting with staff responsibility, farmer, products traceability, sanitation of the entire flow, from farm to consumer. There were studied 800 samples of raw cow milk purchased from the collection centers. The parameters considered here were number of germ cells, somatic cell count, added water and antibiotics residues. Number of germs cells recorded values up to 70 times out of the regulation limit -100000 TNG/mL. There were 48 samples exceeding the value of 400000 SCC/mL, and only 3 of them had improper hygienic conditions due to the value of TNG higher than 100000/mL. No antibiotics or added water was registered.

  6. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Bach Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the formation of clots in the milk. Based on reported changes in primarily the milk protein fraction asa response to infection of the mammary gland, different explanations for the generation of precipitates in mastitis milkare discussed. Automatic milking systems (AMS should have sensors to monitor and divert abnormal milk. The managementsystem of AMS provides an excellent opportunity to introduce Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCPsystems for surveying the milk quality. HACCP-based proposals are given for avoiding contamination of the bulk milk withmilk from cows with clinical mastitis and for ensuring a low bulk milk bacterial count.

  7. Identification and effect decomposition of risk factors for Brucella contamination of raw whole milk in china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbo Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23-3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors-culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants

  8. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Swai

    2011-06-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that raw market milk in the study area is of poor bacteriological quality and hazardous for human consumption. This highlights the need to implement good hygiene practices and effective monitoring from production through the delivery chain to the consumer. Further studies are needed for detection of toxins that are produced by E. coli, other pathogenic spore forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. and other harmful microorganisms.

  9. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF RISK MANAGEMENT IN DIRECTLY RAW MILK SELLING AT “E. AVANZI” CENTER OF PISA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rindi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors show the results about the effectiveness verification of prevention measures adopted in raw milk directly selling at “E. Avanzi” Centre of Pisa University. The good hygienic practices applied during production, storage and selling phases demonstrated to guarantee, in raw milk, conditions complying to hygienic criteria provided for the current regulation in Tuscany. The effectiveness verification about risk communication, carried out interviewing a sample of buyers, shows as, beside a predominant attitude towards attention to potential hygienic risks, overstay areas of reduced awareness about food risk and the ways to manage prevention. Authors hope for, in this context, such as in other similar productions, the approach yet launched towards continuous improvement of good hygienic practices adopted by businesses, could be extended to risk communication, with the aim to promote conscious and responsable choices of consumer.

  11. Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngasala, J Uma Bukuku; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa Madundo Angelo

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of raw milk and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks and factors for poor milk hygiene in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania between October and December 2012. A total of 105 smallholder dairy farmers, milk vendors and milk retailers were interviewed, and milk samples were collected for physical, microbial and antibiotic residue analysis using standard procedures. Questionnaire results indicated high level of awareness (94 %) that drinking raw milk can predispose consumers to milk-borne diseases; nevertheless, 65 % of respondents consumed raw milk. Physicochemical analyses showed some of the milk had sediments (20 %), bad smell (21 %) and had clotted on alcohol test (27 %). About 36 % of milk samples had pH below 6.6, and 25 % had specific gravity below 1.028 g/ml. The mean total viable count (TVC) of milk from vendors is significantly (P milk samples assessed had a higher TVC than the level recommended (2.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml) by the East African Community (EAC) standards. Up to 91 % of the milk samples had bacterial growth that included Eschericia coli (66 %), Staphylococcus aureus (33 %), Corynebacterium (11 %) and Pseudomonas (10 %). All smallholder dairy farmers were aware of drug residues, but majority (57 %) were unaware of human health effects caused by veterinary drug residues in milk. Up to 97 % of respondents reported to comply with drug withdrawal periods. This possibly led to all milk samples analysed to be negative from detectable levels of antibiotic residues. It is concluded that the level of awareness on milk quality is high, although practices associated with milking and post-harvest handling predispose milk to bacterial contamination which is a public health risk to milk consumers.

  12. Molecular approaches to analysing the microbial composition of raw milk and raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    The availability and application of culture-independent tools that enable a detailed investigation of the microbiota and microbial biodiversity of food systems has had a major impact on food microbiology. This review focuses on the application of DNA-based technologies, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE), single stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP), the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and others, to investigate the diversity, dynamics and identity of microbes in dairy products from raw milk. Here, we will highlight the benefits associated with culture-independent methods which include enhanced sensitivity, rapidity and the detection of microorganisms not previously associated with such products.

  13. Microbiological quality of retail cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C L; Rhoades, J R; Sagoo, S K; Harris, J; Greenwood, M; Mithani, V; Grant, K; McLauchlin, J

    2008-04-01

    Two studies of retail fresh, ripened and semi-hard cheeses made from raw, thermized or pasteurized milk were undertaken in the UK during 2004 and 2005 to determine the microbiological quality of these products. Using microbiological criteria in European Commission Recommendations 2004/24/EC and 2005/175/EC, 2% of both raw, thermized (37/1819 samples) and pasteurized (51/2618 samples) milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to levels of Staphylococcus aureus at 10(4)cfu g(-1), Escherichia coli at 10(5)cfu g(-1), and/or Listeria monocytogenes at 10(2)cfu g(-1), whereas pasteurized milk cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality due to S. aureus at 10(3)cfu g(-1) and/or E. coli at 10(3)cfu g(-1). Salmonella was not detected in any samples. Cheeses were of unsatisfactory quality more frequently when sampled from premises rated as having little or no confidence in management and control systems, and stored/displayed at above 8 degrees C. Raw or thermized milk cheeses were also more likely to be of unsatisfactory quality when they were unripened types, and pasteurized milk cheeses when they were: semi-hard types; from specialist cheese shops or delicatessens; cut to order. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygiene practices throughout the food chain to prevent contamination and/or bacterial growth. Labelling of cheeses with clear information on whether the cheese was prepared from raw milk also requires improvement.

  14. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw m

  15. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation.

  16. Bacteriological quality of raw camel milk along the market value chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali regional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Tsegalem; Legesse, Yoseph; Mummed, Behar; Urga, Befekadu

    2016-05-26

    The camel is a multipurpose animal with a huge productive potential. Camel milk is a key food in arid and semi-arid areas of the African and Asian countries. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was conducted to evaluate total bacterial content in raw camel milk along the market chain in Fafen zone, Ethiopian Somali Regional State. One hundred twenty-six raw camel milk samples were collected from Gursum (47.1 %) and Babile (52.9 %) districts. The three sampling levels included were udder (14.7 %), milking bucket (29.4 %) and market (55.9 %). Milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial counts (TBC) and coliform counts (CC). Furthermore, major pathogens were isolated and identified. 108 (85.7 %) of raw camel milk samples demonstrated bacterial contamination. The overall mean TBC and CC of contaminated raw camel milk samples was 4.75 ± 0.17 and 4.03 ± 0.26 log CFU/ml, respectively. TBC increased from udder to market level and was higher in Gursum compared to Babile district (P < 0.05). Around 38.9 % of TBCs and 88.2 % CCs in contaminated raw camel milk samples were in the range considered unsafe for human utility. Staphylococcus spp. (89.8 %), Streptococcus spp. (53.7 %), E. coli (31.5 %), Salmonella spp. (17.6 %), Klebsiella spp. (5.6 %) and Enterobacter spp. (5.6 %) were the major bacterial microorganisms isolated. The majority of the bacterial isolates in this study showed high incidence in market as compared to production level. These results indicate a lack of compliance with good production practices and hygiene at milking, transportation and market of raw camel milk.

  17. Monitoring of Foodborne Pathogens in Raw Cow Milk in Tuscany

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Alonzo, Alessia; Senese, Matteo; Fabbri, Ilaria; Cirri, Cristina; Milioni, Carla; Valenza, Valeria; Tolli, Rita; Campeis, Francesca; Fischetti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin-producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9%) were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed. PMID:27800320

  18. [Investigation of gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, Adrienn; Ducza, Eszter; Gáspár, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in traditional medicine. The best-known honeybee products are the honey, the propolis and the royal jelly. Drone milk is a relatively little-known honeybee product. Although, drone milk is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women in certain countries, the literature furnishes no information concerning effects of the drone milk. The oestrogenic and androgenic effects of drone milk have recently been reported in rats and the effective compounds have also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the putative gestagenic effect of raw drone milk in rats. Maintenance of pregnancy assays revealed that drone milk was able to increase the number of surviving fetuses. This results suggested some gestagenic effects. This effect was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot methods in which the mRNA and protein expressions of gestagen-dependent CRLR (Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor) peptide were determined. To determine the efficacy of gestagenic effect of drone milk, spironolactone (weak gestagen compound) was used. The combination of drone milk and spironolactone showed more potent gestagenic effect. These results lead us to suppose that raw drone milk shows weak gestagenic effect and this effect can be increased by another weak gestagen. Further studies are required to clarify the gestagenic mechanisms of action of drone milk.

  19. Effect of addition of CO2 to raw milk on quality of UHT-treated milk

    OpenAIRE

    Vianna, PCB; Walter, EHM; Dias, MEF; Faria, JAF; Netto, FM; Gigante, ML

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of CO2 to raw milk on UHT milk quality during storage. Control milk (without CO2 addition) and treated milk (with CO2 addition up to pH 6.2) were stored in bulk tanks at 4°C for 6d. After storage, both samples were UHT processed using indirect heating (140°C for 5s). Samples were aseptically packed in low-density polyethylene pouches and stored in the dark at room temperature. Raw milk was evaluated upon receipt for physicoche...

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RAW MILK SUPPLIED TO FAISALABAD CITY DURING SUMMER MONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashifa Khaliq, M. Ashfaque, Iftikhar Hussain and Masood Akhtar1

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Standard plate count of 100 milk samples collected from Faisalabad city during tile months of June- August, 2000, ranged from 6.9 x 103 to 1.12 x 107. Time required for the reduction of methylene blue dye in milk samples was half hour in 26% samples, one hour in 25%, one & half hour in 27%, two hour in 9% and two & half hours in 13% milk samples. Microscopic count ranged from 1.3 x 106 to 9x 108. Presumptive test for presence of coliform organisms was positive in all tile 100 milk samples. The electrical conductivity was recorded as low as 2200 mcromho/cm and as high as 4500 micromho/cm. The values of coefficient of correlation of viable count with electrical conductivity was 0.805 (P<0.05; methylene blue reduction test with electrical conductivity was -0.758 (P<0.05. 24% of tile samples fulfilled the International Standard of grade “A” raw milk (<100,000 bacteria per ml of milk, but their methylene blue reduction test gave fair quality milk. An overall hygienic quality of milk supplied to Faisalabad city was very poor.

  1. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  2. “In bacteria land”: the battle over raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Beginning at around 1893, America’s initial raw milk wars pitted proponents of pasteurized milk against advocates of a complex scheme for “certifying” clean, uncontaminated raw milk. The certification program, unsuited to modern commercial economies of scale, soon faded into obscurity. When a new version of the raw milk movement began gathering strength in the 1970s, scarcely anyone remembered the terms on which a certain amount of rational debate had once taken place. Part of the reason is that over the course of the twentieth century, the scale and structure of the fluid milk industry had undergone drastic changes that turned a highly variable, fragile product into a nearly featureless one poorly understood by consumers, regulators, or polemicists. Meanwhile, new dairying and processing practices had begun creating hospitable conditions for pathogens that were unknown during the first controversies but that urgently need to be considered today. Unfortunately, discussion of the raw milk question is now almost wholly dictated by intolerant ideologues on both sides, in an atmosphere of profound historical amnesia. Given the great complexity of the issues involved and the serious implications for public health, the general tone of debate is at best counterproductive.

  3. Aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Andersen, Henrik J; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2002-12-04

    In the present study, the aldehyde-induced pro-oxidative activity of xanthine oxidase was followed in an accelerated raw milk system using spin-trap electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The aldehydes acetaldehyde, propanal, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-heptenal, trans-2-nonenal, and 3-methyl-2-butenal were all found to initiate radical reactions when added to milk. Formation of superoxide through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity is suggested as the initial reaction, as all tested aldehydes were shown to trigger superoxide formation in an ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk model system with added xanthine oxidase. It was found that addition of aldehydes to milk initially increased the ascorbyl radical concentration with a subsequent decay due to ascorbate depletion, which renders the formation of superoxide in milk with added aldehyde. The present study shows for the first time potential acceleration of oxidative events in milk through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity.

  4. Occurrence of Noroviruses and Their Correlation with Microbial Indicators in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavarmanesh, Masoud; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of raw cow's milk in a collection center in the city of Mashhad, Iran. A total of 19 raw cow's milk samples were collected and simultaneously analyzed for male-specific (F(+)) coliphage and Escherichia coli using culture-based methods and for enteric viruses by reverse transcriptase semi-nested PCR using primer sets specific for human norovirus Group I (HNV-GI), human norovirus Group II (HNV-GII), and enteroviruses (EV). Seven out of 19 (36.8%) raw milk samples tested positive for human noroviruses (HNV). The genotypes detected were HNV-GI and HNV-GII. Three positive samples contained both genotypes, and 2 samples were positive for either of HNV-GI and HNV-GII. No sample tested positive for EV. The correlation between the occurrence of HNV and the microbial indicators was studied. The statistical analysis using first- and second-order regression revealed that there is no correlation between F(+) coliphage and E. coli. Similarly, no correlation was noticed between the occurrence of F(+) coliphages and HNV. However, frequency distribution analysis indicated that 3 out of 4 (75%) of raw milk samples containing F(+) coliphage at a concentration higher than 10(4) pfu/100 ml were also positive for noroviruses. The limited data on the occurrence of noroviruses in raw milk suggest a poor sanitation and hygiene practices at the facility and indicate a possible correlation between the viral indicator at high concentration and human noroviruses; however, this analysis needs further investigation in a larger scale study.

  5. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  6. Sources of Clostridia in Raw Milk on Farms▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Marie-Claude; Dion, Patrice; Lafrenière, Carole; Antoun, Hani; Drouin, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to examine on-farm sources of Clostridium cluster I strains in four dairy farms over 2 years. Conventional microbiological analysis was used in parallel to monitor size of clostridial populations present in various components of the milk production chain (soil, forage, grass silage, maize silage, dry hay, and raw milk). PCR amplification with Clostridium cluster I-specific 16S rRNA gene primers followed by DGGE separation yielded a total of 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which varied greatly with respect to frequency of occurrence. Some OTUs were found only in forage, and forage profiles differed according to farm location (southern or northern Québec). More clostridial contamination was found in maize silage than in grass silage. Milk represented a potential environment for certain OTUs. No OTU was milk specific, indicating that OTUs originated from other environments. Most (83%) of the OTUs detected in raw milk were also found in grass or maize silage. Milk DGGE profiles differed according to farm and sampling year and fit into two distinct categories. One milk profile category was characterized by the presence of a few dominant OTUs, the presence of which appeared to be more related to farm management than to feed contamination. OTUs were more varied in the second profile category. The identities of certain OTUs frequently found in milk were resolved by cloning and sequencing. Clostridium disporicum was identified as an important member of clostridial populations transmitted to milk. Clostridium tyrobutyricum was consistently found in milk and was widespread in the other farm environments examined. PMID:18757576

  7. Bacteriological quality of raw cow milk in Shahrekord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Fadaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of contamination with Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk from Shahrekord city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 raw milk samples were collected randomly from five regions, namely northeast, east, southeast, south, and southwest regions of Shahrekord city according to stratified random sampling design. Samples were analyzed for Total plate count (TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, coliform, and E. coli. Results: Out of 300 samples of raw milk, contamination with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus was observed in 237 (79%, 207 (69% and 125 (41.66% samples, respectively. The highest rate of contamination was in the samples from southwest region with coliforms, E. coli, and S. aureus were present in 30 (100%, 29 (96.66%, and19 (63.33% samples, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusions: Considering the high rate of raw milk contamination with S. aureus, E. Coli, and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting, transporting, and storage especially in the summer season is recommended.

  8. Quality aspects of raw goat milk in Lower Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwat Wasiksiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the quality and safety of raw goat milk in Lower Southern Thailand duringAugust to September 2008. Milk samples were collected from five farms in Songkhla, Yala, and Pattani Province of which thepH, acidity, specific gravity, milk fat, solid not fat, total solid, total plate count, Coliform count, and antibiotic residue weretested. The results did not show any significant difference (p>0.05 on pH and total plate count among samples from eachfarm. However, acidity, specific gravity, milk fat, solid not fat, and total solid varied between farms depending on feed supplyand management. Means of total bacteria count and Coliform count of most samples were in TACF standard quality (log3.720 cfu/ml and log 1.892 cfu/ml, respectively, except four samples had higher Coliform contamination. Additionally,a higher proportion (22.7 % of samples with antibiotic residue was found.

  9. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial characteristics of Conciato Romano: an artisanal cheese made from raw sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Mormile

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics of a batch of Conciato Romano during manufacturing and ripening. Conciato Romano is a traditional cheese made from raw sheep’s milk without starter cultures in the province of Caserta (Southern Italy using traditional methods. A total of 7 samples (raw milk, curd and cheese wheels taken after 25, 60, 120 and 180 days of ripening were screened for hygiene indicators microorganisms counts (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, E. coli, clostridia sulphite reducing, yeasts, coagulasepositive staphylococci, enterococci, for autochthonous lactic acid flora counts (mesophilic and thermophilic lactococci and lattobacilli, and also for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes presence. In raw milk, low values were detected for total aerobic flora (3.2 log cfu/mL, Enterobacteriaceae and total coliforms (2 cfu/mL, and the autochthonous starter lactic flora was predominant (3.2 log cfu/mL. During ripening, total aerobic flora was constant (107-108 cfu/g; total coliforms, E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were not detected starting from the 60th day of ripening. Enterococci ranged from 4.2 to 6.2 log cfu/g. The mesophilic lactic flora was dominant with values always >6 log cfu/g during the whole ripening period. Pathogens were never detected. The results of this study highlighted how the raw milk indigenous lactic flora, the traditional production techniques and the cheesemaker’s experience are essential to guarantee the unique nature of Conciato Romano.

  11. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  12. Adhesive properties of predominant bacteria in raw cow's milk to bovine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Sasaki, Keisuke; Aso, Hisashi; Nomura, Masaru

    2013-11-01

    Various bacteria have been found in raw cow's milk, and identifying milk microflora and its functions is critical for maintaining cow health and farm hygiene. Although studies on pathogens and spoilage bacteria in milk have been widely reported, the relationship between milk bacteria, including nonpathogenic bacteria, and the bovine udder is poorly understood. We investigated milk microflora over 1 year using a culture-dependent method and culture-independent analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Among 240 isolates, Lactococcus lactis (81/240) was predominant. The predominant genera were Lactococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Chryseobacterium, Serratia and Pseudomonas. Among seven strains belonging to these predominant genera, two strains of L. lactis (ssp. lactis and ssp. cremoris) exhibited the highest adherence to bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs) derived from the bovine udder; 3.4 % of the inoculated bacteria adhered to BMECs. This was followed by Serratia sp. (1.6 %), Microbacterium sp. (0.8 %), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (0.5 %), Pseudomonas sp. (0.3 %) and Chryseobacterium sp. (0.1 %). The two L. lactis isolates exhibited higher adherence to BMECs than type strains and isolates of various origins.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CACAO MILK AND RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Roman

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison between some physical - chemical characteristics of the cacao milk and of the raw milk. For this comparison we made the following determinations for both types of milk: the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature, the determination of the proteic substance by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the milk pasteurization control by the starch and potassium iodide test and the pH determination using the indicato...

  14. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Breviario

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  15. Detection of Melamine Residue in Raw Milk and Milk Related Products by UV spectrophotometry

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    T.ANANTHAKUMAR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melamine is a toxic triazine used as an adulterant in milk & milk related products to increase the protein content. Spectrophotometric method has been developed using 0.1M sodium hydroxide as solvent to detect the melamine residue in raw milk and milk related products. As the amount of melamine residue present in samples would be of nanogram level which is beyond detection by UV spectrophotometer, standard addition method was adopted. The melamine was extracted by precipitation of milk protein at its isoelectric point with dilute acids. Samples were purified by using membrane filter of 0.45μm pore size, a known concentration of melamine standard solution was added to this filtrate and the absorbance was measured spectrophotometrically. The linearity curve was constructed for the concentration of melamine ranging from 3 - 8μg/ml.The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9926. In this study 31 milk samples (raw milk and milk related product were analysed by standard addition method. It was observed that all the 31samples were found to contain melamine residue. This is the first study to confirm the existence of melamine residue in pasteurized milk marketed in Tamilnadu.

  16. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Yaşar; Başkaya, Ruhtan; Karsli, Seher; Yurdun, Türkan; Ozyaral, Oğuz

    2009-04-01

    This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. Samples of human and raw cow's milk were collected randomly and analyzed for AFM1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in which the samples were cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns. In this study, AFM, was detected in 8 (13.1%) of 61 human breast milk samples examined (mean +/- SD level, 5.68 +/- 0.62 ng/liter; range, 5.10 to 6.90 ng/liter) and 20 (33.3%) of 60 raw cow's milk samples examined (range, 5.40 to 300.20 ng/liter). Five (8.3%) of the positive raw cow's milk samples had AFM1 levels (153.52 +/- 100.60 ng/liter; range, 61.20 to 300.20 ng/liter) that were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 ppb) stipulated by regulations in Turkey and some other countries.

  17. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Purchase Price of Raw Milk in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia; DONG

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects 20 countries from the major dairy producing continents such as Oceania,the Americas,Europe and Asia,for the comparative analysis of the purchase price of raw milk in the world. Based on the summarization of general features of the world raw milk prices,this paper elaborates the fluctuations in the purchase price of raw milk in Oceania,the Americas,Europe and Asia,respectively,and carries out the comparative study of the gap between the domestic purchase price of raw milk and the world purchase price of raw milk.

  19. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  20. Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Nilsson

    2015-10-01

    CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Purchase Price of Raw Milk in the World

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, XIAOXIA

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects 20 countries from the major dairy producing continents such as Oceania, the Americas, Europe and Asia, for the comparative analysis of the purchase price of raw milk in the world. Based on the summarization of general features of the world raw milk prices, this paper elaborates the fluctuations in the purchase price of raw milk in Oceania, the Americas, Europe and Asia, respectively, and carries out the comparative study of the gap between the domestic purchase price of raw...

  2. Description of a new species, Bifidobacterium crudilactis sp. nov., isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, V; Gavini, F; Beerens, H; Tresse, O; Franssen, C; Daube, G

    2007-07-01

    A new Bifidobacterium species is described based on the study of ten Gram-positive strains with fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. They are part of a phenotypic group comprising 141 strains isolated from raw milk and raw milk cheeses in French raw milk cheese factories. This group was separated by a numerical analysis based on API 50CH, API 32A tests and growth at 46 degrees C. A strong similarity of 16S rRNA sequences (99.8%) was shown between strain FR62/b/3(T) and Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum LMG 21775(T). However, low DNA-DNA relatedness was observed between their DNAs (31%). The new isolates are able to grow at low temperatures (all ten strains up to 5 degrees C) and strain FR62/b/3(T) grows under aerobic conditions, as does B. psychraerophilum. However, contrary to B. psychraerophilum, they do not ferment L-arabinose, D-xylose, arbutin or melezitose, but they do acidify lactose. The DNA G+C content of FR62/b/3(T) is 56.4mol%. Therefore, the name Bifidobacterium crudilactis sp. nov. is proposed, with its type strain being FR62/b/3(T) (=LMG 23609(T)=CNCM I-3342(T)).

  3. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption.

  4. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  5. Staphylococcus aureus reservoirs during traditional Austrian raw milk cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcher, Georg; Gonano, Monika; Kümmel, Judith; Barker, Gary C; Lebl, Karin; Bereuter, Othmar; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Wagner, Martin; Stessl, Beatrix

    2014-11-01

    Sampling approaches following the dairy chain, including microbiological hygiene status of critical processing steps and physicochemical parameters, contribute to our understanding of how Staphylococcus aureus contamination risks can be minimised. Such a sampling approach was adopted in this study, together with rapid culture-independent quantification of Staph. aureus to supplement standard microbiological methods. A regional cheese production chain, involving 18 farms, was sampled on two separate occasions. Overall, 51·4% of bulk milk samples were found to be Staph. aureus positive, most of them (34·3%) at the limit of culture-based detection. Staph. aureus positive samples >100 cfu/ml were recorded in 17·1% of bulk milk samples collected mainly during the sampling in November. A higher number of Staph. aureus positive bulk milk samples (94·3%) were detected after applying the culture-independent approach. A concentration effect of Staph. aureus was observed during curd processing. Staph. aureus were not consistently detectable with cultural methods during the late ripening phase, but >100 Staph. aureus cell equivalents (CE)/ml or g were quantifiable by the culture-independent approach until the end of ripening. Enterotoxin gene PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing provided evidence that livestock adapted strains of Staph. aureus mostly dominate the post processing level and substantiates the belief that animal hygiene plays a pivotal role in minimising the risk of Staph. aureus associated contamination in cheese making. Therefore, the actual data strongly support the need for additional sampling activities and recording of physicochemical parameters during semi-hard cheese-making and cheese ripening, to estimate the risk of Staph. aureus contamination before consumption.

  6. Quality of raw cow milk in Republic of Macedonia determined through the testing of somatic cell count and total viable count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cells count and total viable count are criteria used to estimate the compliance of raw cow milk with the Book of rules for demands for safety and hygiene and procedures for official controls of milk and milk products, Official Gazette of RM 157/2007. According to the given demands, raw milk operators are obliged to conduct all procedures and to guarantee that milk is in compliance with the criteria laid down in Book of rules. At the same time, Republic of Macedonia have to fulfill EU criteria laid down in Directive 92/46 (Council directive 92/46/EEC laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milkbased products for quality of raw milk as part of implementation of community legislation and milk production. The independent laboratory for milk quality control at FVM-Skopje, in frame of its activities in the period February- August 2008 has conducted a study for obtaining preliminary results for the situation with raw milk quality produced in R. of Macedonia for somatic cells counts and total viable count. In the study we analyzed 2065 samples for TVC and 1625 samples for SCC of raw milk samples produced in different parts of the country. From the tested samples only 41,8% fulfill criteria for SCC and 41,45% criteria for TVC lay down in Book of rules for 2008. Assessment of the results in light of Council Directive it is obvious that only 42,7% of the samples for SCC and 10,7% for TVC fulfill the criteria of Council Directive having in mind different requirements vs. Book of rules.

  7. Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hygienic quality by determining the presence of predominant pathogenic microbial contaminants (contagious or environmental and indiscriminate heavy metals contained in unpasteurized milk samples collected from cattle specie of cow. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected in October, 2014 from different regions of District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and cultured on the selective media plates according to the manufacturer instructions to observe pathogenic microbial flora and confirm it with relevant biochemical tests to specify bacterial specie. Results: Milk samples analyzed on MacConkey and nutrient agar media were found contaminated mostly with coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly, result of the heavy metals analysis performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame photometry showed that raw milk contains heavy metals residues of lead and cadmium contents at higher levels while copper, zinc and chromium were observed lower than permissible limits whereas manganese within specified recommended values. Conclusions: Microbial contamination of milk and toxic metals is mainly accredited to the scrupulous unhygienic measures during processing of milk exhibiting a wide array of hazardous impacts on human health.

  8. Sale of raw milk in northern Italy: food safety implications and comparison of different analytical methodologies for detection of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Finazzi, Guido; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina N; Arrigoni, Norma; Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Riu, Raffaela; Zanoni, Renato G

    2012-04-01

    The safety of raw milk sold in Northern Italy was investigated in relation to hygiene quality parameters and presence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, thermotolerant Campylobacter, and Verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The performance of different analytical methods used-official culture method (ISO), modified Bacteriological Analytical Manual cultural method (mBAM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-was evaluated. The presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) was investigated only by PCR. All samples met regulations for alkaline phosphatase and inhibitory substance, while 18% and 44.8% of samples collected from vending machines had, respectively, somatic cell count (SCC) >300,000/mL and total bacterial count (TBC) >50,000 CFU/mL. The correlation between hygienic quality parameters in samples collected from bulk tank and vending machines showed a significant increase of TBC in vending machines meaning that raw milk was mishandled during distribution and sale. All pathogens investigated were detected in raw milk sold at vending machines; a total of five samples (5%) had at least one pathogen, of which two were detected by PCR and three by mBAM. None of the samples was positive by cultural ISO methods. Even if the comparison of analytical methods showed that none performs significantly better than the others, testing a higher volume of milk (25 versus 210 mL) affects significantly the detection rate of pathogens. Three samples (3%) were positive for Map, suggesting that raw milk is a significant source of Map exposure for consumers. The observed TBC increase and the detection of several pathogenic bacteria pose questions on the safety of raw milk; the use of ISO seems inefficient in detecting a low contamination level of pathogens in milk and consequently not appropriate as official method for testing. In order to ensure consumer's safety, a new approach for the raw milk chain is required.

  9. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION IN RAW MILK IN TURIN DEPARTEMENT : HEAVY METALS, P.C.B, ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES – YEARS 2005 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cavallera

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period between 2005 and 2008 was carried out a survey on 252 samples of raw bovine milk collected in Turin departement to certain levels of contamination by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Hg, Pb, Zn, PCB and organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides. These results argue that the levels of heavy metals, PCB and pesticides are well below what is expected by the European legislation and that the situation is under control and that raw milk meets the hygiene requirements for human health.

  10. Identification of gram-negative bacteria from critical control points of raw and pasteurized cow milk consumed at Gondar town and its suburbs, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garedew Legesse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk is highly prone to contamination and can serve as an efficient vehicle for human transmission of foodborne pathogens, especially gram-negative bacteria, as these are widely distributed in the environment. Methods This cross-sectional study of gram-negative staining bacterial contamination of milk meant for human consumption was carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Milk samples were collected from critical control points, from production to consumption, that were hypothesized to be a source of potential contamination. Milk sampling points included smallholder’s milk producers, dairy co-operatives, a milk processing plant, and supermarkets. The hygienic procedures applied during milking, milk collection, transportation, pasteurization, and postpasteurization storage conditions at these specified critical control points were evaluated. Standard bacteriological cultivation and biochemical assays were used to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in the milk samples. Results The results of the current study showed that conditions for contamination of raw milk at different critical points were due to less hygienic practices in pre-milking udder preparation, sub-optimal hygiene of milk handlers, and poor sanitation practices associated with milking and storage equipments. Among all critical control points considered, transportation containers at milk collection centers and at processing plants were found to be the most heavily contaminated with gram-negative staining bacterial species. Overall, 54 different bacterial species were indentified, and Escherichia coli (29.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%, were the most commonly identified gram-negative staining bacterial pathogens. Of particular interest was that no gram-negative staining bacteria were isolated from pasteurized milk samples with varying shelf life. Conclusion This study showed the presence of

  11. New method to measure the total amount of bacteria in raw milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhao, Zhigang; Wu, Juan; Cai, Qiang

    2005-01-01

    A novel method to measure the total amount of bacteria in raw milk is introduced in this paper. This method involves optics, color theory and biology. In this method the total amount of bacteria in raw milk is measured according to the color change caused by chemical reaction. The study proves that the total amount of bacteria in raw milk can be measured by this method with high speed and accuracy. Besides, this method is easy operating and very economical. These qualities will surely make it a favorite in the measurement of the total amount of bacteria in raw milk in the future.

  12. Sustainability of milk production in the Netherlands - A comparison between raw organic, pasteurised organic and conventional milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Capuano, E.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer preferences are changing, resulting in an increased demand for both organic milk and raw milk due to their perceived higher nutritional value and positive contribution to animal welfare. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of these products with conventional pasteurised milk, a sust

  13. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  14. Hydrolytic potential of a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula F. Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of extracellular hydrolases by a psychrotrophic bacterium isolated from refrigerated raw milk, and identified as a Pseudomonas sp. belonging to the Pseudomonas jenssenii group, was studied. This bacterium produced proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes in all media investigated (skim milk, cheese whey, casein broth, and tryptone soy broth. High levels of α-glucosidase were produced in skim milk broth. Hydrolytic enzymes detected in skim milk broth are of particular concern, indicating that these enzymes could be produced by Pseudomonas sp. during the cold storage of raw milk, contributing to the spoilage problem in milk and dairy products.

  15. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombarak, Rabee A; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Iguchi, Atsushi; Shima, Ayaka; Elbagory, Abdel-Rahman M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli contaminating raw milk and its products in Egypt. Out of 187 dairy products including 72 raw milk samples, 55 Karish cheese and 60 Ras cheese, 222 E. coli isolates including 111, 89 and 22 were obtained from 55 raw milk samples (76.4%), 41 Karish cheese (74.5%), and 13 Ras cheese (21.7%), respectively. Isolated E. coli strains were examined for 24 representative virulence genes present in diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Among DEC and ExPEC virulence factors, genes for enteropathogenic E. coli (eaeA, bfpA, EAF), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (stx1, stx2, eaeA), enterotoxigenic E. coli (elt, est), enteroinvasive E. coli (invE), enteroaggregative E. coli (Eagg, astA), diffusely adherent E. coli (daaD), ExPEC (cdt-I to cdt-V, cnf1, cnf2, hlyA) and putative adhesins (efa1, iha, ehaA, saa, and lpfAO113) were screened by colony hybridization assay. Out of 222 E. coli strains, 104 (46.8%) isolated from 69 (36.9%) samples carried one or more virulence genes. The most prevalent gene detected was lpfAO113 (40.5%), followed by ehaA (32.4%,), astA (3.15%,), iha (1.80%), hlyA (1.35%), stx1 (0.90%), stx2 (0.90%), eaeA (0.45%), cdt-III (0.45%) and cnf2 (0.45%). Two strains isolated from Karish cheese harbored 5 virulence genes (stx1, stx2, iha, ehaA, lpfAO113). Stx subtype was determined to be stx1 (not stx1c or stx1d) and stx2d. Indeed, expression of hemolysin A, CDT-III, CNF-II, Stx1 and Stx2d was confirmed by blood agar plate, cytotoxicity assay and Western blotting, respectively. Among the 222 E. coli strains, 54 (48.6%), 38 (42.6%) and 12 (54.7%) isolated from raw milk, Karish cheese and Ras cheese were potentially virulent, respectively. O-genotyping indicated that most of the potentially virulent E. coli isolates did not belong to clinically important O serogroups except O75, O91 and O166, which have been associated with human

  16. Allergic reactions to raw, pasteurized, and homogenized/pasteurized cow milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Samuelsson, E G

    1988-01-01

    Five children aged 12-40 months with IgE-mediated adverse reactions to cow milk (immediate onset clinical pattern of cow milk allergy) were orally challenged double-blind in random order with three different milk preparations processed from the same batch of milk 1) raw untreated cow milk, 2......) pasteurized cow milk, 3) homogenized and pasteurized cow milk, and 4) Nutramigen (a commercial hypoallergenic infant formula based on hydrolysed casein) as placebo. Skin prick tests with the same preparations were also performed. On oral challenge the three different processed milk types provoked significant...... and similar allergic reactions in each child, and no adverse reactions followed the challenge with placebo (Nutramigen). Skin prick test with the same milk products were positive in all children and comparable to the results with an extract of purified raw cow milk protein (Soluprick), whereas Nutramigen did...

  17. Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in raw milk receiving from UF-Feta Cheese Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhila Moradi-Khatoonabadi

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: It seems that for classifying raw milk quality, AeSC might be used as a more effective quality factor than TVC. Management commitment is effective to improve quality by balance between the amount and quality of receiving raw milk. This leads to the lower contamination in dairy plants and final products.

  18. Direct, quantitative detection of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh raw whole milk by qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and optimization of a method to detect and quantify Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk is described here. Three-step treatment of samples with EDTA, SDS, DNase and trypsin was combined with centrifugation to concentrate bacteria from 10 mL of raw milk and reduce or eliminate potenti...

  19. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively. Thermoduric enterococci were detected in

  20. The continuing debate over increasing consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk: is it safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, K. N.; Hunt, K.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The debate on the consumption of raw (unpasteurised) milk continues. On one side there is the risk of illness associated with pathogenic bacteria that may be in the milk, a risk that can be mitigated by pasteurisation of the milk prior to consumption. On the other side, there are those who believ...

  1. Two outbreaks of campylobacteriosis associated with the consumption of raw cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Annet E; van Heerwaarden, Caroliene; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Tilburg, Jeroen J H C; Bos, M Hanna; Heilmann, Frank G C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Hoekstra, Trynke; de Boer, Enne

    2009-08-31

    The present paper summarises the investigation of two different outbreaks of milk-associated Campylobacter enteritis in the Netherlands. In 2005, after a school trip to a dairy farm, 22 out of a group of 34 children developed diarrhoeal illness and Campylobacterjejuni was cultured from the stool samples of 11 of the cases. The illness was found to be epidemiologically associated with drinking raw milk during the farm visit; 86% of the cases could be explained by drinking raw milk. C.jejuni was also isolated from three of 10 faecal samples from dairy cattle collected at the farm. The human isolates and C.jejuni isolates from one of these three samples of cattle faeces revealed identical restriction patterns by both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and flagellin (fla) typing by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Both epidemiological and bacteriological evidence implicated contaminated raw milk as the vehicle of transmission, though C.jejuni was not isolated from the bulk tank milk or the milk filter collected during the farm investigation. In 2007, an outbreak of enteritis was notified among people who had attended a lunch at a dairy farm where bulk tank milk was served. Of the 19 persons who had consumed raw milk, 16 (84%) had become ill. Of the persons who did not drink the raw milk, none became ill. A significant association was found between tasting the raw milk and being ill (risk difference=0.84, p=0.0011). C.jejuni was cultured from four of seven cases who had submitted a stool specimen. C. jejuni was also isolated from a sample of bulk tank milk and the isolate had an identical flaA PCR-RFLP genotype to isolates obtained from patients. Also in this outbreak both the epidemiological and bacteriological findings support raw milk as the vehicle for the enteritis. These two outbreaks highlight the health risks associated with the consumption of raw milk. As long as legislation allows the sale and distribution of

  2. Milk-deteriorating exoenzymes from Pseudomonas fluorescens 041 isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio L. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of refrigerating raw milk at the farm has provided a selective advantage for psychrotrophic bacteria that produce heat-stable proteases and lipases causing severe quality problems to the dairy industry. In this work, a protease (AprX and a lipase (LipM produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 041, a highly proteolytic and lipolytic strain isolated from raw milk obtained from a Brazilian farm, have been purified and characterized. Both enzymes were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli. The AprX metalloprotease exhibited activity in a broad temperature range, including refrigeration, with a maximum activity at 37 °C. It was active in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. This protease had maximum activity with the substrates casein and gelatin in the presence of Ca+2. The LipM lipase had a maximum activity at 25 °C and a broad pH optimum ranging from 7.0 to 10. It exhibited the highest activity, in the presence of Ca+2, on substrates with long-chain fatty acid residues. These results confirm the spoilage potential of strain 041 in milk due to, at least in part, these two enzymes. The work highlights the importance of studies of this kind with strains isolated in Brazil, which has a recent history on the implementation of the cold chain at the dairy farm.

  3. Milk-deteriorating exoenzymes from Pseudomonas fluorescens 041 isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maurilio L.; Pinto, Uelinton M.; Riedel, Katharina; Vanetti, Maria C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of refrigerating raw milk at the farm has provided a selective advantage for psychrotrophic bacteria that produce heat-stable proteases and lipases causing severe quality problems to the dairy industry. In this work, a protease (AprX) and a lipase (LipM) produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens 041, a highly proteolytic and lipolytic strain isolated from raw milk obtained from a Brazilian farm, have been purified and characterized. Both enzymes were purified as recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli . The AprX metalloprotease exhibited activity in a broad temperature range, including refrigeration, with a maximum activity at 37 °C. It was active in a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0. This protease had maximum activity with the substrates casein and gelatin in the presence of Ca +2 . The LipM lipase had a maximum activity at 25 °C and a broad pH optimum ranging from 7.0 to 10. It exhibited the highest activity, in the presence of Ca +2 , on substrates with long-chain fatty acid residues. These results confirm the spoilage potential of strain 041 in milk due to, at least in part, these two enzymes. The work highlights the importance of studies of this kind with strains isolated in Brazil, which has a recent history on the implementation of the cold chain at the dairy farm. PMID:26221110

  4. Sale of Raw Milk in Northern Italy: Food Safety Implications and Comparison of Different Analytical Methodologies for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Finazzi, Guido; Daminelli, Paolo; Losio, Marina Nadia; Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Riu, Raffaela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2012-01-01

    The safety of raw milk sold in Northern Italy was investigated in relation to hygiene quality parameters and presence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, thermotolerant Campylobacter, and Verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7. The performance of different analytical methods used—official culture method (ISO), modified Bacteriological Analytical Manual cultural method (mBAM), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)— was evaluated. The presence of Mycobacterium avium ...

  5. Hygienic and health characteristics of donkey milk during a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Rachel; Daprà, Valentina; Zecconi, Alfonso; Piccinini, Renata

    2010-11-01

    For its characteristics, donkey milk has been proposed as an alternative to goat or artificial milk to feed allergic infants. Therefore, it is important to increase our knowledge on health and immunological characteristics of donkey milk. Ten donkeys, bred as companion animals, were enrolled in this study and sampled once a month, for eight months. Milk (10 ml) was collected from each half udder for somatic cell count (SCC), bacteriological analysis and total bacteria count (TBC). The major pathogens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were further genotyped by nanoarray analysis. Whey lysozyme and NAGase (NAG) activities were also assessed. Overall, 101 half-udder milk samples were taken. They showed very low values of TBC (donkey and the absence of food-borne pathogens, suggesting that donkey milk could be a safe food, if the mammary gland is healthy and the animals are milked in proper hygienic conditions.

  6. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus on Farms with Small Scale Production of Raw Milk Cheeses in Poland

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    Jolanta G. Rola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a 3-year study on the prevalence, enterotoxinogenicity and resistance to antimicrobials of S. aureus isolated on dairy farms with small scale production of raw cow milk cheeses. The samples of raw milk, semi-finished products and the final products as well as swabs were collected between 2011 and 2013 from nine dairy farms in Poland. A total of 244 samples were examined, of which 122 (50.0% were contaminated with S. aureus including 18 of 26 (69.2% mature cheese samples with log10 CFU g−1 between <1- and 7.41. In swabs collected from the staff and production environment the highest contamination rate with coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS was detected on hands of cheese makers (4.34 log10 CFU/swab. None of the cheese samples contaminated with CPS contained staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs. However, 55 of 122 (45.1% S. aureus isolates possessed SEs genes, mainly (26 of 55; 47.3% a combination of the sed, sej and ser genes. Furthermore, the sep (15 of 55; 27.3% as well as seg and sei (9 of 55; 16.4% genes were also identified. The remaining S. aureus isolates possessed the sea gene (one isolate, the combination of sec, seg and sei (three isolates as well as the sed, sej, sep and ser markers together (one CPS. Resistance to penicillin (62 of 122 isolates; 50.8% was the most common among the tested isolates. Some CPS were also resistant to chloramphenicol (7; 5.7% and tetracycline (5; 4.1%. The obtained results indicated that the analyzed cheeses were safe for consumers. To improve the microbiological quality of traditional cheese products more attention should be paid to animal welfare and hygiene practices during the process of cheese manufacturing in some dairy farms.

  7. Fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Serratore, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Factors affecting the fecal shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in Italian dairy farms were investigated in a 12-month longitudinal study performed on a dairy farm authorized to sell raw milk in Italy. Fifty animals were randomly selected from 140 adult and young animals, and fecal samples were collected six times at 2-month intervals. At each sampling time, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples also were collected for both adult and young animals. Samples were analyzed with real-time PCR assay and culture examination. Overall, 33 samples (9.7%) were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter by real-time PCR: 26 (9.2%) of 280 fecal samples, 6 (16.6%) of 36 water samples, and 1 (4.2%) of 24 feed samples. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 6 of 280 samples; no other Campylobacter species was isolated. A higher (but not significantly) number of positive fecal samples were found in younger animals (11.33 versus 6.92% of adult animals), and a significantly higher number of positive water samples were collected from the water troughs of young animals. A distinct temporal trend was observed during the study period for both cows and calves, with two prevalence peaks between November and December and between May and July. Several factors such as calving, housing practices, herd size, management practices forcing together a higher number of animals, and variations in feed or water sources (previously reported as a cause of temporal variation in different farming conditions) were excluded as the cause of the two seasonal peaks in this study. The factors affecting the seasonality of Campylobacter shedding in the dairy herds remain unclear and warrant further investigation. The results of the present study indicate that special attention should be paid to farm hygiene management on farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk, with increased surveillance by the authorities at certain times of the year.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurised milk and infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf S. Omar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. A total of 175 samples were collected during 2014-2015. All tested samples were contaminated with various levels of AFM1 ranging from 9.71 to 288.68 ng/kg. The concentration of AFM1 in 66% of fresh milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union (50 ng/kg and 23% higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the US (500 ng/kg. Percentages of contaminated raw cow, sheep, goat and camel milk exceeding the European tolerance limit were 60, 85, 75 and 0%, respectively. Of AFM1 contaminated pasteurised cow milk samples, 12% exceeded the European tolerance limit with a range of contamination between 14.60 and 216.78 ng/kg. For infant formula samples, the average concentration of AFM1 was 120.26 ng/kg (range from 16.55 to 288.68 ng/kg, the concentration of AFM1 in 85% of infant formula samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the US (25 ng/kg.

  9. Comparison of the in vitro digestion of raw pasture milk and commercial HTST and UHT pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of raw milk from pasture-fed cows, typically purchased at local farms, is steadily increasing in the US because many consumers believe that high-temperature short-time (HTST) or ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurization affects the digestibility of milk proteins and thus the bioavailabi...

  10. Characteristics of the lactation, chemical composition milk hygiene quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is one of the possible economic uses of donkey population. The Littoral- Dinaric donkey is numerous, but the structural changes in rural areas during the last decade have pushed it into a group of endangered genetic heritage. The aim of this research is to determine the production potential, lactation characteristics, chemical composition and hygienic quality of the Littoral-Dinaric ass milk. The average milk production was 172.12 mL per milking with the average fat percentage of 0.33 %, milk protein 1.55 %, and lactose 6.28 %. The low average number of somatic cells and bacterial count are noticed in ass’s milk (4.09 mL log-1; 3.58 mL log-1. A significant influence of lactation stage on the milk quantity and proportion of dry matter (P<0.01, as well on the proportion of milk fat and milk protein (P<0.05, was observed. Also the influence of the season on productivity, and the proportion of dry matter and milk fat (P<0001, as well as milk protein (P<0.01 was also significant. Productivity of the Littoral-Dinaric ass in the pasture system is relatively modest, but the direct and indirect benefits from this kind of production are multiple. That is the reason to continue the development of donkey milk production technology.

  11. Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Elizabeth A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mills, David A; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    To protect infants from infection, human milk contains high levels of the enzyme lysozyme, unlike the milk of dairy animals. We have genetically engineered goats to express human lysozyme (hLZ milk) in their milk at 68% the amount found in human milk to help extend this protection. This study looked at the effect of hLZ on bacteria in raw milk over time. As the microbial diversity of goats' milk has yet to be investigated in depth using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, we applied NGS and clone library sequencing (CLS) to determine the microbiota of raw goat milk (WT milk) and hLZ milk at early, mid and late lactation. Overall, in WT milk, the bacterial populations in milk at early and mid lactation were similar to each other with a shift occurring at late lactation. Both methods found Proteobacteria as the dominant bacteria at early and mid lactation, while Actinobacteria surged at late lactation. These changes were related to decreases in Pseudomonas and increases in Micrococcus. The bacterial populations in hLZ milk were similar to WT milk at early and mid lactation with the only significant differences occurring at late lactation with the elevation of Bacillaceae, Alicyclobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Halomonadaceae.

  12. Investigations about different methods of teat disinfection in milking hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A negative controlled field study (part I) was conducted to determine potential iodine residues in milk after predipping with a foaming teat disinfectant containing .27 % polyvidone iodine. The teats of 9 lactating dairy cows were alternately predipped and conventionally cleaned over a period of 12 days. Due to this study design the animals were there own negative controls. An iodine selective electrode was used to measure the iodine concentration in milk of all bucket milk samples in the stu...

  13. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

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    Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min, where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB and Brucellosis. Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration, with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more

  14. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, shelf life. These results suggest that pasteurized milk quality is due to a combination of many factors. Raw milk cooling rate is not the most important factor affecting milk quality when raw milk quality is excellent. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures count of milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk.

  16. Raw milk from vending machines: Effects of boiling, microwave treatment, and refrigeration on microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Falasca, Luisa; Capilongo, Valeria; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the sale of raw milk from vending machines has been allowed since 2004. Boiling treatment before its use is mandatory for the consumer, because the raw milk could be an important source of foodborne pathogens. This study fits into this context with the aim to evaluate the microbiological quality of 30 raw milk samples periodically collected (March 2013 to July 2013) from 3 vending machines located in Molise, a region of southern Italy. Milk samples were stored for 72 h at 4 °C and then subjected to different treatments, such as boiling and microwaving, to simulate domestic handling. The results show that all the raw milk samples examined immediately after their collection were affected by high microbial loads, with values very close to or even greater than those acceptable by Italian law. The microbial populations increased during refrigeration, reaching after 72 h values of about 8.0 log cfu/mL for Pseudomonas spp., 6.5 log cfu/mL for yeasts, and up to 4.0 log cfu/mL for Enterobacteriaceae. Boiling treatment, applied after 72 h to refrigerated milk samples, caused complete decontamination, but negatively affected the nutritional quality of the milk, as demonstrated by a drastic reduction of whey proteins. The microwave treatment at 900 W for 75 s produced microbiological decontamination similar to that of boiling, preserving the content in whey proteins of milk. The microbiological characteristics of raw milk observed in this study fully justify the obligation to boil the raw milk from vending machines before consumption. However, this study also showed that domestic boiling causes a drastic reduction in the nutritional value of milk. Microwave treatment could represent a good alternative to boiling, on the condition that the process variables are standardized for safe domestic application. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality.

  18. Real-Time PCR Detection of Paenibacillus spp. in Raw Milk To Predict Shelf Life Performance of Pasteurized Fluid Milk Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ranieri, Matthew L.; Ivy, Reid A.; Mitchell, W. Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N.; Wiedmann, Martin; Kathryn J Boor

    2012-01-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect...

  19. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk from cattle herds within Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

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    ML Gulumbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety two raw milk samples were collected from lactating cows identified in Fulani herds and small scale dairy farms within Sokoto metropolis in order to investigate the presence and determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in the milk. Selective culture and identification method was employed for the bacterial isolation and Kirby-Bauer technique was used for the antibiotic susceptibility test. Seventy six samples (39.58% were positive for Listeria species, which upon biochemical characterization 39(51.3% were Listeria innocua, 14(18.4% Listeria ivanovii, 17(22.4% Listeria monocytogenes, 4(5.3% Listeria welshimeri and 2(2.6% Listeria seeligeri. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the isolates revealed high resistance to ampicillin (100%, and streptomycin (80%, followed by ampiclox (70%, tetracycline (30%, then gentamycin (20% while, there was no resistance to ciprofloxacin and chloranphenicol. The findings of this study necessitate the need for extension personnel to educate the Fulani herdsmen, milk handlers and other livestock producers on the significance of hygiene especially during milking and the effect of indiscriminate use of drugs particularly antibiotics. There is also need for the agencies concerned such as the National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC to regulate the sales and use of both human and veterinary drugs by drug hawkers and other non-professional veterinary practitioners.

  20. Isolation of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption

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    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients with history of raw milk consumption and to determine the public health significance of isolates, especially their role in causing human diseases.Materials and Methods: Atotal of 100 stool samples from diarrhoeal patients, with history of raw milk consumption were collected from primary health centres in and around Anand city, under aseptic conditions and a total of 50 raw milk samples were collected from milk vendors, retail shops located in Anand city in sterilized sample bottles. MacConkey broth was used for the enrichment of all the samples and inoculation was done on MacConkey agar and EMB agar was used as the selective media. This was followed by the confirmation of isolates using biochemical tests. For the serotyping,E. coli isolates were sent to the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute (CRI, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh.Detection of virulence genes was performed using PCR technique.Results: During the present investigation, 26 (52% E. coli isolates from 50 milk samples and 59 (59% E. coli isolates from 100 stool samples were recovered. Out of 85 E. coli isolates sent for serotyping, 74 isolates could be typed which were further distributed into 13 different serogroups O2, O4, O8, O17, O22, O25, O29, O36, O45, O60, O90, O116 and O172, whereas 8 isolates were found untypable and 3 isolates were reported rough isolates. Of the 59 E. coli isolates from stool samples of diarrhoeal patients tested, 15 isolates (25.42% were reported to be positive for stx genes, among that 6 (10.16% were positive for stx1 gene, 9 (15.25% isolates were positive for stx2 gene, while 3 isolates (5.08% were positive for eaeA gene. In this study, 21 E. coliisolates were found to be Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC while none of the isolates were positive for the serotype O157. Conclusions: Our present findings indicate that raw

  1. Rheology and texture of Queso Fresco cheeses made from raw and pasteurized milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queso Frescos made in Mexico from raw milk (RM) were compared with cheeses made in Mexico and the US from pasteurized milk (PM) to determine textural and rheological differences. RM cheese, considered the ideal Queso Fresco, contained more moisture than PM cheeses, displayed higher cohesiveness and...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-Contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okshevsky, Mira; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft genome was produced. PMID:28126940

  3. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Knol, E.F.; Heck, J.M.L.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have

  4. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  5. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw mi

  6. Kenyan perceptions of aflatoxin: an analysis of raw milk consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Walke, Maria; Mtimet, Nadhem; Baker, Derek; Lindahl, Johanna; Hartmann, Monika; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a human health threat concern in many developing countries. This study examines Kenyan milk consumers’ behaviour toward aflatoxin by way of choice experiments. Further, willingness to pay for different types of milk and aflatoxin status awareness were assessed. Four attributes were selected to describe milk products: smell, colour, price and aflatoxin-free certification. Results indicate that awareness of aflatoxin is relatively high, and that consumers are willing to pay a signi...

  7. Comparing the sensitizing capacity of raw and processed cow's milk in a murine sensitization model for food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, S.; Diks, M.A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617298; Dingjan, G.M.; Baars, T.; Garssen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Van Esch, B.C.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839256

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show that the consumption of raw milk early in life is protective against the development of allergies later in life. The effect was found to be limited to raw milk consumption and was not observed when this milk was boiled or when pasteurized and homogenized shop

  8. Gravity separation of fat, somatic cells, and bacteria in raw and pasteurized milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Melilli, C; Barbano, D M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of experiment 1 was to determine if the extent of gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells is influenced by the time and temperature of gravity separation or the level of contaminating bacteria present in the raw milk. The objective of experiment 2 was to determine if different temperatures of milk heat treatment affected the gravity separation of milk fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. In raw milk, fat, bacteria, and somatic cells rose to the top of columns during gravity separation. About 50 to 80% of the fat and bacteria were present in the top 8% of the milk after gravity separation of raw milk. Gravity separation for 7h at 12°C or for 22h at 4°C produced equivalent separation of fat, bacteria, and somatic cells. The completeness of gravity separation of fat was influenced by the level of bacteria in the milk before separation. Milk with a high bacterial count had less (about 50 to 55%) gravity separation of fat than milk with low bacteria count (about 80%) in 22h at 4°C. Gravity separation caused fat, bacteria, and somatic cells to rise to the top of columns for raw whole milk and high temperature, short-time pasteurized (72.6°C, 25s) whole milk. Pasteurization at ≥76.9°C for 25s prevented all 3 components from rising, possibly due to denaturation of native bovine immunoglobulins that normally associate with fat, bacteria, and somatic cells during gravity separation. Gravity separation can be used to produce reduced-fat milk with decreased bacterial and somatic cell counts, and may be a critical factor in the history of safe and unique traditional Italian hard cheeses produced from gravity-separated raw milk. A better understanding of the mechanism of this natural process could lead to the development of new nonthermal thermal technology (that does not involve heating the milk to high temperatures) to remove bacteria and spores from milk or other liquids. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  9. Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow milk in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueena Jahan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended for identification and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw cow milk. A total of 47 milk samples were collected from Sheshmore, Shutiakhali and Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy Farm, Mymensingh. Using bacteriological, biochemical and PCR-based identification schemes, 12 (25.53% isolates were confirmed as S. aureus. All the isolates showed β-hemolysis on 5% sheep blood agar. S. aureus specific nuc gene (target size 279-bp was amplified in the cases of all isolates. The isolates were found as resistant to Penicillin (100%, Erythromycin (75% and Amoxicillin (100%. On the other hand, the isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (83.33%, Oxacillin (100%, Cloxacillin (100% and Neomycin (100%. The isolated S. aureus showed increased resistance to broad spectrum antibiotic (e.g., Ciprofloxacin. As many people have a tendency to drink raw milk and raw milk products, there is high risk of S. aureus infection in human.

  10. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, E; Bonyadian, M; Rafei, M; Kazemeini, H R

    2010-01-01

    During November 2007 to December 2008, 311 samples of raw milk from cow, water buffalo, camel, sheep, and goat were collected in the Ahvaz (southwest Iran). All of the samples were analyzed for presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by competitive ELISA technique. AFM1 was found in 42.1% of the samples by average concentration of 43.3+/-43.8 ng/kg. The incidence rates of AFM1 in raw cow, water buffalo, camel, sheep, and goat milks were, 78.7%, 38.7%, 12.5%, 37.3%, and 27.1%, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in all of the samples were lower than Iranian national standard and FDA limit (500 ng/l), but in 36% of raw cow milk, 8% water buffalo milk, 3.9% sheep milk, and 5.7% raw goat milk samples were higher than maximum tolerance limit accepted by European union/Codex Alimentarius Commission (50 ng/l). The results showed that the milk of camel, goat, and sheep is safe respect to AFM1 contamination in this area.

  11. Variation Regulation and Models of Raw Milk Composition of Chinese Holstein Cattle in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; YANG; Yi; MA; Zhihong; PANG; Miao; YI; Qin; YANG; Benhai; XIONG

    2013-01-01

    Based on raw milk DHI data of Chinese Holstein cattle in northern China,milk composition (milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage) of lactating cow is grouped into parity 1 to 4. After preprocessing original data,6114 data records of milk protein percentage and 5871 data records of milk fat percentage were obtained. This study discusses effects of natural months,lactation parity and their interaction on changes of milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage,and the model is established using GLM procedure of SAS software. At last,results are as follows: (i) Duncan multiple comparison of natural months,regardless of parity (only parity 1 to 4) ,indicates that milk composition takes on significant difference between different months (P < 0. 05) . And milk protein percentage reaches highest in September (3. 187%), drops to the lowest in July (3. 016%); the milk fat percentage reaches highest in February (4. 137%),and drops to the lowest in July (3.845%) . (ii) Duncan multiple comparison of different parity,regardless months (January to December) ,shows that milk composition of different parity also takes on significant difference (P < 0. 05) although the difference between parities are not significant; milk protein percentage reaches highest in the 2nd parity (3. 114%)and drops to the lowest in the 4th parity (3. 066%); milk fat percentage reaches highest in the 2nd and 3rd parity (3. 983% and 3. 973%),and drops to the lowest in the 4th parity (3. 923%). (iii) Using Wood model,the relational expression between milk protein percentage (MPP,%)and milk fat percentage (MFP,%)of different parity and natural month,i. e. MPP = 3. 094x - 0. 046 4 × e 0. 011 7x and MFP = 4. 211 6x - 0. 034 4 × e 0. 027 6x (x stands for month) . According to the above results,it is concluded that natural months,lactation parity and their interaction significantly influence milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage (P < 0. 001) ,and milk protein percentage and milk fat

  12. Which factors in raw cow's milk contribute to protection against allergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Neerven, R J Joost; Knol, Edward F; Heck, Jeroen M L; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2012-10-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have shown that growing up in a farming environment is associated with a decreased risk of allergies. A factor that correlates strongly with this effect is the early ingestion of unheated cow's milk. Although, to date, no controlled studies on raw milk consumption have been performed to formally demonstrate this effect, several factors in bovine milk have been described that might explain how raw cow's milk consumption can decrease the risk of allergies. In addition, increasing knowledge on the immunologically active factors in breast milk have also contributed to our understanding of the effects of bovine milk in infants because many of the factors in bovine milk are expected to have functional effects in human subjects as well. Here we review these factors and their mechanisms of action and compare their presence in bovine milk and breast milk. A better understanding of these factors, as well as how to retain them, might ultimately lead to the development of mildly processed milk and infant nutrition products that could become a part of preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of allergic disease.

  13. Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Levels in Raw Milk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, T; Pintar, K D M; Butler, A J; Nesbitt, A; Thomas, M K; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2016-10-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease internationally, contributing significantly to the enteric illness burden. Cases have been associated with the consumption of raw milk, a behavior that has garnered attention recently. Estimates of the prevalence and levels of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk are lacking, which hinders risk assessment attempts. This article is a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence and levels of zoonotic Campylobacter spp. in the raw milk of cows, goats, and sheep in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The relevant literature was reviewed, and trained reviewers examined the results for inclusion of articles in the meta-analysis. Relevant data (prevalence and/or level of Campylobacter in raw milk, country of origin, animal species, sample source, Campylobacter species identified, etc.) were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed in Stata v. 12 (Metaprop command). The weighted mean prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw milk samples was 1.18%. Subgroup analyses were conducted to examine how prevalence varied by study characteristics, with the highest prevalence values in studies from the United Kingdom (by country, 6.4%), about cows (by animal species, 1.3%), and including samples taken from inline filters (by sample source, 1.75%) and in studies that included species that are not pathogenic to humans (by Campylobacter species, 1.14%). Two articles each included a single Campylobacter level, 0.16 ± 0.3 and approximately 0.047 most probable number per ml. Despite a relatively low prevalence, consumption of raw milk is inherently risky because no treatment has been used to inactivate pathogens. This potential risk further supports maintaining regulations to limit the sales of raw milk.

  14. Effect of different sample collection methods on the results of raw milk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Jakeline Fernandes; Silva, Marco Antônio Pereira da; Brasil, Rafaella Belchior; Carvalho, Thiago Soares; Giovannini, Cristiane Isabô; Nicolau, Edmar Soares

    2013-01-01

    The collection of samples of raw milk shall be careful to reflect their actual composition, and different methods of collection, may lead to variations in levels of milk components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of milk sampling on the chemical composition and somatic cell count. Milk samples were taken from 492 cows in a dairy farm of Rio Verde, state of Goiás, Brazil. Two sampling methodologies were used: a pool-sample and a complete sample (40 mL) of...

  15. Rate of inactivation of cytomegalovirus in raw banked milk during storage at -20 degrees C and pasteurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andersen, H K

    1982-01-01

    Samples of milk from 23 mothers attending the department of obstetrics and gynaecology and 36 who donated milk to the department's milk bank were cultured for cytomegalovirus. Virus was isolated from samples from 12 of the milk donors but none of the mothers attending the department; follow...... degrees C for eight minutes the milk did not contain any viable virus. It is recommended that raw banked milk used for feeding preterm babies should be kept frozen for at least 72 hours before feeding....

  16. Short communication: Variation in the composition and properties of Swedish raw milk for ultra-high temperature processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria A; Langton, Maud; Innings, Fredrik; Wikström, Malin; Lundh, Åse Sternesjö

    2017-02-08

    The composition and properties of raw milk are of great importance for the quality and shelf life of the final dairy product, especially in products with a long shelf life [e.g., ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk]. The objective of this study was to investigate the compositional variation in raw milk samples before processing at the dairy plant. Moreover, we wanted to investigate the effect of the UHT process on this variation (i.e., if the same variation could be observed in the corresponding UHT milk). The quality traits analyzed included detailed milk composition, counts of total and psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic activity, and color, as well as predictive measures of stability (i.e., ethanol stability and heat coagulating time). Samples of raw milk and the corresponding produced UHT milk were collected and analyzed on a monthly basis during 1 yr. Principal component analysis was used to identify months showing similarities and differences with respect to total variation. In contrast to previous studies, we observed only small variations between months and no clear effect of season for the raw milk. For the UHT milk, July and the winter months (December, January, and February) tended to separate from the other months. Quality traits showing significant variation were only to some extent identical in raw milk and UHT-processed milk. A better understanding of the natural variation in raw milk quality will provide opportunities to improve the shelf life of UHT-treated milk products.

  17. Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk at Farm, Collection and Manufactory Level in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA BELI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production has a long tradition in Albania due to favourable natural resources for large and small ruminants and still plays an important role in agriculture and rural development. The total domestic milk production in Albania is currently about one million tons from which cow milk production is about 86% whereas 14% come from small ruminants. Regular testing of the quality of raw milk is a very important instrument for the development of the Albanian dairy sector and to protect the consumer in buying a safe domestic milk product. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality (using enumeration of total bacterial count of raw cow’s milk at different sampling points received from individual farmers, at milk collection centers points in the villages or in more professional milk collection centres (MCC, in three selected regions Fier, Korce, Shkoder. Average of TBC for samples collected on farms (903 samples resulted 3.890.000 cfu/ml, on milk collecting center (297 samples 5.170.000, cfu/ml, at manufactory (631 samples 3.800.000 cfu/ml. On average the level of Total Bacteria Count (TBC/ml is much higher than national threshold which is for TBC/ml < 1,000,000. Large number of farm holdings, about 85 %, show the TBC level higher than 1,000,000 /ml, only 15 % of samples on farm level fulfil the requirements of Albanian transitions criteria, but are far way with the EU standard.

  18. Assessment of the application of an automated electronic milk analyzer for the enumeration of total bacteria in raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahoi, L; Gao, A; Fabri, M; Odumeru, J A

    2011-07-01

    Automated electronic milk analyzers for rapid enumeration of total bacteria counts (TBC) are widely used for raw milk testing by many analytical laboratories worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, Bactoscan flow cytometry (BsnFC; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) is the official anchor method for TBC in raw cow milk. Penalties are levied at the BsnFC equivalent level of 50,000 cfu/mL, the standard plate count (SPC) regulatory limit. This study was conducted to assess the BsnFC for TBC in raw goat milk, to determine the mathematical relationship between the SPC and BsnFC methods, and to identify probable reasons for the difference in the SPC:BsnFC equivalents for goat and cow milks. Test procedures were conducted according to International Dairy Federation Bulletin guidelines. Approximately 115 farm bulk tank milk samples per month were tested for inhibitor residues, SPC, BsnFC, psychrotrophic bacteria count, composition (fat, protein, lactose, lactose and other solids, and freezing point), and somatic cell count from March 2009 to February 2010. Data analysis of the results for the samples tested indicated that the BsnFC method would be a good alternative to the SPC method, providing accurate and more precise results with a faster turnaround time. Although a linear regression model showed good correlation and prediction, tests for linearity indicated that the relationship was linear only beyond log 4.1 SPC. The logistic growth curve best modeled the relationship between the SPC and BsnFC for the entire sample population. The BsnFC equivalent to the SPC 50,000 cfu/mL regulatory limit was estimated to be 321,000 individual bacteria count (ibc)/mL. This estimate differs considerably from the BsnFC equivalent for cow milk (121,000 ibc/mL). Because of the low frequency of bulk tank milk pickups at goat farms, 78.5% of the samples had their oldest milking in the tank to be 6.5 to 9.0 d old when tested, compared with the cow milk samples, which had their oldest milking at 4 d

  19. Effect of prolonged storage on microbiological quality of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Perko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The changing of milk microbiota composition in collection tank due to two-day collection was investigated. Each out of 10 independent cycles of every two-day collection was sampled 4 times and microbiologically examined. PCA medium supplemented with skim milk powder was used to determine the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, psychrotrophic and proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, respectively. MRS and M17 media were used to determine the counts of lactobacilli and cocci (lactococci and enterococci, respectively. As expected the counts of microbial groups increased but particularly the ratio between the groups of microorganisms was changed. The most evident shift in composition of milk microbiota was detected for psychrotrophic, particularly proteolytic psychrotrophic bacteria that are of particular concern to the dairy industry. Proteolytic psychrotrophs are notorious for their proteolytic activities which adversely influence milk proteins. Moreover, secreted proteolytic enzymes cannot be destroyed by heat treatment processes that are normally used in milk processing. The counts of microbial groups sharply increased on the second day of two-day collection. From selected bacterial consortia, the presence of the individual group of microbes was also PCR examined. Results indicate that the microbiological quality of milk in a two-day collection system is remarkably lower in comparison with daily collection system.

  20. The Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment on the Microorganisms Found in Raw Cow’s Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Yakup

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an essential source of nutrition especially for the breastfed infants. Sterilization of milk is necessary because it can be contaminated by microorganisms due to unhygienic collection and storage conditions. In this study, the sterilization of raw cow milk was performed by using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma method. Raw milk was transferred to the plasma reactor and dielectric barrier discharge cold plasma was performed by changing various parameters including voltage, exp...

  1. Utilization of microfiltration or lactoperoxidase system or both for manufacture of Cheddar cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornkul, Y; Henning, D R

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if application of microfiltration (MF) or raw milk lactoperoxidase system (LP) could reduce the risk of foodborne illness from Escherichia coli in raw milk cheeses, without adversely affecting the overall sensory acceptability of the cheeses. Escherichia coli K12 was added to raw milk to study its survival as a non-pathogenic surrogate organism for pathogenic E. coli. Five replications of 6 treatments of Cheddar cheese were manufactured. The 6 treatments included cheeses made from pasteurized milk (PM), raw milk (RM), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 (RME), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + LP activation (RMELP), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF (MFE), and raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF + LP activation (MFELP). The population of E. coli K12 was enumerated in the cheese milks, in whey/curds during cheese manufacture, and in final Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Application of LP, MF, and a combination of MF and LP led to an average percentage reduction of E. coli K12 counts in cheese milk by 72, 88, and 96%, respectively. However, E. coli K12 populations significantly increased during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese for the reasons not related to contamination. The number of E. coli K12, however, decreased by 1.5 to 2 log cycles during 120 d of ripening, irrespective of the treatments. The results suggest that MF with or without LP significantly lowers E. coli count in raw milk. Hence, if reactivation of E. coli during cheese making could be prevented, MF with or without LP would be an effective technique for reducing the counts of E. coli in raw milk cheeses. The cheeses were also analyzed for proteolysis, starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), and sensory characteristics during ripening. The concentration of pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen at 120 d was greater in PM cheese compared with the other treatments. The level of 12% trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen at 120 d was

  2. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  3. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment of human salmonellosis and listeriosis related to the consumption of raw milk in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bertasi, Barbara; Bilei, Stefano; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative risk assessment (RA) models were developed to describe the risk of salmonellosis and listeriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment considered the official microbiological records monitoring raw milk samples from vending machines performed by the regional veterinary authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, and consumption preference. Two separate RA models were developed: one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk. The RA models predicted no human listeriosis cases per year either in the best or worst storage conditions and with or without boiling raw milk, whereas the annual estimated cases of salmonellosis depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model, the milk storage conditions, and consumer behavior in relation to boiling raw milk or not. For example, the estimated salmonellosis cases ranged from no expected cases, assuming that the entire population boiled milk before consumption, to a maximum of 980,128 cases, assuming that the entire population drank raw milk without boiling, in the worst milk storage conditions, and with the lowest dose-response model. The findings of this study clearly show how consumer behavior could affect the probability and number of salmonellosis cases and in general, the risk of illness. Hence, the proposed RA models emphasize yet again that boiling milk before drinking is a simple yet effective tool to protect consumers against the risk of illness inherent in the consumption of raw milk. The models may also offer risk managers a useful tool to identify or implement appropriate measures to control the risk of acquiring foodborne pathogens. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective.

  5. Short communication: heat resistance of Escherichia coli strains in raw milk at different subpasteurization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S; Hummerjohann, J; Stephan, R; Hammer, P

    2013-06-01

    A commonly applied treatment of raw milk to reduce bacterial loads is the short-time application of heat at subpasteurization levels under continuous flow, generally referred to as thermization, because this method retains some of the beneficial properties of raw milk. In a previous study, Escherichia coli strains exhibiting increased thermotolerance were found, demanding investigations into their ability to survive thermization. Nine E. coli strains, including 4 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains, were investigated for their reduction during a thermization treatment in raw milk using a pilot-plant pasteurizer to reflect typically applied commercial conditions. Six of the 9 E. coli strains, including the 4 STEC strains, were similarly inactivated at 60, 62.5, and 65°C, whereas increased thermotolerance was observed for 3 E. coli strains. All strains were reduced to thermization treatment.

  6. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  7. Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk and milk products, which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern. This study was conducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms from Tulkarm, Nablus and Jenin. Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique. 85 % (34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive. The aflatoxin M1 contamination levels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 29.57 ppt. There was a high incidence rate with 92 % (11 of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city (P ≤ 0.05. 20 % of the analyzed samples (8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit (50 ppt in European Codex, with a range of 2 - 80 ppt.

  8. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  9. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in raw bovine milk by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Tirodimos, Ilias; Bobos, Mattheos; Kalamaki, Mary S; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2011-12-02

    The transmission pathways of Helicobacter pylori in humans have not been fully elucidated. Research in the last decade has proposed that foodborne transmission, among others, may be a plausible route of human infection. Owing to the organism's fastidious growth characteristics and its ability to convert to viable, yet unculturable states upon exposure to stress conditions, the detection of H. pylori in foods via culture-dependent methods has been proven to be laborious, difficult and in most cases unsuccessful. Hence, nucleic acid-based methods have been proposed as alternative methods but, to date, only PCR-based methods have been reported in the literature. In the current study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for the detection of H. pylori in raw, bulk-tank bovine milk. After repeated milk centrifugation and washing steps, the bacterial flora of raw milk was subjected to fixation and permeabilization and H. pylori detection was conducted by FISH after hybridization with an H. pylori-specific 16S rRNA-directed fluorescent oligonucleotide probe. Using this protocol, H. pylori was detected in four out of the twenty (20%) raw milk samples examined. The data presented in this manuscript indicate that FISH can serve as an alternative molecular method for screening raw bovine milk for the presence of H. pylori.

  11. Proteolysis produced within biofilms of bacterial isolates from raw milk tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Koon Hoong; Flint, Steve; Palmer, Jon; Andrewes, Paul; Bremer, Phil; Lindsay, Denise

    2012-06-15

    In this study, six bacterial isolates that produced thermo-resistant enzymes isolated from the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers were evaluated for their ability to produce proteolysis within either single culture biofilms or co-culture biofilms. Biofilms were formed in an in vitro model system that simulated the upper internal surface of a raw milk tanker during a typical summer's day of milk collection in New Zealand. The bacterial isolates were further evaluated for their ability to form biofilms at 25, 30 and 37°C. Mutual and competitive effects were observed in some of the co-culture biofilms, with all isolates being able to form biofilms in either single culture or co-culture at the three temperatures. The proteolysis was also evaluated in both biofilms and corresponding planktonic cultures. The proteolysis per cell decreased as the temperature of incubation (20-37°C) increased. Furthermore, mutualistic interactions in terms of proteolysis were observed when cultures were grown as co-culture biofilms. This is the first study to show that proteolytic enzymes can be produced in biofilms on the internal surfaces of raw milk tankers. This has important implications for the cleaning and the temperature control of raw milk transport tankers.

  12. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  13. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Therefore, novel methods of milk safety are needed for fast and efficient ... Bacterial strains, culture conditions and DNA extraction. Bacterial strains, as ... Genomic DNA from a bacterial strain was prepared from 5 ml of a fresh ...

  14. Flow cytometric immunoassay for sulfonamides in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, de W.; Bienenmann-Ploum, M.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Haasnoot, W.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are applied in veterinary medicine for the treatment of microbial infections. For the detection of residues of sulfonamides in milk, a multi-sulfonamide flow cytometric immunoassay (FCI) was developed using the Luminex MultiAnalyte Profiling (xMAP) technology. In this automat

  15. Evaluation of a portable test system for assessing endotoxin activity in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohko; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Niehaus, Andrew; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endotoxin activities detected in raw milk samples obtained from cattle by a commercially available portable test system (PTS) and traditional microplate limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assay, which determined activities using a kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Raw milk samples were obtained from 53 and 12 dairy cattle without and with clinical mastitis, respectively. Comparison between the KT and PTS was performed by the Friedman test. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between any two continuous variables. Linear regression model analysis was also performed to obtain the equation describing the relationship between PTS and KT assay. The endotoxin activities detected in 200- or 400-fold diluted milk samples were similar between PTS and KT assay, whereas a significant difference was observed in 100-fold diluted milk (PPTS correlated with those using KT assay. The median milk endotoxin activities in Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical mastitis cows were 0.655 and 11,523.5 EU/ml, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that PTS as a simple and easy test to assess endotoxin activity in raw milk is efficient, simple and reproducible.

  16. Assessment of toxic metals in raw and processed milk samples using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Jalbani, Nusrat; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2009-09-01

    Milk and dairy products have been recognized all over the world for their beneficial influence on human health. The levels of toxic metals (TMs) are an important component of safety and quality of milk. A simple and efficient microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for the determination of TMs (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb), in raw and processed milk samples. A Plackett-Burman experimental design and 2(3)+star central composite design, were applied in order to determine the optimum conditions for MAE. Concentrations of TMs were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by standard addition method and conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM), for comparative purpose. No significant differences were observed (P>0.05), when comparing the values obtained by the proposed MAE method and CDM (paired t-test). The average relative standard deviation of the MAE method varied between 4.3% and 7.6% based on analyte (n=6). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of understudy TMs in milk samples. The results of raw and processed milk indicated that environmental conditions and manufacturing processes play a key role in the distribution of toxic metals in raw and processed milk.

  17. Correlations among somatic cell count, hygienic safety and quality of milk of primiparous cows

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    Adamov Nikola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined a total of 518 milk samples on the following parameters: somatic cell count (SCC, total bacteria count (CFU and IBC, fat, protein, lactose and dry matter non fat (DMNF contents, which were obtained from primiparous cows divided in three groups depending on the stage of lactation: the first group included the primiparous cows that were 10-100 days in lactation, the second group 101-200 days in lactation and the third group 201 and more days in lactation. The somatic cell count and the total bacterial count had highest values for the first group, intermediate for the third group, and lowest for the second group with these differences being statistically significant. Milk component contents varied among groups differently from previous two parameters but their differences were not significant in neither case. The somatic cell count of all three groups was positively and significantly correlated to the bacterial counts while these two parameters were generally in negative correlation with the milk component contents. No matter if the parameters that define the milk hygienic safety were positively or negatively correlated with the milk component contents, the correlation coefficients were not significant in neither case, which implies that significant reduction of milk components can be expected at somatic cell counts higher than the maximal obtained in this research of 236.000 SCC/ml.

  18. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

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    Jana Pukáčová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum.   doi:10.5219/24

  19. Selective degradation of tetracycline antibiotics present in raw milk by electrochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Yumika; Ihara, Ikko; Yoshida, Gen; Toyoda, Kiyohiko; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    The dairy industry disposes of a large volume of waste milk with antibiotic residues, which is a great cause of much concern in soil and water environments. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in cow's milk was investigated. Milk contains a high concentration of organic matter, and the concentrations of TCs residues are extremely low. The effects of anode materials and electrolytes on the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) were investigated. A higher degradation rate for the OTC was attained using the inactive anode or a NaCl electrolyte. It was found that a physically adsorbed oxidant on the surface of the anode and indirect oxidation using electrogenerated hypochlorite could enhance the degradation of OTC in raw milk. The organic components in milk samples affected the removal rate of the OTC. The removal rate constants for the OTC in raw milk were 2.8-7.7 times higher than the chemical oxygen demand values. It was found that electrochemical oxidation could decompose low concentrations of TCs in high concentrations of organic matter solutions selectively. The results indicate that electrochemical oxidation is an effective method for the treatment of TCs in waste milk.

  20. Prevalence of E. coli Virulence Factors in Raw Bulk Tank Milk from U.S. Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are known reservoirs of zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and several outbreaks of disease have been associated with the consumption of raw milk or raw milk products. A national survey of US.. dairies was conducted during the National Animal Health Monitoring System’s (NAHMS) Dairy 2007 study to ...

  1. Detection and quantitation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in raw milk by direct qPCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been a shift in US food consumption patterns toward unprocessed foods perceived to be healthier. Part of this trend is increasing consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk. Raw milk can be a source of pathogens that cause serious or fatal illness, particularly in immuno-compromised individ...

  2. Non-imported brucellosis outbreak from unpasteurized raw milk in Moroccan immigrants in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAMOS, J. M.; BERNAL, E.; ESGUEVILLAS, T.; LOPEZ-GARCIA, P.; GAZTAMBIDE, M. S.; GUTIERREZ, F.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Nine cases of brucellosis were identified in the city of Elche (Comunidad Valenciana, Spain) in two families of Moroccan immigrants. All of the patients had drunk unpasteurized raw milk from goats. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was identified in clinical specimens. Preventive measures for brucellosis should be implemented among immigrant populations in Spain. PMID:18205974

  3. Isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from raw milk in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea Mohammadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoeal diseases are great problem throughout the world and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC is a major cause of gastroenteritis that may be complicated by hemorrhagic colitis (HC or the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, which is the main cause of acute renal failure in children. Food-borne outbreaks associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli have been well documented worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains in raw milk samples.Raw milk samples collected from various cow farms in Kermanshah, Iran during June - September 2009 were investigated for STEC using PCR targeting stx1 and stx2 and then eaeA.Of 206 samples, 36 (17.47% were contaminated with STEC. STEC isolates harbored 56.41% and 43.59% stx 2 and stx 1 gene respectively. In antibiotic resistance test, all strains were sensitive to ceftazidime, cefepime, gentamicin, imipenem and ciprofloxacin. 23.08% of isolates were resistat to tetracycline, and 38.5% of them showed intermediate sensitvity to cephalothin.The high presence of STEC in raw milk confirms the important role of raw milk as putative vehicle of infection to human. Moreover, this study suggests that the development of antibiotic resistant STEC must be a major concern in Iran and more studies are needed to identify the prevalence of STEC in other food samples.

  4. Monitoring and identification of bacteria associated with safety concerns in the manufacture of São Jorge, a Portuguese traditional cheese from raw cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongo, J Marcelino; Gomes, Ana P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic quality of raw milk used in the manufacture of São Jorge, a Protected Denomination of Origin Portuguese semihard cheese, as well as to ascertain the sanitary conditions prevailing during its processing. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Micrococcaceae were accordingly obtained, pertaining to 21 independent batches (including samples of raw milk, curd, and cheeses after 1, 3, and 4 months of ripening), from 7 dairy farms. Standard plate counts (log CFU per milliliter or per gram) ranged from 6.1 to 8.6 in raw milk, whereas they ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 in 4-month-old cheeses. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae ranged between 5.9 and 7.0 in raw milk and between 0.0 and 1.3 in 4-month-old cheeses. Species identified within this family encompassed Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Escherichia coli; Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella terrigena, and Serratia odorifera were detected only in raw milk. No Salmonella whatsoever could be detected in any of the samples. Viable counts of Micrococcaceae ranged between 4.7 and 5.9 and between 1.3 and 3.3 in raw milk and 4-month-old cheeses, respectively. Species identified within this family encompassed Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (which was found mainly in ripened cheeses), and Staphylococcus aureus (which was not detected in 4-month-old cheeses). Accompanying physicochemical analyses included determination of moisture, salt, and pH. Statistical analyses revealed a negative correlation between salt content and viable numbers of Enterobacteriaceae in cheese, whereas in the case of Micrococcaceae, a more negative correlation was found between viable numbers and moisture content than between viable numbers and pH. The results of our study indicate, in general, poor milk handling conditions in all farms, given that the indicators total mesophile and Enterobacteriaceae

  5. Analysis of the Kanamycin in Raw Milk Using the Suspension Array

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    Yanfei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the monoclonal antibody against kanamycin being prepared successfully, a bead-based indirect competitive fluorescent immunoassay was developed to detect kanamycin in milk. The fact that there was no significant cross-reaction with other aminoglycoside antibiotics implied that the monoclonal antibody was highly specific for kanamycin. The limit of detection (LOD and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 in raw milk were 3.2 ng/mL and 52.5 ng/mL, respectively. Using the method developed in this study, the kanamycin concentrations were monitored in raw milk after the intramuscular administration of kanamycin in sick cows. Compared to the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, the method using the suspension array system was more sensitive. The results obtained in the present study showed a good correlation with that of the ELISA.

  6. Microelements and heavy metals in raw cow milk from various regions in Serbia

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    Živkov-Baloš Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the investigation results of raw milk and animal feed samples from farms located around industrial areas and from rural areas in Serbia are presented. Various microelements and heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Mean concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Cd in raw milk were 5.94, 0.239, 2.034 and below 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. The mean lead concentration found in milk from a farm located near industrial area was 0.242±0.166 mg/kg (mean Pb concentrations for other four investigated farms were below 0.05 mg/kg. The obtained results indicate that particular attention should be paid to control of Pb residues in food, water and environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31084

  7. 原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数控制措施的研究进展%Research advance in the control measures of the content of benzoic acid in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晰晖; 任国谱

    2013-01-01

    对苯甲酸对人体的危害、在原料乳中的主要来源以及原料乳的卫生质量、马尿酸的质量分数和人为添加等因素对原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数的影响进行了综述,对提高原料乳的卫生质量、安全无毒的防腐措施和快速高效的检测手段等控制原料乳中苯甲酸质量分数的方法进行了讨论..%The research advance in the harm of benzoic acid to the body ,the source of it in raw milk and in factors influencing the content of benzoic acid such as hygienic quality of raw milk.the content of hippuric acid,anthropic addition were summarized in the paper.In addition,this paper discussed the methods how to cntrol the content of benzoic acid in raw milk including improving the hygienic quality of raw milk,se-cure and nontoxic antiseptic measures, fast and effective detecting methods.

  8. INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN COW AND SHEEP RAW MILK SAMPLES FROM NATIONAL PARK OF GARGANO

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    M. Mangiacotti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study about cow and sheep raw milk collected from different farms in the National Park of Gargano was carried out. A number of 93 raw milk samples (50 cow milk and 43 sheep milk were analysed for the detection of several trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Pb, Se, Zn and artificial gamma radionuclide (Cs-134, Cs-137 content. Data analysis shows a significant statistical difference between the two species. Cow milk mean values are always lower than sheep ones for Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb. Artificial longterm gamma radionuclide activity was not detected in all samples, resulting lower than the minimum detectable concentration (MDC. All inorganic contaminant concentration levels actually don’t represent a primary health concern. This research is also a contribution in the risk assessment related to the consumption of these products and confirm both sheep and cow milk as a good environmental pollution indicator. Furthermore, this investigation is a contribution to enhance safety and quality of typical dairy products from National Park of Gargano.

  9. Real Deal or No Deal? A Comparative Analysis of Raw Milk Cheese Regulation in Australia and France

    OpenAIRE

    William van Caenegem; Madeline Elizabeth Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Australia’s regulatory framework has resulted in the standardisation of cheese production based on pasteurisation. Up until early 2015, regulations effectively prohibited raw milk cheese-making in Australia and thus stifled artisanal on-farm production. Although the introduction of Food Standards Australia New Zealand Standard 4.2.4 has allowed the production of certain hard, low-moisture raw milk cheeses, the new standard is rigid and does not encourage new entrants into the emerging raw ...

  10. The Use of Multiplex PCR to Determine the Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Raw Milk, Feta Cheese, and Hand Swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinhom, Mohamed M A; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Jordan, Kieran

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) can cause mastitis in cattle and, therefore, can be present in milk. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive S. aureus and its enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and sec in isolates recovered from raw milk, feta cheese, and human hand swabs of milk and cheese handlers in Beni-Suef province, Egypt. A total of 100 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of pasteurized-milk feta cheese were collected. In addition, 50 hand swabs from milk handlers and 25 hand swabs from cheese handlers were examined for the presence of coagulase positive S. aureus. The isolates were characterized by multiplex PCR for detection of sea, seb, and sec genes, and for resistance to 5 classes of commonly used antibiotics. Twelve (12/100), 12 (6/50), and 17% (13/75) of milk, cheese, and hand swab samples, respectively, were positive for coagulase positive S. aureus. One isolate was obtained from each positive sample (31 isolates), and none contained genes for SEA or SEC production. Twenty-five percent, 33%, and 31%, respectively, of the isolates contained the genes for SEB, resulting in 3%, 4%, and 5% of samples being positive for toxin producing coagulase positive S. aureus, respectively. At least one isolate was resistant to each of the antibiotics tested. Despite the low potential for SEB production shown, preventative measures, such as maintenance of the cold-chain and good hygienic practices should be implemented to further reduce the potential risk to public health from SEB, and to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  11. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

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    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  12. Visible and near-infrared bulk optical properties of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, B; Van Beers, R; Watté, R; Huybrechts, T; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2015-10-01

    The implementation of optical sensor technology to monitor the milk quality on dairy farms and milk processing plants would support the early detection of altering production processes. Basic visible and near-infrared spectroscopy is already widely used to measure the composition of agricultural and food products. However, to obtain maximal performance, the design of such optical sensors should be optimized with regard to the optical properties of the samples to be measured. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the visible and near-infrared bulk absorption coefficient, bulk scattering coefficient, and scattering anisotropy spectra for a diverse set of raw milk samples originating from individual cow milkings, representing the milk variability present on dairy farms. Accordingly, this database of bulk optical properties can be used in future simulation studies to efficiently optimize and validate the design of an optical milk quality sensor. In a next step of the current study, the relation between the obtained bulk optical properties and milk quality properties was analyzed in detail. The bulk absorption coefficient spectra were found to mainly contain information on the water, fat, and casein content, whereas the bulk scattering coefficient spectra were found to be primarily influenced by the quantity and the size of the fat globules. Moreover, a strong positive correlation (r ≥ 0.975) was found between the fat content in raw milk and the measured bulk scattering coefficients in the 1,300 to 1,400 nm wavelength range. Relative to the bulk scattering coefficient, the variability on the scattering anisotropy factor was found to be limited. This is because the milk scattering anisotropy is nearly independent of the fat globule and casein micelle quantity, while it is mainly determined by the size of the fat globules. As this study shows high correlations between the sample's bulk optical properties and the milk composition and fat globule size, a

  13. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  14. Foodborne pathogens and microbiological characteristics of raw milk soft cheese produced and on retail sale in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Viçosa, Gabriela Nogueira; Yamazi, Anderson Keizo; Ortolani, Maria Beatriz Tassinari; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2009-03-01

    The consumption of raw milk soft cheeses (RMSC), which are typically manufactured in small dairy farms under unsatisfactory hygiene conditions, is common in Brazil. Due to these production characteristics, this type of cheese is a potential carrier of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus spp. Considering these characteristics, in this work, we aimed to detect the presence of these pathogenic microorganisms in RMC and to evaluate their microbiological quality. Fifty-five samples of this product were collected from different noninspected commercial establishments and submitted to the enumeration of mesophilic aerobes (MA), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), and detection of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. All analyzed samples were negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. All samples presented counts of MA higher than 10(6) colony forming units/g (CFU/g; range, 3.0x10(6) to 4.0x10(9)). TC were present at levels between 1.0x10(3) and 1.8x10(8) CFU/g, and E. coli between 1.0x10(2) and 3.5x10(6) CFU/g. CPS were detected in 17 (30.9%) samples at levels higher than 10(4) CFU/g. These results confirm the poor microbiological quality of raw milk used in the manufacturing of RMC samples, and also the inadequate production conditions. Therefore, the evaluation of microbiological safety and quality of these products must be constantly reported to alert the official agencies about the significance of proper inspection.

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Mengistu, Shimelis; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log10/ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log10/ml) with significant differences (P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) (P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town.

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log10/ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log10/ml) with significant differences (P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) (P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town. PMID:28316862

  17. Research Progress on Rapid Detection Technique of Microorganism in Raw Milk%生乳微生物快速检测技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔丽娜; 李祖明; 吴聪明; 许文涛

    2013-01-01

    随着乳品工业的迅速发展,研究和建立生乳微生物快速检测技术以加强对乳品卫生安全检测越来越受到各国的重视。本文对生乳微生物快速检测技术的原理、特点和研究进展进行了综述,包括普通PCR、实时荧光定量PCR、PCR-DGGE、基因芯片、ELISA、电化学阻抗、ATP生物发光法、流式细胞计数法、还原法和微生物自动检测仪等。最后对生乳微生物快速检测技术研究的广阔前景作了展望。%With the rapid development of milk food industry , studying and establishing rapid detection technique of microorganism in raw milk to strengthen the monitoring of hygiene and safety of milk food is paid more and more attention to by various countries. The research progress , principle and characteristic of the rapid detection technique of microorganism in raw milk were summarized in this paper , which including ordinary PCR, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, PCR-DGGE, gene chip, ELISA, electrochemical impedance, bioluminescence technique, flow cyLometry, reduction test and microbial automatic detection system. Finally , the future prospect of rapid detection technique of microorganism in raw milk was forecasted.

  18. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins (B₁ and M₁) in feed, plasma and raw milk of lactating dairy cows in Beja, Tunisia, using ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbès, Samir; Salah-Abbès, Jalila Ben; Bouraoui, Yousra; Oueslati, Sarra; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Beja is an agricultural area in northwest Tunisia. It contributes to national needs by offering cereals and milk to the market for human and animal consumption. A small number of studies on mycotoxin occurrence in feedstuffs and raw milk from lactating dairy cows in this region are available. Therefore, 226 samples were collected from farms and local markets during November 2008 until April 2010. Samples consisted of 112 raw cow milk, 56 blood from lactating cows and 58 feed destined for dairy cows. Plasma and feed were analysed for aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁). Milk samples were analysed for aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁). All samples were treated using a simultaneous methanolic-aqueous extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-ups and were investigated by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Recoveries were 80%-95% and 81%-92% for AFB₁ and AFM₁, respectively, while the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 µg/kg or µg/l for both mycotoxins. Results revealed the presence of AFB₁ in 84.4% of the feed samples (mean 18.7 ± 1.4 µg/kg), and 39.2% of the plasma-examined samples (median 7.1 ± 1.0 µg/l) were found to be contaminated at levels higher than the Tunisian and the European Union (EU) limit for dairy animals, which are 20 and 5 µg/kg in animal feed, respectively. AFM₁ was detected in 60.7% of the cow raw milk samples examined (median 13.6 ± 1.4 µg/l). Contaminated levels were higher than the EU limit of 0.05 µg/l. It was concluded that more precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent fungal contamination.

  19. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates.

  20. Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meixia; Wen, Fang; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-01

    Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions to investigate if quinolones degrade during storage of milk, and finally to determine optimal storage conditions for analysis and scientific risk assessment of quinolone residues in raw milk. The storage conditions included different temperatures and durations (4°C for 4, 8, 24 and 48 h; -20°C for 1, 7 and 30 days; -80°C for 1, 7 and 30 days), thawing temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C), freeze-thaw cycles (1-5), and the addition of different preservatives (sodium thiocyanate, sodium azide, potassium dichromate, bronopol and methanal). Most quinolones exhibited high stability at 4°C for up to 24 h, but began to degrade after 48 h. In addition, no degradation of quinolones was seen when milk samples were stored at -20°C for up to 7 days; however, 30 days of storage at -20°C resulted in a small amount of degradation (about 30%). Similar results were seen when samples were stored at -80°C. Moreover, no losses were observed when frozen milk samples were thawed at 25, 40 or 60°C. All the quinolones of interest, except sarafloxacin, were stable when milk samples were thawed at 40°C once and three times, but unstable after five freeze-thaw cycles. Preservatives affected the stability of quinolones, but the effects differed depending on the preservative and quinolone. The results of this study indicate optimum storage protocols for milk samples, so that residue levels reflect those at the time of initial sample analysis, and should improve surveillance programmes for quinolones in raw milk.

  1. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the consumption of raw drinking milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw drinking milk (RDM has a diverse microbial flora which can include pathogens transmissible to humans. The main microbiological hazards associated with RDM from cows, sheep and goats, horses and donkeys and camels were identified using a decision tree approach. This considered evidence of milk-borne infection and the hazard being present in the European Union (EU, the impact of the hazard on human health and whether there was evidence for RDM as an important risk factor in the EU. The main hazards were Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, Brucella melitensis, Mycobacterium bovis and tick-borne encephalitis virus, and there are clear links between drinking raw milk and human illness associated with these hazards. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for these hazards could not be undertaken because country and EU-wide data are limited. Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in several EU countries in some of the main bacterial hazards isolated from raw milk or associated equipment and may be significant for public health. Sale of RDM through vending machines is permitted in some EU countries, although consumers purchasing such milk are usually instructed to boil the milk before consumption, which would eliminate microbiological risks. With respect to internet sales of RDM, there is a need for microbiological, temperature and storage time data to assess the impact of this distribution route. Intrinsic contamination of RDM with pathogens can arise from animals with systemic infection as well as from localised infections such as mastitis. Extrinsic contamination can arise from faecal contamination and from the wider farm environment. It was not possible to rank control options as no single step could be identified which would significantly reduce risk relative to a baseline of expected good practice, although potential for an increase in risk was also noted. Improved risk communication to

  2. Examining trust factors in online food risk information: The case of unpasteurized or 'raw' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Hardy, Claire; Medeiros, Lydia C; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-04-01

    The internet has become an increasingly important way of communicating with consumers about food risk information. However, relatively little is known about how consumers evaluate and come to trust the information they encounter online. Using the example of unpasteurized or raw milk this paper presents two studies exploring the trust factors associated with online information about the risks and benefits of raw milk consumption. In the first study, eye-tracking data was collected from 33 pasteurised milk consumers whilst they viewed six different milk related websites. A descriptive analysis of the eye-tracking data was conducted to explore viewing patterns. Reports revealed the importance of images as a way of capturing initial attention and foregrounding other features and highlighted the significance of introductory text within a homepage. In the second, qualitative study, 41 consumers, some of whom drank raw milk, viewed a selection of milk related websites before participating in either a group discussion or interview. Seventeen of the participants also took part in a follow up telephone interview 2 weeks later. The qualitative data supports the importance of good design whilst noting that balance, authorship agenda, the nature of evidence and personal relevance were also key factors affecting consumers trust judgements. The results of both studies provide support for a staged approach to online trust in which consumers engage in a more rapid, heuristic assessment of a site before moving on to a more in-depth evaluation of the information available. Findings are discussed in relation to the development of trustworthy online food safety resources.

  3. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P < 0.05). This trend was found for blood plasma and urine iodine concentration. Iodine supplementation had no significant effect on thyroidal hormones. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  4. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  5. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  6. Spiral plate count method for the examination of raw and pasteurized milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C B; Gilchrist, J E; Peeler, J T; Campbell, J E

    1976-07-01

    The spiral plate count method (SPLPC) was compared with the standard plate count (SPC) method by examining 201 samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Although the means of the two methods differed significantly at alpha = 0.01,the difference was less than 10% and was not considered to be of any practical importance. The pooled replicate variances of both methods were less than 0.003, indicating good agreement between duplicate plates, with the variance of the SPLPC slightly less than that of the SPC. We believe this study indicates that the SPLPC could be substituted for the SPC in the bacteriological examination of milk.

  7. Real Deal or No Deal? A Comparative Analysis of Raw Milk Cheese Regulation in Australia and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William van Caenegem

    2017-04-01

    cheeses, the new standard is rigid and does not encourage new entrants into the emerging raw milk cheese consumer market. This article compares the Australian system with the French raw milk cheese regulation and production system, and argues that its approach in encouraging and supporting small farmhouse artisanal traditional raw milk cheese is beneficial to both producer and consumer, and has not resulted in any significant health risks. The Australian approach amounts to a missed opportunity to encourage the emergence of a value-added industry with local and export potential, and is at odds with important movements in food policy, such as recognition of the value of localism and terroir.

  8. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurized milk and infant formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar, Sharaf Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique...

  9. A Comparison between Chocolate Milk and a Raw Milk Honey Solution’s Influence on Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation sought to examine the effect that a chocolate milk solution (CMS and a raw milk solution (RMS had on lower extremity induced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS. Twenty trained male participants completed a set of questionnaires, prior to completing a lower extremity DOMS protocol, to determine the level of discomfort and functional limitations. Once the DOMS protocol was completed, participants were randomly assigned to either the CM or RM group. Once assigned, participants ingested 240 mL of the respective solution and completed the same set of questionnaires immediately post, 24-, 48- and 72-h post DOMS protocol. Additionally, for 10 days post-ingestion participants were contacted to learn if any negative effects were experienced as a result of ingesting either solution. Both groups reported an increase in lower extremity discomfort at each data collection interval post-DOMS protocol (post, 24-, 48- and 72-h. Participants assigned to the RM group reported high discomfort post and a relative decline in discomfort from immediately post-DOMS protocol to 72-h post. The RMS group reported substantially less discomfort at 72-h when compared to the CMS group. Ingestion of a raw milk solution immediately post strength exercise can substantially reduce the level of self-reported discomfort associated with DOMS.

  10. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac; Tomislav Pogačić; Sanja Sikora

    2004-01-01

    The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count) mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the r...

  11. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss Hard and Semihard Cheese Manufactured from Raw Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Spahr, U.; Schafroth, K.

    2001-01-01

    Raw milk was artificially contaminated with declumped cells of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a concentration of 104 to 105 CFU/ml and was used to manufacture model hard (Swiss Emmentaler) and semihard (Swiss Tisliter) cheese. Two different strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis were tested, and for each strain, two model hard and semihard cheeses were produced. The survival of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was monitored over a ripening period of 120 days by plat...

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA ISOLATED FROM SEWAGE, RAW MILK AND PACKED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Priya Seshadhri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 isolates (40 from sewage, 30 from raw milk and 20 from packed foods collected to study the incidence of Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that 61 isolates (32 from sewage, 19 from raw milk and 10 from packed foods were found contaminated with the bacterium. All the isolated strains were confirmed to Yersinia enterocolitica, by using 16S rRNA PCR. Of 61 strains, only five strains (two from sewage and two from packed foods and one from raw milk were found to be the producers of haemolysin at 37 oC, while among the five strains only two strains from packed foods produced haemolysin at 28 oC. All the isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin and found sensitive to chloramphenicol. Seven strains were producer of High molecular weight proteins (HMWP. 53 strains have produced rough LPS, while the smooth LPS has been observed for 8 isolates. Eleven and six different profiles observed in outermembrane proteins and lipopolysaccaride respectively. Combined primer 1 and 2 RAPD-PCR dendogram shows eight different genotypic patterns.

  13. Development of HPLC-ELSD method for determination of maltodextrin in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Flávia Santana; da Costa, Marion Pereira; de Melo Silva, Vitor Luiz; de Barros Pinto Moreira, Rodrigo Vilela; de Barros, Raphael Ferreira; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; de Oliveira Silva, Adriana Cristina

    2017-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of maltodextrin in raw milk, using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. Maltodextrin content was evaluated in adulterated raw milk using a Supelcosil LC-NH2 (25cm×4.6mm) column and isocratic elution (68% of acetonitrile). Validation parameters exhibited adequate linearity, with relative standard deviation values between 0.74 and 2.16% (n=10) for repeatability and 0.11-19.39% (n=5) for intermediate precision. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.78 and 1.56mg.mL(-1), respectively, and recovery rates were between 91 and 93% for three levels. The application of this method shows that maltodextrin concentrations found in adulterated samples are lower than expected, which may be related to the quality of the commercial maltodextrin used. The method proposed proved to be simple and appropriate for the determination of maltodextrin in raw milk, with detection down to adulteration levels of 1%.

  14. Development of a test strip for rapid detection of lactoperoxidase in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hong-xia; Tian, Bo; Bai, Li-na; Cheng, Li-ming; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Xiao-na; Jiang, Zhan-mei; Xu, Xiao-xi

    2015-08-01

    Traditional methods for detecting lactoperoxidase (LP) are complex and time-consuming, so a test strip was made based on the enzymatic reaction principle to enable quick and convenient detection of LP in raw milk. In this study 0.1 mol/L citric acid (CA)/0.2 mol/L disodium hydrogen phosphate (NaP) buffer solution (pH 5.0), 22 mmol/L 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), 0.6 mmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 0.5% Tween-20 or 0.3% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) were optimal for preparing a quick, sensitive, and accurate LP test strip. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the estimated LP concentrations ranged from 2.47% to 6.72% and the minimum LP concentration detected by the test strip was 1-2 mg/L. Estimates of active LP in sixteen raw milk samples obtained using the test strip or the TMB method showed a good correlation (r=0.9776). So the test strip provides a quick, convenient, and accurate method for detecting the LP concentration of raw milk.

  15. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  16. The incidence of Listeria spp. in soft cheeses, butter and raw milk in the province of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, S; Cesaroni, D; Poda, G; Trovatelli, L D

    1990-02-01

    Samples of soft cheese, butter and raw milk were examined for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 1, haemolytic and virulent for mice) and L. innocua (the only other Listeria sp. isolated) were each found in 2/21 (1.6%) of soft cheese samples. Five per cent of butter samples were contaminated with L. innocua. No Listeria spp. were detected in 40 raw milk samples. The results were compared with similar studies in Italy and abroad.

  17. Changes in the microbial composition of raw milk induced by thermization treatments applied prior to traditional Greek hard cheese processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelis, John; Lianou, Alexandra; Kakouri, Athanasia; Delbès, Céline; Rogelj, Irena; Bogovic-Matijasić, Bojana; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2009-04-01

    The microbiological quality, safety, and composition of mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk (90:10) used for cheesemaking were evaluated before and after thermization at 60 and 67 degrees C for 30 s. Such mild thermal treatments are commonly applied to reduce natural contaminants of raw milk before processing for traditional hard Greek cheeses. Raw milk samples had an average total bacterial count of 7.3 log CFU/ml; most of these bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pseudomonads. The LAB flora of raw milk was dominated by enterococci (40.8%), followed by lactococci (20.4%), leuconostocs (18.4%), and mesophilic lactobacilli (10.2%). Enterococcus faecalis (30.1%) and Enterococcus faecium (13.7%) were the most common LAB isolates, followed by Enterococcus durans, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc lactis. Thermization at 60 degrees C for 30 s was effective for reducing raw milk contamination by enterobacteria (5.1 log CFU/ml), coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.3 log CFU/ml), and Listeria (present in 25-ml samples) to safe levels, but it also reduced mesophilic lactococci, leuconostocs, lactobacilli, and selected enterococci (72.0%) in thermized milk. Thermization at 67 degrees C for 30 s had a major inactivation effect on all bacterial groups. Two nisin-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis strains (M78 and M104) were isolated from raw milk, but neither nisin-producing nor other bacteriocin-producing LAB strains were isolated from thermized milk. Thus, thermization treatments control harmful bacteria but also may have a negative impact on milk quality by reducing desirable LAB and the biodiversity of raw milk bacteria overall, inactivating potentially protective LAB strains and enhancing the ability of potentially pathogenic enterococci to grow in fresh cheese curds.

  18. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  19. Real-time PCR detection of Paenibacillus spp. in raw milk to predict shelf life performance of pasteurized fluid milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Matthew L; Ivy, Reid A; Mitchell, W Robert; Call, Emma; Masiello, Stephanie N; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-08-01

    Psychrotolerant sporeformers, specifically Paenibacillus spp., are important spoilage bacteria for pasteurized, refrigerated foods such as fluid milk. While Paenibacillus spp. have been isolated from farm environments, raw milk, processing plant environments, and pasteurized fluid milk, no information on the number of Paenibacillus spp. that need to be present in raw milk to cause pasteurized milk spoilage was available. A real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed to detect Paenibacillus spp. in fluid milk and to discriminate between Paenibacillus and other closely related spore-forming bacteria. Specificity was confirmed using 16 Paenibacillus and 17 Bacillus isolates. All 16 Paenibacillus isolates were detected with a mean cycle threshold (C(T)) of 19.14 ± 0.54. While 14/17 Bacillus isolates showed no signal (C(T) > 40), 3 Bacillus isolates showed very weak positive signals (C(T) = 38.66 ± 0.65). The assay provided a detection limit of approximately 3.25 × 10(1) CFU/ml using total genomic DNA extracted from raw milk samples inoculated with Paenibacillus. Application of the TaqMan PCR to colony lysates obtained from heat-treated and enriched raw milk provided fast and accurate detection of Paenibacillus. Heat-treated milk samples where Paenibacillus (≥1 CFU/ml) was detected by this colony TaqMan PCR showed high bacterial counts (>4.30 log CFU/ml) after refrigerated storage (6°C) for 21 days. We thus developed a tool for rapid detection of Paenibacillus that has the potential to identify raw milk with microbial spoilage potential as a pasteurized product.

  20. Contamination Level of Staphylococcus spp. in Raw Goat Milk and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw goat milk by using Staphylococcus spp. as indicator bacteria, and also to evaluate the potential risk factors associated with them. Information regarding potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. The conventional bacteriological method for bacterial isolation and the indirect test (California Mastitis Test (CMT for determining udder inflammation status were employed. A sample size of 300 udder halves milk samples from three commercial dairy goat farms in the Bogor District, West Java Province, Indonesia were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median value of indicator bacterial count from overall udder-half milk samples was 3.00 log cfu/ml. The indicator bacterial count from udder-half milk samples was significantly different (P<0.05 among farms. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. was 78.7%. As one of potential risk factors, udder inflammation status was found to be risk factor for Staphylococcus spp. contamination in milk. Udders with inflammation had significant association and a higher chance of having contaminated samples by Staphylococcus spp. as compared to udders without inflammation. Additionally, according to these study results, CMT can be used as an effective, reliable, cheap and “farm and farmer friendly test” for screening test of intramammary infection (IMI or sub clinical mastitis in dairy goats.

  1. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

  3. Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stanovič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on determining the content of monitored contaminants (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in 53 samples of raw sheep milk collected in 2013 and 2014 on the sites Poráč and Matejovce nad Hornádom (middle Spiš. The area is characterized by historical mining and metalworking activity (mining and processing of polymetallic ores rich in Hg, Cd and Pb. Currently, the area is one of the most mercury contaminated areas in Central Europe. All statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical software Statistica 10.0 (Statsoft, USA. Descriptive data analysis included minimum value, maximum value, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The results of the studied contaminant content show that the limit value for cadmium (10 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 25 samples. In the case of lead, the limit value of 20 μg.kg-1 was exceeded in 16 cases. The limit value for copper (0.4 mg.kg-1 was exceeded in one case. The limit value for zinc is not defined by a legislative standard. The risk level of the studied contaminants in the samples of raw sheep milk decreases as follows: Cd > Pb > Hg > Cu > Zn. It can be concluded that frequent and long-term consumption of the raw sheep milk originating from the studied sites poses a health risk. The content of the contaminants in the milk and their eventual transition into dairy products should be monitored over a longer term in more detail. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  4. Determination of lactose in raw milks by means of the combined He-Ne laser optothermal window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakos, P.; Doka, O.; Ajtony, Z.; Bicanic, D.; Szucs, D.

    2002-01-01

    The concept of OW (with 632.8 nm He–Ne laser), combined with colorimetry based on a reaction of anthrone-sulphuric acid, was proposed as a new tool for determination of lactose in raw milk. Data obtained from various milk samples by OW colorimetry were compared to those acquired from the MilkoScan a

  5. Sharing milk but not messages: campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw milk from a cow-share program in Alaska, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrodale, L J; Gerlach, R F; Xavier, C M; Smith, B J; Cooper, M P; McLaughlin, J B

    2013-05-01

    Alaska public and environmental health authorities investigated a cluster of campylobacteriosis cases among people who had consumed raw, unpasteurized milk obtained from a cow-share program in Alaska. Although raw milk is not permitted by law to be offered commercially, consumers can enter into cow-share agreements whereby they contribute funds for the upkeep of cows and in turn receive a share of the milk for their personal use. Laboratory testing of stool specimens collected from ill persons and from cows on the farm revealed an indistinguishable strain of Campylobacter. In this outbreak, numerous confirmed and suspected cases were not among cow shareholders; therefore, these individuals had not been advised of the potential health hazards associated with consumption of raw milk nor were they informed of the outbreak developments.

  6. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  7. Study on occurrence and antibiogram pattern of Escherichia coli from raw milk samples in Anand, Gujarat, India

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    H. C. Thaker

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Escherichia coli from raw milk samples and determine antibiogram pattern of E. coli isolates. Materials and Methods: During 6 months duration of study a total of 100 raw milk samples were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as individual household, cattle farms, milk collection centres of Co-operative milk dairies and milk vendors. All raw milk samples were enriched in peptone water and inoculated on selective media and various biochemical tests were performed for confirmation of isolates. Antibiogram pattern of E.coli to antimicrobial agents was evaluated by disk diffusion method. E. coli isolates were sent to National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh for serotyping. Results: The result of present study revealed that out of 100 samples, 38 samples were found contaminated with E.coli. Antibiogram pattern revealed high resistance against ampicillin (100 %, whereas moderate resistance was observed for streptomycin (57.89 %, oxytetracycline (47.37 % and amoxy-clav (42.11 %. Also lesser percentage of resistance was observed for co-trimoxazole (13.16 % and chloramphenicol (5.26 %. Serotypes detected were O24 (7 isolates, followed by O36 (1 isolate, O89 (1 isolate, O91 (1 isolate and O153(1 isolate. Conclusions: Results suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of E.coli originating from raw milk sources. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 556-559

  8. Semi-Quantitative Method for Streptococci Magnetic Detection in Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carla; Costa, Tiago; Carneiro, Carla; Soares, Rita; Jitariu, Andrei; Cardoso, Susana; Piedade, Moisés; Bexiga, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and the most frequent reason for the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle; thus, control measures to detect and prevent mastitis are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive method to magnetically detect Streptococcus agalactiae (a Group B streptococci) and Streptococcus uberis in raw milk samples. Mastitic milk samples were collected aseptically from 44 cows with subclinical mastitis, from 11 Portuguese dairy farms. Forty-six quarter milk samples were selected based on bacterial identification by conventional microbiology. All samples were submitted to PCR analysis. In parallel, these milk samples were mixed with a solution combining specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles, to be analyzed using a lab-on-a-chip magnetoresistive cytometer, with microfluidic sample handling. This paper describes a point of care methodology used for detection of bacteria, including analysis of false positive/negative results. This immunological recognition was able to detect bacterial presence in samples spiked above 100 cfu/mL, independently of antibody and targeted bacteria used in this work. Using PCR as a reference, this method correctly identified 73% of positive samples for streptococci species with an anti-S. agalactiae antibody, and 41% of positive samples for an anti-GB streptococci antibody. PMID:27128950

  9. Semi-Quantitative Method for Streptococci Magnetic Detection in Raw Milk

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    Carla Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and the most frequent reason for the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle; thus, control measures to detect and prevent mastitis are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive method to magnetically detect Streptococcus agalactiae (a Group B streptococci and Streptococcus uberis in raw milk samples. Mastitic milk samples were collected aseptically from 44 cows with subclinical mastitis, from 11 Portuguese dairy farms. Forty-six quarter milk samples were selected based on bacterial identification by conventional microbiology. All samples were submitted to PCR analysis. In parallel, these milk samples were mixed with a solution combining specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles, to be analyzed using a lab-on-a-chip magnetoresistive cytometer, with microfluidic sample handling. This paper describes a point of care methodology used for detection of bacteria, including analysis of false positive/negative results. This immunological recognition was able to detect bacterial presence in samples spiked above 100 cfu/mL, independently of antibody and targeted bacteria used in this work. Using PCR as a reference, this method correctly identified 73% of positive samples for streptococci species with an anti-S. agalactiae antibody, and 41% of positive samples for an anti-GB streptococci antibody.

  10. A new comprehensive index for discriminating adulteration in bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ren, Jing; Liu, Zhen-Min; Guo, Ben-Heng

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new comprehensive index, called Q, which can effectively discriminate artificial adulterated milk from unadulterated milk. Both normal and adulterated samples of bovine raw milk were analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic instrument to measure the traditional indices of quality, including fat (FAT), protein (PRO), lactose (LAC), total solids (TS), non-fat solid (NFS), freezing point (FP) and somatic cell counts (SCC). From these traditional indices, this paper elaborates a method to build the index Q. First, correlated analysis and principle component analysis were used to select parameter pairs TS-FAT and FP-LAC as predominant variables. Second, linear-regression analysis and residual analysis are applied to determine the index Q and its discriminating ranges. The verification and two-blind trial results suggested that index Q could accurately detect milk adulteration with maltodextrin and water (as low as 1.0% of adulteration proportions), and with other nine kinds of synthetic adulterants (as low as 0.5% of adulteration proportions). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RAPID DNA EXTRACTION AND PCR VALIDATION FOR DIRECT DETECTION OF Listeria monocytogenes IN RAW MILK

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    Edith Burbano

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to validate a method for detecting L. monocytogenes in raw milk.Materials and methods. The extraction procedure carried out using a chaotropic agent like NaI, toreduce fat in the sample to 0.2% w/v, which is the lowest limit for detection in the Gerber method, toavoid the polymerization. The raw milk samples were analyzed by using the traditional gold standardmethod for L. monocytogenes. Detection PCR was done on the specificity of primers that recognize theListeria genus by amplifying a specific fragment of about 938bp of the 16S rDNA. Several primer setswere use: L1 (CTCCATAAAGGTGACCCT, U1 (CAGCMGCCGCGGTAATWC, LF (CAAACGTTAACAACGCAGTAand LR (TCCAGAGTGATCGATGTTAA that recognize the hlyA gene of L. monocytogenes, amplifying a 750bpfragment. Results. The DNA of 39 strains evidenced high specificity of the technique since all the strainsof L. monocytogenes amplified the fragments 938bp and 750bp, specifically for genus and species,respectively. The detection limit of the PCR was 101 CFU/ml. T he PCR reproducibility showed a Kappa of0.85; the specificity and sensitivity of 100% were found, predictive positive and negative values were of100% respectively. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that is possible to detect of Listeria spp. byusing any of the three methods since they share the same sensitivity and specificity. One hundred percentof the predictive value for PCR (alternative method provides high reliability, and allows the detection ofthe positive samples. The extraction procedure combined with a PCR method can reduce in 15 days thetime of identification of L. monocytogenes in raw milk. This PCR technique could be adapted and validatedto be use for other types of food such as poultry, meat products and cheeses

  12. Screening, Identification and Antibacterial Activities of Effective Thermotolerant Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Raw Milk

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    Kannikar SANTONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one isolates of Bacillus species were isolated from raw milk, analyzed using the spot on lawn and agar diffusion method in terms of their general inhibition effects to test bacteria (Escherichia coli TISTR 887 and Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517. The results demonstrated that most isolates are effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria whereas their extensive inhibition effect is particularly against Gram-positive bacteria. Only 2 effective thermotolerant isolates, BA8 and BA16, exerted broad spectrum antibacterial activities against both test bacteria.  Based on biochemical and physiological properties, they were classified as Brevibacillus laterosporus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, respectively.

  13. Effect of Raw-Milk Cheese Consumption on the Enterococcal Flora of Human Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Gelsomino, Roberto; Vancanneyt, Marc; Cogan, Timothy M.; Swings, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Enterococci are one of the major facultative anaerobic bacterial groups that reside in the human gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the composition of the enterococcal fecal flora in three healthy humans was analyzed before, during, and after the daily consumption of ∼125 g of a raw-milk Cheddar-type cheese containing 3.2 × 104 enterococci/g of cheese. Enterococcal counts ranged between 1.4 × 102 and 2.5 × 108 CFU/g of feces and differed from subject to subject and from week to wee...

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROBIOLOGIC PARAMETERS VALUE FROM RAW MILK USED IN TELEMEA CHEESE TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

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    ANDRA SULER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important faze for food quality control is verification of microbiological parameters of food products. In this way is assuring the prevention of alimentation toxicological infections to consumer, avoiding the technological and economical losses as well as increasing the products conservation period. In this paper are presents the microbiological exam results from raw milk used in Telemea cheese technological process, for 5 stations studied. The determinations were made on 2 series with 57 samples each of them, prelevated in reception fase, in summer and winter season.

  15. Evaluation and Determination of Toxic Metals, Lead and Cadmium, in Incoming Raw Milk from Traditional and Industrial Farms to Milk Production Factories in Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is regarded as a unique source of food for all ages. When milk is exposed to various contaminants, including lead and cadmium, it is considered a risk to humans. The presence of some metal pollutants, especially Cd and Pb, facilitates their entry into the food chain and thus increases the possibility of their toxic effects on humans and animals. Therefore, we decided to check lead and cadmium levels in incoming raw milk in milk production factories in Arak city, Iran. Methods: In this study, 48 samples of milk were obtained from 28 industrial and 20 traditional farms. After the digestion process, at first, the metals were extracted with complexing agents, APDC, and MIBK solvent. Then atomic absorption method with graphite furnace was applied. Results: The results were analyzed by analytical tests such as Npar, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and t-test using SPSS software and it was specified that the means of lead and cadmium were equal to 16.0456 and 20.09 ppb in raw milk. P-values equal to 0.009 and 0.002 ppb were considered significant for lead and cadmium, respectively. The standard levels for lead and cadmium in milk were 1000 and 100 ppb, respectively. In all milk samples, lead and cadmium pollution were less than the standard limit. Conclusion: The amounts of toxic metals (lead and cadmium in raw milk produced in traditional and industrial farms in all seasons were lower than the standard limits. Also, the mean amounts of lead and cadmium in all milk samples were less than the standard limits for milk.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of pasteurization on milk vitamins, and evidence for raw milk consumption and other health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Lauren E; Brett, James; Kelton, David; Majowicz, Shannon E; Snedeker, Kate; Sargeant, Jan M

    2011-11-01

    Pasteurization of milk ensures safety for human consumption by reducing the number of viable pathogenic bacteria. Although the public health benefits of pasteurization are well established, pro-raw milk advocate organizations continue to promote raw milk as "nature's perfect food." Advocacy groups' claims include statements that pasteurization destroys important vitamins and that raw milk consumption can prevent and treat allergies, cancer, and lactose intolerance. A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed to summarize available evidence for these selected claims. Forty studies assessing the effects of pasteurization on vitamin levels were found. Qualitatively, vitamins B12 and E decreased following pasteurization, and vitamin A increased. Random effects meta-analysis revealed no significant effect of pasteurization on vitamin B6 concentrations (standardized mean difference [SMD], -2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.40, 0.8; P = 0.06) but a decrease in concentrations of vitamins B1 (SMD, -1.77; 95% CI, -2.57, -0.96; P milk's nutritive value was minimal because many of these vitamins are naturally found in relatively low levels. However, milk is an important dietary source of vitamin B2, and the impact of heat treatment should be further considered. Raw milk consumption may have a protective association with allergy development (six studies), although this relationship may be potentially confounded by other farming-related factors. Raw milk consumption was not associated with cancer (two studies) or lactose intolerance (one study). Overall, these findings should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of reported methodology in many of the included studies.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF RAW MILK CONSUMPTION RELATED TO STAPHYLOCOCCAL FOOD POISONING

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    Elsa Helena Walter Santana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the risks of staphylococcal food poisoning due to the consumption of raw milk. Fifty-one farms in Londrina (PR and 50 in Pelotas (RS were analyzed, to determinethe population of coagulase-positive staphylococci (UFC/ mL, as well as to verify the ability of producing Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA by immunodifusion (OSP, the presence of the gene for the production of SEA (PCR in the cultures, and the research of enterotoxin (SEA to SEE in milk samples using ELISA commercial kit. Considering the 101 farms analyzed, 19 (18.8% presented coagulase-positive staphylococci count above 105 UFC/mL. For the evaluation of the enterotoxigenic ability (SEA by the OSP technique, six cultures coagulase-positive (5.5% were positive to the test and identified as S. aureus. From the coagualse-negative sample, one (5.5% was OSP positive. For the evaluation of the presence of the gene for EEA synthesis, 51 cultures of staphylococci were tested. From this total, 14 (27.45% presented the gene, and from that, only 5 (9.81% cultures were capable of expressing it in the technique of the OSP. The morphologiccharacteristic of the evaluated cultures that had enterotoxigenic capacity, from the 14 (33,3% cultures that presented the gene for EEA production, 05 (11.9% were characterized as typical cultures of S.aureus in Baird Parker agar. All the 12 milk samples studied for the presence of EEA to EEE in milk were negative. Thus, it can be concluded that there is extensive contamination of raw milk for staphylococci coagulase, however, most of the isolated strains were not enterotoxigenic or did not express such a characteristic. Only 9.81% of the tested colonies expressed the gene and effectivelyproduced SEA. None of the samples had sufficient counts to produce detectable amounts of SEA. The milk samples did not present risk to cause staphylococcal food poisoning if consumed in natura until the collection moment.

  18. [Discriminant analysis of raw milk adulterated with botanical filling material using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Ding, Wu

    2010-05-01

    In order to find out a fast measure method of adulterated milk based on near infrared spectroscopy, milk adulterated with plant butter, vegetable protein and starch was collected respectively. Using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy to scan the samples, the spectrum data were obtained. The samples were scanned in the spectral region between 4 000 and 12 000 cm(-1) by FT-NIR spectrometer with an optic fiber of 2 mm path-length and an InGaAs detector. Then all data were analyzed by principal component analysis combined with Fisher line discriminant analysis (FLDA) and partial least squares (PLS). Results show that the accumulative reliabilities of the first six components were more than 99%, so the first six components were applied as FLDA inputs and the values of the type of milk were applied as the outputs. An adulterated milk qualitative discriminant model based on Fisher line discriminant analysis was developed finally. The result indicated that the accuracy of detection of calibration samples is 97.78%. The unknown test samples were tested by this model and the correct identification rate is 94.44%. Partial least square models for detecting the content of material added to raw milk were set up with good veracity. The predictive correlation coefficient (R2) of calibration sets of milk adulterated with plant butter, vegetable protein and starch are 99.08%, 99.96% and 99.39%, respectively, while the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) of the three calibration sets are 0.304%, 0.013 5% and 0.060%, respectively. The R2 of validation sets of the three kinds of adulterated milk are 98.50%, 99.94% and 98.50%, respectively, while the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the three validation sets are 0.323%, 0.028 8% and 0.068%, respectively. All of these suggested that near infrared spectroscopy has good potential for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of milk adulterated with botanical filling material.

  19. Presence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7 in raw milk and Van herby cheese

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    Sancak Yakup Can

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains are currently considered important emerging pathogens threatening public health. Among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 strains have emerged as important human pathogens. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7 in raw milk samples and Van herby cheese samples. For this purpose, 100 samples of raw milk were collected and 100 samples of herby cheese sold for consumption in Van province in Turkey were obtained from grocers and markets in order to detect the presence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7. The method of E. coli O157 and O157:H7 isolation proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA was used. E. coli O157 in raw milk and herby cheese samples was found in 11% and 6% of samples respectively, and E. coli O157:H7 was found in 2% of herby cheese samples. No E. coli O157:H7 was detected in raw milk samples. This study showed that raw milk was contaminated with E. coli O157 and herby cheese was contaminated with both E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7; therefore, herby cheese poses a serious risk to public health.

  20. Behavior of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in ultrahigh-temperature, pasteurized, and raw cow's milk under different temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Serraino, Andrea; Pasquali, Frederique; De Cesare, Alessandra; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Rosmini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The growth and survival of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus in milk were investigated at different storage temperatures. Three strains of each Arcobacter species were inoculated into ultrahigh-temperature (UHT), pasteurized, and raw cow's milk and stored at 4, 10, and 20°C for 6 days. The survival of Arcobacter spp. during storage was evaluated by a culture method. Results clearly showed that A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus remained viable in milk when stored at 4°C and 10°C for a period of 6 days. When UHT and pasteurized milk were stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri count increased, with a longer lag-phase in pasteurized milk, whereas the A. cryaerophilus count increased in the first 48 h and then rapidly decreased to below the detection limit on the sixth storage day. When raw milk was stored at 20°C, the A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus counts decreased from the first day of storage and no viable bacteria were recovered on the last day of storage. Generally, A. butzleri displayed a significantly better growth and survival capacity than A. cryaerophilus in milk. The present study is the first to assess the survival and/or growth of A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in milk. The evidence suggests that in case of primary contamination of milk or secondary contamination due to postprocessing contamination, milk can act as a potential source of Arcobacter infection in humans and could have public health implications, especially for raw milk consumption.

  1. PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS IN RAW SHEEP MILK CHEESE AND ENTEROTOXIGENIC PROFILE

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    V. Spanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in raw sheep milk cheese and to assess the enterotoxigenic profile of the isolated strains. N.16 raw milk sheep cheese, collected from 8 artisan dairies, were analyzed to detect the presence of Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (CPS. In the frame of Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 cheese samples were tested for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs when a CPS count >105 cfu/g was detected. CPS isolates identified as S. aureus were analyzed using multiplex PCR for the detection of classical (sea-see and enterotoxins-like (seh, sek, sel, sem, seo, sep genes. S. aureus was recovered in all cheese samples and in 50% with levels >105 cfu/g. 14 strains carried at least one of the genes coding for enterotoxins. In none of the cheese samples SEs were detected. Although a correct acidification (pH 5.1-5.4 at 6 hours was observed in dairies using natural starter culture, in cheese samples obtained from these dairies, CPS counts were greater (P<0.05 as compared with those where starter culture were not used. This result might be related to the main role of microbial competition on the control of S. aureus in early stage of cheesemaking. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of lactic acid bacteria competition on the growth of S. aureus.

  2. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

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    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA procedure was used. The statistical methods used in this study were based on normal confidence intervals and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 97.5% of the raw milk ranging from 6.52 to 68.17 ng/l and 95.7% of the pasteurized milk, ranging from 0.8 to 58.13 ng/l. Toxin levels in 10% of the raw milk and 2.1% of the pasteurized milk samples exceeded the Iranian national standard limit i.e. 50 ng/l.  Due to seasonal variations, mean concentration of AFM1 in the samples collected in winter was significantly (P < 0.03 higher than those collected in the summer. Conclusion: Large amount of AFM1 in milk samples might be a potential hazard for the public health. Reducing the levels of AFB1 in animal feedstuffs can be regarded as the initial step to control the transfer of AFM1 to humans.

  3. The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk

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    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop calibrations to determine the concentration of some milk adulterants by using the automated methodology of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. For construction of calibrations, samples were collected from 100 farms in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Samples were tainted with three different adulterants commonly used in the adulteration of raw milk: sodium bicarbonate (SB, sodium citrate (SC and cheese whey (W. Each adulterant was used at three different concentrations (SB: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25%; SC: 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075% and W: 5, 10 and 20%. For validation, 60 samples were collected in other farms, which were not considered at the development stage of calibration. Adulterants were added at the following concentrations: 0.03, 0.06, 0.10 and 0.12% for SB; 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% for SC and 5, 10 and 20% for W. Performance of each calibration was evaluated in terms of accuracy (Se, detection limit (DL and determination coefficient (R². All calibrations presented R² higher than 0.91 with DL of 0.015%; 0.017% and 3.9% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Accuracy was 0.005%, 0.009% and 2.26% for SB, SC and W, respectively. Results show that the FTIR methodology can be used for determining the concentration of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and whey in raw milk. Associated with automated equipment, it is a viable option for monitoring these adulterants, having low operational costs and high analytical performance as additional features.

  4. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  5. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

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    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

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    Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is potential human carcinogen. Its presence in milk and dairy products represents risk for human health. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to determine thedegree of microbiological contamination by mold, and the potential presence of aflatoxin M1 in 60 raw milk samples, randomly taken from individual producers from different regions of the continental Croatia. The most common genera isolated fungi were Geotrichum (78.3 %, Aspergillus (32.4 % and Penicillium (27.0 %. From total of 60 studied milk samples, 86.66 % were positive for the presence of aflatoxin M1, and 6.66 % of samples were above the prescribed limits. Lactic acid bacteria used in fermented dairy products as a starter culture may play a role in reduction of aflatoxin in foods and nutrients. In this paper the ability of lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus delbrueckii S1 and Lactobacillus plantarum A1 to bind aflatoxin M1 was investigated. Standard strain L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 and L. delbrueckii S1 can significantly (P50 % compared to L. plantarum A1, which binds AFM1 between 18.7 to 28.7 %.

  7. Quantitative Determination of Ivermectin in Raw Milk Using Positive ESI LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Dahiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ivermectin, a veterinary drug, is commonly used endectocide for animal husbandry. The drug is available in the form of subcutaneous or topical formulations. Its application may cause accumulation of its residues into the animal tissues, which ultimately find their way into the food products, such as milk and meat products. In order to determine the residues of ivermectin in milk, a comparatively simple, sensitive and rapid method was developed and validated using LC-MS/MS. The MRM transitions corresponding to m/z 892.71>569.6, 892.71>551.5 and 892.71>307.3 were used for the purpose of quantification and evaluation of other parameters of the method. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.1 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was calculated as 0.2 μg/kg. The method was found to be linear in the range of 1.0 ng/mL to 100.0 ng/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9992 for pure calibration curve and 0.9990 for the matrix- matched calibration curve. The recoveries of ivermectin from the spiked samples of raw milk were found between 85 to 105%.

  8. A direct PCR detection method for Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in up to 100 milliliters of raw milk.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A direct detection method for Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in up to 100 ml of raw milk is presented. The bacterial spores are concentrated by centrifugation after chemical extraction of the milk components. The vegetative cells are selectively lysed, and their DNA is digested and washed away. Afterwards, the DNA is liberated from the spores by microwave treatment. For the identification of the C. tyrobutyricum DNA, a two-step PCR method with two nested pairs of primers is used. The primer...

  9. A Study on the Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Produced in Rafsanjan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    FaAkrami Mohajeri Akrami Mohajeri; Asieh Amiri; Hossein Khorramdel Azad; Zahra Ahmadi; Zahra Asadollahi; Mohsen Rezaeian; Fallah, Aziz A.; Seyed Razi Ghalebi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aflatoxins, known as causative factors of hepatic and extra-hepatic carcinogenesis within humans, are extremely teratogenic, mutagenic, toxic, and carcinogenic compounds. Materials & Methods: This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 40 raw milk and 47 pasteurized milk samples collected during spring and winter. In order to analyze the samples, the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure was used. The statistical methods used...

  10. Prevalence of arcobacter species in drinking water, spring water, and raw milk as determined by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Nurhan; Dogruer, Yusuf; Gonulalan, Zafer; Guner, Ahmet; Ulger, Ismail

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of Arcobacter species in water sources and raw milk from healthy animals in Kayseri, Turkey. A total of 175 samples of drinking water (n = 100), spring water (n = 25), and raw milk (n = 50) were examined. Arcobacter species were isolated using the membrane filtration technique. Overall, 7 (4%) of the 175 samples yielded Arcobacter spp.: 3 (3%) drinking water samples, 1 (4%) spring water sample, and 3 (6%) raw milk samples. Two species of Arcobacter were recovered from the seven positive samples: Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter skirrowii, and A. butzleri plus A. skirrowii found in 3 (1.7%), 2 (1.1%), and 2 (1.1%) samples, respectively. Our study is the first to report the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. skirrowii together from drinking water and is the first report of Arcobacter in milk from healthy cows in Turkey. Based on these findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in environmental waters and raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health.

  11. Arcobacter species and their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotypes in Finnish raw milk during summer 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revez, Joana; Huuskonen, Marianne; Ruusunen, Marjo; Lindström, Miia; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Arcobacter species in raw milk in Finland. A total of 177 raw milk samples, each from a separate farm, were examined from June to August 2011. Arcobacter species were isolated using an enrichment and selective detection procedure. Overall, 26 (15 % ) of the 177 samples yielded Arcobacter spp. Samples from 25 farms were positive for Arcobacter butzleri and from 1 farm for Arcobacter cryaerophilus. Moreover, both Arcobacter butzleri and A. cryaerophilus were recovered from 1 positive sample. To evaluate a possible genetic variability, one strain of A. butzleri from each farm and the A. cryaerophilus sample were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping revealed that Arcobacter spp. populations are heterogeneous, and no dominant clone has spread in the investigated samples. Our study is the first report on the isolation of both A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus in raw milk in Finland. Based on our findings, the presence of Arcobacter species in raw milk may pose a potential hazard for human health, in particular for consumers who prefer drinking unpasteurized milk.

  12. Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia species and Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in farm bulk tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Hossein; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Radmehr, Behrad; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and to characterize and determine the antibiotic resistance of Yersinia spp. isolates from raw milk. From September 2008 to August 2010, 446 raw milk samples were obtained from farm bulk milk tanks in Varamin, Iran. Yersinia spp. were detected in 29 (6.5%) samples, out of which 23 (79.3%), 5 (17.2%), and 1 (3.4%) were isolated from cow, sheep, and goat raw milk, respectively. The most common species isolated was Yersinia enterocolitica (65.5%), followed by Yersinia frederiksenii (31%), and Yersinia kristensenii (3.4%). Of the 19 Y. enterocolitica isolates, 14 (73.7%) were grouped into bioserotype 1A/O:9, 4 (21.1%) belonged to bioserotype 1B:O8, 1 (5.3%) belonged to bioserotype 4/O:3, and 1 isolate (biotype 1A) was not typable. All the isolates of biotypes 1B and 4harbored both the ystA and ail genes. However, all the isolates of biotype 1A were only positive for the ystB gene. The tested Yersinia spp. showed the highest percentages of resistance to tetracycline (48.3%), followed by ciprofloxacin and cephalothin (each 17.2%), ampicillin (13.8%), streptomycin (6.9%), and amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (each 3.4%). All of the tested isolates demonstrated significant sensitivity to gentamicin and chloramphenicol. Recovery of potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from raw milk indicates high risks of yersiniosis associated with consumption of raw milk.

  13. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  14. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures.

  15. Effective heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in raw milk contaminated with naturally infected feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jan L W; Vissers, Marc M M; Te Giffel, Meike C

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of high-temperature, short holding time (HTST) pasteurization and homogenization with respect to inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was evaluated quantitatively. This allowed a detailed determination of inactivation kinetics. High concentrations of feces from cows with clinical symptoms of Johne's disease were used to contaminate raw milk in order to realistically mimic possible incidents most closely. Final M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis concentrations varying from 10(2) to 3.5 x 10(5) cells per ml raw milk were used. Heat treatments including industrial HTST were simulated on a pilot scale with 22 different time-temperature combinations, including 60 to 90 degrees C at holding (mean residence) times of 6 to 15 s. Following 72 degrees C and a holding time of 6 s, 70 degrees C for 10 and 15 s, or under more stringent conditions, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were recovered, resulting in >4.2- to >7.1-fold reductions, depending on the original inoculum concentrations. Inactivation kinetic modeling of 69 quantitative data points yielded an E(a) of 305,635 J/mol and an lnk(0) of 107.2, corresponding to a D value of 1.2 s at 72 degrees C and a Z value of 7.7 degrees C. Homogenization did not significantly affect the inactivation. The conclusion can be drawn that HTST pasteurization conditions equal to 15 s at > or =72 degrees C result in a more-than-sevenfold reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  16. Competitive advantage of bacteriocinogenic strains within lactic acid bacteria consortium of raw milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gene determinants for different bacteriocins has been already demonstrated in traditional Slovenian types of raw milk cheeses ‘Tolminc’ and ‘Kraški’. These genes were present also in the cultivable microbiota. In this research the aim was to establish how the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins in microbial consortia is reflected in its antimicrobial activity. In addition, one of the goals was to determine whether the strains that carry gene determinants for bacteriocins have any competitive growth advantage in microbial population. Microbial consortium of ‘Tolminc’ cheese was propagated in milk and examined at the end of propagation its antimicrobial activity and the presence of gene determinants for bacteriocins. Comparison of the results obtained before and after propagation leaded to the conclusion that most of the strains possessing gene determinants for bacteriocins were unable to persist during propagation. The strains which did persist during propagation carried gene determinants for enterocins P, L50B and cytolysin. Antimicrobial activity of consortium before and after propagation was not substantially different and cannot be attributed to any of detected bacteriocins.

  17. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  18. Detection and enumeration of four foodborne pathogens in raw commingled silo milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emily E; Erten, Edibe S; Maddi, Neeraj; Graham, Thomas E; Larkin, John W; Blodgett, Robert J; Schlesser, Joseph E; Reddy, Ravinder M

    2012-08-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to obtain qualitative and quantitative data on bacterial contamination of raw commingled silo milk intended for pasteurization. The levels of total aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using the TEMPO system. The prevalence rates and levels of presumptive Bacillus cereus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. were determined in 214 samples. B. cereus was detected in 8.91% of samples, at 3.0 to 93 CFU/ml. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 3.79 to 9.05% of samples, at bacteria were slightly lower in samples containing no pathogens. No correlation was observed between the levels of organisms detected with the TEMPO system and the presence or levels of any pathogen except E. coli O157:H7. A higher average log-transformed count of total viable bacteria was observed in samples positive for this organism. The high prevalence rates of target pathogens may be attributed to a variety of factors, including detection methods, sample size, and commingling of the milk in the silo. The effects of commingling likely contributed to the high prevalence rates and low levels of target pathogens because of the inclusion of milk from multiple bulk tanks. The high prevalence rates also may be the result of analysis of larger sample volumes using more sensitive detection methods. These quantitative data could be utilized to perform more accurate risk assessments and to better estimate the appropriate level of protection for dairy products and processing technologies.

  19. Prevalence of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in bulk raw milk and retail cheese in northern-west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifian, Shahram; Khani, Sajjad

    2012-04-02

    To determine the prevalence of virulent Yersinia enterocolitica, 554 samples consisting of 354 bulk raw milks and 200 traditional cheeses were collected from different parts of Eastern-Azerbaijan province, during a 23-month period from 2008 to 2010. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in samples enriched in peptone sorbitol bile broth (PSBB) was evaluated via the detection of attachment invasion locus (ail) gene by PCR. The viability of virulent Y. enterocolitica in the PCR-positive samples was tested using conventional culture method and the isolates were confirmed by the second-phase ail-PCR. According to the results, 8.66% of total samples including 7.62% of bulk raw milks and 10.5% of raw milk cheeses were found ail-positive by PCR method; subsequently Y. enterocolitica was isolated by the culture method and confirmed by the second phase ail-PCR in 2.88% of total samples including 2.26% of raw milks and 4% of cheese samples. It was concluded that, a sample enrichment followed by ail-PCR was more sensitive and robust to detect and distinguish the virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica compared to the conventional culture method.

  20. Molecular screening of bovine raw milk for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Vendramin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milkborne transmission of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of STEC in bovine raw milk. To identify E. coli (ATCC 25922 contamination, the gene uspA was used, and PCR sensitivity and specificity were accessed by testing diluted samples ranging from 2 to 2.0 × 10(6 CFU/mL. To detect STEC, the stx1 and stx2 genes were selected as targets. After reaction standardization, the multiplex assay was tested in raw milk collected from 101 cows on dairy farms. PCR assay for E. coli detection had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 79% (P<0.0001, with a lower detection limit of 2 CFU/mL. Multiplex PCR assay had 100% sensitivity for E. coli positive raw milk samples, and 31.1% were contaminated with STEC, 28.3% of stx2, and 1.9% of stx1. The multiplex PCR assay described in the present study can be employed to identify and screen E. coli harboring stx1 and stx2 genes in raw milk on dairy farms and in industries.

  1. The microbial diversity in raw milk%原料乳中微生物的多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    剧柠; 夏淑鸿

    2013-01-01

    Milk is nutritious and suitable for the growth of a variety of microorganism.This review introduces the types of microorganisms in raw milk.It focuses on the research progression of microbial diversity in raw milk in recent years.The application of Culture-independent microbiology on the study of microbial diversity in raw milk was summarized.Here, we will highlight the benefits associated with culture-independent methods which include enhanced sensitivity , rapidity and the detection of microorganisms not previously associated with such milk.%牛乳营养丰富,适合各种微生物的生长繁殖.该文介绍了原料乳中微生物的种类,综述了国内外近年来关于原料乳中微生物多样性的研究进展.并对非培养微生物学在研究原料乳中微生物多样性的应用进行了总结,高度评价了非培养方式的快速、敏感以及可定义纯培养方式无法发现的微生物的特点.

  2. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mortez Mohammadzadeh; Amiri, Mostafa; Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. Aim This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B), and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analysed employing Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences using SPSS software version 20. The significant level was considered at p0.05). The highest number of milk samples (n=7) contaminated with antibiotics were related to code B (38.5%). Most positive cases were related to code A in winter. Also, there was no significant difference among the three types of contaminated milk regarding the year and month (p=0.164 and p=0.917, respectively). Conclusion Pasteurized milk supplied in the studied city has high level of contamination due to high use of antibiotics. A standard limit needs to be set for the right level of residue of antibiotics in milk to avoid the harmful effects. PMID:28208877

  3. A direct PCR detection method for Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in up to 100 milliliters of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, L M; De Block, J H; Waes, G M

    1995-12-01

    A direct detection method for Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in up to 100 ml of raw milk is presented. The bacterial spores are concentrated by centrifugation after chemical extraction of the milk components. The vegetative cells are selectively lysed, and their DNA is digested and washed away. Afterwards, the DNA is liberated from the spores by microwave treatment. For the identification of the C. tyrobutyricum DNA, a two-step PCR method with two nested pairs of primers is used. The primers were derived from the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region of C. tyrobutyricum, and the specificity of each of them for C. tyrobutyricum is demonstrated. The detection limit can be estimated to be between 3 and 30 spores in 100 ml of raw milk.

  4. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Renye, John A; Feng, Ling; Zeng, Qingkun; Tang, Yan; Huang, Li; Ren, Daxi; Yang, Pan

    2016-09-01

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High-quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from 3 dairy farms in the Guangxi province in southern China. Five liters of each milk sample were pasteurized (72°C; 15 s); and both raw and pasteurized milks were stored at refrigeration temperature (1-4°C) for various times with their microbial communities characterized using the Illumina Miseq platform (Novogene, Beijing, China). Results showed that both raw and pasteurized milks contained a diverse microbial population and that the populations changed over time during storage. In raw buffalo milk, Lactococcus and Streptococcus dominated the population within the first 24h; however, when stored for up to 72h the dominant bacteria were members of the Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera, totaling more than 60% of the community. In pasteurized buffalo milk, the microbial population shifted from a Lactococcus-dominated community (7d), to one containing more than 84% Paenibacillus by 21d of storage. To increase the shelf-life of buffalo milk and its products, raw milk needs to be refrigerated immediately after milking and throughout transport, and should be monitored for the presence of Paenibacillus. Results from this study suggest pasteurization should be performed within 24h of raw milk collection, when the number of psychrotrophic bacteria are low; however, as Paenibacillus spores are resistant to pasteurization, additional antimicrobial treatments may be required to extend shelf-life. The findings from this study are expected to aid in improving the quality and safety of raw and pasteurized buffalo milk.

  5. Determination of Sodium Thiocyanate in Raw Milk%生鲜乳中硫氰酸钠的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱军; 张宁; 李明; 周鑫; 董李学; 郑百芹

    2016-01-01

    生鲜乳中掺入硫氰酸钠后可有效抑菌、保鲜。但硫氰酸钠具有毒性,少量的食入就会对人体造成极大伤害。本试验采用离子色谱法于2014年对河北省唐山市4个县的乳头奶和罐奶共计643批生鲜乳样品进行了硫氰酸钠的监测,以评估唐山地区生鲜乳的质量安全。结果表明,643批生鲜乳样品中硫氰酸钠含量总体情况符合正态分布,最小、最大、平均含量分别为0.13、15.7和2.52mg/kg。对乳头奶中的硫氰酸钠和罐奶中的硫氰酸钠进行比较,发现乳头奶中的硫氰酸钠和罐奶中的硫氰酸钠的分布情况基本一致,表明本研究中唐山地区生鲜牛乳不存在人为添加硫氰酸钠的问题。%Sodium thiocyanate is always used for inhibiting bacterial growth and keeping raw milk fresh. However, it is toxic, little quatity of which will cause huge harm to human, and threatens healthy of the people. It will interfere with the harmonious development of society. To assess the risk of raw milk in Tangshan city, in this study, contents of sodium thiocyanate in napple milk and milk from tank, totally 643 samples from 4 counties in Tangshan of Hebei Province were detemined using ion chromatographic in 2014. The results showed that the sodium thiocyanate contents in 643 raw milk samples were subordinate to the normal distribution law. The minimum, maximum, and mean value were 0.13, 15.7, and 2.52mg/kg. The contents comparison of napple milk and milk from tank was performed, and it showed that the distribution of sodium thiocyanate contents in napple milk was almost agreed with that in milk from tank, which suggested that artiifcially adding sodium thiocyanate was not found in raw milk in Tangshan city.

  6. Quantification of minerals and trace elements in raw caprine milk using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahavir; Yadav, Poonam; Garg, V K; Sharma, Anshu; Singh, Balvinder; Sharma, Himanshu

    2015-08-01

    This study reports minerals and trace elements quantification in raw caprine milk of Beetal breed, reared in Northern India and their feed, fodder & water using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and flame photometry. The mineral and trace elements' concentration in the milk was in the order: K > Ca > Na > Fe > Zn > Cu. The results showed that minerals concentration in caprine milk was lesser than reference values. But trace elements concentration (Fe and Zn) was higher than reference values. Multivariate statistical techniques, viz., Pearsons' correlation, Cluster analysis (CA) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to analyze the interdependences within studied variables in caprine milk. Significantly positive correlations were observed between Fe - Zn, Zn - K, Ca - Na and Ca - pH. The results of correlation matrix were further supported by Cluster analysis and Principal component analysis as primary cluster pairs were found for Ca - pH, Ca - Na and Fe - Zn in the raw milk. No correlation was found between mineral & trace elements content of the milk and feed.

  7. High-pressure homogenization of raw and pasteurized milk modifies the yield, composition, and texture of queso fresco cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, D; Clark, S; Ganesan, V; Repiso, L; Waller, J; Harte, F

    2011-03-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) of milk was studied as an alternative processing operation in the manufacturing of queso fresco cheese. Raw and pasteurized (65°C for 30 min) milks were subjected to HPH at 0, 100, 200, and 300 MPa and then used to manufacture queso fresco. The cheeses were evaluated for yield, moisture content, titratable acidity, nitrogen content, whey protein content, yield force, yield strain, and tactile texture by instrumental or trained panel analyses. The combination of HPH and thermal processing of milk resulted in cheeses with increased yield and moisture content. The net amount of protein transferred to the cheese per kilogram of milk remained constant for all treatments except raw milk processed at 300 MPa. The highest cheese yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were obtained for thermally processed milk subjected to HPH at 300 MPa. The principal component analysis of all measured variables showed that the variables yield, moisture content, and crumbliness were strongly correlated to each other and negatively correlated to the variables yield strain, protein content (wet basis), and sensory cohesiveness. It is suggested that the combination of thermal processing and HPH promotes thermally induced denaturation of whey protein, together with homogenization-induced dissociation of casein micelles. The combined effect results in queso fresco containing a thin casein-whey matrix that is able to better retain sweet whey. These results indicate that HPH has a strong potential for the manufacture of queso fresco with excellent yield and textural properties.

  8. Characterization of Enterococcal Community Isolated from an Artisan Istrian Raw Milk Cheese: Biotechnological and Safety Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjic Fuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, prevalence, biotechnological and safety profi les of 588 Enterococcus isolates isolated from raw milk and Istrian cheese during diff erent stages of ripening were analyzed. Despite the low and variable presence of enterococci in milk ((3.65±2.93 log CFU/mL, highly comparable enterococcal populations were established aft er 30 days of cheese ripening ((7.96±0.80 log CFU/g, confi rming Enterococcus spp. as a major part of the core microbiota of Istrian cheese. The dominant species were E. faecium (53.8 % and E. faecalis (42.4 %, while minor groups, consisting of E. durans (2.84 % and E. casselifl avus (0.95 %, also occurred. A pronounced intraspecies variability was noticed based on molecular fi ngerprinting, with 35 strains (genotypes detected. Most of the genotypes were farm-specifi c with one third being shared between the farms. This genotype variability refl ected particular diff erences of Istrian cheese production, mainly variable salt concentration, ripening temperature and air humidity as well as microclimatic or vegetation conditions. There was considerable variation between the strains of the same species regarding wide range of biotechnologically important traits as well as their ability to survive in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. A considerable number of strains were resistant to critically important antibiotics such as tetracycline (43.56 %, erythromycin (35.79 % and vancomycin (23.48 %. Polymerase chain reaction-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin and erythromycin resistance; for tetracycline tetM gene was detected. The presence of virulence genes including agg, efaAfs, gelE, cylM, cylB, cylA, esp, efaAfm, cob and cpd was frequently recorded, especially among E. faecalis strains.

  9. Enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in Outbreak-Associated Gouda Cheese Made with Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander; Oudit, Denise

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we discuss the enumerative analysis for Escherichia coli O157 in two raw milk Gouda cheese products (A and B), implicated in an outbreak of 29 cases of E. coli O157:H7 illness that occurred across Canada in 2013. Samples were enumerated for E. coli O157 by most probable number (MPN) over a period of 30 to 60 days after the end of the outbreak. Samples (55.55 g) of product A (n = 14) were analyzed at 146 to 180 days postproduction. E. coli O157 was isolated from six samples at 19.9 to 44.6 MPN/kg. The E. coli O157 concentration of product A estimated from the results of all 14 samples was 9.5 MPN/kg. Samples (55.55 g) of product B (n = 20) were analyzed at 133 to 149 days postproduction. E. coli O157 was isolated from four samples at 19.9 MPN/kg. The E. coli O157 concentration of product B estimated from the results of all 20 samples was 3.7 MPN/kg. Analysis of a 305-g sample of product A (n = 1) stored at 4°C until 306 days postproduction revealed that the E. coli O157 concentration had declined to 3.6 MPN/kg. E. coli O157 could not be isolated from 555-g samples of product B (n = 5) after 280 days postproduction. The physicochemical parameters (pH, water activity, percent moisture, and percent salt) of both cheese products were found to be in the normal range for this type of product. The results of this study demonstrate that E. coli O157 could not replicate during storage at 4°C in the products tested but was capable of survival following aging and prolonged storage. This indicates that, if contaminated, the minimum 60-day aging period, which is required for raw milk Gouda cheeses, is not sufficient in all cases to ensure that the product does not contain viable cells of E. coli O157. The results also indicate that samples sizes greater than 100 g may be required to reliably detect E. coli O157 in cheese products associated with outbreaks.

  10. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  11. TITLE OF MANUSCRIPT IMPORTANT GROUPS OF MICROORGANISMS IN RAW GOAT MILK AND FRESH GOAT CHEESES DETERMINED DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci and many others are ranked among the important groups of microorganisms affecting the quality of milk and cheese. In the samples of raw goat milk (farms breeding I and II collected within 24 h (morning milking - a, afternoon milking - b and fresh goat cheese, these groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: the total counts of microorganisms (TCM, lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms and enterococci. In cheeses, there was also carried out the determination of yeasts and moulds. After the cultivation, colonies from Petri dishes were counted and the result was expressed in CFU/ml, g. Samples of raw goat milk (except farm II 27.3. corresponded the requirement of a given legislative act. However, it contained a higher number of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms than the stated recommendations. Microbiological analysis showed relatively high numbers of adverse coliform bacteria (up to 1.2 x 107 CFU/g in all cheeses. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were relatively high as well, they moved between of 103 – 108 CFU/g.

  12. Potential application of the electronic nose for shelf-life determination of raw milk and red meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Aziz; El Barbri, Noureddine; El Bari, Nezha; Llobet, Eduard; Correig, Xavier; Bouchikhi, Benachir

    2009-05-01

    The present study describes the performance of an electronic nose in food odor analysis. This methodology was successfully applied to odor characterization of milk stored at 4° C during 4 days and of beef and sheep meat stored at 4° C for up to 15 days. The electronic nose sensor system coupled to PCA as a pattern recognition technique, is able to reveal characteristic changes in raw milk and red meat quality related to storage time. Additionally, a bacteriological method was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system for both beef and sheep meat analysis.

  13. Variability and correlation between basic quality parameters of raw cow milk

    OpenAIRE

    Memiši N.; Bogdanović V.; Tomić Z.; Kasalica A.; Žujović M.; Stanišić N.; Delić N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of the analysis of the milk somatic cell count are presented, as well as correlation between the somatic cell count and content of certain chemical parameters in milk (milk proteins, fat, lactose and dry matter without fat) determined in collective samples of milk obtained from cows reared in intensive rearing system, during two production years. The research was carried out by control of collective milk samples from cows reared on...

  14. Study of microbial diversity in raw milk and fresh curd used for Fontina cheese production by culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannino, Maria Laura; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Feligini, Maria

    2009-04-15

    The bacterial populations of raw milk employed for the production of Fontina cheese in alpine farms located in different valleys and altitudes (from 700 to 2246 m above sea level) were investigated by culture independent techniques. Total microbial DNA was isolated from milk and curd samples and used as template in Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to study the hypervariable V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and analyzed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Representative bands of DGGE patterns were sequenced for identification purposes. The use of universal primer for PCR-DGGE allowed the description of the bacterial community, not only for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, but also for other adventitious species. DGGE profiles obtained from milk and fresh curd samples were generally different and typical for each farm, although some recurrent bands were observed. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles did not show high similarity among samples and it was probably dependent on the different geographical areas of pastures. Some Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) recurred in many samples (Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc lactis) indicating that alpine milk is a preferential niche for their colonization. The microbiota included not only mesophilic and thermoresistant LAB but also adventitious bacteria (Macrococcus caseolyticus, Rothia spp.) and psychrotrophic bacteria (Chryseobacterium spp., Pseudomonas spp.), that were found in almost all samples, but disappeared after the warming up at 47-48 degrees C of coagulated milk. Pantoea spp. was primarily found in curds and only with a low incidence in milk samples, indicating the environmental origin. Finally the sequencing data confirmed the presence of E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus as major species present in the curd. These species were found also in raw milk, proving its importance as source of the typical fermenting

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF AUTOCHTHONUS LACTIC FLORA OF A CAMPANIAN CHILLI CHEESE PRODUCED FROM RAW SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mormile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural lactic flora of the artisanal chilli “Tramonti” cheese, a typical product manufactured in the “Lattari mountains”, area of Salerno province (Italy, was investigated. Particular attention was paid to the growth dynamics assessment and to the molecular identification of the indigenous lactic acid bacteria involved in the ripening of this cheese made with raw sheep milk without starter cultures. One batch was monitored taking 4 sample on 0, 30, 50 and 105 ripening days. Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were enumerated and randomly isolated on MRS and LM17 agar (32ºC x 48h -mesophilic flora- and 42°C x 48h -thermophilic flora, respectively. N. 66 presumptive lactic acid bacteria isolates, gram positive and catalase negative, were genotipically identified by Ribotyping. Mesophilic Lactobacillus remained at levels of 107 cfu/g during whole maturation time and thermophilic Lactobacillus, from initial values of 105 cfu/g, reached concentratios of 106 cfu/g at the end of maturation. Mesophilic and thermophilic Lactococcus showed, on average, levels of 106 since the beginning of the ripening. Ribotyping allowed to detect 4 lactic acid bacteria species: Enterococcus faecium (65,15%, Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (24,24%, Enterococcus faecalis (6,06% and Enterococcus durans (4,54%, showing the diversity of indigenous lactic acid bacteria of chilli “Tramonti” cheese.

  16. Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 548 raw milk samples were collected in the western, central and eastern regions of Croatia during February and March 2015. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 concentrations were quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. The method limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ were 22.2 and 34.2 ng/kg, respectively. The mean AFM1 levels measured in the three regions were (ng/kg as follows: western 3.69, central 3.11 and eastern 4.14. In total, the 548 samples analysed concentrations were below the LOD value and accordingly below the European Union maximum residue level (EU MRL of 50 ng/kg. The results suggest an absence of use of contaminated with aflatoxin B1 supplementary feedstuff for lactating cows in winter 2015. Such results might be related to the improved storage conditions for feed as well as to the enhanced and more stringent feed control system for mycotoxins in Croatia.

  17. Biofunctionalized silver nanoparticles as a novel colorimetric probe for melamine detection in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have emerged as a promising analytical tool for monitoring food adulteration and safety. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using leaves' extract of Jatropha gossypifolia. AgNPs revealed a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 419 nm and have spherical and grain shape with size range between 18 and 30 nm. A selective and rapid method of melamine detection in raw milk was developed with the use of these biofunctionalized AgNPs. The color change, deviation in SPR spectra, and change in the absorption ratio (A500 /A419 ) of AgNPs occurred after an AgNPs-melamine interaction. The detection limit for melamine up to 2 μM (252 ppb) was attained with this method, which is quite lower than safety level recommendations of regulatory bodies demonstrating sensitivity of the method. Dynamicx light scattering and transmission electron microscopy analyses exhibited an increase in hydrodynamic diameter and size of AgNPs after melamine interaction. Melamine sensing by AgNPs was investigated by different physicochemical and thermal analyses.

  18. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  19. Bacteriocin-Producing Enterococcus faecium LCW 44: A High Potential Probiotic Candidate from Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Vimont

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial isolates from raw camel milk were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion assay. Ten isolates selected for their inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria were identified by 16S sequencing as Enterococcus faecium or durans. An isolate named E. faecium LCW 44 exhibited the broadest antibacterial spectrum with an inhibitory activity against several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Clostridium, Listeria, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. E. faecium LCW 44 was shown to produce N-formylated enterocins L50A and L50B, as revealed by mass spectrometry and PCR analyses. This isolate did not harbor any of the virulence factors tested and was shown to be sensitive to all tested antibiotics. It showed high resistance to gastric and intestinal conditions (78 ± 4% survival. Its adhesion index was evaluated at 176 ± 86 and 24 ± 86 on Caco-2 cells and HT-29 cells, respectively, and it significantly reduced adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes by 65 and 49%, respectively. In Macfarlane broth (simulating the nutrient content of the colon, counts of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 2 log10 cycles after 24 h in co-culture with E. faecium LCW 44, compared to the increase of 4 log10 cycles when cultured alone. Comparison with a bacteriocin-non-producing mutant of E. faecium LCW 44 strongly suggests that inhibition of L. monocytogenes was due to bacteriocin production. Altogether, E. faecium LCW 44 thus has potential for use as a probiotic for humans and veterinary medicine.

  20. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Verstraete, Tine; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-10-01

    PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to study the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in two Flemish artisan raw milk Gouda-type cheeses. In parallel, conventional culturing was performed. Isolates were identified using (GTG)(5)-PCR and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and pheS genes. Discriminant analysis revealed some differences in overall LAB diversity between the two batches and between the two cheeses. Within each batch, the diversity of 8- and 12-week-old cheeses was relatively similar. Conventional isolation mainly revealed the presence of Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of three species of which no isolates were recovered, i.e. Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus gallinarum. Conversely, not all isolated bacteria were detected by PCR-DGGE. We recommend the integrated use of culture-dependent and -independent approaches to maximally encompass the taxonomic spectrum of LAB occurring in Gouda-type and other cheeses.

  1. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in Qazvin Province, Iran: a seasonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A; Barani, Afshin; Nasiri, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was determined in 254 samples of raw milk obtained from dairy cow farms of Qazvin Province, Iran. Aflatoxin M1 analysis was carried out by using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for confirmatory purposes. The limit of detection and quantification of the confirmatory method were 0.003 and 0.01 µg/l, respectively. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 204 analysed samples (80.3%), ranging from 0.011 to 0.321 μg/l, and 144 samples (56.7%) had levels above the Iranian national standard limit of 0.050 μg/l. Considering the seasonal variability, the occurrence and levels of AFM1 in samples obtained in winter were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained in summer. The results of this survey indicate the usefulness of a monitoring programme to supervise food safety for consumers.

  2. Aflatoxin M₁ in raw milk from different regions of São Paulo state--Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santili, Ana Beatriz Nappi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Nunes, Raquel de Syllos Rosa; da Gloria, Eduardo Micotti; Machado, Paulo Fernando; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia

    2015-01-01

    A total of 635 raw milk samples from 45 dairy farms, from three regions of São Paulo state - Brazil, were evaluated during 15 months for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). AFM1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detection. AFM1 was detected (>0.003 µg kg(-1)) in 72.9%, 56.3% and 27.5% of the samples from Bauru, Araçatuba and Vale do Paraíba regions, respectively. The mean AFM1 contamination considering all the samples was 0.021 µg kg(-1). Furthermore, the concentration of AFM1 was quite different among Bauru (0.038 µg kg(-1)), Araçatuba (0.017 µg kg(-1)) and Vale do Paraíba (<0.01 µg kg(-1)) regions. Only three samples (0.5%) had higher contamination than the tolerated limit in Brazil (0.50 µg kg(-1)) and 64 samples (10.1%) had a higher contamination than the maximum limit as set by the European Union (0.050 µg kg(-1)). The estimated AFM1 daily intake was 0.358 and 0.120 ng kg(-1) body weight per day for children and adults, respectively.

  3. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  4. Addition to thermized milk of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel nisin a-producing strain, replaces the natural antilisterial activity of the autochthonous raw milk microbiota reduced by thermization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianou, Alexandra; Samelis, John

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that mild milk thermization treatments routinely used in traditional Greek cheese production are efficient to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogenic or undesirable bacteria, but they also inactivate a great part of the autochthonous antagonistic microbiota of raw milk. Therefore, in this study, the antilisterial activity of raw or thermized (63°C, 30 s) milk in the presence or absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris M104, a wild, novel, nisin A-producing (Nis-A+) raw milk isolate, was assessed. Bulk milk samples were taken from a local cheese plant before or after thermization and were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (approximately 4 log CFU/ml) or with the cocktail, as above, plus the Nis-A+ strain (approximately 6 log CFU/ml) as a bioprotective culture. Heat-sterilized (121°C, 5 min) raw milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was used as a control treatment. All milk samples were incubated at 37°C for 6 h and then at 18°C for an additional 66 h. L. monocytogenes grew abundantly (>8 log CFU/ml) in heat-sterilized milk, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in all raw milk samples. Conversely, in thermized milk, L. monocytogenes increased by 2 log CFU/ml in the absence of strain M104, whereas its growth was completely inhibited in the presence of strain M104. Furthermore, nisin activity was detected only in milk samples inoculated with strain M104. Thus, postthermal supplementation of thermized bulk milk with bioprotective L. lactis subsp. cremoris cultures replaces the natural antilisterial activity of raw milk reduced by thermization.

  5. Behavior of Different Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serotypes in Various Experimentally Contaminated Raw-Milk Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D.; Perrin, Frédérique; Ganet, Sarah; Jamet, Emmanuel; TENENHAUS-AZIZA, Fanny; Montel, Marie-Christine; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese wit...

  6. Seasonal variability of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw milk sold by automatic vending machines in Lombardy Region

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Bertasi; Marina Nadia Losio; Paolo Daminelli; Guido Finazzi; Andrea Serraino; Silvia Piva; Federica Giacometti; Elisa Massella; Fabio Ostanello

    2016-01-01

    In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate...

  7. Changes in water binding during ripening of cheeses made from raw, pasteurized or high-pressure-treated goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Buffa, Martín; Guamis, Buenaventura; Saldo, Jordi; Trujillo, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The different types of water contained in the matrix of cheeses made from raw (RA), pasteurized (PA; 72 °C, 15 s) or pressure-treated (PR; 500 MPa, 15 min, 20 °C) goat milk were studied throughout ripening. Water content was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by thermogravimetry. Thermogravimetric curves showed that water is lost in two successive steps (W$_1$ and W$_2$), depending on the temperature required for water to leave the cheese network. Although water...

  8. Primary proteolysis of white brined cheese prepared from raw cow milk monitored by high-molarity Tris buffer SDS-PAGE system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milenko Smiljanić; Mirjana B. Pesic; Sladjana P. Stanojevic; Miroljub B. Barać

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined cow cheese prepared from raw milk by SDS-electrophoretic method based on high-molarity Tris buffer system and to correlate...

  9. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  10. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Lykke, Mikkel; Chatterton, D E W

    2014-01-01

    milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm...

  11. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L Michel

    Full Text Available Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS.In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi culture with three concentrations of bacteria (10(2, 10(4, 10(7 colony forming units/ml, followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C and outdoor (33°C temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days.M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (10(7 cfu/ml, M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C, approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%, giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours.This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for periods of time that

  12. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny; Raseleka, Keneilwe; Getz, Wayne M.; Marcotty, Tanguy

    2015-01-01

    Background Unpasteurised fresh and souring dairy products form an essential component of household diets throughout many rural communities in southern Africa. The presence of milk-borne zoonotic pathogens such as Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and zoonotic tuberculosis in humans, constitute a public health threat, especially in remote areas with poor disease surveillance in livestock and highly compromised human health due to HIV/AIDS. Methods In this study we used culture to determine the longevity of M. bovis in experimentally inoculated fresh and naturally souring milk obtained from communal cattle in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The effect of bacterial load and storage temperature on the survival of M. bovis was evaluated by spiking mixtures of fresh milk and starter soured milk (aMasi) culture with three concentrations of bacteria (102, 104, 107 colony forming units/ml), followed by incubation under controlled laboratory conditions that mimicked ambient indoor (20°C) and outdoor (33°C) temperatures and periodic sampling and testing over time (0-56 days). Results M. bovis cultured from samples of the fresh and souring milk was identified by PCR analysis. At the highest spiking concentration (107cfu/ml), M. bovis survived for at least 2 weeks at 20°C; but, at all concentrations in the 33°C treatment, M. bovis was absent by three days after inoculation. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effects of bacterial concentration and time since inoculation, as well as determine the potential half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk. Given the most favourable tested conditions for bacterial survival (20°C), approximately 25% of mycobacteria were alive after one day of storage (95% CI: 9-53%), giving an estimated half-life of M. bovis in raw souring milk of approximately 12 hours (95% CI: 7-27 hours). Conclusions This study demonstrates that M. bovis may survive in fresh and souring milk for

  13. Analysis of 27 antibiotic residues in raw cow's milk and milk-based products--validation of Delvotest® T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, Cindy; Beck Henzelin, Andrea; Qu, Yajuan; Pizzocri, Giuseppe; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Buffoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Delvotest® T was evaluated for its capability at detecting residues of 27 antibiotics in raw cow's milk and in some dairy ingredients (skimmed and full-cream milk powders). The kit was used as a screening tool for the qualitative determination of antibiotics from different families in a single test. Results delivered by such a method are expressed as 'positive' or 'negative', referring to the claimed screening target concentration (STC). Validation was conducted according to the European Community Reference Laboratories' (CRLs) residues guidelines of 20 January 2010 and performed by two laboratories, one located in Europe and the other in Asia. Five criteria were evaluated including detection capability at STC, false-positive (FP) rate, false-negative (FN) rate, robustness and cross-reactivity using visual reading and Delvoscan®. STCs were set at or below the corresponding maximum residue limit (MRL), as fixed by European Regulation EC No. 37/2010. Four antibiotics (nafcillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and rifaximin) out of 27 had a false-negative rate ranging from 1.7% to 4.9%; however, it was still compliant with the CRLs' requirements. Globally, Delvotest T can be recommended for the analysis of the surveyed antibiotics in raw cow's milk, skimmed and full-cream milk powders. Additional compounds were tested such as sulfamethazine, spiramycin and erythromycin; however, detection at the corresponding MRL was not achievable and these compounds were removed from the validation. Other drugs from the sulfonamide, aminoglycoside or macrolide families not detected by the test at the MRL were not evaluated in this study. Regarding the reliability of this rapid test to milk-based preparations, additional experiments should be performed on a larger range of compounds and samples to validate the Delvotest T in such matrices.

  14. Milk-run kanban system for raw printed circuit board withdrawal to surface-mounted equipment

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    Swee Li Chee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The paper aims to present a case study and later simulation analysis on a kanban system that incorporating milk-run operation to draw in raw material to the process. Design/methodology/approach:  Data collection at the case study company for ten weeks followed by a process study called value stream mapping. The proposed kanban model is simulated to test its various performances including total output, average flow time, average work-in-process, SME utilization, and average waiting time. Response surface methodology is adopted to generate suitable representative regression models.  Findings: For all performance measures, simulation results showed that the proposed system consistently outperforms the push system currently practiced. Second, the system indicates the advantages of leveling, particularly in the event of machine failure and blockage. Third, operator in the proposed kanban system has a lower utilization, even with the additional material handling task.   Research limitations/implications: This study only begins to reveal the implication of leveling for production control on multi-machine scenario. The simulation of the system is solely based only the case study. The control parameters critical to the case study, were naturally used. The furtherance of the research should include generalizing the system and devising the respective methodology to facilitate wider applications. Practical implications: Originality/value:  The kanban system is proposed in the light of conflicting interests in handling the surface mounting and the related upstream processes. Such aspect is common to electronics assembly industry.

  15. Calidad de la leche cruda en unidades de producción familiar del sur de Ciudad de México Raw milk quality produced in small dairy farms in the South of Mexico City

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    G Álvarez-Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las explotaciones lecheras en pequeña escala enfrentan el desafío de producir leche en cantidad y calidad que propicie una mayor demanda del consumidor y una adecuada transformación en quesos, dulces o yogures, asegurando su rentabilidad. Se realizó un estudio para evaluar la calidad de la leche cruda, según la norma PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003, tomada de los recipientes de almacenamiento sin refrigeración, basado en una muestra de 30 unidades de producción localizadas en el sur de Ciudad de México, las cuales fueron evaluadas en tres épocas del año (seca, lluvias e invierno y clasificadas por el tipo de manejo de la limpieza de la ubre (tradicional, parcial y completo. Los resultados mostraron que los componentes nutricionales (grasa, proteína, caseína y propiedades fisicoquímicas de la leche (pH, acidez, punto crioscópico fueron diferentes según la época de muestreo (P The small-scale dairy farms are challenged to produce milk in a specific quantity and quality that encourages greater consumer demand and an appropriate transformation into cheese, yoghurt and candy, ensuring profitability. A study to assess the quality of raw milk stored in containers without cooling system was carried out in 30 production units located in the south of Mexico City, according to the standard PROY-NOM-155-SCFI-2003. The production units were evaluated during three seasons (dry, rainy and winter and classified by the type of procedures for cleaning the udder, before milking (traditional, full and partial. The results showed that the milk component (fat, protein, casein, pH, acidity and cryoscopic point were different depending on the time of sampling (P 0.05. During winter, a deep cleaning produced lower CCS and higher reductase time (P < 0.05 compared to the dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the nutritional components and physicochemical parameters of raw milk in household production units are within the Mexican standard range for raw milk, but the

  16. Microbiological and physico-chemical changes during manufacture of an Italian goat cheese made from raw milk

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    Elena Dalzini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the microbiological and physico-chemical changes throughout three cheesemaking replicates of Italian Formaggelle di capra cheese made from raw goat milk. Therefore, during the process, three samples of milk, curd and cheese at 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 30 days of ripening old cheese were taken from three cheesemaking replicates. The average of total mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae count in raw milk was 5.27±0.57 and 3.8±1.02 Log cfu/mL, respectively. Lactic acid bacteria was the predominant bacterial group during the process, and they developed in different ways in each of the media used (M17 and MRS agar. Variability of microbial concentrations was observed between three cheesemaking replicates. A correlation between the presence of higher levels of Enterobacteriaceae in milk and the presence of other contaminants bacteria such as Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase-positive and coagulase-positive staphylococci was observed. In cheesemaking replicate n. 2, E. coli level was 5.07±0.03 Log cfu/mL and increased by about 1 log until the last week of ripening, when the level decreased to 5.69±0.2 Log cfu/mL. The milk used for the cheesemaking replicate n. 2 was found to be contaminated also by coagulase-positive staphylococci (3.18±0.06 Log cfu/mL, but the behaviour of this group appeared to be very variable. In this study a first step of process control and microbial groups study was performed and the cheesemaking process was registered in the website www.ars-alimentaria.it, the Italian site supported by the Italian Board of Health.

  17. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

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    Tušimová Eva

    2015-02-01

    between serum ALT and milk sodium (0.738; P<0.05, what points to close relationship between hepatic enzymes and mineral composition of raw milk.

  18. Prevalence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-positive staphylococci recovered from raw cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, J G; Korpysa-Dzirba, W; Czubkowska, A; Osek, J

    2015-07-01

    Raw milk may be contaminated by enterotoxigenic coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS). Several of these microorganisms show antimicrobial resistance, which poses a potential risk for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxin genes and antimicrobial resistance of CPS isolated from cow milk. A total of 115 samples were analyzed for the presence of CPS according to the International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 6888-2). The genes were identified using 2multiplex PCR assays. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials was determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Overall, 71 samples (62%) were contaminated with CPS and 69 isolates were further analyzed. Among them, 20 (29%) strains harbored the enterotoxin genes. The most commonly detected staphylococcal enterotoxin markers were sed, sej, and ser, whereas none of the analyzed isolates possessed the seb and see genes. Almost one-half of the tested strains (43%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. Resistance to penicillin was the most common, followed by sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all strains were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, cefoxitin, and streptomycin. None of the strains was positive for the mecA and mecC (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) genes. These results indicate that enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant CPS strains are present in raw milk, which may be a potential risk for public health.

  19. Optimization of modified Middlebrook 7H11 agar for isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgrave, R; Donaghy, J A; Fisher, A; Rowe, M T

    2014-10-01

    Reports have highlighted the absence of contemporary peer reviewed publications pertaining to Mycobacterium bovis culture from raw milk and cheese. By replicating traditional methods, cheese-making methodology and equipment were devised to produce Cheddar (n = 6) and Caerphilly (n = 3) artificially contaminated with M. bovis (three genotypes) under stringent laboratory-containment guidelines for handling hazardous microbiological material. Middlebrook 7H11, modified for M. bovis isolation, was assessed for capacity to enumerate M. bovis despite changing cheese microflora and prolonged M. bovis exposure to the cheese matrix using maturing cheese test portions (n = 63; up to 16 weeks). Malachite green (MG) containing media isolated M. bovis at significantly (P cheese types, Cheddar and Caerphilly. Significance and impact of the study: Following increased M. bovis infection of UK cattle, the risk posed to consumers from consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products has changed. Furthermore, published methods for the culture and molecular detection of M. bovis in raw milk products are limited. Cheese-making protocols and M. bovis culture media reported here provide tools for further investigation of M. bovis survival during all stages of cheese manufacture and could inform future assessment of the risk to consumers from M. bovis contamination of unpasteurized dairy products.

  20. Seasonal variability of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw milk sold by automatic vending machines in Lombardy Region

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    Barbara Bertasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1% in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (PCampylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%. The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis.

  1. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  2. Milkoscan FT120对原料乳中三聚氰胺快速分析%Quick analysis of melamine in raw milk by Milkoscan FT 120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛力军

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish a method for rapid determining melamine in raw milk, a standard data model was set up on the basis of representative samples of raw milk in Harbin by principal component analysis (PCA) regression method with IR. Melamine was added to raw milk samples for the purpose of simulating adulterated milk. We could predict the adulteration in raw milk and determine the detection limit of adulterated substances by summarizing both the content changes of the ingredient in raw milk and the adjusting control conditions. This method was rapid and accurate.%为了建立一种快速测定原料乳中掺假物质的方法,利用红外光谱,采用主成分分析(PCA)回归方法,以本地区具有代表性原料乳样品集为基础建立标准数据模型.在原料乳中加入三聚氰胺模拟牛奶掺假.通过总结原料乳成分数据的变化规律及调整控制因素以达到预判原料乳掺假和确定掺假物质的检出限的目的.结果表明,该方法具有快速、准确的特点.

  3. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  4. 我国原料乳价格波动、影响及建议%Price Fluctuation, Influence and Suggestions of Raw Milk in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀芬; 周莹

    2014-01-01

    Since the second half of 2007, the raw milk price fluctuation in China can be divided into three stages. The breeding cost, the supply and demand of raw milk, the quality of raw milk, imports of dairy products, international dairy price, climate, epidemic situation and policies are the main factors of influencing raw milk price fluctuation. Excessive fluctuation of raw milk price will affect the interests of dairy farmers, dairy enterprise and consumers. So, the scientific dairy development plan should be made, the transaction of raw milk should be regulated, and the monitoring and early warning mechanism, reasonable raw milk price formation mechanism and benefit coupling mechanism between dairy enterprise and dairy farmers should be constructed.%2007年下半年以来,我国原料乳价格波动情况分为3个阶段。影响其波动的主要原因有饲养成本、原料乳供求、原料乳质量、乳制品进口、国际乳制品价格、气候、疫情和政策。原料乳价格波动过大会影响奶农、乳企和消费者的利益。必须科学制定乳业发展规划,规范原料乳交易,建立监测与预警机制、合理的价格形成机制以及乳企与奶农的利益联结机制。

  5. Effect of feeding management and seasonal variation on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese

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    Fernando Pérez-Gíl Romo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding management and seasonal variation (summer and winter 2007 on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese. Four groups were formed. During the summer, group A grazed on a natural semiarid rangeland. group B was kept in confinement, fed with concentrate grains and lucerne hay. Through the winter group C grazed on the same rangeland with supplementation and group D was fed as the group B. Thereafter, four kinds of cheeses were manufactured from milk of each animal group: grazed-summer (GS, indoor- summer (IS, grazed-winter (GW and indoor-winter (IW. Results of this study indicated that fat content in cheese was affected by season. Moreover, during the summer period, pasture-based regime increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations; however, winter season could diminish the cheese desirable fatty acid profile.

  6. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

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    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  7. In-situ inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by lactic acid bacteria consortia from two traditional Slovenian raw milk cheeses

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    Aljoša Trmčić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocin(s producing lactic acid bacteria naturally present in traditional cheeses represent an inexhaustive pool of microbes with safeguarding potential. Some bacteriocins produced by cheese lactic acid bacteria were already described as successful anti-staphylococcal agents. The presence of genes for bacteriocins with potential anti-staphylococcal activity was also demonstrated in two Slovenian traditional raw milk cheeses, “Tolminc” and “Kraški ovčji sir”. Same bacteriocin genes were also detected in viable lactic acid bacteria consortia’s isolated from “bacteriocin positive cheeses” on Rogosa, M17 and CATC agar media. The aim of the research was to elucidate whether or not this particular cheese consortia, in which bacteriocin genes were detected, actually exhibit anti-staphylococcal activity in milk and/or cheese. For this purpose different cheese consortia were selected in relation to versatility of detected bacteriocin genes and used to perform challenge tests against Staphylococcus aureus in milk and cheese. In milk following the time/temperature regime of traditional cheese production all cheese consortia effectively inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus in the range of app. 2 to 3 log. In cheese the inhibition of staphylococci was less pronounced but still evident since inhibition of app. 1.5 log was detected. Sole inhibition by lactic acid production was ruled out whilelinking inhibition directly to bacteriocin production would take some additional work.

  8. Correlation between somatic cell count and chemical composition of cooled raw milk in properties of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the damage caused by subclinical mastitis in loss of production and quality of milk, the present study aimed to verify the correlation between somatic cell count (SCC and the chemical composition of cooled raw milk collected in the Agreste region of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in drought and rain seasons. Samples were collected in seven dairy farms during morning time, between January 2010 and March 2012, and sent to the Brazilian et of Milk Quality Laboratory (ESALQ/USP. The contents of protein, fat, lactose, casein, total solids, nonfat dry extract and urea nitrogen, besides of SCC and total bacterial count were performed. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, correlation analysis and comparison of means by Tuckey test , 5%. The average SCC was 604,000 cells/mL and had significant variation in the dry period (558 000 cells/mL and rainy (650 000 cells/mL. The SCC was positively correlated with fat and total solids but negatively with the lactose cow’s milk of bulk tank, regardless of the season in the Agreste of Rio Grande do Norte.

  9. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

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    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  10. Detection of Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli from raw milk cheeses produced in Wallonia [Belgium].

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    El-Lioui M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiga-like toxin Escherichia coli (STEC implicated in aqueous diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome, has become a serious health problem in various countries. In Belgium, all cases are sporadic and no outbreak has been detected so far. Cattle are thought to be a reservoir for E. coli O157:H7, and many foodborne diseases have been associated with the consumption of minced beef, beefburgers and raw milk. Recently, foodborne outbreaks were concerned with different unusual foods such as acidic products. Although some data suggest that STEC are not prevalent within dairy products, the aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of E. coli O157 and non-O157 STEC in raw milk cheeses produced in the southern part of Belgium (Wallonia. For this purpose, 153 frozen samples of soft and semi-soft cheeses made with raw cow, ewe and goat milk were analysed for the presence of E. coli O157 and STEC. By using a dynabeads immunomagnetic separation technique (Dynabeads anti-E. coli O157, Dynal followed by streaking onto sorbitol MacConckey agar, no sample was found contaminated by E. coli O157 serotype. By using polymerase chain reaction achieved from a loopful of confluent bacterial material growing onto MacConckey agar, the use of consensus primers detected stx genes in 11.1/ of the samples but Shiga-like toxin producing strains could be isolated only in five of them (3.3/. The isolation rate seems to be optimum for samples with a thermotolerant coliform count arround or below 102 cfu per g. The five Shiga-like toxin isolates were identified as belonging to the species Hafnia alvei or Enterobacter amnigenius without any accessory virulence factors needed to cause illness. Nevertheless, because of the ability of STEC to survive adverse conditions and the possibility for commensal non-pathogenic enteric bacteria to become pathogenic, raw milk cheeses are to be considered at risk for foodborne STEC contamination.

  11. Analysis of dominant lactic acid bacteria from artisanal raw milk cheeses produced on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia

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    Begovic Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Serbian cheese production has a long history and generates products with rich flavor profiles. To enable the industrial manufacture of these home-made Serbian cheeses, the lactic acid bacteria present in them needs to be characterized. Five fresh white cheeses made from raw cow’s milk without commercial starter cultures were collected from households on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia. According to phenotypical and molecular analysis, 262 isolated Lwere found to belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc or Enterococcus. The unique bacterial composition of each cheese indicates that the preservation of household industry is the way to maintain production of distinct cheeses.

  12. Comparison of methods for high quantity and quality genomic DNA extraction from raw cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, T; Yu, Y; Liu, C; Fan, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-04-29

    Isolation of sufficient quantities of high quality DNA is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Milk somatic cells can be used; however, inhibitors such as fats and proteins make milk a difficult medium for extracting large amounts of quality DNA. We optimized, evaluated and compared three methods, Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method, Modified TianGen Kit method and Phenol-Chloroform method for genomic DNA extraction from bovine milk. Individual cows' milk and bulk milk samples were collected from a China agricultural university dairy farm. Genomic DNA extracted from each milk sample by the three methods was evaluated for quantity and purity by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, as well as PCR and sequencing. All the three methods were found suitable for genomic DNA isolation from bovine milk, PCR applications, and sequencing. Comparing the three methods, we found that the Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method was significantly better than the Phenol-Chloroform method in terms of quantity as well as quality (amount, concentration, 260/280 nm and 260/230 nm absorbance ratio), whereas, the Modified TianGen Kit method was more efficient than the Phenol-Chloroform method and cheaper than the Modified Nucleospine Blood Kit method; it yielded reasonably good quantities of good quality DNA and would be suitable for large-scale genotyping of lactating cows.

  13. Modeling the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bulk raw milk and the impact of management options for exposure mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulais, Christophe; Wacker, Ron; Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Cheikh, Mohamed Hedi Ben; Peladan, Fabrice

    2011-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causal agent of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other farm ruminants. The potential role of MAP in Crohn's disease in humans and the contribution of dairy products to human exposure to MAP continue to be the subject of scientific debate. The occurrence of MAP in bulk raw milk from dairy herds was assessed using a stochastic modeling approach. Raw milk samples were collected from bulk tanks in dairy plants and tested for the presence of MAP. Results from this analytical screening were used in a Bayesian network to update the model prediction. Of the 83 raw milk samples tested, 4 were positive for MAP by culture and PCR. We estimated that the level of MAP in bulk tanks ranged from 0 CFU/ml for the 2.5th percentile to 65 CFU/ml for the 97.5th percentile, with 95% credibility intervals of [0, 0] and [16, 326], respectively. The model was used to evaluate the effect of measures aimed at reducing the occurrence of MAP in raw milk. Reducing the prevalence of paratuberculosis has less of an effect on the occurrence of MAP in bulk raw milk than does managing clinically infected animals through good farming practices.

  14. Occurrence of virulence genes associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from raw cow's milk from two commercial dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Lesley-Anne; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I; Ndip, Roland N; Green, Ezekiel

    2014-11-18

    Escherichia coli remains a public health concern worldwide as an organism that causes diarrhea and its reservoir in raw milk may play an important role in the survival and transport of pathogenic strains. Diarrheagenic E. coli strains are diverse food-borne pathogens and causes diarrhea with varying virulence in humans. We investigated the prevalence of pathogenic E. coli in raw milk from two commercial dairy farms. Four hundred raw milk samples, 200 from each dairy farm, were screened for the presence of fliCH7, eagR, ial, eagg, lt, and papC genes. In dairy farm A, 100 E. coli were identified based on culture, oxidase and Gram staining, while 88 isolates from dairy farm B were identified in the same manner. Gene detection showed fliCH7 27 (54%) to be the highest gene detected from farm A and lt 2 (4%) to be the lowest. The highest gene detected in dairy farm B was fliCH7 16 (43.2%) and papC 1 (2.7%) was the least. The amplification of pathogenic genes associated with diarrheagenic E. coli from cows' raw milk demonstrates that potentially virulent E. coli strains are widely distributed in raw milk and may be a cause of concern for human health.

  15. Effect of different storage situations on raw milk%不同贮存条件对原料乳质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海辉; 涂三思; 裘玉兰

    2011-01-01

    研究了原料乳质量和贮存温度及贮存时间之间的关系.通过菌落总数的检测和酸度的测定,探讨了不同贮存温度随时间对原料乳中菌落总数和酸度的影响,旨在为优质原料乳的贮运提供参考.结果表明,在4℃贮存条件下,原料乳存放36 h,对质量没有较大的影响;在原料乳温度达到10~15℃的时候,存放时间不宜超过12 h.%The relationship between the quality of raw milk and the storage temperature and time was studied .By testing the colony form unit (CFU)and measuring the acidity of the samples,we discussed how the storage temperature and time affect the quality of raw milk,aiming to provide reference to the storage and transportation of the high-quality raw milk.The results showed that the raw milk can be stored for 36 hours at 4℃, while the raw milk can be stored for less than 12 hours at 10~15℃.

  16. Behaviour of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 During the Manufacture and Ripening of an Italian Traditional Raw Goat Milk Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzini, Elena; D’Amico, Stefano; Sfameni, Chiara; Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina Nadia; Giacometti, Federica; Daminelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Formagelle di capra is a raw goat cheese produced from whole chilled goat milk; traditional technology involving unpasteurised milk and indigenous lactic starter cultures is employed for its production in Italy. The purpose of this study was to assess the behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacturing and ripening of this raw goat milk cheese. Raw milk was experimentally inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 in a laboratory scale plant and the count was monitored during production and 30 days of ripening required for this cheese. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 count increased to more than 1.5 Log cfu g–1 during cheese production and remained constant until the end of ripening. The evidence that E. coli O157:H7 is able to survive during the manufacturing and ripening process suggests that the 30-day ripening period alone is insufficient to eliminate levels of viable E. coli O157:H7 in Formaggelle di capra cheese and that the presence of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw goat milk cheeses could represent a potential source of infection for humans and a threat for consumers. PMID:27800324

  17. N2 Gas Flushing Alleviates the Loss of Bacterial Diversity and Inhibits Psychrotrophic Pseudomonas during the Cold Storage of Bovine Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Alatossava, Tapani; Kublik, Susanne; Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Schloter, Michael; Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The quality and safety of raw milk still remains a worldwide challenge. Culture-dependent methods indicated that the continuous N2 gas-flushing of raw milk reduced the bacterial growth during cold storage by up to four orders of magnitude, compared to cold storage alone. This study investigated the influence of N2 gas-flushing on bacterial diversity in bovine raw-milk samples, that were either cold stored at 6°C or additionally flushed with pure N2 for up to one week. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA genes, derived from amplified cDNA, which was obtained from RNA directly isolated from raw-milk samples, was performed. The reads, which were clustered into 2448 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were phylogenetically classified. Our data revealed a drastic reduction in the diversity of OTUs in raw milk during cold storage at 6°C at 97% similarity level; but, the N2-flushing treatment alleviated this reduction and substantially limited the loss of bacterial diversity during the same cold-storage period. Compared to cold-stored milk, the initial raw-milk samples contained less Proteobacteria (mainly Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae) but more Firmicutes (mainly Ruminococcaceaea, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceaea) and Bacteroidetes (mainly Bacteroidales). Significant differences between cold-stored and additionally N2-flushed milk were mainly related to higher levels of Pseudomononadaceae (including the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter) in cold-stored milk samples; furthermore, rare taxa were better preserved by the N2 gas flushing compared to the cold storage alone. No major changes in bacterial composition with time were found regarding the distribution of the major 9 OTUs, that dominated the Pseudomonas genus in N2-flushed or non-flushed milk samples, other than an intriguing predominance of bacteria related to P. veronii. Overall, this study established that neither bacteria causing milk

  18. Quantitative risk assessment of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and Campylobacter jejuni related to consumption of raw milk in a province in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Serraino, A; Bonilauri, P; Ostanello, F; Daminelli, P; Finazzi, G; Losio, M N; Marchetti, G; Liuzzo, G; Zanoni, R G; Rosmini, R

    2012-11-01

    A quantitative risk assessment was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Northern Italy. Exposure assessment considered the microbiological status of dairy farms, expected milk contamination, storage conditions from bulk tank to home storage, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, age of consumers, serving size, and consumption preference. The differential risk between milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst field handling conditions was considered. The probability of Campylobacter jejuni infection was modeled with a single-hit dose-response beta-Poisson model, whereas for HUS an exponential dose-response model was chosen and two probabilities were used to model the higher susceptibility of children younger than 5 years old. For every 10,000 to 20,000 consumers each year, the models predicted for the best and worst storage conditions, respectively, 2.12 and 1.14 campylobacteriosis cases and 0.02 and 0.09 HUS cases in the 0- to 5-year age group and 0.1 and 0.5 HUS cases in the >5-year age group. The expected pediatric HUS cases do not differ considerably from those reported in Italy by the Minister of Health. The model developed may be a useful tool for extending the assessment of the risk of campylobacteriosis and HUS due to raw milk consumption at the national level in Italy. Considering the epidemiological implications of this study, the risk of illness linked to raw milk consumption should not be ignored and could be reduced by the use of simple measures. Boiling milk before consumption and strict control of temperatures by farmers during raw milk distribution have significant effects on campylobacteriosis and HUS and are essential measures for risk management.

  19. Molecular identification of naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like lactic acid bacteria in raw milk and soft cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, M B T; Moraes, P M; Perin, L M; Viçosa, G N; Carvalho, K G; Silva Júnior, A; Nero, L A

    2010-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are currently used by food industries because of their ability to produce metabolites with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to identify naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic or bacteriocinogenic-like LAB in raw milk and soft cheese and to detect the presence of nisin-coding genes in cultures identified as Lactococcus lactis. Lactic acid bacteria cultures were isolated from 389 raw milk and soft cheese samples and were later characterized for the production of antimicrobial substances against Listeria monocytogenes. Of these, 58 (14.9%) LAB cultures were identified as antagonistic; the nature of this antagonistic activity was then characterized via enzymatic tests to confirm the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial substances. In addition, 20 of these antagonistic cultures were selected and submitted to genetic sequencing; they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (n=2) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (n=18). Nisin genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 7 of these cultures. The identified bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like cultures were highly variable concerning the production and activity of antimicrobial substances, even when they were genetically similar. The obtained results indicated the need for molecular and phenotypic methodologies to properly characterize bacteriocinogenic LAB, as well as the potential use of these cultures as tools to provide food safety.

  20. EVALUATION OF METHODS OF ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN RAW MILK, KEPT IN THE COOLING TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Pereira Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the quality of raw milk from eight dairy property in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, stored in a cooling tank, in order to evaluate methods for determining somatic cell counts (SCC. The Somaticell® kit and a portable Direct Cell Counter (DCC were compared with each other and with the MilkoScanTM FT+ (FOSS Denmark, which uses Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIS. Direct cell counter data were processed for somatic cell scores (log-transformed somatic cell count and analyzed with the SAS®, Statistical Analysis System. Comparison of means and correlation of somatic cell scores were conducted using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the Tukey Test at 1%. No significant difference was observed for comparison of means. The correlation between somatic cell scores was significant, that is, 0.907 and 0.876 between the MilkoScanTM FT + and the Somaticell® kit and Direct Cell Count (DCC respectively, and 0.943 between the Somaticell® kit and Direct Cell Count (DCC. The methods can be recommended for monitoring the quality of raw milk kept in a cooling tank in the production unit.

  1. Study on sodium hypochlorite in raw milk%生乳中次氯酸钠的检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    轩诗海; 李琴

    2011-01-01

    建立了生乳中次氯酸钠的检测方法。试样中次氯酸根在弱酸性条件下与碘化钾生成游离碘,以淀粉溶液为指示剂,硫代硫酸钠标准滴定溶液滴定,计算氯的含量。方法处理简单,易操作,回收率高,试验成本低,分析周期短,因此该方法可作为生乳中次氯酸钠的快速检测方法。%A method is developed to detect sodium thiosulfate in raw milk. In the weak acidic medium, hypochlorite in sample reacted with potassium iodide to form free iodine which was then titrated with the standard solution of sodium thiosulfate, using starch solution as indicator, to calculate the content of chlorine.The approach is simple and easy to operate, high recovery ratio and low cost, analysis period is short, so it can be used as a rapid detection method of ammonia nitrogen in raw milk.

  2. Milk quality on some delivery regions in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražeta Dražetić

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In collected cow`s milk samples, from five ransom areas in the Republic of Croatia, a chemical composition and hygienic quality are analysed. The milk quality is accomplished thru a period of one year (1998/99, i.e. before the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality was accepted. Milk samples are analysed for the following parameters (%: milk fat, proteins, and non-fat dry matter content, somatic cell count and total bacterial count. Significant differences are determined between ransom areas (P<0.05 with regard to the amounts of proteins and non-fat dry matter. The amounts of fat, proteins andnon-fat dry matter of the analysed milk samples, are lower (3.23%, 4.55% and 24.78% respectively than those stated by the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality. To prescribed hygienic milk quality, with regard to chemical composition, is not satisfied for considerably larger number of samples. With inclusion of hygienic milk quality in a new system of payment and by following a strict basic procedures in milk production, certainly will result with improvement of milk quality, which will satisfy the prescribed Croatian and European criteria.

  3. Contamination profile for staphylococci and its enterotoxins and monitorization of the conditions of hygiene in a 'coalho' cheese production line

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, MD; Nassu, RT; PEREIRA, JL; de Andrade, APC; Kuaye, AY

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the Conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production like, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 10(7)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from < ICFU mL(-1), in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 10(6)CFU mL(-1) in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detec...

  4. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p soya beans for EE (p soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa en agua y leche cruda: informe preliminar Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and raw milk: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S Iramain

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en el agua utilizada en las tareas relacionadas al ordeño y en leche de tanque, para establecer una posible vinculación entre la contaminación del agua y de la leche cruda con esta bacteria, en tambos de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se muestrearon y analizaron 122 tambos, obteniéndose muestras de 111 perforaciones, 92 tanques de almacenamiento de agua y 122 de leche de tanque según normas de referencia. En todos los casos se determinó la presencia de P. aeruginosa, hallándose en el 27% de las muestras de perforaciones y en el 34% de los tanques de almacenamiento. Solamente 4 establecimientos presentaron P.aeruginosa en leche de tanque, pudiéndose constatar que en tres de ellos se realizaban prácticas operativas que ponían en contacto la leche con el agua contaminada. Una vez eliminadas éstas prácticas no fue posible hallar P. aeruginosa en la leche de los tanques.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the water used in milking practices and in bulk tank milk, to establish a possible relationship between water and raw bulk tank milk contamination with this bacteria, in dairy farms of Buenos Aires province. Samples from 122 dairy farms were analyzed for P. aeruginosa according to reference methods, getting 111 underground water samples and 92 water storage tank samples and 122 bulk tank milk samples. Twenty seven per cent of underground water samples were positive for P. aeruginosa as well as 34 % of storage tank samples. The bacteria was present in only 4 dairy farms bulk tanks. It was determined that in 3 of them milking management practices allowed the milk to get in contact with contaminated water. Once these practices were eliminated, no P. aeruginosa was found in bulk tank milk samples

  6. The Determination of Somatic Cell Count and Some Components of Raw Milk Evaluated By a Private Company in Trakya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Onal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the amount of bulk tank somatic cell counts. Chemical and microbiological compositions of raw milk produced in Trakya were also reached in order to evaluate the structure of milk production. For this purpose 36 raw milk samples were collected from bulk milk tank within three different location of Trakya (18 samples from Edirne, 10 from Tekirdağ and 8 from Kırklareli. The arithmetic means and standard errors of fat percentages, non-fat dry matter, protein percentages, BTSCC (Bulk Tank Milk Somatic Cell Count and TB (Total Bacteria for Edirne, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli provinces were; 3.70 0.052, 3.60 0.098, 3.76 0.064; 8.34 0.025, 8.50 0.035, 8.39 0.038; 3.05 0.012, 3.09 0.019, 3.05 0.016; 308.555 26.510 SCC/ml (log 5.459 0.04 SCC/ml, 350.200 53.627 SCC/ml (Log 5.500 0.06 SCC/ml, 254.500 37.645 SCC/ml (Log 5.370 0.06 SCC/ml; 479.481 51.777 cfu/ml (Log 5.630 0.05 cfu/ml, 435.716 91.194 cfu/ml (Log 5.5230.12 cfu/ml, 446.958 81.515 cfu/ml (Log 5.602 0.075 cfu/ml respectively. Consequentially, the correlation coefficient for LogBTSCC and fat percentage, non-fat dry matter, protein percentage and LogTB were found to be 0.036, 0.251, 0.421 and 0.219 respectively. A significant (p<0.05 correlation coefficient was obtained between LogBTSCC and protein percentage.

  7. Effect of organic farming on selected raw cow milk components and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cermanová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic dairying is an alternative for friendly exploitation of environment. This paper was focused on impacts of organic dairying on milk composition and properties. The conventional (C cow milk was compared to organic (O milk. Holstein bulk milk samples (BMSs from winter and summer season in 4 C and 4 O (n = 32 and 32 BMSs; 2 years herds were investigated. 6 herds were grazed and 2 C herds were not grazed. Mean O cow milk yield (MY, 305 lactation days was 7037.3 ± 421.5 and C MY 7015.8 ± 1068.1 kg. Higher values (P < 0.05 in O milk had: log acetone (0.7321 > 0.6048; titration acidity (8.34 > 7.82 ml 0.25 mol.l−1 NaOH; alcohol stability (0.6 > 0.44 ml; time for enzymatic coagulation (150.75 > 115.03 second; whey protein (0.54 > 0.49%; fat/crude protein (1.2 > 1.15; milk fermentation ability (FAM by titration (31.45 > 22.18 ml 0.25 mol.l−1 NaOH. Lower values (P < 0.05 in O milk had: solids–not–fat (8.64 < 8.73%; urea content (19.91 < 29.03 mg.100ml−1; electrical conductivity (3.66 < 4.08 mS.cm−1; whey volume (32.03 < 34.53 ml; crude protein (3.16 < 3.25%; casein (2.47 < 2.58%; non–protein nitrogen compounds (0.15 < 0.18%; urea nitrogen in non-protein nitrogen ratio (40.81 < 49.0%; casein numbers for crude protein and true protein (78.12 < 79.58 and 81.99 < 84.11%; coli bacteria count in normal and logarithm form (330.56 < 1502.92 CFU.ml−1 and 1.484 < 2.5823; actual yoghurt acidity (4.71 < 4.8. O cows suffered probably from lower energy and nitrogen compounds intake due to feeding under mentioned conditions. O milk could be a little better environment for yoghurt cultivation.

  8. Review of Quality Control Technology of Raw Milk%原料奶质量控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗佳捷; 张彬; 王洁; 陈登科

    2012-01-01

    Improve the quality of raw milk, maintain the sustainable development of dairy cow breeding and dairy products processing industries by pollution-free way were important tasks. This article summarized the emergence of the problem, detection and quality control methods of raw milk, and prospected the future of quality control technology of raw milk.%通过无公害的方法来提高原料奶的质量,维持奶牛养殖业及乳品加工业的可持续发展已成为亟待解决的问题,文章对原料奶安全问题的产生、原料奶的检测方法及质量控制等方面进行了综述,并对原料奶质量控制技术前景进行了展望。

  9. 原料乳中糊精掺假鉴别的研究%Study on the Adulteration of Dextrin in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕.; 许卓望

    2011-01-01

    本文通过利用FOSS120红外光谱仪,对哈尔滨市区及其周边县原料乳的相关项目进行测定,建立了原料乳标准数据模型。应用此数据模型对原料乳中掺入的有害成分进行鉴别,可以对原料乳中使用糊精造假行为进行预判。%By using FOSS 120 infrared spectrometer, the relevant components of the raw milk in Harbin city and its surrounding counties were determined to establish the standard data model for raw milk. This data model was applied to the identification of the raw milk mixed with harmful components. It can be used in the pre-judgement of dextrin adulteration.

  10. Molecular detection and characterization of Brucella species in raw informally marketed milk from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Hoffman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study identified and characterized Brucella species in the informal milk chain in Uganda. A total of 324 cattle bulk milk samples were screened for the genus Brucella by real-time PCR with primers targeting the bcsp31 gene and further characterized by the omp25 gene. Of the samples tested, 6.5% were positive for Brucella species. In the omp25 phylogeny, the study sequences were found to form a separate clade within the branch containing B. abortus sequences. The study shows that informally marketed cattle milk in Uganda is a likely risk factor for human brucellosis and confirms that B. abortus is present in the cattle population. This information is important for potential future control measures, such as vaccination of cattle.

  11. Raw Milk Collection Using Pos (Point Of Sale and Gprs Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ankit V. Shingala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is largest industry in India which collects milk from farmers and produces different dairy products. As Agriculture is backbone of the country and dairy farming is major business for farmers, the proposed system will make this collection, billing process of milk from farmer to dairy more faster, reliable, accurate and less costlier. The proposed system contains POS (Point Of Sale module and software running on it which includes in crane weighing scale withGPS / GPRS module. System is mobile so it can be carried out in vehicles like car, bicycle or trucks. The vehicle goes to individual farmer, farmer swipes their smart card, person collects milk by weighing it, generates the billing slip to farmer, and the data will be transferred to Centralized system using GPRS. Mean while centralized system will track the location of vehicle by GPS. The centralized system is able to locate the vehicle, make the changes in rates for billing.

  12. Molecular detection and characterization of Brucella species in raw informally marketed milk from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Tove; Rock, Kim; Mugizi, Denis Rwabiita; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Lindahl-Rajala, Elisabeth; Erume, Joseph; Magnusson, Ulf; Lundkvist, Åke; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This study identified and characterized Brucella species in the informal milk chain in Uganda. A total of 324 cattle bulk milk samples were screened for the genus Brucella by real-time PCR with primers targeting the bcsp31 gene and further characterized by the omp25 gene. Of the samples tested, 6.5% were positive for Brucella species. In the omp25 phylogeny, the study sequences were found to form a separate clade within the branch containing B. abortus sequences. The study shows that informally marketed cattle milk in Uganda is a likely risk factor for human brucellosis and confirms that B. abortus is present in the cattle population. This information is important for potential future control measures, such as vaccination of cattle. PMID:27839533

  13. Development and analytical validation of a screening method for simultaneous detection of five adulterants in raw milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and PLS-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Bruno G; Reis, Nádia; Oliveira, Leandro S; Sena, Marcelo M

    2015-08-15

    This paper proposed a new screening method for the simultaneous detection of five common adulterants in raw cow milk by using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid infrared spectroscopy and multivariate supervised classification (partial least squares discrimination analysis - PLSDA). The method was able to detect the presence of the adulterants water, starch, sodium citrate, formaldehyde and sucrose in milk samples containing from one up to five of these analytes, in the range of 0.5-10% w/v. A multivariate qualitative validation was performed, estimating specific figures of merit, such as false positive and false negative rates, selectivity, specificity and efficiency rates, accordance and concordance. The proposed method does not need any sample pretreatment, requires a small amount of sample (30 μL), is fast and simple, being suitable for the control of raw milk in a dairy industry or for the quality inspection of commercialized milk.

  14. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  15. 生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准的研究%Study on the Local Food Safety Standards of Raw Camel Milk and Camel Milk Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 陆东林; 李景芳; 何晓瑞; 叶东东

    2016-01-01

    The nutriment concentration of Xinjiang Bactrian camel milk is higher than cattle milk and sheep milk, and there is a fully kinds of functional active elements in the camel milk which have higher nutritional value and health function. Set the local food safety standards of raw camel milk and camle milk powder has a great significance for standardizing the camel milk market, improving the camel milk product quality supervision, coordinating relationship between the farms and the ifrms, protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, promoting the healthy and stable development of the camel milk industry. This study introduced the distribution of the camel milk resource and enterprises in Xinjiang, the physical-chemical indexes of the camel milk, the main difference among camel milk, camel milk powder, cattle milk, cattle milk powder, sheep milk, sheep milk powder, the analysis of the inlfuence of the camel’s reproductive characteristics and season to the milk’s quality, the concrete suggestions on the physical-chemical indexes of the local food safety standards of raw camel milk and camle milk powder.%双峰驼乳营养物质浓度显著高于牛羊乳,并含有多种活性功能性成分,具有较高的营养价值和保健作用。制定生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准,对规范驼乳和驼乳制品市场、加强产品质量监管、协调牧企关系、保护消费者合法权益、促进驼乳产业健康稳定发展具有重要意义。本文介绍了新疆驼乳资源和企业分布、生驼乳的理化指标、驼乳/驼乳粉和牛羊乳/牛羊乳粉的主要区别;分析了骆驼的繁殖特性和季节因素对驼乳质量的影响;对生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准中的理化指标提出了具体建议。

  16. Microbial quality and associated health risks of raw milk marketed in the Tanga region of Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swai ES Schoonman L

    2011-01-01

    ...) and kiosks/restaurants(32) in Tanga city during April-May 2005.Quality and milkborne hazards were assessed using a combination of tests in order to quantify the occurrence of Brucellosis(milk ring test),Escherichia coli(E.coli) O157:H7(culture...

  17. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  18. STUDY REGARDING THE CORELATION BETWEEN SOMATIC CELLS COUNT AND MAJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ACATINCĂI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study approaches the dynamic of somatic cells number and chemical composition of milk during 13 months of control. The study also investigates the correlations between the number of somatic cells and some chemical parameters in milk. Studies were carried out on Romanian Black and White cows between March 2005 and March 2006 at the Didactical farm of the Banat University of Agricultural Sciences Timisoara. As quality indicator, the number of somatic cells has different values among the controls. Average values for the 13 months of control, with the exception of three controls, were below maximum limit admitted from 1th of January 2007 (600000 SCC/ml milk. There weren’t any significant differences for SCC between the two seasons. Chemical parameters in milk varied in close limits and the differences were not significant, with one exception for fat percent. Fat percent is higher (p<0.05 in the cold season 3.87% compared with 3.55% during the warm season. Somatic cells number is weak correlated with lactose and strong correlated with proteins.

  19. Fatty acid profile and health lipid indices in the raw milk of ewes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    2016-08-02

    Aug 2, 2016 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2016, 46 (No. 3) ... This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of the feeding ..... The increases in milk n-3 FA concentrations with the +Hs treatments were relatively small compared .... This work was supported by CNCSIS–UEFISCDI, project number PN II ...

  20. Microbiologic analysis and its relation to the hygienic quality of milk produced in the region of alto de chicamocha (Department of Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Camilo Moreno Vásquez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the hygienic and sanitary quality of uncooked milk in the Alto de Chicamocha (Department of Boyacá was made. An analysis with laboratory tests was made in which the total count of Somatic Cells, Mesophiles, Staphylococcus, Coliforms and Listeria were evaluated in Petrifilm 3M® slides and the Brucella (milk ring test test was carried out in 34 herds registered in the Federación de Ganaderos de Boyacá, in two different periods of the year. Statistics differences were found between the time of recollection and total counts. In the raining season cows are exposed to environmental contamination (mud, dung, etc, and therefore the total count of Mesophiles, Coliforms and Somatic Cells increases. Furthermore, the actives related to milking routine are not being effective in the reduction of the microbiologic counts. As consequence, the increase of micro organisms in the mammary gland causes mastitis and therefore a decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the sanitary and hygienic components of the product and so in the economic benefits received by the producer.

  1. Milk quality on some delivery regions in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dražeta Dražetić; Neven Antunac; Dubravka Samaržija; Samir Kalit

    2003-01-01

    In collected cow`s milk samples, from five ransom areas in the Republic of Croatia, a chemical composition and hygienic quality are analysed. The milk quality is accomplished thru a period of one year (1998/99), i.e. before the Regulations on fresh raw milk quality was accepted. Milk samples are analysed for the following parameters (%): milk fat, proteins, and non-fat dry matter content, somatic cell count and total bacterial count. Significant differences are determined between ransom areas (P

  2. Cyclic lipodepsipeptides produced by Pseudomonas spp. naturally present in raw milk induce inhibitory effects on microbiological inhibitor assays for antibiotic residue screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Reybroeck

    Full Text Available Two Pseudomonas strains, identified as closely related to Pseudomonas tolaasii, were isolated from milk of a farm with frequent false-positive Delvotest results for screening putative antibiotic residues in raw milk executed as part of the regulatory quality programme. Growth at 5 to 7°C of these isolates in milk resulted in high lipolysis and the production of bacterial inhibitors. The two main bacterial inhibitors have a molecular weight of 1168.7 and 1140.7 Da respectively, are heat-tolerant and inhibit Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis, the test strain of most of the commercially available microbiological inhibitor tests for screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Furthermore, these bacterial inhibitors show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis and also interfere negatively with yoghurt production. Following their isolation and purification with RP-HPLC, the inhibitors were identified by NMR analysis as cyclic lipodepsipeptides of the viscosin group. Our findings bring to light a new challenge for quality control in the dairy industry. By prolonging the refrigerated storage of raw milk, the keeping quality of milk is influenced by growth and metabolic activities of psychrotrophic bacteria such as pseudomonads. Besides an increased risk of possible spoilage of long shelf-life milk, the production at low temperature of natural bacterial inhibitors may also result in false-positive results for antibiotic residue screening tests based on microbial inhibitor assays thus leading to undue production loss.

  3. Isolation of inhibitory factor in raw milk whey active against propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamuthu, E R; Washam, C J; Reinbold, G W

    1971-10-01

    Preparative isolation of the active component(s) in skim milk whey inhibitory for propionibacteria was made by using (NH(4))(2)SO(4) salt fractionation. The crude preparation was further purified by Sephadex G-100 column separation. Disc-gel electrophoresis of the active peak from the Sephadex elution pattern (peak I) showed that this fraction contained almost all of the immune globulin in the column sample. The biologically inactive peaks did not contain any immune globulin. Starch-gel electrophoresis of the active peak revealed the presence of three separate immune globulin fractions. A correlation was also observed between hemolytic reaction of propionibacterial strains and relative resistance to whey inhibition. The investigation showed that one of the immune globulins of milk, pseudoglobulin, was mainly responsible for the suppressive activity of whey.

  4. High-pressure processing of a raw milk cheese improved its food safety maintaining the sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco José; Delgado, Jonathan; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2013-12-01

    The effect of high-pressure treatment (400 or 600 MPa for 7 min) on microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory parameters was investigated in a mature raw goat milk cheese. At day 60 of analysis, Mesophilic aerobic, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and Listeria spp. were inactivated after high-pressure treatment at 400 or 600 MPa. At day 90, mesophilic aerobic, lactic acid bacteria and Micrococacceae counts were significantly lower in high-pressure-treated cheeses than in control ones. In general, nitrogen fractions were significantly modified after high-pressure treatment on day 60 at 600 MPa compared with control cheeses, but this effect was not found in cheeses after 30 days of storage (day 90). On the other hand, high-pressure treatment caused a significant increase of some texture parameters. However, sensory analysis showed that neither trained panellists nor consumers found significant differences between control and high-pressure-treated cheeses.

  5. Technical note: Determination of acidity in whole raw milk: comparison of results obtained by two different analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabro, M A; Milanesio, H V; Robert, L M; Speranza, J L; Murphy, M; Rodríguez, G; Castañeda, R

    2006-03-01

    In Argentina, one analytical method is usually carried out to determine acidity in whole raw milk: the Instituto Nacional de Racionalización de Materiales standard (no. 14005), based on the Dornic method of French origin. In a national and international regulation, the Association of Official Analytical Chemists International method (no. 947.05) is proposed as the standard method of analysis. Although these methods have the same foundation, there is no evidence that results obtained using the 2 methods are equivalent. The presence of some trends and discordant data lead us to perform a statistical study to verify the equivalency of the obtained results. We analyzed 266 samples and the existence of significant differences between the results obtained by both methods was determined.

  6. Formation of the aroma of a raw goat milk cheese during maturation analysed by SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco José; González-Crespo, José; Cava, Ramón; Ramírez, Rosario

    2011-12-01

    The volatile profile of the Spanish goat raw milk cheese of the protected designation of origin (PDO) "Queso Ibores" was studied at four stages of maturation (day 1, 30, 60, and 90) by the method of solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) to determinate the characteristic volatile compounds of this cheese and to know the changes in the volatile profile of this cheese during maturation. According to the PDO, Ibores cheese aroma varies between sweet and mild and it has a strong taste, slightly tart. A total of 64 compounds were detected: 14 acids, 18 alcohols, 13 esters, 6 ketones and 13 compounds which could not be classified in these groups. Carboxylic acids were the most abundant volatile compounds in the headspace of Ibores cheese. Content of volatile compounds was significantly modified (Pdecalactone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Field handling conditions of raw milk sold in vending machines: experimental evaluation of the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato G. Zanoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct sale by farmers of raw milk for human consumption has been allowed in Italy since 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold in vending machines, in field handling conditions, and during shelf-life from production to consumption. Temperature of storage of raw milk in 33 farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk were investigated from farm to vending machine delivery, together with consumer habits in one province of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Failure to maintain appropriate low temperatures during shelf-life was recorded and 43% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni strains were inoculated into raw milk samples, and the best (4°C as established by law and worst temperature storage conditions detected (variable temperature were simulated. Boiling tests were performed for each pathogen considered at high and low levels of contamination. Results showed an increase in L. monocytogenes in milk stored at 4°C and at variable temperatures recorded in shelf-life monitoring, an increase in E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at variable temperatures but not at 4°C, and a decrease in C. jejuni in all storage conditions. Boiling milk is effective in making it safe for consumers. This study provides evidence that appropriate handling of raw milk, maintaining low temperatures, together with consumer education concerning boiling raw milk before consumption are key factors in preventing foodborne infections linked to raw milk consumption, and helps assess the risk of foodborne infection linked to raw milk consumption.

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in milk and milk products, their virulence gene profile and antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Modi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: During the last decades, number of food poisoning cases due to Campylobacter occurred, immensely. After poultry, raw milk acts as a second main source of Campylobacter. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of Campylobacters in milk and milk products and to know the antibiotic sensitivity and virulence gene profile of Campylobacter spp. in Anand city, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 samples (85 buffalo milk, 65 cow milk, 30 cheese, 30 ice-cream and 30 paneer were collected from the different collection points in Anand city. The samples were processed by microbiological culture method, and presumptive isolates were further confirmed by genus and species-specific polymerase chain reaction using previously reported primer. The isolates were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and virulence gene detection. Result: Campylobacter species were detected in 7 (2.91% raw milk samples whereas none of the milk product was positive. All the isolate identified were Campylobacter jejuni. Most of the isolates showed resistance against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclin. All the isolates have three virulence genes cadF, cdtB and flgR whereas only one isolate was positive for iamA gene and 6 isolates were positive for fla gene. Conclusion: The presence of Campylobacter in raw milk indicates that raw milk consumption is hazardous for human being and proper pasteurization of milk and adaptation of hygienic condition will be necessary to protect the consumer from this zoonotic pathogen.

  9. Identification and characterization of elevated microbial counts in bulk tank raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M C; Ralyea, R D; Murphy, S C; Carey, N R; Scarlett, J M; Boor, K J

    2001-01-01

    The bacterial composition of bulk tank milk from 13 farms was examined over a 2-wk period to characterize sudden elevations in the total bacterial count referred to as "spikes." Bulk tank milk samples collected at each pick-up were analyzed for standard plate count, Petrifilm aerobic count, somatic cell count, gram-negative organisms, and streptococci. Twenty standard plate count spikes were observed: 12 associated with streptococci, 4 associated with gram-negative organisms, 2 associated with streptococci and gram-negative organisms, and 2 that were not definitively characterized. Spikes ranged from 14,000 to 600,000 cfu/ml. Streptococcus uberis was isolated as the predominant organism from 11 spikes, and Escherichia coli was isolated from 4 spikes. Statistical analysis of total bacterial counts indicated a high correlation (r = 0.94) between standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic count. Regression analysis of standard plate counts and Petrifilm aerobic counts yielded the equation log10 (standard plate count) = 0.73 + 0.85log10 (Petrifilm aerobic count), indicating that the correlation, although strong, is not one to one. In a related pilot study, triplicate bulk tank milk samples were collected and analyzed for total bacterial count and presumptive streptococcus, gram-negative, and staphylococcus counts. Two-way ANOVA of these triplicate data indicated a lack of significant variation among the triplicate samples, suggesting that one sample can reliably gauge the microbial status of the entire bulk tank.

  10. Validation of a rapid lateral flow test for the simultaneous determination of β-lactam drugs and flunixin in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David; Banaszewski, Katie; Juskelis, Rima; Al-Taher, Fadwa; Chen, Yang; Cappozzo, Jack; McRobbie, Lindsay; Salter, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs on dairy farms. β-Lactam residues in milk are kept out of the human milk supply with good agricultural practices and mandatory truck screening performed by the dairy industry under Appendix N of the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Flunixin, a nonsteroidal and anti-inflammatory drug, appears in dairy cattle tissue residues with a frequency similar to the occurrence of penicillin G. This creates concern that flunixin residues could be in milk and would go undetected under current milk screening programs. A single test that combines mandatory β-lactam screening with voluntary flunixin screening is an economical approach for monitoring and controlling for potential flunixin or 5-hydroxyflunixin, the primary flunixin metabolite marker in milk. The objective of this study was to validate a β-lactam and flunixin rapid lateral flow test (LFT) and compare the results obtained with a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of flunixin and 5-hydroxyflunixin in raw milk with a limit of detection of , 1 ppb, equivalent to 1 ng/ml. Using the LFT, three combined manufactured lots of test strips detected penicillin G at 2.0 ppb, ampicillin at 6.8 ppb, amoxicillin at 5.9 ppb, cephapirin at 13.4 ppb, ceftiofur (total metabolites) at 63 ppb, and 5-hydroxyflunixin at 1.9 ppb at least 90% of the time with 95% confidence. The LFT also detected incurred flunixin milk samples that were analyzed with the LC-MS/MS and diluted to tolerance in raw milk. The detection levels for the LFT are lower than the U.S. safe levels or tolerances and qualify the test to be used in compliance with U.S. milk screening programs.

  11. Research progress in carbohydrates quality control of raw milk and milk products%原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物质量控制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨自洁; 龚吉军; 任国谱; 邓放明

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates of raw milk and milk products have significant nutritional value for human body.Adulteration,however,that is a common phenomenon at present.This review mainly focused on detection technology of the real and adulterated carbohydrates in raw milk and milk products,in order to provide theoretical guidances on quality control and adulteration detection of carbohydrates in raw milk and milk products.%原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物具有极高的营养价值,对人体健康具有重要作用,但其掺伪现象较普遍,严重影响了原料乳与乳制品的品质。文章综述了原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物及其掺伪物质检测技术研究进展,旨在为做好原料乳与乳制品中碳水化合物质量控制提供科学依据。

  12. Schiff base: A high affinity chemical agent to decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk contaminated artificially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study were conducted the effect of pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 and concentration of new synthesized 3-/2-aminophenylimino-(p-toluoyl/-4-hydroxy-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (Schiff base on decrease the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in raw milk contaminated with known concentration of this toxin. Experiments were carried out at temperature of 4 °C during 35 days. At pH 5.5 Schiff base concentration of 0.1 µmol/L was lessening the concentration of AFM1 after 35 days by 55 %. However, at pH 6.5 the most effective concentration for lessening of AFM1 was 0.5 µmol/L. Schiff base was not effective at pH value of 7 or higher. The ability of Schiff base to act as antimycotoxigenic agent provides new perspective for possibly using this compound to control AFM1 contamination in milk and to extent shelf lives of this food. Detection of toxicity of investigated Schiff base was performed by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as an biological indicator to determine their sensitivity to this chemical agent.

  13. Short communication: Postpasteurization hold temperatures of 4 or 6°C, but not raw milk holding of 24 or 72 hours, affect bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Alexis D; Campbell, Brynne; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin; Martin, Nicole H

    2015-11-01

    As fluid milk processors continue to reduce microbial spoilage in fluid milk through improved control of postpasteurization contamination and psychrotolerant sporeformer outgrowth, it is necessary to identify strategies to further improve the quality and extend the shelf life of fluid milk products that are high-temperature, short-time pasteurized. Solutions that optimize product quality, and are economically feasible, are of particular interest to the dairy industry. To this end, this study examined the effects of raw milk holding time and temperature of pasteurized milk storage over shelf life on bacterial growth. In 3 independent replicates, raw milk was stored for 24 and 72 h before pasteurization at 76°C for 25s and then incubated at 3 different storage conditions: (1) 4°C for 21d; (2) 4°C for the first 48 h, then 6°C for the duration of the 21-d shelf life; or (3) 6°C for 21d. Total bacteria counts were assessed initially and on d 7, 14, and 21. No substantial difference in bacterial growth over shelf life was observed between samples processed from raw milk held for 24 versus 72 h. A significantly lower bacterial load was seen at d 21 after pasteurization in samples held at 4°C, versus 4°C for the first 48 h followed by 6°C for the duration of the 21-d shelf life and samples held at 6°C for 21d. This work demonstrates the importance of maintaining control of the fluid milk cold chain throughout postpasteurization, transportation, and retail storage on fluid milk microbial quality.

  14. Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Egmond, van H.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Keukens, H.; Smulders, I.; Stegeman, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus

  15. 原料乳中铵盐掺假检测方法%Raw milk adulteration detection method of ammonium salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊英; 贺月恩; 王丹慧; 刘美霞; 李梅

    2012-01-01

    Research in raw milk adulteration ammonium salt material qualitative detection method, through to the raw milk which artificial add quantitative ammonium salt test reagent, found through experiments, and the results show that this method is mainly used in the detection of raw milk of ammonium salt mass fraction in more than 0.025% have good maneuverability, and at the same time, methods the operation is simple, the result for observation, suitable for breeding, acquisitions, dairy products enterprise of raw milk quality acceptance inspection.%通过向原料乳中人为添加定量铵盐测试试剂,研究原料乳中铵盐掺假物质定性检测的方法。实验结果表明,该方法用于检测原料乳中铵盐质量分数在0.025%以上,具有良好的可操作性,同时方法操作简单,结果便于观察,适用于在养殖、收购、乳制品企业等进行原料乳质量验收检验。

  16. Identifikasi dan Karakterisasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Isolat Susu Segar Sapi Bali (IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM BALI CATTLE’S RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sujaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an indigenous spesies in Bali, which pay great attention due to its uniqueness. Numerousarticles have been published on Bali cattle especially related to its disease, nutritional requirement forgrowth and domestication. Nevertherless, it was no any report has been published on the lactic acidbacteria (LAB assosiated with the cattles raw milk and its potential used as probiotic. This work isaimed to identify LAB isolated from bali cattle raw milk and its resistance to secondary bile acid (sodiumdeoxy cholic, a prequisite in development of probiotic for human. The results revealed that based upon thehomology studies of the variable region I, II, and III sequences of the 16S rDNA showed that 44 out of 62isolates were closely related to Pediococcus acidilactici; 11 out of 62 isolats were closely related to Enterococusgallinarum, five out of 62 isolates were closely related to Lactococcus garvieae, while only one isolate was closely related to Lactobacillus plantarum and Weisella confusa. Some isolates showed resistant to 0.2-0.6mM deoxy cholic acid, which might be also resist in human gastrointestinal tract conditions. Based onthose finding, it can be concluded that the LAB associated with raw bali cattle milk were closey related toP. acidilactici, E. gallinarum, Lac. garvieae, Lb. plantarum and W. confusa, which different from thosecommonly LAB found in others cattle raw milk. Somes isolates were potential to be developed as probioticfrom human helath.

  17. Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Egmond, van H.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Keukens, H.; Smulders, I.; Stegeman, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus stearotherm

  18. ASPECTOS HIGIENICO-SANITÁRIO NA OBTENÇAO DO LEITE NO ASSENTAMENTO ALEGRE NO MUNICÍPIO DE ARAGUAÍNA - TOCANTINS HYGIENIC AND SANITARY ASPECTS IN MILK COLLECTION AT ALEGRE SETTLEMENT, ARAGUAINA, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Ribeiro Machado

    2009-07-01

    Provisioning, instituted technical regulations, fixing conditions and minimum requirements the hygiene and sanitary for obtaining and production the raw material. With this work it was analyze the aspect hygienic sanitary in obtaining of the milk at Alegre settlement, Araguaína Municipality, State Tocantins, it was seen the milk produced follow the patterns the Instruction Normative nº .51. The used data are of primary nature, obtained through direct interviews the 41 rural producers, accomplished in March of 2007. In agreement with the obtained results, it was verified that the norms of the IN nº51 weren’t being respected in relation to the employed management in the milking, the udder preparation of the milker and of the utensils, however, it leaves of the produced milk was given in the dairy products inside of the established periods for the legislation; and that the obtaining of the milk needs to be gotten better so that she can adapt to the demands of the IN nº. 51.

    KEY WORDS: Instruction Normative nº. 51, quality of the milk, sanitary management.

  19. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in raw milk of sheep and goats of local breeds reared in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, José Givanildo; Alves, Bruno Henrique L S; Melo, Renata Pimentel B; Kim, Pomy Cássia P; Souza Neto, Orestes L; Bezerra, Mauro José G; Sá, Silvio G; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in raw milk samples of goats and sheep of local breeds from the semi-arid region of the states of Pernambuco and Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Serum and milk samples were collected from 243 animals (186 goats and 57 sheep). The Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to search for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with a cutoff of 64. Subsequently, the raw milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii. The IFAT results showed a 6.58% (16/243) positivity when all the samples were considered and a positivity of 15.78% (9/57) and 3.76% (7/186) for goats and sheep samples, respectively. The PCR assay detected T. gondii DNA in 2.06% (5/243) of all the samples tested. All the PCR positive samples were from goats. This result shows the importance of adopting measures of flock's sanitary management and avoiding the consumption of raw milk may constitute a potential risk to the health of milk consumers in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and ripening of raw goat milk lactic cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernozy-Rozand, C; Mazuy-Cruchaudet, C; Bavai, C; Montet, M P; Bonin, V; Dernburg, A; Richard, Y

    2005-11-15

    The behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied during the manufacture and ripening of raw goat milk lactic cheeses. Cheese was manufactured from raw milk in the laboratory and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 to a final concentration of 10, 100 and 1000 cfu ml(-1). E. coli O157:H7 was counted by CT-SMAC (Mac Conkey Sorbitol Agar with cefixim and tellurite) and O157:H7 ID throughout the manufacturing and ripening processes. When the milk was inoculated with 10, 100 or 1000 cfu ml(-1), counts decreased to less than 1 log(10) g(-1) in curds just prior to moulding. However, viable E. coli O157:H7 were found in cheeses throughout processing, and even after 42 days of ripening. Results indicate that E. coli O157:H7 survives the lactic cheese manufacturing process. Thus, the presence of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw milk lactic cheeses can constitute a threat to the consumer.

  1. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  2. The Mathematical Model of the Interaction among Raw Milk Bacteria%原料奶中细菌间相互作用的数学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 赵兵; 王树忠

    2012-01-01

    利用微分生物动力学理论分析原料奶中细菌生态演变的过程,建立了在温度影响下原料奶中乳酸菌和酵母菌相互作用的数学模型,并给出模型的平衡点稳定性充分条件,从而确定了牛奶变质的临界条件.%This paper analyzes the ecological evolution of bacteria in raw milk by the differential biodynamic theory. It estabilishes the model of the interaction between the lactobacillus and yeast in raw milk under the influence of temperature. The sufficient conditions for stability of the model equilibrium is put out, and the critical conditions of milk deterioration has been identified.

  3. Characteristics of dietary and quality attributes of mare milk lyophilisates

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    Romualda Danków

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mare milk due to its 40% share of whey proteins is defined as albumin milk. It is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as lysozyme and lactoferrin, exhibiting antibacterial properties. Since mare milk is a seasonal product, it was attempted to lyophilise it to provide its supply throughout the year. The aim of the study was to characterise selected functional properties of lyophilised mare milk, determine the composition of fatty acids and aroma compounds in mare milk lyophilisate, as well as evaluate liquid milk as a raw material for the production of lyophilised milk. Milk for the production of lyophilisate was characterised by very high hygienic quality and low contents of fat and protein. Results of analyses indicated a slight deterioration of physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of cold-stored milk lyophilisate.

  4. SOME FACTORS RELATED WITH MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF RAW MILK OBTAINED IN FARMS AROUND GOIÂNIA (GO ESTUDO DE ALGUNS FATORES RELACIONADOS COM A QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DO LEITE CRU OBTIDO NA FONTE DE PRODUÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Seraphin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of some factors that contribute to the microbiological and hygienic quality of raw milk, obtained at production level, placing emphasis to verify some important variables performance in raw production, like: spoil or free tail, pen floor types, strainers type utilized, etc, in relation to a group of present microorganisms; the counting of viable mesophilic aerobes, thermodurics and the most probable number of total coliform and the lactofiltration test.

    O presente trabalho objetivou estudar alguns fatores relacionados com a qualidade microbiológica e higiênica do leite cru obtido na fonte da produção, tendo a preocupação de verificar o desempenho de algumas variáveis importantes na produção do leite “in natura” tais como: cauda solta ou presa, tipo de piso dos currais, tipo de coador empregado etc., em relação a grupos microbianos presentes como a contagem de microorganismos termodúricos, número mais provável de coliformes totais e da prova da lactofiltração.

  5. Presence of Campylobacter and Arcobacter species in in-line milk filters of farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk and of a water buffalo dairy farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraino, A; Florio, D; Giacometti, F; Piva, S; Mion, D; Zanoni, R G

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in dairy herds authorized for the production and sale of raw milk and in a water buffalo dairy farm, and to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. A total of 196 in-line milk filters were collected from 14 dairy farms (13 bovine and 1 water buffalo) for detection of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. by microbiological culture. For each farm investigated, 1 isolate for each Campylobacter and Arcobacter species isolated was tested using the Etest method (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) to evaluate the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. A total of 52 isolates were detected in 49 milk filters in 12 farms (85.7%) out of 14 and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni (6), Campylobacter hyointestinalis ssp. hyointestinalis (8), Campylobacter concisus (1), Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus (1), Arcobacter butzleri (22), and Arcobacter cryaerophilus (14). The small number of isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility precludes any epidemiological consideration but highlights that all Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to macrolides, which are the first-choice drugs for the treatment of campylobacteriosis, and that resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline was detected; for Arcobacter isolates, resistance to ampicillin and chloramphenicol was detected. The sale of raw milk for human consumption by self-service automatic vending machines has been allowed in Italy since 2004 and the presence of C. jejuni in in-line milk filters confirms that raw milk consumption is a significant risk factor for human infection. The high occurrence of emerging Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. discovered in dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk represents an emerging hazard for human health.

  6. Outbreak of Human Brucellosis from Consumption of Raw Goats' Milk in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kar Nim; Chow, Ting Soo; Wong, Peng Shyan; Hamzah, Siti Hawa; Ahmad, Norazah; Ch'ng, Chin Chin

    2015-09-01

    We report the largest outbreak of brucellosis in Penang, Malaysia. Brucellosis is not endemic in this region. The index case was a 45-year-old goat farm owner presented with 3 weeks of fever, headache, severe lethargy, poor appetite, and excessive sweating. He claimed to have consumed unpasteurized goat's milk that he had also sold to the public. Tests were negative for tropical diseases (i.e., dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and scrub typhus) and blood culture showed no growth. Based on epidemiological clues, Brucella serology was ordered and returned positive. Over a period of 1 year, 79 patients who had consumed milk bought from the same farm were diagnosed with brucellosis. Two of these patients were workers on the farm. Four laboratory staff had also contracted the disease presumably through handling of the blood samples. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 53 days with a maximum duration of 210 days. A combination treatment of rifampin and doxycycline for 6 weeks was the first line of treatment in 90.5% of patients. One-third of the patients had sequelae after recovering and 21% had a relapse. We highlight the importance of Brucellosis as a differential diagnosis when a patient has unexplained chronic fever.

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that the animals' environment plays a role in the balance between the dominance of L. lactis and enterococci in raw goats' milk. The separation between the milking parlor and the goat shed (vs no separation) and only straw in the bedding (vs straw and hay) seems to promote L. lactis in the milk (vs enterococci).

  8. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  9. Characterization of Oaxaca raw milk cheese microbiota with particular interest in Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Irma; Mateo, Javier; Sandoval, María H; Soto, Sergio; García-Armesto, María R; Castro, José M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize lactobacilli strains from Mexican Oaxaca cheese. Twenty-seven lactobacilli isolated from Oaxaca cheese were identified at species level by 16S rRNA sequencing. Selected isolates were further characterized by ribotyping. Isolates were screened, among others, by acidifying capacity, antibiotic resistance, and activity against pathogens. Lactobacillus plantarum was predominant in Oaxaca cheese. The intraspecies variability of Lb. plantarum isolates was great. Multiple antibiotic resistances were observed. Eight isolates showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic species tested. Four Lb. plantarum strains showing low antibiotic resistance index, antimicrobial activity against enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua stains, amine-negative decarboxylase activity, and resistance to NaCl and bile salt solutions, could be preselected to complete studies focused on designing a culture for use in pasteurized-milk Oaxaca cheese manufacturing.

  10. Research on Heavy Metals Pollution in Raw Milk and Finished Milk%原料乳及其成品乳中重金属污染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺湖; 邢璐

    2011-01-01

    Determination lead, chromium, mercury, arsenic in raw milk and finished milk content by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry, in order to providing the reference of dairy for the consumer. The test results indicated that the raw milk and finished milk in the random sampling from a dairy enterprise in Shandong are polluted by lead, chrome, mercury and arsenic, although at different level; Some raw milk content was not qualified according to the quality standards of the people's Republic of China.%为了给消费者提供乳制品质量参考,对山东省某乳制品企业的原料乳和成品乳随机抽样,用原子吸收光谱法和原子荧光光谱法测定了其中铅、铬、汞和砷等重金属的含量.结果表明,该企业的原料乳和成品乳都存在不同程度的铅、铬、汞和砷等重金属污染,其中,部分原料乳铅含量严重超出国家食品质量安全标准,成品乳铅含量轻微超标.

  11. Study of total count, E. coli and coliforms contamination of raw milk from letdown stage till delivery to factory in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behrouz Yarahmadi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarahmadi B1, Mahdavi HR2, Moaydinezhad A4 1. Research Instructor, Department of Animal Products, Lorstan Research Center of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Research Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Products, Karaj Animal Science Research Institue, Karaj, Iran 3. MSc in Biotechnology, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Hamadan Bou Ali University, Hamadan, Iran Abstract Background: The primary quality of raw milk is affected by several factors including animal nutrition, animal health, milk components, and its bacterial activity and these factors are effective on the final products. Therefore, the quality of raw milk depends on time and milk condition from production to delivery. In Lorestan, 97% of the milk production is obtained from rural and small units. This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting the bacteriological quality of raw milk from letdown phase till delivery to factory and to find out the critical points of bacterial contamination in the years 2003 and 2004. Materials and methods: In this study, the collecting centers of raw milk with a capacity of more than 3 tons, between 1.5 to 3 tons, and fewer than 1.5 tons were included as the centers with high, moderate, and low capacity respectively. The sampling stages consisted of cow milk letdown, milk collecting equipment, milk collecting tankers, milk cooling tanks, and milk delivery to factory. Microbial experiments consisted of standard plate count (SPC, E. coli, and coliforms. All the collected samples were 45 ones in each month and 540 samples in a year. Being converted to Log10, the data were analyzed by the SPSS software (version 11.5 and GLM procedure was used to determine the effects of month, capacity of centers, and sampling stages. Results: Based on the results of the study, the average total count (TC in all seasons in Lorestan province was 6.43 0.37cfu/m. The effects of month, capacity of centers, and the sampling

  12. Surveillance of dairy production holdings supplying raw milk to the farmhouse cheese sector for Escherichia coli O157, O26 and O111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M; Buckley, J F; Whyte, P; O'Mahony, M; Anderson, W; Wall, P G; Fanning, S

    2007-01-01

    Clinically healthy domestic animals can harbour Escherichia coli O157 and other verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) strains in their faeces. Milk filters can be used to microbiologically monitor direct milk secretion and environmental contamination for these pathogens. The aim of this study was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and characteristics of VTEC organisms in lactating animals (bovine, ovine and caprine) supplying milk to the farmhouse cheese sector, with particular emphasis on serogroups O157, O111 and O26. Fifty-six bovine, 13 caprine and 5 ovine herds/flocks, the majority of which supplying milk for farmhouse cheese production, were surveyed from May 2004 to July 2005. Milk filters were analysed by immunomagnetic separation followed by PCR, on a serogroup-specific basis for E. coli O157, O26 and O111. Positive isolates were examined using a multiplex PCR protocol, for their potential to produce verocytotoxins (vt1/vt2), the haemolysin-encoding gene (hlyA) and the gene encoding attaching and effacement (eae). Five verocytotoxigenic and 22 non-virulent E. coli O157 isolates were detected. Seventeen E. coli O26 isolates were also detected, four of which were verocytotoxigenic, seven isolates contained the eae gene only and six isolates were devoid of any of the virulence factors. The VTEC O157 and O26 isolates contained the hlyA and eae genes along with the verocytotoxin genes. No E. coli O111 isolates were detected. Some of the herds were positive on more than one occasion and multiple E. coli serogroups were isolated from the same milk filter sample. Although all food products tested were VTEC negative, routine surveillance for such pathogens in raw milk/raw milk products is of public health importance. Herd-level surveillance along with subsequent risk management action may be a cost-effective component of risk reduction strategies for food production, drinking water supplies and the protection of public health.

  13. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  14. Efficiency of N2 Gas Flushing Compared to the Lactoperoxidase System at Controlling Bacterial Growth in Bovine Raw Milk Stored at Mild Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Quintyn, Romanie; De Man, Ingrid; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre

    2016-01-01

    To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/HT) in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H) and thiocyanate (T). N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6–12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N) was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT) on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances. PMID:27313575

  15. Efficiency of N2 gas flushing compared to the lactoperoxidase system at controlling bacterial growth in bovine raw milk stored at mild temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eMunsch-Alatossava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/ HT in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H and thiocyanate (T. N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6 to 12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ. Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances.

  16. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Mirna Mrkonjić; Wallisch, Stefanie; Engel, Marion; Welzl, Gerhard; Havranek, Jasmina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all cheese types to a

  17. Dynamics of bacterial communities during the ripening process of different Croatian cheese types derived from raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    Full Text Available Microbial communities play an important role in cheese ripening and determine the flavor and taste of different cheese types to a large extent. However, under adverse conditions human pathogens may colonize cheese samples during ripening and may thus cause severe outbreaks of diarrhoea and other diseases. Therefore in the present study we investigated the bacterial community structure of three raw ewe's milk cheese types, which are produced without the application of starter cultures during ripening from two production sites based on fingerprinting in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Overall a surprisingly high diversity was found in the analyzed samples and overall up to 213 OTU97 could be assigned. 20 of the major OTUs were present in all samples and include mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mainly Lactococcus, and Enterococcus species. Abundance and diversity of these genera differed to a large extent between the 3 investigated cheese types and in response to the ripening process. Also a large number of non LAB genera could be identified based on phylogenetic alignments including mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcacae. Some species belonging to these two families could be clearly assigned to species which are known as potential human pathogens like Staphylococcus saprophyticus or Salmonella spp. However, during cheese ripening their abundance was reduced. The bacterial genera, namely Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Thermoanerobacterium, E. coli, Hafnia, Pseudomonas, Janthinobacterium, Petrotoga, Kosmotoga, Megasphaera, Macrococcus, Mannheimia, Aerococcus, Vagococcus, Weissella and Pediococcus were identified at a relative low level and only in selected samples. Overall the microbial composition of the used milk and the management of the production units determined the bacterial community composition for all

  18. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression.

  19. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

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    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  20. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  1. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses manufactured from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Dennis J; Druart, Marc J; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and aging of Gouda and stirred-curd Cheddar cheeses made from raw milk. Cheeses were manufactured from unpasteurized milk experimentally contaminated with one of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 at an approximate population level of 20 CFU/ml. Samples of milk, whey, curd, and cheese were collected for enumeration of bacteria throughout the manufacturing and aging process. Overall, bacterial counts in both cheese types increased almost 10-fold from initial inoculation levels in milk to approximately 145 CFU/g found in cheeses on day 1. From this point, counts dropped significantly over 60 days to mean levels of 25 and 5 CFU/g in Cheddar and Gouda, respectively. Levels of E. coli O157:H7 fell and stayed below 5 CFU/g after an average of 94 and 108 days in Gouda and Cheddar, respectively, yet remained detectable after selective enrichment for more than 270 days in both cheese types. Changes in pathogen levels observed throughout manufacture and aging did not significantly differ by cheese type. In agreement with results of previous studies, our results suggest that the 60-day aging requirement alone is insufficient to completely eliminate levels of viable E. coli O157:H7 in Gouda or stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufactured from raw milk contaminated with low levels of this pathogen.

  2. Biodiversity and γ-aminobutyric acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional alpine raw cow's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Elena; Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Schiavon, Silvia; Poznanski, Elisa; Cavazza, Agostino; Larcher, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2015-01-01

    "Nostrano-cheeses" are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow's milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) developing during maturation of "Nostrano-cheeses" and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months). A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n = 97) were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg) was a Sc. thermophilus.

  3. Bacteriocins produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional, starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Delgado, Susana; Roces, Clara; López, Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2010-09-30

    Sixty bacterial strains were encountered by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) typing in a series of 306 Lactococcus lactis isolates collected during the manufacturing and ripening stages of five traditional, starter-free cheeses made from raw milk. Among the 60 strains, 17 were shown to produce bacteriocin-like compounds in both solid and liquid media. At a genotypic level, 16 of the strains were identified by molecular methods as belonging to L. lactis subsp. lactis and one to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Among the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains, phenotypic and genetic data determined that eleven produced either nisin A (nine strains) or nisin Z (two strains), and that five produced lactococcin 972. Variable levels of the two bacteriocins were produced by different strains. In addition, nisin was shown to be produced in inexpensive, dairy- and meat-based media, which will allow the practical application of its producing strains in industrial processes. Specific PCR and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis identified the inhibitor produced by the single L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolate as a lactococcin G-like bacteriocin. Beyond the use of bacteriocins as functional ingredients for the biopreservation of foods, the newly identified bacteriocin-producing L. lactis strains from traditional cheeses may also be useful for designing starter cultures with protective properties and/or adjunct cultures for accelerating cheese ripening.

  4. Effectiveness of convective drying to conserve indigenous yeasts with high volatile profile isolated from algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa HAMOUDI-BELARBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yeasts Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saprochaete suaveolens and Trichosporon coremiiforme were isolated and identified by physiological, biochemical tests with API 20C AUX system and molecular methods by restriction fragment analysis of PCR-amplified 28S-rRNA from Algerian fermented raw bovine milk (Rayeb. Selected yeasts S. suaveolens, I. orientalis, K. marxianus and W. anomalus produced esters and higher esters which can exert a pertinent influence on the sensory characteristics of Rayeb. Viability of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus using three methods of drying (freeze-drying, convective drying, and spray-drying and during 4 months of storage at 4 °C and 25 °C in the darkness was studied. Immediately after each drying method, high survival was obtained using freeze-drying followed by convective drying in rice cakes and spray-drying respectively. During storage at 4 °C, convective drying provided better survival of yeast cultures of S. suaveolens and W. anomalus than freeze-drying. At 25 °C of storage, convective and freeze-dried yeast cultures showed no significant loss of viable cells up to 2 months of storage. Spray-dried yeast cultures had the greatest loss of viable count during the 3 months of storage at 25 °C.

  5. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  6. Multiple-Strain Approach and Probabilistic Modeling of Consumer Habits in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment: A Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A in Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, Matteo; Rizzi, Rita; Varisco, Giorgio; Daminelli, Paolo; Cunico, Elena Cosciani; Luini, Mario; Graber, Hans Ulrich; Paterlini, Franco; Guitian, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) models are extensively applied to inform management of a broad range of food safety risks. Inevitably, QMRA modeling involves an element of simplification of the biological process of interest. Two features that are frequently simplified or disregarded are the pathogenicity of multiple strains of a single pathogen and consumer behavior at the household level. In this study, we developed a QMRA model with a multiple-strain approach and a consumer phase module (CPM) based on uncertainty distributions fitted from field data. We modeled exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin A in raw milk in Lombardy; a specific enterotoxin production module was thus included. The model is adaptable and could be used to assess the risk related to other pathogens in raw milk as well as other staphylococcal enterotoxins. The multiplestrain approach, implemented as a multinomial process, allowed the inclusion of variability and uncertainty with regard to pathogenicity at the bacterial level. Data from 301 questionnaires submitted to raw milk consumers were used to obtain uncertainty distributions for the CPM. The distributions were modeled to be easily updatable with further data or evidence. The sources of uncertainty due to the multiple-strain approach and the CPM were identified, and their impact on the output was assessed by comparing specific scenarios to the baseline. When the distributions reflecting the uncertainty in consumer behavior were fixed to the 95th percentile, the risk of exposure increased up to 160 times. This reflects the importance of taking into consideration the diversity of consumers' habits at the household level and the impact that the lack of knowledge about variables in the CPM can have on the final QMRA estimates. The multiple-strain approach lends itself to use in other food matrices besides raw milk and allows the model to better capture the complexity of the real world and to be capable of geographical

  7. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  8. Detection and characterization of Bifidobacterium crudilactis and B-mongoliense able to grow during the manufacturing process of French raw milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Delcenserie, Véronique; Taminiau, Bernard; Gavini, Françoise; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athenais; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Theves, Muriel; Mahieu, Melanie; Daube, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study of a production chain of raw milk cheeses (St Marcellin, Vercors area, France) led to the isolation of two Bifidobacterium populations: B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense, that were able to grow along the production chain. The aims of this study were to further detect and characterize these bacteria along the process and evaluate the ability of some strains to survive or grow in adverse conditions. Results: Using PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  9. Microbact™ 24E system identifiation and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial flra from raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in Gwagwalada, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mailafia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms from raw milk of cows in Gwagwalada and determine their susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Methods: A total of 120 samples of milk were obtained from lactating cows that were at different stages of postpartum from six different locations in Gwagwalada metropolis. Samples were subjected to Microbact™ 24E system identification, isolation and characterization of isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility test. Results: The most prevalent organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (34.1%, Escherichia coli (27.3% and Bacillus species (18.2% while the least isolated were Salmonella species (11.4% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.0%. The highest resistance patterns were shown by Staphylococcus aureus which displayed resistance to five drugs: amoxicillin, ampiclox, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The least resistance was displayed by Bacillus species which were resistant to only two drugs, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol. Pseudomonas aeroginosa dissipated the highest pattern susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin while Salmonella species showed the lowest pattern of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Other microorganisms dissipated susceptibility patterns ranging from 16.6%–100.0%. Conclusions: This study documented the occurrence of bacterial flora in raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in the Gwagwalada area. The variation in patterns of multidrug resistance and susceptibilities in our studies may lead to possibility of transfer of antibiotic resistance from raw milk consumers. More studies are required using higher molecular techniques to expose different species of microorganisms causing milk borne illness and their antibiotic resistant genes.

  10. High incidence of enterotoxin D producing Staphylococcus spp. in Brazilian cow's raw milk and its relation with coagulase and thermonuclease enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Maria; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Miya, Norma Teruko Nagô; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Pereira, José Luiz

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the enterotoxigenic potential of Staphylococcus strains (n = 574) isolated from raw milk samples (n = 140) was determined for their capacity to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins. In addition, the relationship between the presence of enterotoxins, coagulase, and thermonuclease (Tnase) was assessed. The results showed that 19% of Staphylococcus was enterotoxigenic, being able to produce at least one of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (A, B, C, and D). Most of the strains were able to produce enterotoxin D (68.8%), whereas 12.8% of the Staphylococcus strains were able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Besides, the production of more than one type of enterotoxins by the same strain was observed. Tnase was considered the best marker for enterotoxigenic potential of isolates, although some of them were negative for coagulase and Tnase but positive for enterotoxin production. Therefore, either the use of Tnase to assess Staphylococcus enterotoxigenic potential or the use of simple and easy screening tests for enterotoxin production should receive more attention when evaluating the pathogenic potential of foodborne Staphylococcus strains. Due to the association of both coagulase positive Staphylococcus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus with foodborne disease outbreaks, regulators and industries should pay more attention to enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus rather than focusing only on S. aureus or coagulase positive Staphylococcus. Finally, data found here suggest a high risk of staphylococcal intoxication with the consumption of raw milk or dairy products made from raw milk.

  11. Microbiological quality and safety of raw milk and soft cheese and detection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria with antagonistic activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Spp., and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Maria Beatriz Tassinari; Yamazi, Anderson Keizo; Moraes, Paula Mendonça; Viçosa, Gabriela Nogueira; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the microbiological quality and safety of raw milk and soft cheese, verifying possible associations between microbial populations, and the detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens. Raw milk (n = 36) and soft cheese (n = 18) samples were collected and submitted for the analysis of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, LAB, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS), Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. In all, 389 LAB isolates were randomly selected and submitted for antagonistic tests against L. monocytogenes, St. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Lactobacillus sakei. The samples presented high counts of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, and LAB, and also high and significant correlation indices between these populations. Low levels of CPS and E. coli were observed, as well as an absence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. A substantial portion of the analyzed samples presented LAB cultures with antagonistic activity, but not against Salmonella Typhimurium. The obtained results indicate the antimicrobial potential of the autochthonous microbiota of raw milk and soft cheese. Despite the spoilage potential, the LAB present in the studied food products can be isolated and properly characterized as antagonistic cultures, to be used in bioconservation studies for pathogen control in foods.

  12. QUALIDADE DE LEITE CRU PRODUZIDO E ARMAZENADO EM TANQUES DE EXPANSÃO NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS RAW QUALITY OF MILK PRODUCED AND STORED IN BULK TANKS IN GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Louise Tadaieski Arruda

    2008-12-01

    raw milk quality in samples obtained from bulk tanks in the Goiás State. Thirty raw milk  samples of 1000 mL were harvest. It was performed the following analyses: total bacterial count (TBC by Flow Citometry, search for the presence of residues of antimicrobial agents by the Delvotest® SP kit and investigation for the fraud by adding to milk the following substances: hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide. It was not found any residues of antimicrobial agents in all (100% samples. Physicochemical test also showed the absence of hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide in milk. About TBC, it was observed that 30% (9/30 of bulk tanks showed TBC>106 CFU/mL, in 46.67% (14/30 the TBC was between 105 to 106 CFU/mL and 23.33% (7/30 showed TBC <105 CFU/mL. Means observed were TBC of 9.2 X 106, TBC of 4.5 X 105, TBC of 5.1 X 104, respectively. From bulk tanks with TBC>106 CFU/mL, 100% were available for common utilization and had significantly higher values for TBC (P<0.05. Educational standards and training about the hygienic procedures applied to milk obtainment and to milking equipments, a well implemented mastitis control program and correct use of milk cooling system after milking must be adopted in order to provide a better raw milk quality. These measures provide benefits to industry due to the higher income of quality raw material. It also provides benefits for the farmer, since they can receive a better wage from dairy companies that pay higher for better quality products; to the trade because quality products have a longer shelf-life and to consumer, that can have an increase in quality of life.

    KEY WORDS: CFU, raw milk,  quality, residues.

  13. Behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the cheese making of traditional raw-milk cheeses from Italian Alps

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    Elena Cosciani-Cunico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was studied during the manufacture and ripening of two traditional Italian Alps cheeses. Each cheese type was manufactured in a pilot plan from raw cow milk (without the addition of starter cultures artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 to a final concentration of about 4 log CFU/mL. The pathogens were enumerated throughout the cheese making and ripening processes to study their behaviour. When the milk was inoculated with 4 Log CFU/mL, the pathogens counts increased in the first time during the manufacturing process and then remained constant, until the end of ripening, or decreased significantly. Results indicate that the environment and nature of food borne pathogens affected the concentration of the bacteria during the manufacturing and ripening process. Thus, the presence of low cells numbers of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 in milk destined for the production of raw milk cheeses characterized by a cooking of the curd less than 48°C can constitute a hazard for the consumer.

  14. 超声波对原料乳灭菌效果的研究%Studied on ultrasonic processing on raw milk sterilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海刚; 李静; 孙超

    2013-01-01

    The nonthermal processing,which applied to food sterilization helps to preserve the nutrient value and enhance physical quality of food,has been carefully studied recently.Ultrasound of 40 kHz to inactive the microbe in raw milk was performed and the ability of ultrasound for milk sterilization was proved in this article.The optimal conditions for raw milk sterilization were as follows:temperature 60 ℃,processing time 200 s,intermittent ratio 5:2.Compared with pasteurization,ultrasonic processing had effective sterilization effect and the milk's stability during storage was better than pasteurization product.%非热杀菌技术由于能够较好得保存食品的营养性,提高食品品质,近年来成为研究热点.采用40 kHz超声波对原料乳进行杀菌,证实超声波对原料乳中的微生物有杀灭效果,确定了最佳的超声杀菌条件为:温度60℃,时间200 s,间歇比5∶2.与巴氏杀菌相比,超声杀菌在短时间内可以达到理想的杀菌效果;且原料乳在储藏期间内的稳定性优于巴氏杀菌乳.

  15. The Research Progress of Raw Milk Quality Safety and its Influencing Factors%生乳的质量安全及其影响因素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梅

    2012-01-01

    生乳的质量安全一直以来是人们关注的焦点,加强生乳质量安全监管,确保生乳质量安全,保障消费者身体健康显得尤为重要.作者对优质安全生乳的内涵、影响因素、管理与控制措施等方面进行了综述,以期为生产和管理提供参考.%The quality and safety of raw milk is always the focus of attention,strengthen the quality and safety of raw milk supervision,to ensure the quality and safety of raw milk, the protective consumer health is particularly important. The author summarized connotation of raw milk quality safety, influencing factors and control measures, etc, in order to provide reference for the production and management.

  16. Study of Lactic Acid Bacteria Community From Raw Milk of Iranian One Humped Camel and Evaluation of Their Probiotic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Davati, Nafiseh; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Farideh; Zibaee, Saeed; Shahidi, Fakhri; Edalatian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Camel milk is amongst valuable food sources in Iran. On the other hand, due to the presence of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocin producers in camel milk, probiotic bacteria can be isolated and identified from this food product. Objectives: The objectives of the present research were the isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk and evaluation of their probiotic properties. Materials and Methods: A total of ten samples of camel milk were collec...

  17. Heat identification by 17β-estradiol and progesterone quantification in individual raw milk samples by enzyme immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech, Anna; Pich,Sara; Arís,Anna; Plasencia,Carmen; Bach, Alex; Serrano,Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a substantial decline in first-service-pregnancy-rate in dairy cows. In this regard, future prospects are to measure milk hormones on-farm and progesterone levels in milk are not enough to precise ovulation unless connected to other data. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether 17β-estradiol could be measured from individual cow milk samples using a commercially available non-radiolabelled enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA) with no previously reported milk...

  18. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2016-12-19

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources.

  19. Artisanal Vlasina Raw Goat's Milk Cheese: Evaluation and Selection of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tolinacki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the isolation, characterization and identification of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from artisanal Vlasina raw goat's milk cheese for the selection of potential starter cultures. Soft white Vlasina cheese was manufactured at a household on the Stara Planina Mountain using traditional techniques without starter cultures. One hundred and forty nine LAB isolates were collected from two samples of Vlasina cheese, designated as BGVL2 (5 days old and BGVL2a (15 days old. The population of LAB in the cheese samples was characterized by phenotype-based assays and presumptively identified using repetitive element palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with the primer (GTG5. Results were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. Among the BGVL2 isolates (56, the most numerous LAB species were Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (27 and Lactococcus lactis (26. In 15-day-old BGVL2a (93 isolates, Lactobacillus plantarum (33, Enterococcus durans (26 and Pediococcus pentosaceus (14 were predominant. Lc. lactis ssp. lactis BGVL2-8 showed good acidification ability and the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds, Lb. plantarum BGVL2a-18 had good proteolytic ability and produced exopolysaccharides, while BGVL2-29 and BGVL2-63, which belonged to the species Ln. pseudomesenteroides, utilized citrate and produced diacetyl and acetoin. They appeared to be suitable candidates for inclusion in the starter culture. This study contributed to the understanding of the role of autochthonous LAB in the quality of artisanal cheese and the possibility of using the selected LAB as potential starter cultures for cheese making under controlled conditions.

  20. Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2006-03-01

    La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period.

  1. A rapid method for the detection of foodborne pathogens by extraction of a trace amount of DNA from raw milk based on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yalong; Song, Minghui; Cui, Yan; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dapeng; Paoli, George C; Shi, Xianming

    2013-07-17

    A method based on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to rapidly and sensitively detect foodborne pathogens in raw milk. After optimizing parameters such as pH, temperature, and time, a trace amount of genomic DNA of pathogens could be extracted directly from complex matrices such as raw milk using ASMNPs. The magnetically separated complexes of genomic DNA and ASMNPs were directly subjected to single PCR (S-PCR) or multiplex PCR (M-PCR) to detect single or multiple pathogens from raw milk samples. Salmonella Enteritidis (Gram-negative) and Listeria monocytogenes (Gram-positive) were used as model organisms to artificially contaminate raw milk samples. After magnetic separation and S-PCR, the detection sensitivities were 8 CFU mL(-1) and 13 CFU mL(-1) respectively for these two types of pathogens. Furthermore, this method was successfully used to detect multiple pathogens (S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes) from artificially contaminated raw milk using M-PCR at sensitivities of 15 CFU mL(-1) and 25 CFU mL(-1), respectively. This method has great potential to rapidly and sensitively detect pathogens in raw milk or other complex food matrices.

  2. 原料乳生产在乳业安全中的地位、面临问题及建议%Study on the Status, Problems of Raw Milk Production in Dairy Industry Safety and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀芬; 郑世艳

    2014-01-01

    Production of raw milk is a key link in the dairy industry chain, and it is also an important breakthrough of dairy industry safety. At present, the standard of China’s raw milk quality is low, the problems of raw milk quality safety mainly involves human factors. The supply of raw milk is not enough and the cows on hand affected the raw milk production seriously. The scale proportion of raw milk production is low, the potential risks of very large farm is high. The domestic dairy enterprises slowed down the pace of constructing milk source base, raw milk price lfuctuated frequently. We must make every attempt to ensure the safety of raw milk quality, promote the building of raw milk base, scale management and technological innovation. We should establish raw milk price formation mechanism, and a number of new occupation dairy farmers by training.%原料乳生产是乳业产业链的关键环节,是乳业产业安全的重要抓手。目前,我国原料乳质量标准不高,质量安全问题多,主要是人为因素;而且原料乳供给不足,原料乳产量受奶牛存栏影响大;原料乳生产规模化比例低,超大规模潜在风险大;国内乳企奶源基地建设的步伐放缓;原料乳价格波动频繁。必须把原料乳质量安全放在首位,大力推进奶源基地建设、规模化经营和技术创新,健全原料乳的价格形成机制,加强对奶农的培训,培养一批职业奶农。

  3. Portable Analyzer for Rapid Analysis of Total Protein, Fat and Lactose Contents in Raw Milk Measured by Non-dispersive Short-wave Near-infrared Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xu-dong; SU Rui; XU Nan; WANG Xing-hua; YU Ai-min; ZHANG Han-qi; CAO Yan-bo

    2013-01-01

    A novel portable analyzer for raw milk quality control during the material purchase at dairy plants was developed,by which the percentages(mass fraction) of main components including total protein,fat,and lactose of an unhomogenized milk sample could be determinated in 1 min with the help of non-dispersive short-wave near-infrared (NDSWNIR) spectrometry in a wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and multivariate calibration.The analyzer was designed with a single-beam optical system,which comprised a temperature control module,a multi-channel narrow-band light source(16 wavelengths),a glass absorption cell with 15 mm sample thickness,a silicon photodiode detector,several compound lenses and a recorder module.A total of 80 raw milk samples were collected at a dairy farm twice a month for 4 months.The samples were scanned with a common UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer and analyzed according to China GB standard methods.The uninformative variables elimination(UVE) method was carried out on the spectrum data and the percentages of main components of all the samples to choose the peak emitting wavelength of each channel of the light source.Another 90 raw milk samples were collected from the same dairy farm thrice a month for 3 months.The samples were analyzed according to China GB standard methods and with the proposed analyzer.The percentages of the main components and the NDSWNIR absorption data of the samples were used for the construction and validation of the multivariate calibration model with partial least squares(PLS) method.The root-mean-square errors of prediction(RMSEP) of total protein,fat and lactose were 0.201,0.172 and 0.247 and the coefficients of correlation(R) were 0.932,0.981 and 0.933,respectively.

  4. A large meta-analysis of the global prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA contamination of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qianting; Zhou, Junli; Lin, Dongxin; Bai, Chan; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Jialing; Zheng, Haoqu; Wang, Xiaojie; Ye, Jiaping; Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2017-07-07

    Past reports have indicated a high prevalence of milk contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), but the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus and MRSA in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk (raw sheep's milk and raw goat's milk) and across different periods, continents, economic conditions and purchase locations remain inconsistent. We searched relevant articles published in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science before July 2016. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement was used to evaluate the quality of 93 included studies. We observed that the pooled prevalence rates of S. aureus contamination in pasteurized and boiled cow's milk, raw cow's milk, and raw Caprinae milk were 15.4% (95% CI, 6.1-27.5%), 33.5% (95% CI, 29.5-37.7%) and 25.8% (95% CI, 17.5-35.0%), respectively. The pooled prevalence rates of MRSA contamination were 4.9% (95% CI, 0.0-15.7%), 2.3% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6%), and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5-1.8%), respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination in raw cow's milk increased over time. However, the pooled prevalence of raw cow's milk contaminated with S. aureus was lowest in European studies. These findings give an indication of the consequence of better milk regulation in Europe. High S. aureus prevalence rates in raw milk collected from farms and processing companies pose a potential threat to consumers. The implementation of good hygiene practices, appropriate health knowledge, and food safety principles at the farm level, as well as the prudent use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and heat treatment before drinking, are necessary to reduce the potential risk of S. aureus and MRSA contamination.

  5. Lead Concentrations in Raw Cow and Goat Milk Collected in Rural Areas of Croatia from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilandžić, Nina; Sedak, Marija; Čalopek, Bruno; Luburić, Đurđica Božić; Solomun Kolanović, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Đokić, Maja; Kmetič, Ivana; Murati, Teuta

    2016-05-01

    A total of 249 cow and 33 goat milk samples were collected in rural areas of Croatia during the period 2010-2014. Lead concentrations in milk samples were analyzed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mean Pb concentrations in milk ranged from (μg/kg): cow 10.8-12.2; goat 9.33-60.0. The highest Pb level of 131 μg/kg in cow milk was measured during 2014. There were no significant differences in Pb levels between cow and goat milk and also in goat milk among the analysed years. However, significant differences were found in cow milk among years. The highest Pb was determined in 2011 (157 μg/kg in goat milk). The calculated estimated weekly intakes of Pb concentrations for cow and goat milk contribute only 1.37 % and 1.84 % to the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Therefore, the consumption of milk from both species should not pose a consumer health risk.

  6. Nail Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing and Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene Diapering Safe & Healthy Diapering in ... Respiratory Disease Prevention Handwashing in the Developing World Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video Division of Oral ...

  7. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing and Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene Diapering Safe & Healthy Diapering in ... Respiratory Disease Prevention Handwashing in the Developing World Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video Division of Oral ...

  8. Relationship between somatic cell counts in raw milk and the casein fractions of UHT milk%原料乳中体细胞数与UHT乳中酪蛋白成分的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙淼; 肖洪亮

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between SCC in raw milk and casein fractions of 15 batches of UHT milk was studied. The raw milk was collected, pasteurized and transferred to UHT process. Samples of UHT milk were collected on days 8, 30, 60, 90 and 120 of storage at room temperature. Their casein fractions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The SCC ranged from 1.97 × 105 to 8 × 105 mL-1.No correlation (P<0.05) was found between SCC and κ-casein concentrations in raw or UHT milks. The αs2- and β-casein concentrations in raw milk were negatively correlated with SCC(P<0.05). In UHT milk, negative correlations were observed for αs1-casein (P<0.05) and β-casein(P<0.05) on the 8th day, and for α52-casein (P<0.01) on the 60th day of storage. The results showed that higher SCC in raw milk is associated with substantial degradation ofβ-casem and αs-casein, which may lead to quality defects in UHT milk during storage.%研究了原料乳中体细胞数与15批次UHT乳样本中酪蛋白成分之间的关系.将原料乳巴氏杀菌后进行超高温处理.分别于8,30,60,90和120 d采集贮藏于室温条件下的UHT乳样本,并使用高效液相色谱法对酪蛋白成分进行分析.体细胞数范围1.97×105~8×105 mL-1.体细胞数与原料乳或UHT乳中的κ-酪蛋白质量浓度之间没有相关性(P<0.05).原料乳中α-酪蛋白和β-酪蛋白与体细胞数呈负相关(P<0.05).UHT乳中,αs1-酪蛋白(P<0.05)和β-酪蛋白(P<0.05)与体细胞数在贮藏第8天呈负相关,αs2-(P<0.01)与体细胞数在贮藏第60天呈负相关.结果表明,原料乳中体细胞数较高与β-酪蛋白和αs-酪蛋白的大量水解有关,并且可能导致UHT乳在贮藏期内出现质量问题.

  9. 商品奶与原料奶中农药与亚硝酸钠残留分析%Analysis of pesticide residues and sodium nitrite in commercial milk and raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷静; 邓斌; 李琦华; 杨舒黎; 苟潇; 毛华明

    2011-01-01

    The gas chromatograph (GC) method was used for analysis of pesticide residues and sodium nitrite residues in commercial milk and raw milk, and also analysis the effect of feeding pattern on pesticide residues in raw milk. The results showed that: Among five pesticides,Methamidophos, Dichlorvos and Malathion had high detection rate of pesticide residue, 45.0%~67.5% with commercial milk, and 46.8%~71.2% with raw milk. The detection rate and the residual quantity of Methamidophos, Dichlorvos, Trichlorfon, Malathion and Fenthion were no significant difference between commercial milk and raw milk (P > 0.05); but the detection rate and the residual quantity of sodium nitrite had significant difference between commercial milk and raw milk (P < 0.01). weighted average of detection rate, weighted average residual quantity and weighted total residual quantity of five pesticides were all large-scale farmers significantly lower than backyard farmers and cooperative breeding farmers (P < 0.05), and the were no significant difference between the later two feeding pattern (P > 0.05).%采用高效气相色谱(GC)分析法对商品奶和原料奶中农药和亚硝酸钠残留进行分析,并分析不同饲养模式对原料奶中农药残留的影响.结果表明:在所测定的5种农药中,甲胺磷、敌敌畏和马拉硫磷等3种农药残留检出率较高,商品奶为45.0%~67.5%,原料奶为46.8%~71.2%.商品奶和原料奶中甲胺磷、敌敌畏、敌百虫、马拉硫磷和倍硫磷检出率和残留量差异不显著(P>0.05);而商品奶和原料奶中亚硝酸钠检出率和残留量差异极显著(P<0.01).原料奶中5种农药加权平均检出率、农药加权平均残留量和加权残留总量均为规模化饲养显著低于农户散养和合作社饲养(P<0.05),后两者之间无显著差异(P>0.05).

  10. Direct Quantitative Detection and Identification of Lactococcal Bacteriophages from Milk and Whey by Real-Time PCR: Application for the Detection of Lactococcal Bacteriophages in Goat's Raw Milk Whey in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong Ly-Chatain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Lactococcus bacteriophages in milk can partly or completely inhibit milk fermentation. To prevent the problems associated with the bacteriophages, the real-time PCR was developed in this study for direct detection from whey and milk of three main groups of Lactococcus bacteriophages, c2, 936, and P335. The optimization of DNA extraction protocol from complex matrices such as whey and milk was optimized allowed the amplification of PCR without any matrix and nontarget contaminant interference. The real-time PCR program was specific and with the detection limit of 102 PFU/mL. The curve slopes were −3.49, −3.69, and −3.45 with the amplification efficiency estimated at 94%, 94%, and 98% and the correlation coefficient (2 of 0.999, 0.999, and 0.998 for c2, 936 and P335 group, respectively. This method was then used to detect the bacteriophages in whey and goat's raw milk coming from three farms located in the Rhône-Alpes region (France.

  11. Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru comercializado informalmente em feiras livres no município de Santa Maria-RS / Quality assessment of raw milk informally commercialized in street markets in the city of Santa Maria-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Liliane Rippel Silveira

    2014-05-01

    presented at odds with the established standards. In relation to the microbiological analyzes, 30% of the samples had count of mesophilic microorganisms greater than 6.0x105 UFC/ml and the presence of thermotolerant coliforms was confirmed in all samples of raw milk, but no samples showed contamination by Salmonella sp. Considering that this product is illegally commercialized, the obtained results show the precariousness of hygiene in the commercialized milk in street markets. The consumption of raw milk without any hygienic-sanitary control type exposes consumer health to risks.

  12. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Traditional Tibetan Qula, A Raw Yak Milk Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bei; Wang, Yanping; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Zongwei; Jiao, Zhen; Huang, Qunce

    2016-10-01

    In this study, 69 lactobacilli isolated from Tibetan Qula, a raw yak milk cheese, were screened for their potential use as probiotics. The isolates were tested in terms of: Their ability to survive at pH 2.0, pH 3.0, and in the presence of 0.3% bile salts; tolerance of simulated gastric and intestinal juices; antimicrobial activity; sensitivity against 11 specific antibiotics; and their cell surface hydrophobicity. The results show that out of the 69 strains, 29 strains (42%) had survival rates above 90% after 2 h of incubation at pH values of 2.0 or 3.0. Of these 29 strains, 21 strains showed a tolerance for 0.3% bile salt. Incubation of these 21 isolates in simulated gastrointestinal fluid for 3 h revealed survival rates above 90%; the survival rate for 20 of these isolates remained above 90% after 4 h of incubation in simulated intestinal fluid. The viable counts of bacteria after incubation in simulated gastric fluid for 3 h and simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h were both significantly different compared with the counts at 0 h (plactobacilli strains exhibited inhibitory activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, and Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971. Moreover, all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Of the 20 strains, three were resistant to all 11 elected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and gentamicin) in this study, and five were sensitive to more than half of the antibiotics. Additionally, the cell surface hydrophobicity of seven of the 20 lactobacilli strains was above 70%, including strains Lactobacillus casei 1,133 (92%), Lactobacillus plantarum 1086-1 (82%), Lactobacillus casei 1089 (81%), Lactobacillus casei 1138 (79%), Lactobacillus buchneri 1059 (78%), Lactobacillus plantarum1141 (75%), and Lactobacillus plantarum 1197 (71%). Together, these

  13. Screening of Probiotic Activities of Lactobacilli Strains Isolated from Traditional Tibetan Qula, A Raw Yak Milk Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 69 lactobacilli isolated from Tibetan Qula, a raw yak milk cheese, were screened for their potential use as probiotics. The isolates were tested in terms of: Their ability to survive at pH 2.0, pH 3.0, and in the presence of 0.3% bile salts; tolerance of simulated gastric and intestinal juices; antimicrobial activity; sensitivity against 11 specific antibiotics; and their cell surface hydrophobicity. The results show that out of the 69 strains, 29 strains (42% had survival rates above 90% after 2 h of incubation at pH values of 2.0 or 3.0. Of these 29 strains, 21 strains showed a tolerance for 0.3% bile salt. Incubation of these 21 isolates in simulated gastrointestinal fluid for 3 h revealed survival rates above 90%; the survival rate for 20 of these isolates remained above 90% after 4 h of incubation in simulated intestinal fluid. The viable counts of bacteria after incubation in simulated gastric fluid for 3 h and simulated intestinal fluid for 4 h were both significantly different compared with the counts at 0 h (p<0.001. Further screening performed on the above 20 isolates indicated that all 20 lactobacilli strains exhibited inhibitory activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, and Salmonella enterica ATCC 43971. Moreover, all of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and streptomycin. Of the 20 strains, three were resistant to all 11 elected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and gentamicin in this study, and five were sensitive to more than half of the antibiotics. Additionally, the cell surface hydrophobicity of seven of the 20 lactobacilli strains was above 70%, including strains Lactobacillus casei 1,133 (92%, Lactobacillus plantarum 1086-1 (82%, Lactobacillus casei 1089 (81%, Lactobacillus casei 1138 (79%, Lactobacillus buchneri 1059 (78

  14. Off-Flavor in Raw Milk and Its Control Measures%原料奶中产生的不良风味及其控制技术措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕芬; 赵军; 高民; 卢德勋

    2012-01-01

    Raw milk flavor has become an important indicator that measures raw milk quality. The off-flavor of raw milk not only affects milk enterprises acquisition, but also affects the sense of mouth and depresses the nutritional value of the milk. The inherent good flavor and off-flavor and their sources in raw milk were analyzed , and control measures of off-flavor were summarized to provide protection for the production of good flavor milk.%原料奶风味已成为衡量原料奶质量的一项重要指标,原料奶中产生的不良风味不仅会影响奶户交奶和奶企收奶,而且还会影响消费者的口感,同时也会降低牛奶的营养价值.本文主要通过对原料奶中的固有良好风味和不良风味及其来源进行分析,并从整体上提出控制原料奶中产生不良风味的技术措施,为生产优质风味奶和奶制品提供技术保障.

  15. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis.

  16. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl(-1), respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl(-1). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. First study on characterization of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes in verotoxigenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized traditional cheeses in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaran, Alexandra; Mihaiu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Colobatiu, Liora; Reget, Oana; Borzan, Mihai Marian; Dan, Sorin Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The study focused on the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) in raw milk and traditional dairy cheeses marketed in Romania, characterizing the virulence and antibiotic resistance genes of these isolates. One hundred and twenty samples of raw milk and 80 samples of unpasteurized telemy cheese were collected and cultured according to the international standard protocol. All the characteristic E. coli cultures were analyzed for the presence of STa, STb, LT, stx1, and stx2 toxicity genes. The ETEC/VTEC strains were tested for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, such as aadA1, tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG, dfrA1, qnrA, aaC, sul1, bla SHV , bla CMY , bla TEM , and ere(A), using PCR. The results showed that 27 samples (18.62%) were positive for one of the virulence genes investigated. 48.1% (n = 13) tested positive at the genes encoding for tetracycline resistance, tetA being the most prevalent one (61.5%; n = 8). A high percent (33.3%; n = 9) revealed the beta-lactamase (bla TEM ) resistance gene, and none of the samples tested positive for bla CMY and bla SHV genes. The genes responsible for resistance to sulfonamides (sul1) and trimethoprim (dfrA1) were detected in rates of 14.8% (n = 4) and 7.4% (n = 2), respectively. E. coli is highly prevalent in raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses marketed in Romania. These strains might represent an important reservoir of resistance genes which can easily spread into other European countries, given the unique market.

  18. Key Factors Analysis of Quality Control in Raw Milk%安达地区奶牛原料乳质量控制关键因素的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉娇; 于长青

    2015-01-01

    The raw milk in Anda area was uesd as an example to study the inlfuence of breeding pattern, feeding type, breeding management, the milking way, storage and transportation on the quality of raw milk, providing the basis for the quality control of raw milk. The raw milk taken from retail, breeding area, standardization ranch was tested respectively, including the milk production, the percentage of fat, protein, dry matter, and the change of the number of bacteria, somatic cell count and so on. The results showed that the highest cow milk production and the optimal quality of raw milk was in standardization ranch. TMR feeding and experiments of sports venues can improve the milk production and the quality of raw milk. Scientiifc of mastitis prevention, rapid cooling mechanical squeeze milk and other methods can effectively reduce the total number of bacteria in raw milk.%本文调查研究了安达地区不同奶牛养殖模式、饲喂方式、运动场地条件、挤奶方式、鲜奶贮存方式和奶牛乳房健康情况等关键因素对原料乳质量的影响,为原料乳的质量控制提供依据.对取自散户、养殖小区、规范化牧场的原料乳分别进行检验,检测产奶量和脂肪、蛋白质、干物质的百分含量以及细菌数、体细胞数等变化.结果表明:规范化牧场的奶牛产奶量最高,原料乳质量最优;以TMR饲喂、三合土建造运动场地的饲养模式,可以提高奶牛产奶量和原料乳质量;科学的乳腺炎预防、机械挤奶、原料乳快速冷却等手段可有效降低原料乳中细菌总数.

  19. Milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalagae, Diphetogo; Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Matope, Gift

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on dairy breeds, milk production, dairy farmers' knowledge and awareness of zoonoses with particular emphasis on milk-borne zoonoses and farmers' behavioural practices that may lead to increased risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission. A total of 119 dairy farmers were interviewed, and 41.5% were aware of milk-borne zoonoses with a significantly (Pzoonoses transmission were; consumption of raw milk (68.1%), sale of raw milk to the local public (25.2%), lack of cooling facilities by smallholder farmers (98%), and no routine testing (84.9%) and medical check-ups (89.1%) for milk-borne zoonoses. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programmes for smallholder dairy farmers can improve disease control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonoses.

  20. Contamination Profile For Staphylococci And Its Enterotoxins And Monitorization Of The Conditions Of Hygiene In A 'coalho' Cheese Production Line [perfil De Contaminação Por Staphylococcus E Suas Enterotoxinas E Monitorização Das Condições De Higiene Em Uma Linha De Produção De Queijo De Coalho

    OpenAIRE

    Borges M.D.F.; Nassu R.T.; Pereira J.L.; De Andrade A.P.C.; Kuaye A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the contamination by staphylococci and its enterotoxins as well as to monitor the conditions of hygiene from a coalho cheese production line, using ATP bioluminescence assay. Staphylococcus sp. population varied from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 1.5 x 107CFU mL-1, in raw milk, whereas coagulase-positive staphylococci count ranged from <1CFU mL-1, in pasteurized milk to 5.0 x 106CFU mL-1 in raw milk. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were detected in ...

  1. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  3. 不同季节不同养殖方式下原料乳成分和微生物变化分析%Analysis of Milk Composition and Microbiological Changes of Raw Milk in Different Seasons and Different Farming Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成强; 刘昆; 张丽萍

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, milk composition and microbiological changes of raw milk were detected in different seasons from backyard farmers and farming communities in Anda area, and the data was statistically analysed using SPSS17.0 software. The results showed that the different seasons and different farming methods had a signiifcant effect on milk composition and microorganisms of raw milk. Speciifcally as follows:raw milk composition in winter was signiifcantly higher than that in other 3 seasons, the total number of bacteria and other microbial indicators of raw milk in summer was signiifcantly higher than that in other 3 seasons, physicochemical indexes of raw milk from farming communities was higher than that of raw milk from backyard farmers, and the total number of bacteria and other microbial indicators and antibiotic residues detection rate were lower than those in raw milk from backyard farmers.%本研究对安达地区散养户和养殖小区不同季节原料乳的乳成分、微生物指标及抗生素残留检出率进行检测,结果表明不同季节和不同养殖方式对原料乳的乳成分、微生物指标及抗生素残留检出率有显著影响。具体表现为:冬季原料乳成分显著高于其他季节,夏季原料乳的细菌总数等微生物指标明显高于其他季节;养殖小区原料乳的理化指标高于散养户,细菌总数等微生物指标和抗生素残留检出率均低于散养户。

  4. Improvement of the tube diffusion test with respect to detection of antibiotic residues and sulphonamides in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Egmond, van H.; Keukens, H.; Stegeman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in detection of tetracycline, sulphonamide, macrolide, rifamycin, trimethoprim and aminoglycoside residues in milk were achieved by addition of either chloramphenicol or trimethoprim, and phenylbutazone to tube diffusion tests utilising Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis as b

  5. Improvement of the tube diffusion test with respect to detection of antibiotic residues and sulphonamides in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Egmond, van H.; Keukens, H.; Stegeman, H.

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in detection of tetracycline, sulphonamide, macrolide, rifamycin, trimethoprim and aminoglycoside residues in milk were achieved by addition of either chloramphenicol or trimethoprim, and phenylbutazone to tube diffusion tests utilising Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis as b

  6. Astaxanthin hyperproduction by Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) with raw coconut milk as sole source of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domíguez-Bocanegra, A R; Torres-Muñoz, J A

    2004-12-01

    Natural carbon sources, such as those present in cane sugar molasses and grape juice, promote the synthesis of astaxanthin in different Phaffia rhodozyma yeasts. One of these, coconut milk, has a very rich nutrient composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the utility of coconut milk as sole source of energy for astaxanthin pigment production by P. rhodozyma strains. Currently, coconut pulp is widely used in industrial processes in Mexico for the production of shampoos, candies, food, etc. However, coconut milk is a waste product. We show that coconut milk enhances astaxanthin production. The fermentation yielded 850 microg/g yeast with the NRRL-10921 wild-type strain and 1850 microg/g yeast with the mutated R1 strain. Production was better than reported results employing other natural carbon sources.

  7. Diversity of thermophilic bacteria in raw, pasteurized and selectively-cultured milk, as assessed by culturing, PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Susana; Rachid, Caio T C C; Fernández, Elena; Rychlik, Tomasz; Alegría, Angel; Peixoto, Raquel S; Mayo, Baltasar

    2013-10-01

    Thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus helveticus, enjoy worldwide economic importance as dairy starters. To assess the diversity of thermophilic bacteria in milk, milk samples were enriched in thermophilic organisms through a stepwise procedure which included pasteurization of milk at 63 °C for 30 min (PM samples) and pasteurization followed by incubation at 42 °C for 24 h (IPM samples). The microbial composition of these samples was analyzed by culture-dependent (at 42 °C) and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons) microbial techniques. The results were then compared to those obtained for their corresponding starting raw milk counterparts (RM samples). Twenty different species were scored by culturing among 352 isolates purified from the counting plates and identified by molecular methods. Mesophilic LAB species (Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae) were dominant (87% of the isolates) among the RM samples. However, S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii were found to be the dominant recoverable organisms in both PM and IPM samples. The DGGE profiles of RM and PM samples were found to be very similar; the most prominent bands belonging to Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus species. In contrast, just three DGGE bands were obtained for IPM samples, two of which were assigned to S. thermophilus. The pyrosequencing results scored 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% sequence divergence in an RM sample, while only 13 were encountered in two IPM samples. This technique identified Leuconostoc citreum as the dominant microorganism in the RM sample, while S. thermophilus constituted more than 98% of the reads in the IPM samples. The procedure followed in this study allowed to estimate the bacterial diversity in milk and afford a suitable strategy for the isolation of new thermophilic LAB strains, among which adequate

  8. 原料奶粉及乳饮料中L-羟脯氨酸的含量测定%Determination of L-hydroxyproline in raw milk powder and milk drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭中; 钟旭美; 胡洪森

    2011-01-01

    The method of P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde spectrophotom etry was used to determine L-hydroxyproline in raw milk powder and milk drink.The result was stable and the recovery rate was high.After hydrolyzed with acid,L-hydroxyproline was released and oxidized by chloramine T.L-hydroxyproline oxide reacted with P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and formed red compounds,the absorbance was detected at 580 nm.The method was simple and accurate.Compared with other detecting methods,the expense of it was smaller.It could provide reference for enterprises to detect whether product was adulterated hydrolyzed protein in raw milk powder and milk drink.%采用对二甲氨基苯甲醛分光光度法测定奶粉及乳饮料中L-羟脯氨酸,具有较好的稳定性。奶粉及乳饮料经浓盐酸水解,得到的L-羟脯氨酸经过氯胺T氧化,与对二甲氨基苯甲醛反应生成红色物质,在558nm下测定吸光值。该方法操作简单、准确率高、检测费用相对少,可用于企业奶粉原料掺水解蛋白及产品中是否掺有水解蛋白的检测提供依据。

  9. Identification of Clostridium beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum isolated from silage, raw milk and hard cheese by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Silvetti, Tiziana; Morandi, Stefano; Brasca, Milena

    2012-08-01

    Late blowing, caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores present in raw milk and originating from silage, can create considerable product loss, especially in the production of hard and semi-hard cheeses. The conventional method for the isolation of Clostridium spp. from cheeses with late-blowing symptoms is very complicated and the identification of isolates is problematic. The aim of this work was the development of a multiplex PCR method for the detection of the main dairy-related clostridia such as: Cl. beijerinckii, Cl. butyricum, Cl. sporogenes, Cl. tyrobutyricum. Samples derived from silage, raw milk and hard cheese were analysed by the most probable number (MPN) enumeration. Forty-four bacterial strains isolated from gas positive tubes were used to check the reliability of the multiplex PCR assay. The specificity of the primers was tested by individually analysing each primer pair and the primer pair combined in the multiplex PCR. It was interesting to note that the samples not identified by the multiplex PCR assay were amplified by V2-V3 16S rRNA primer pair and the sequencing revealed the aligned 16S rRNA sequences to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus spp. This new molecular assay provides a simple promising alternative to traditional microbiological methods for a rapid, sensitive detection of clostridia in dairy products.

  10. Detection of classical genes and enterotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk in the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpysa-Dzirba Weronika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate if the enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus isolated from raw milk are able to produce staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs A - E. A total of 168 of S. aureus isolates from raw milk collected in the south - east region of Poland (Lubelskie Province were tested for SE production by the ELFA, while multiplex PCR was applied for detection of enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see. It was found that 20 (11.9% out of 168 strains were positive for one or more classical SE markers and 19 of them produced a detectable level of enterotoxins. The results obtained by mPCR and ELFA were in agreement, when the presence of A, B, and D toxin types was tested; whereas SEC was not found by the ELFA although the S. aureus was positive for the respective gene. The results of the two methods showed that mPCR identified one more strain potentially producing enterotoxin than the ELFA, which may suggest that the enterotoxigenic S. aureus are not always able to express the toxin protein.

  11. Study of the Antimicrobial and Probiotic Effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum Isolated from Raw Goat's Milk from the Region of Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami anas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution from a spontaneous fermentation to a directed one is realised with selected lactic starters which give many dairy products processing various organoleptic characters. The integration of new lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from diverse ecosystems is now used to increase the duration of bio-preservation of dairy products. Moreover, some lactic acid bacteria probiotic activity is exploited to produce functional food. The aim of this study is the research of the possible probiotic and technological potential with some preventive and therapeutic characteristics of some Lactobacillus species isolated from Algerian’s raw goat’s milk. The selected isolate was identify to species level as Lactobacillus plantarum (P6 using API 50CH Kits. Microbiological and biotechnological techniques are used to fulfill this work. Results obtained have shown that Lactobacillus plantarum (P6 can resist to acidic, basic and enzymatic stresses. So the former strain can be considered as a probiotic. Moreover, the inhibition activity of the Lactobacillus plantarum (P6 against pathogens strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25921, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Listeria ivanovii ATCC 19119 and Salmonella enterica is clearly obtained by testing these strains with the direct method. Finely, raw goat’s milk can be defined as an ecosystem that promotes the development of a microflora with probiotic characters.

  12. Multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with in-store sampling of an aged raw-milk Gouda cheese, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, J T; Williams, N J; Beam, S W; Cosgrove, S; Ettestad, P J; Ghosh, T S; Kimura, A C; Nguyen, L; Stroika, S G; Vogt, R L; Watkins, A K; Weiss, J R; Williams, I T; Cronquist, A B

    2012-10-01

    In 2010, 41 patients ill with Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates determined to be indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were identified among residents of five Southwestern U.S. states. A majority of patients reported consuming complimentary samples of aged raw-milk Gouda cheese at national warehouse chain store locations; sampling Gouda cheese was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio, 9.0; 95 % confidence interval, 1.7 to 47). Several Gouda samples yielded the O157:H7 outbreak strain, confirming the food vehicle and source of infections. Implicated retail food-sampling operations were inconsistently regulated among affected states, and sanitation deficiencies were common among sampling venues. Inspection of the cheese manufacturer indicated deficient sanitation practices and insufficient cheese curing times. Policymakers should continue to reexamine the adequacy and enforcement of existing rules intended to ensure the safety of raw-milk cheeses and retail food sampling. Additional research is necessary to clarify the food safety hazards posed to patrons who consume free food samples while shopping.

  13. Characterization and Selection of Lactobacilli with Probiotic Properties from Cow’s Raw Milk of “Bororo” Cattle Breeders in Dschang (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambou Ngoufack François

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at isolating potential probiotic lactobacilli strains from cow’s raw milk collected near the small cattle breeders in Dschang (Cameroon and applying established in vitro tests to screen those strains that could be used as novel probiotic strains in the food industry. Thirty four lactobacilli isolates obtained from raw cow’s milk were characterized and selected according to their preliminary probiotic properties including tolerance to acid and bile salts, ability to assimilate cholesterol, sensitivity to antibiotics and antimicrobial activities. Among the several requirements, the acid tolerance as well as the bile salt tolerance was strain dependent. Nine isolates exhibited the highest surviving percentage at pH 3 and 2. Six acid tolerant isolates presented an excellent tolerance at 0.2 and 0.4 % bile salts. The acid tolerant and bile tolerant isolates were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. Six acid and bile tolerant isolates (6M, 11M, 12M, 21M, 48M exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli. These isolates reduced between 20.35 and 45.21 mg of cholesterol per g (dry weight of cells in vitro. They were identified using API 50CH kits and repetitive genomic element-PCR (Rep-PCR fingerprinting as Lactobacillus plantarum. According to the obtained results, these Lactobacillus plantarum strains (6M 11M, 12M, 21M and 48M were found to be the most promising strains with preliminary probiotic properties.

  14. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological comparative analysis of raw milk samples and buffalo mozzarella produced and marketed in Caserta in the Campania region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To help identify an epidemiological link between the consumption of buffalo mozzarella prepared with raw milk (not heat-treated and cases of human brucellosis, 80 samples of raw buffalo milk and 315 samples of mozzarella were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. Samples originated from Caserta, the province with the highest number of Brucella-positive buffalo herds in Campania, the region in which 96.02% of all cases of human brucellosis reported in 2000-2005 were recorded. To take into account possible seasonal variations, between February 2006 and March 2007, samples were purchased directly from 72 dairy outlets that were representative of the province. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and bacterial isolation. Samples tested negative for Brucella using both methods. Spiked samples were then prepared and tested by PCR and bacterial isolation and the sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection were determined. The PCR limit of detection was below 1 colony-forming unit (cfu/g. The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were 100% (p = 0.95, the sensitivity was 96.7% (p = 0.95 and the specificity was 100% (p = 0.95.

  15. 生鲜牛乳中硫氰酸钠的风险评估研究%Risk Assessment of Sodium Thiocyanate in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许振伟; 郑小平; 韩奕奕; 孟瑾

    2013-01-01

    采用离子色谱法对上海地区的500批次生鲜牛乳中硫氰酸钠含量进行检测。结果表明:生鲜牛乳中硫氰酸钠含量总体情况符合Pearson5分布(皮尔逊V型分布),90%的数据分布在0.2~3.71 mg/kg之间,最小、最大、平均含量分别为0.2、9.66和1.5 mg/kg。基于乳制品中硫氰酸钠的每日摄入量和点评估方法得到硫氰酸钠的膳食暴露量为2.0μg/kg标准人每日,结合相关的硫氰酸钠的风险评估研究,表明本研究中上海地区生鲜牛乳中的硫氰酸钠的含量属于正常的生理浓度,对人体正常膳食无健康影响。%Sodium thiocyanate in raw milk for 500 batch samples in Shanghai was tested and analyzed by ion chromatographic method .The results show that sodium thiocyanate in raw milk was accord with Pearson 5 distribution in general.The percentage of 90 was during 0.2 to 3.71mg/kg.The minimum, maximum and av-erage value was 9.66, 0.2 and 1.50mg/kg.Based on sodium thiocyanate in milk product intake and point e-valuation method , sodium thiocyanate dietary exposure was 2μg/kg one day for one person .According to other risk assessment associated with sodium thiocyanate , the concentration of sodium thiocyanate in raw milk in Shanghai area by the study was of normal physiological concentration .It was no health effects on the human body by normal diet .

  16. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  17. The research on lactose content in the raw milk by colorimetry%比色法测定原料乳中乳糖含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珍菊; 林芳栋

    2012-01-01

    The lactose content in the raw milk by colorimetry was introduced in the paper. On the existing basis, the contrast color method of reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of precipitation agent, precision, repeatability and so on were reachered. The precision of the Lane-Eynon was 0.551%, the repeatability was 1.809%, the average recovery was 100.434%, the result of the milk blind samples was consistent with the actual, so it is feasible to determine the content of lactose in the raw milk.%将比色法引入原料乳中乳糖含量的测定,在现有基础上考察了比色法在原料乳中测得乳糖含量的反应温度、反应时间、沉淀剂使用量、精密度、重复性等。由实验结果可知,比色法的线性回归方程为y=4.3705x-0.0038,相关系数R2=0.9992,曲线的相关性很好;精密度为0.551%,重复性为1.809%,加标回收率为100.434%,乳糖盲样测定结果也与实际相符,用该方法进行原料乳中乳糖的测定是切实可行的。

  18. Survey on antimicrobial residues in raw milk and antimicrobial use in dairy farms in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serraino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the antimicrobials most commonly used in dairy herds and antimicrobial residues most frequently detected in milk to evaluate the suitability of rapid screening tests to determine antimicrobial residues in milk. The investigation was carried out in 45 dairy herds consulting the farm administration records and in a national dairy industry collecting milk from almost all the dairy farms studied. Data were recorded on: i treatments with drugs containing antimicrobials during the 12 months prior to the visit; ii antimicrobial active substances present in the drugs; iii data from routine controls to detect antimicrobial residues (52,771 samples. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used were penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulphonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and lyncosamides; the most frequently used antimicrobial not belonging to any of the previous groups was riphaximin. Sixty-four samples collected from milk trucks yielded antimicrobial residues exceeding the detection limit of the screening test used: sulphonamide residues were the most prevalent (3.4%, followed by tetracycline (0.3% and penicillins and cephalosporins (0.03%. The antimicrobial classes most commonly used on dairy farms are the same as the residues most frequently detected in milk. The association of several commercially available rapid test kits proved satisfactory for determination of the veterinary antimicrobial drugs most used on dairy farms but at least five kits are required. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequently used veterinary drugs and periodic monitoring are required for the dairy industry to develop a targeted and effective control plan.

  19. Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Raw Cow's Milk from Selected Milk Production Sites in Iran: Is There any Health Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Arianejad

    2015-10-01

    high contents Ni was detected in industrial farms (P<0.05. Conclusion: High Sn and Ni contents of some milk samples from this region might be potentially hazardous to consumers. Further, none of the other metals tested crossed permissible levels.

  20. Study on the prevention measures of microbes of raw milk in reception system%原料奶生产环节微生物污染分析及防控措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马园; 葛武鹏; 马海峰; 刘志宏; 秦立虎

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 The study intended to probe into the prevention measures of microbes of raw milk in reception system.【Method】 The experiment was to investigate the change of total bacterial counts in raw milk,then research the way of cleaning and disinfection,the volume of raw milk which should be discarded,the reasonable temperatures of the cooling tank and the specific transport requirement,in order to find effective measures to reduce microbes in raw milk.【Result】 Sanitary conditions of equipment between different milk stations result in significant variations of microbes in raw milk.Sanitary condition of udder and equipment,the condition of storage and transportation between different links in the same milk station result in significant variations of microbes in raw milk.By cleaning cow’s udder by warm water and disinfecting it with 0.1% KMnO4,then drying the udder before milking,the total bacterial counts in raw milk reduced to 2.56×103 cfu/mL from 2.65×104 cfu/mL.Total bacterial counts in raw milk reduced to 1.00×103 cfu/mL and was far less diverse when discarding the first 40 mL raw milk.Total bacterial counts grew slowly when the temperature of raw milk fell to 0-4 ℃ as soon as possible.In 1 054 microbe examination records of 4 927 reception records,the higher the temperature of raw milk and the longer the haul distance,the more microbes in raw milk.【Conclusion】 Improve the sanitary condition of equipment,clean cow’s udder by warm water and disinfect it,then dry the udder before milking,discard more than 40 mL raw milk,lower the temperature of raw milk to 0-4 ℃ as soon as possible,shorten the transportation distance of raw milk,keep the temperature of milk container in a narrow range in the transport process,and microbes in the raw milk can be reduced effectively.%【目的】研究原料奶生产环节微生物菌落总数的变化规律,确定防控微生物污染的有效措施。【方法】通过测定原料奶生产各环节微

  1. MilkoscanFT120对原料乳中掺入尿素快速预判的研究%Study on Quick Predicting Methods of Adulteration in Raw Milk by Milkoscan FT 120

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪剑; 马占峰

    2011-01-01

    利用MilkoscanFr120红外光谱仪,采用主成分分析(PCA)回归方法,以本地区具有代表性原料乳样品为基础建立标准数据模型,在原料乳中加入尿素模拟牛奶掺假。通过总结原料乳成分数据的变化规律及调整控制因素以达到预判原料乳掺假和确定掺假物质的检出限的目的。结果表明该方法具有快速、准确的特点。%A standard data model was established on the basis of representative sample from raw milk in Harbin city, using principal component analysis(PCA) by IR of Milkoscan FT120. It can simulate milk adulteration by adding urea in raw milk. In order to predict the aduheration in raw milk and determine the detection limit of aduherated substances, researchers summed up the changes of data of raw milk composition. Results showed that this method was quick and accurate.

  2. 原料乳生产过程中微生物污染的来源追溯研究%Study on the microbial contaminants source traceability of raw milk processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇忆; 张彧; 陈历俊; 姜铁民

    2013-01-01

    为研究原料乳微生物污染的来源,2011-2012年间,研究者对北京市原料乳产地的牛乳、牛体涂抹、挤乳设备涂抹等及生活用水、卧床土壤、饲料等进行了大量采样分析和调查,并针对采集样品中分离出的目的菌株进行了生化鉴定及分析.研究结果表明,该地区原料乳中的特征病原菌为金黄色葡萄球菌,对后期加工乳品质影响较大的微生物种类为嗜冷菌和芽孢杆菌属.在此基础上,研究者对原料乳和其他来源样品中的这三种菌利用16S rRNA分子生物学技术建立了目的菌株来源系统发育树,以此来进行基因序列比对分析,确定了原料乳中这三种菌的主要来源,为有效减少和控制该地区原料乳污染提供了参考.%To study the microbial contaminants source of raw milk,researchers analyzed and investigated the raw milk,surface of cow body,milking equipments,water resource,soil environment,feed etc.,which were collected from raw milk producing area in Beijing from 2011 to 2012.And the target bacteria from raw milk samples were determined.The results showed that Staphylococcus aureus was the main pathogenic bacteria of the raw milk producing area and Psychrophilic bacteria,Bacillus were closely to the quality of milk products.Researchers also analyzed gene of these three bacteria from the raw milk samples and other source samples by using 16S rRNA of molecular methods for building phylogenetic tree,moreover,ascertain the marn source of these bacteria in raw milk.Furthermore,the researchers established the methods to usefully reduce and control this pollution.

  3. 我国原奶及乳制品质量安全管理研究%Study on the Quality Safety Management of Raw Milk and Dairy Products in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了我国原奶及乳制品生产情况,分析了我国原奶及乳制品安全质量以及管理现状,并探讨了当今安全质量问题的相关政策。%This paper describes the current situation of China's raw milk and dairy products, analysis of the safety and quality of raw milk and dairy products, and the management of the status quo, and to explore the current security issues related to the quality of the policy.

  4. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.

  5. The rapid determination of fat and protein content in fresh raw milk using the laser light scattering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi; Zhi Ling, Hou; Jian Long, Tian; Zhu, Yu

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to develop a simple and rapid method for determination of fat and protein content in milk. Based on the laser light scattering theory, the ratio of the scattered light (at 90±0.05° scattering angles) intensity to the transmitted light intensity, which is called scattered-transmitted-ratio method, is adopted as the optical parameter representing the milk fat content and the protein content. In this way, the influence of the fluctuation of the power of the light source is eliminated and the accuracy of determination is improved accordingly. The system we use is real-time and can satisfy the challenging requirements of dairy farming. Results of this study indicate the feasibility of using this technology for fresh milk fat and protein analysis. The fat contents and protein contents of 50 milk samples determined by this method were consistent with the values obtained by the reference methods based on Rose-Gottlieb method and Kjeldahl determination of N method. In this paper, the operating principle of the instrument is introduced and the influence of the environmental conditions, such as the homogenization pressure and homogenization temperature, etc. on the result of the test is analyzed. Through data analysis, the concrete schemes for testing the fat using the curve fitting and testing the protein using the surface fitting technique are determined. Finally, the difference from the reference values of the test is discussed.

  6. [HYGIENIC SUBSTANTIATION OF THE PREVENTION OF NUTRITION ASSOCIATED ANEMIA WITH THE AID OF FORTIFIED FERMENTED MILK BIOPRODUCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Boyarskaya, L A; Bogdashin, I V

    2015-01-01

    The pilot controlled study proved the effectiveness of enriched fermented milk product "Prolacta" as means of the primary prevention of nutrition-associated anemia, firstly, at the stage of latent iron deficiency. The study included 166 adult residents of the city of Omsk. Among examined patiens there were 48 (30%) men and 118 (70%) women aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age: 29.2 ± 0.84 years). Experimental group (79 persons) over two months took 1 glass (200 ml) of bioproduct "Prolacta" daily. The control group (87 people) no received this product neither used supplements or other vitamins and minerals. The groups were matched by gender and age. As criteria for the deviation from the normal settings there were accepted following values: the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb)--less than 130 g/l in men and less than 120 g/l in women; serum iron level--less than 12.5 µmol/L, serum ferritin in men less than 95 µg/l, in women--less than 30 µg/l. The proportion of persons from the main study group with latent iron deficiency decreased from 41.8% to 25.3% (p < 0.05), the proportion of subjects with normal iron supply increased significantly (from 26.6 to 41.8%; p < 0.05). Regular consumption of fermented milk enriched with bio "Prolacta" as a means of preventing the deficiency of micronutrients and nutrition-related anemia in large extent is recommended to persons from groups at-risk (athletes, children and adolescents, and women of reproductive age). Preventive effects of this product are combined with the nutritional benefits of dairy products, its use improves the structure of nutrition of the population

  7. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  8. ATP-bioluminescence assay as an alternative for hygiene-monitoring procedures of stainless steel milk contact surfaces Técnica do ATP-bioliminescência como uma alternativa para o monitoramento do procedimento de higienização de superfícies de aço inoxidável na indústria de laticínios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Dolabela Costa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ATP-bioluminescence assay was used to evaluate the cleaning and sanitizing procedures of stainless steel milk contact surfaces. Surfaces of a raw milk transportation tank, a raw milk cooling storage tank, an equalization pasteurizing tank, a pasteurized milk storage tank and a pasteurized milk packaging tank, as well as a milk centrifuge were evaluated. The Relative Light Unit (RLU using a commercial luminometer and mesophilic aerobic counts (CFU.cm-2 on surfaces were determined. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in RLU on the assessed surfaces before and after the cleaning and sanitizing procedures. Also, there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in CFU.cm-2 on the surfaces before the cleaning and sanitizing procedures, whereas different bacterial numbers were found on surfaces after the hygiene procedures. The surfaces of the milk centrifuge, raw milk cooling tank and milk packaging tank showed the largest mesophilic aerobic numbers after the hygiene, reaching 2.21, 2.18, and 1.21 log10, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is no agreement among the techniques for classification of hygienic conditions of the evaluated surfaces, showing a non-direct relation between RLU and CFU.cm-2. The ATP-bioluminescence method showed that 100% of the surfaces were under inadequate hygiene conditions, while the plate count method detected only 50%, based on the APHA's recommendation, and 33%, based on the WHO's recommendation. High variations in RLU measurements were observed, suggesting the need for more than only one surface analysis. The ATP-bioluminescence is not a direct replacement for microbiological testing, but provides complementary information and should be used as part of an integrated strategy.A técnica do ATP-bioluminescência avaliou os procedimentos de higienização de superfícies em aço inoxidável dos tanques de transporte de leite cru, de estocagem de leite cru resfriado, de equilíbrio de um pasteurizador

  9. Qualidade do leite cru ovino armazenado sob refrigeração | Quality of ovine raw milk stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Roman Munieweg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização de lácteos ovinos é recente no Brasil e a produção é concentrada em regiões de serra, como a Gaúcha. O leite ovino possui alto conteúdo de sólidos comparado ao bovino, com maior rendimento na produção de queijo. A produção deste leite sofre variações sazonais e poderia ser estocado até obter uma quantidade suficiente para processamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros microbiológicos e físico-químicos no leite proveniente de seis produtores sob armazenamento refrigerado. O leite foi analisado durante sete dias, incluindo contagem padrão em placas (CPP, psicrotróficos, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, Staphylococcus sp. e Staphylococcus aureus, acidez titulável, pH, atividade de água e proteína. Os resultados demonstraram altas contagens microbianas e CPP acima dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação para a maioria das amostras. Contagens de psicrotróficos, coliformes totais e fecais foram elevadas durante este período. A acidez titulável aumentou ao longo dos dias e o conteúdo de proteína diminuiu. As amostras do produtor B apresentaram menores contagens microbianas dentre todas testadas. A estocagem a frio torna-se uma alternativa, a curto prazo, quando há diminuição na produção de leite ovino para beneficiamento a derivados. No entanto, o período de armazenamento refrigerado não deve ultrapassar dois dias, devido à deterioração. ==================================================== The dairy sheep industry is recent in Brazil and the production is concentrated in mountainous regions, such as Serra Gaúcha. Ovine milk has a higher solids content compared to bovine milk, thus with higher yield in cheese production. Sheep milk production undergoes seasonal variations and it could be stored until a sufficient quantity is available for processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate microbiological and physicochemical parameters in ovine milk from six

  10. Characterization of bacterial populations in Danish raw milk cheeses made with different starter cultures by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masoud, Wafa Mahmoud Hasan; Takamiya, Monica K Wik; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial populations in Danish raw milk cheeses were identified using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplicons of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene and pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Both DNA and RNA extracted from...... cheeses were studied in order to determine the metabolically active bacteria. The main bacteria, which included Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, were detected by pyrosequencing and DGGE in both 16S rDNA and cDNA obtained from cheeses indicating their viability and contribution to cheese...... ripening. Other bacteria like Corynebacterium, Halomonas, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Staphylococcus, which were encountered in some cheese samples at low percentages compared with the total bacterial populations, were only detected by pyrosequencing. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing is an efficient method...

  11. Changes in conjugated linoleic acid and C18:1 isomers profile during the ripening of Pecorino Toscano cheese produced with raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of the fatty acid profile, with particular attention to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and to C18:1 isomers, during ripening of sheep cheese (Pecorino Toscano cheese produced with raw milk. After 60 days of ripening the total concentration of C18:1 isomers and that of CLA pool content decreased. In particular, if isomers profile is considered, the percentage of trans11 C18:1, trans10 C18:1 and cis9, trans11 CLA decreased as consequence of biohydrogenation or of double bonds isomerisation, while the concentration of trans10, cis12 CLA increased.

  12. Impact of thistle rennet from Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia on bacterial diversity and dynamics of a specialty Italian raw ewes' milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Federica; Osimani, Andrea; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Garofalo, Cristiana; Clementi, Francesca; Polverigiani, Serena; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Mozzon, Massimo; Foligni, Roberta; Franciosi, Elena; Tuohy, Kieran; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2017-08-16

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is an Italian specialty soft cheese manufactured with Sopravissana raw ewes' milk and thistle rennet prepared with young fresh leaves and stems of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia, according to an ancient tradition deeply rooted in the territory of origin (mountainous hinterland of the Marche region, Central Italy). In this study, the impact of thistle rennet on the bacterial dynamics and diversity of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese was investigated by applying a polyphasic approach based on culture and DNA-based techniques (Illumina sequencing and PCR-DGGE). A control cheese manufactured with the same batch of ewes' raw milk and commercial animal rennet was analyzed in parallel. Overall, a large number of bacterial taxa were identified, including spoilage, environmental and pro-technological bacteria, primarily ascribed to Lactobacillales. Thistle rennet was observed clearly to affect the early bacterial dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese with Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum/pentosus being detected in the phyllosphere of C. acanthifolia All., thistle rennet and curd obtained with thistle rennet. Other bacterial taxa, hypothetically originating from the vegetable coagulant (Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides/pseudomesenteroides), were exclusively found in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese by PCR-DGGE. At the end of the maturation period, Illumina sequencing demonstrated that both cheeses were dominated by Lactobacillales; however curd and cheese produced with thistle rennet were co-dominated by Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc, whereas Lactoccous prevailed in curd and cheese produced with commercial animal rennet followed by Lactobacillus. Differences in the bacterial composition between the two cheeses at the end of their maturation period were confirmed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  13. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese.

  14. Evaluation of the spiral plating method for the enumeration of microorganisms throughout the manufacturing and ripening of a raw goat's milk cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Carballo, Javier; Capita, Rosa; Bernardo, Ana; García-López, María Luisa

    2002-02-01

    A statistical comparison of the spiral plate count (SPLPC) and the standard plate count (SPC) methods for enumeration of microorganisms in raw goat's milk cheese throughout its manufacturing and ripening was carried out. Enumeration of mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria (presumptive lactococci, presumptive leuconostocs, and presumptive lactobacilli), Micrococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and molds and yeasts was carried out for milk, curd, and 2-, 5-, 10-, 17-, and 27-day-old cheeses. Average counts for the SPLPC and SPC methods differed by less than half of a log cycle for all microbial groups studied (range of difference, -0.1386 [mesophiles] to +0.4397 [presumptive lactobacilli]). The results of the SPLPC method compared favorably with the results of the SPC procedure for mesophiles, presumptive lactococci, presumptive leuconostocs, Enterobacteriaceae, and molds and yeasts (the variance between replicate platings was close to 0.005, and correlation coefficients were >0.9). Correlation coefficients were lower for Micrococcaceae (r = 0.824) and presumptive lactobacilli (r = 0.670). Analysis of variance showed that the plating method was a significant factor (P microorganisms in goat cheese throughout its manufacturingand ripening processes. However, the suitability of the SPLPC method depends mainly on the microbial group studied.

  15. 牛奶中黄曲霉毒素的残留与控制措施%Residue of Aflatoxin in Raw Milk and Its Contorl Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪少丽; Damian Moore; 金立志

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin which is widely occured in feed material has a strong toxicity and negative effect on the production and health of dairy cows. Feed aflatoxin B is metabolised into aflatoxin M1 in the raw milk which threatens human health. The objective of the paper is to review the production, distribution and residue of aflatoxin in feed material and milk and its preventive & control measures including the use of several mycotoxin binders.%黄曲霉毒素是一种毒性很强的霉菌毒素,广泛存在于奶牛饲料原料中,严重影响奶牛生产性能的发挥和体质健康,并通过代谢形成黄曲霉毒素M,残留于牛奶中直接危害人体健康。本文论述了黄曲霉毒素的产生、分布与残留情况,同时针对黄曲霉毒素的危害提出了预防控制措施,特别是对几种霉菌毒素脱毒剂的脱毒效果与脱毒机制进行了综述。

  16. 不同季节、地域及养殖方式对原料乳成分的影响研究%Effect of Different Seasons, District and Feeding Ways on the Composition of Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺月恩; 邹郁宁; 郭慧媛

    2014-01-01

    The quality of dairy products is closely related to the quality of raw milk. The content of the composition such as protein, fat, lactose is important in determining the quality of raw milk. Studies have shown that these indicators will be affected by feeding way and seasonal climate factors. In this study, the effect of different seasons, district and feeding ways on the composition of raw milk was analyzed. The database of dairy quality for different district was established, it had signiifcance to the control of raw milk quality.%原料乳的质量是乳制品质量与安全的关键因素。我国奶牛养殖分布于不同的区域,不同饲养方式下的原料乳质量差异较大。本研究对不同养殖方式、不同季节和不同区域的原料乳成份进行了系统分析,建立了不同基地牛乳质量数据库,对控制原料乳质量具有重要意义。

  17. A rapid method for the detection of foodborne pathogens by extraction of a trace amount of DNA from raw milk based on label-free amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method based on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to rapidly and sensitively detect foodborne pathogens in raw milk. After optimizing parameters such as pH, temperature, and time, a trace amount of genomic DNA of pathogen...

  18. 关于科学构建中国原料奶定价机制的探讨%Policy Suggestions to Build China' s Raw Milk Pricing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东杰

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at China's raw milk prices' fluctuate condition, this study would pay attention to discuss the pricing mechanism of raw milk in United States, Japan, The European Union. At the same time, there would be different measures in Shanghai and Heilongjiang. According to China's raw milk of the specific conditions of the market, and there put forward some suggestions, the government should led raw milk pricing mechanism and made production plan established the pricing system for quality, did the work of cost investigation, monitoring and warning, supervision and inspection, etc.%针对中国原料奶价格不断波动的情况,本研究集中探讨了美国、日本、欧盟以及国内的上海和黑龙江在原料奶定价机制方面的做法和经验.认为:中国原料奶定价机制的构建应该以政府主导制定生产计划,建立按质定价体系,做好成本调查、监测预警和监督检查等工作.

  19. Alimentary habits of raw milk consumer from Campo Mourão – PR/ Hábitos alimentares do consumidor de leite cru de Campo Mourão – PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M.S. Bezerra

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, raw milk is largely consumed, especially within rural communities. A large parcel of total Brazilian milk production is commercialized without any thermal treatment or processing, contradicting the Federal Legislation and offering risks to consumers health. This paper looks for tracing the profile of raw milk consumers from urban zone of Campo Mourão city, western Paraná State, Brazil, and objectives to give information for official organs act in control of raw milk commercialization and development of awareness programs for population. A research was effectuated in 423 houses from urban zone based in a questionnaire with questions about milk consumption, raw milk consumption and its origin. The data was compiled and analyzed by Epi Info v 1.1 software (CDC. 33.57% of population consumed raw milk, and this was linked to the idea that it is healthier. A great part of population did not know the risks of raw milk consumption. The delivery is effectuated at the consumer house (89.60%, usually between 9:00 and 10:00 AM (52.00% was plastic bottles (54.00%. The majority of population did not know that the raw milk commercialization is forbidden. The results show the necessity of effective measures to control raw milk commercialization and stress the need of population awareness programs concerning the raw milk consumption risks.No Brasil o consumo de leite cru é bastante alto, especialmente em comunidades rurais. Grande parte da produção de leite no Brasil é comercializada sem nenhum tratamento térmico ou processamento, contradizendo a Legislação Federal, além de oferecer riscos à saúde do consumidor. Este trabalho busca traçar um perfil do consumidor de leite cru na cidade de Campo Mourão, região oeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de fornecer informações para órgãos oficiais atuarem no controle desse mercado informal e em programas de conscientização da população. Dessa forma, foi realizado um levantamento em

  20. Characteristic and Quality and Food Safety of Regional Cheese Produced from Mixed Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vyletělová-Klimešová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There were cheeses produced from raw cow’s milk and from mixed milk compared. Mixed milk contained small ruminants’ milk (goat’s and ewe’s milk and cow’s milk in different proportions. There were technological, physical and health parameters, mineral composition, microbiological indicators and sensory quality evaluated. Cow’s milk, compared to mixed milk, contained markedly lower amounts of fat, protein, casein, total solids, solids non fat, urea and acetone and higher values of lactose, citric acid and free fatty acids and showed significantly lower values of somatic cell count. Mixed milk showed lower (better results for freezing point depression, markedly higher titration acidity and higher values ​​for Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, Mn and Zn. The results of microbiological analyses confirmed good hygienic quality in terms of total count of mesophlic, psychrotrophic and thermoresistant bacteria and coliforms. Negative incidence of L. monocytogenes and mostly negative incidence of S. aureus are important results and confirmed high quality of raw material for cheese production. None of S. aureus strains were confirmed as MRSA. The results of sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between cheeses originated from cow’s milk and cheeses from mixed milk.

  1. Quickly Test Method to Detect β-lactamase in Raw and Fresh Milk%生鲜牛乳中β-内酰胺酶快速检测报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建国; 兰芳; 买热木尼沙·吾甫尔; 买合木提·克衣木; 帕提古丽·托乎提; 李广东

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为快速、准确检测出生鲜牛乳中β-内酰胺酶,保证牛奶卫生安全。[方法]采用Snap法(酶联免疫法)检测生鲜牛乳中β-内酰胺酶,对新疆巴州辖区内17个奶站进行抽样检测。[结果]17份样品结果全部为阴性。[结论]对巴州辖区内17个奶站的生鲜牛乳进行了抽样检测β-内酰胺酶项目,17份样品结果全部为阴性,合格数17份,合格率为100%。%[Objective]Using rapid, accurate methods to detect β-lactamase in fresh milk so as to ensure milk healthy and safety. [Methods]Snap assay (ELISA) was taken as rapid detection method for β-lacta- mases in fresh milk. [Results]We took 17 milk samples from 17 milk stations in Bazhou area, Xinjiang to test β-lactamase in raw milk. All the samples were negative. Analysis of influencing factors has been made for using Snap assay for rapid detection of β-lactamase in fresh milk. [Conclusion]The 17 raw milk samples were all negative, and the qualification rate reached 100%, which showed that β-lactamase had not been detected in the 17 fresh milk station in Bazhou area.

  2. Application in Low-temperature Storage of Raw Milk of Predictive Microbiology%预测微生物学在低温储存原料乳中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金海; 段楠; 常存; 姚鸿宾; 王东凯; 王雷

    2015-01-01

    With the extensive application of refrigeration equipments , psychrophile and its metabolites , which are themoduric, will be a major factor to affect the quality of raw milk and dairy products. The study points to fresh raw milk as the object and sets up the corresponding Microbial primary growth model by researching total bacteria and psychrophilic of the raw milk at different temperature in spring.Setting up by Gompertz , the growth kinetic model of total colony and psychrophilic in raw milk , which has been stored at between 4℃and 14℃,it can effectively simulate and predict microorganism growth.The study shows that there is a dependability between total colony and psychrophilic in raw milk at low temperature.%随着冷藏设备的广泛应用,嗜冷菌及其耐热代谢产物成为影响原料乳质量和乳制品质量的主要因素.以奶站的新鲜原料乳为研究对象,研究春季原料乳中总菌落和嗜冷菌在不同储存温度下的生长情况.使用Gompertz模型建立4℃~14℃储存的原料乳中总菌落和嗜冷菌的生长动力模型,模型可以有效的模拟原料乳中微生物的生长情况.低温储存的原料乳中总菌数与嗜冷菌有一定的相关性.

  3. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geser Nadine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7% produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6% produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5% belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2% contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.

  4. 基于Bayes分类的原料乳中植物奶油掺假监测研究%Determination on Bayes classification used in plant cream adulterated in raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋珍菊; 王雁; 王玺

    2012-01-01

    对原料乳中氢化植物油和植脂末掺假进行监测。通过GC测定正常原料乳甲酯化脂肪酸,建立正常原料乳甲酯化脂肪酸数据库,用Bayes分类模型建立原料乳和氢化植物油和植脂末掺假奶的判别模型,模型所需估计的参数少、算法简单、对缺失数据不太敏感,可在SAS软件的DISCRIM过程中进行快速自动识别。建立了Bayes分类模型用于原料乳中氢化植物油和植脂末掺假奶掺假监测,得出概率判别公式为通过验证,该公式对氢化植物油和植脂末判别最低检出限分别为0.8%和0.1%。基于Bayes分类的原料乳中植物奶油掺假监测简单可行,成本低,速度快。%The aim was to study on the monitoring in plant cream adulterated into raw milk. The content of methyl fatty acid in normal raw milk determined by GC, and normal raw milk of methyl fatty acid database was established. On the bases of database the Bayes classification model was built for distinguish the raw milk, hydrogenated plant cream and the fat grain adulterated into milk. The model has the advantage of less parameters, simple algorithm and insensitive missing data. So the distinguished result could be fast and automatic in the process of SAS software. Bayes classification model was established for the quality monitoring of raw milk, the probability that a discrimination formula is R(α k│ X)= min ^R( αk│ X) i=1,...,c. The limit of hydrogenated plant cream and the fat grain was distinguished is 0.8% and 0.1%, respectively. Bayes classification used in the monitoring of plant oil adulterated into raw milk is simple and feasible, low cost and fast.

  5. Quality of raw milk produced in agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil / Qualidade do leite cru produzido na região do agreste de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The poor quality of raw milk is the main problem in dairy industries, once it can directly interfere in the productivity and quality of dairy products. The Pernambuco is not different. located between the Zona da Mata and the Sertão regions, is responsible for a daily milk production of 980,000 liters, and presented an increase of 23% in the last two years. This study aimed the evaluation of the microbiological and physical-chemical quality of raw milk produced in the Agreste region of Pernambuco. Raw milk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms located at the following cities: Saloá, Águas Belas, São Bento do Una and Bom Conselho. For microbiological analysis, all samples were plated for mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and DNase positive staphylococci in specific Petrifilm™ (3M Microbiology, St. Paul, USA. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were detected using VIDAS system (bioMérieux SA, Marcy l'Etoile, France. Organophosphorade and carbamates were detected by thin layer chromatography. Fat, protein, and lactose contents, total and non-fat solids, and density were obtained by ultrasound method using am automatic milk analyzer (Boecolac-60, Boeco, Hamburg, Germany. In addition, the raw milk samples were evaluated to cryoscopic, California Mastitis Test (CMT, peroxidase, Dornic acidity and Ring-test to brucellosis status of herds. In microbiological analysis, all samples presented high counts of the researched indicators microorganisms. The average of mesophilic aerobes was 1.68 X 107 with 83% of samples over 106. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp were not found, 47% of the samples were positive for organophosphates and/or carbamates, 67.9% of the samples were positive for CMT and 26.4% for ring test. Thus, only 2 (3.77% samples were accordance with the established parameters of Instrução Normativa 51.,P.A qualidade do leite é um dos maiores problemas da cadeia do leite no Brasil, interferindo

  6. Diagnóstico das condições higiênico-sanitárias e microbiológicas de lactários hospitalares Diagnosis of hygienic-sanitary and microbiological conditions of hospital human milk-banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kuerten de Salles

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Partindo-se da premissa de que os alimentos podem ser veículos de transmissão de microrganismos e metabólitos microbianos, e sendo a alimentação láctea a base alimentar e terapêutica para crianças hospitalizadas, foi avaliada a influência das condições higiênico-sanitárias dos lactários hospitalares quanto à qualidade microbiológica dos alimentos por eles fornecidos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram realizadas inspeções sanitárias e análises microbiológicas das preparações lácteas, matérias-primas utilizadas nas formulações, utensílios, condições do ambiente e manipuladores de dois lactários do Município de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Os lactários hospitalares apresentaram boas condições higiênico-sanitárias, classificação esta obtida a partir dos resultados coletados das fichas de Inspeção Sanitária. As preparações lácteas apresentaram contaminação em 45,9% das amostras para contagem de coliformes totais. Os utensílios também apresentaram um elevado índice de contaminação, especialmente os bicos e jarras plásticas, com percentuais respectivamente de 75% e 58,3% para coliformes totais. Foi constatada a presença de E. coli e S. aureus nas mãos e S. aureus na região orofaríngea dos manipuladores dos lactários.INTRODUCTION: Based on the assumption that foodstulfs can be the vehicle of transmission of microorganisms and microbial metabolics and considering lacteal formulas to be a nutritional and therapeutic basis for hospitalized children, the purpose of the study is the evaluation of the effect of the hygienic-sanitary conditions of hospital lactaries on the microbiological quality of the food served by them. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A sanitary survey and microbiological analyses of lacteal formulas were undertaken, as also of the raw materials from wich the utensils used were made, as well as of the conditions both the environment and the personnel, at two

  7. The Typical Teaching Case of"Acceptance of Raw Milk--Detection of Adulteration"%“原料乳验收--掺假检测”典型教学案例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张露娟; 王爱军

    2014-01-01

    原料乳的质量一直是乳品企业关注的问题之一,其中,掺假是原料乳验收的必检项目之一。文章以三大牧场向企业缴奶,企业品控部经理布置原料乳验收任务为情境,通过角色扮演使检测任务和要求具体化,顺利完成了教学目标。%The quality of raw milk has been one of the concerns in dairy companies, and detection of adulteration is one of the de-tection items among the acceptance of raw milk. This paper fin-ished the teaching goals successfully by making the detection task and requirement specific based on the situation that three ranches paid milk to enterprise and director of quality control de-partement arranged acceptance of raw milk by role playing.

  8. Hazard Analysis and Control of Psychrotrophic Bacterias and Heat Resistant Enzymes in Raw Milk and Dairy Products%乳和乳制品中嗜冷菌及其耐热酶的危害与控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 张筠; 刘术明; 刘文丽

    2015-01-01

    嗜冷菌是乳低温贮藏中的主要腐败菌,嗜冷菌及其代谢酶的存在直接影响原料乳的质量,阐述了嗜冷菌及其耐热酶类对乳及乳制品的危害,并通过分析嗜冷菌的适冷机理和影响酶活的因素,探讨控制嗜冷菌及其代谢酶的方法,以保障原料乳质量。%Psychrotrophic bacteria is the primary putrefying bacteria in low-temperature storage raw milk , Psychrotrophic bacteria and the thermostable enzymes they made have enormous implications on raw milk ,in this article,the perniciousness Psychrotrophic bacteria and the thermostable enzymes they made to milk and dairy products are introduced,by analyze the mechanism how Psychrotrophic bacteria can live in low temperature and the factors that influence the enzymes' activities ,investigate the methods to control Psychrotrophic bacteria and the enzymes they produce to guarantee the quality of raw milk.

  9. 2013~2015年内蒙古西部地区生鲜乳质量调查报告%Investigation Report on the Quality of Raw Milk in the Western Region of Inner Mongolia in 2013~2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 张三粉; 李秀萍; 姚一萍; 史培; 杨永青

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the quality of raw milk in the western region of Inner Mongolia Province, and the inlfuence of seasons on the quality of raw milk, this experiment collected 10 batches of raw milk of dairy farms in each quarter during 2013~2015 in the western region of Inner Mongolia, and detected some parameters in raw milk, such as milk fat, milk protein, somatic cell count and colony count. The results showed that milk fat rate was impacted largely by season, the minimum value of milk fat rate was in the second quarter, but the maximum value was not exactly the same. There was no obvious effect of the seasons on milk protein rate. The change of the colony count was similar to that of somatic cells count with seasonal variation, that is, the colony count and somatic cells count were relatively higher in the third quarter with the hot weather, and were lower in the other three quarters. Somatic cell count had a relatively larger inlfuence on the quality grade of raw milk. The quality of raw milk was good in the western region of Inner Mongolia, and there was obvious effect of the seasons on milk fat rate, somatic cell count and colony count.%为了解内蒙古西部地区原料奶品质,分析不同季节对原料奶质量的影响,对内蒙古西部地区的奶罐奶进行了调查研究,于2013~2015年的每个季度采集10批次奶罐奶,比较分析了乳脂率、乳蛋白率、体细胞数及菌落总数的变化规律。调查显示,季节对乳脂率影响比较大,乳脂率最低值出现在第二季度,最高值却不完全相同。季节对乳蛋白率的影响没有明显规律;菌落总数与体细胞数随季节而变化,即在天气较热的第三季度比较高,其他季度较低;与乳脂率、乳蛋白率和菌落总数比较,体细胞数对生鲜乳质量的分级影响最大。结果表明,内蒙古西部地区生鲜乳质量较好,季节对乳脂率、体细胞数和菌落总数有明显的影响。

  10. Temporal Variation of Faecal Shedding of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in A Dairy Herd Producing Raw Milk for Direct Human Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Stancampiano, Laura; Taddei, Roberta; Delogu, Mauro; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Guarniero, Ilaria; Grilli, Ester; Fustini, Mattia; Bonfante, Elena; Giacometti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6%) faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1%) samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1%) feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000) and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003). The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  11. Temporal variation of faecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Merialdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse over time the evolution of E. coli O157:H7 faecal shedding in a dairy herd producing raw milk for direct human consumption. The study was performed between October 2012 and September 2013 in an average size Italian dairy farm where animals are housed inside the barn all over the year. The farm housed about 140 animals during the study – 70 cows and 70 calves and heifers. Twenty-six animals were randomly selected from both the cows and young animals group, and faecal sampling was performed rectally six times two months apart in each animal. Eleven animals were culled during the study and a total of 285 faecal samples were collected. At each faecal sampling, three trough water samples and two trough feed samples were also collected for a total of 36 water samples and 24 feed samples. Samples were analysed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and culture. Overall, 16 (5.6% faecal samples were positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR. Cultural examination found 9 (3.1% samples positive for E. coli O157; all the isolates were positive for stx1, stx 2 and eae genes. One (4.1% feed sample was positive for E. coli O157 by RT-PCR; none of the water samples was positive for E. coli O157. The model highlighted a general significant reduction of the number of positive samples observed during the study from the first to the sixth sampling (P=0.000 and a positive relation between the presence of positive samples and average environmental temperature (P=0.003. The results of the study showed that in an Italian dairy farm housing animals all year, faecal shedding of E. coli O157 followed the same temporal trend reported for other types of farming. The enhanced faecal shedding during warmer months may have a significant impact on environmental contamination and the safety of raw milk and its byproducts.

  12. 纳滤技术浓缩原料乳生产酸奶工艺%Process of yogurt by nanofiltration concentration from raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉堂; 郭文奎; 迟涛; 程涛

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, yogurt products are usually developed and designed by using different raw materials and food additives, less by innovations of production processes. For the development of new technology for producing yogurt, considering the technical feasibility of nanofiltration concentration’s application in yogurt production process, the paper put forward an idea for developing new yogurt products by improving the workmanship. In this study, the raw milk was concentrated by nanofiltration membrane when producing yogurt with transmembrane pressure of 1.0, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4 MPa and the milk temperature of 10, 15, 55, 65℃, respectively, in order to investigate the change of milk composition during concentration and its influence on yogurt texture and rheological parameters, as while as the influence of raw milk on nanofiltration membrane performance at different temperatures and pressures. The results indicate that, under the conditions of 65℃ and 2.0 MPa, the concentration was feasible and it can be applied in yogurt production when the membrane flux is 7.5 L/(m2·h) and concentration time is about 85 min. The retention rates of monovalent ions of sodium, potassium, chlorine are 40.8%, 46.5% and 17.8%, respectively, while the divalent ions of calcium and magnesium are 94.2%, 95.7%, respectively, and the other milk contents, the lactose and protein, are 92.4%and 95.7%, respectively. The non-fat dry matter increases by 1.24 times, the fat increases by 1.3 times and the milk acidity increases by 1 degree. The viscosity of yogurt producing through concentration is 27.8 Pa·s, and which of yogurt without concentration is 16 Pa·s. With the texture profile analysis (TPA) on yogurt texture, the hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess and chewiness of yogurt with concentration is 0.4605 N,-0.6492 N·s, 0.3253 N·s and 0.2987 N·s, respectively, while the indexes of yogurt without concentration is-0.1102 N,-0.4787 N·s, 0.0680 N·s and-0.0586 N·s, respectively. These texture

  13. 不同季节原料乳中主要微生物和理化指标分析%Chemical and main microbiological composition analysis of raw milk in different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 满朝新; 赵凤; 杨士芹; 郎友; 蒋亚男; 姜毓君

    2011-01-01

    研究了冬季、春季和夏季原料乳的主要理化指标和微生物指标.3个季节内,蛋白质、乳脂、乳糖和干物质的变化范围分别是3.38%~3.52%,3.98%~4.26%,4.80 % ~ 4.85%和12.78%~13.19%.理化指标检测结果表明冬季牛乳的营养成分高于春夏两季,并 且 3个季节的乳成分均高于生鲜牛乳的收购标准;此外,对原料乳中主要的微生物:总菌数、乳酸菌、大肠菌群、沙门氏菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌、单增李斯特菌和嗜冷菌的菌数进行了检测.结果中未检测到沙门氏菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌和单增李斯特菌,其他微生物质量分数均在可接受范围内,但是大肠菌群的出现说明需要建立相关的卫生质量标准.%In this paper the chemical and microbiological composition of raw milk in winter, spring and summer was studied. The levels of protein, fat, lactose and total solids were from 3.38%~3.52% ,3.98%~4.26% ,4.80%~4.85% and 12.78%~13.19% respectively in three seasons. Obviously the nutritional ingredient of raw milk in winter was higher than it in spring and summer. The component of raw milk in three seasons was higher than the standards for the qualifications of raw and fresh milk. Otherwise, in the raw milk the mosdy bacteria were total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria, Coliforms, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Usteria monocytogenes and psychrotrophic bacteria. Salmonella^ Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. So the quality of raw milk was acceptable although Salmonella were present.

  14. 原料乳中外源性β-内酰胺酶快速检测方法的建立%Establishment of A Rapid Detection Method for Exogenousβ-lactamase in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳华; 王清宇; 李梅; 喻东威; 郭慧媛

    2014-01-01

    β-内酰胺酶是乳及乳制品中的非法添加物,卫生部已发布相关检测方法,但是方法耗时,不利于乳制品企业应用。本文采用间接测定原理,即利用β-内酰胺酶在原料乳中降解青霉素G(青霉素钠)的能力,建立了外源性β-内酰胺酶快速检测方法,并确定了该方法的检出限、重复性和抗干扰性能。结果显示:该方法的检出限为4IU/mL,10组平行性实验结果符合度为100%;阴性样品的掺假添加检测结果均为阴性,说明抗干扰性能好;对阳性结果的样品进行定量验证,验证结果均为阳性,说明准确度高,且普遍性较好,是一种适应用于原料乳收购过程的快速检测方法。%Adding exogenous β-lactamase to the raw milk is banned in Chinese laws and regulations. Presented method promulgated by Chinese government is time-consuming and inappropriate for the test of the raw milk receiving. Thus it is imperative to develop a method for rapid detection ofβ-lactamase in the raw milk. In this study, we used the capacity of theβ-lactamase to decompose the penicillin G and attempted to establish a rapid detection method for detecting β-lactamas in raw milk. The results showed that the detection limit of method was 4 IU/mL. The repetitive veriifcation showed that the result 100%ift among 10 groups of parallel samples. The anti-interference performance of negative samples was good. The average positive detection rate of raw milk of ten regions was 4.46%with the rapid detection method, then the positive samples were quantitative validated and the veriifcation results were all positive, so the rapid method had high detection accuracy and good universality, it was suitable for the raw milk purchasing in dairy companies.

  15. Do different standard plate counting (IDF/ISSO or AOAC) methods interfere in the conversion of individual bacteria counts to colony forming units in raw milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassoli, L D; Lima, W J F; Esguerra, J C; Da Silva, J; Machado, P F; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to establish the correlation between individual bacterial count (IBC) obtained by flow cytometry and the number of colony forming units (CFU) determined by standard plate count (SPC) in raw milk using two different reference methodologies: the methodology of the International Dairy Federation (IDF) - International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4833, incubation for 72 h at 30°C and the methodology of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), incubation for 48 h at 35°C. For this, 100 bovine milk samples (80 ml) from different farms were collected in a sterile bottle and maintained refrigerated at 4°C and were delivered to the laboratory. In the laboratory, the samples were divided into two vials of 40 ml each. Then, half of the vials were forwarded for the SPC analysis, and the other half were analysed using the equipment BactoScan FC. The analyses by flow cytometry and SPC were performed at the same time (maximum deviation of +/- 1 h). To transform the data from IBC ml(-1) to CFU ml(-1) (IDF or AOAC methodology), a standard linear regression equation was used, as recommended by IDF/ISO-196. The difference between the reference methodologies affects the equation that transforms IBC into CFU and therefore the accuracy of the results. The results estimated by the equation using the ISO 4833 methodology were on average 0·18 log units higher than the results estimated using the equation using the AOAC methodology. After the comparison of the methodologies, it was concluded that there is an impact of the reference methodologies on the conversion of the results from IBC to CFU. Depending on the methodology adopted by each laboratory or country, there may not be equivalence in the results. Hence, the laboratories specialized in milk quality analysis that have changed their methodology for analysis, passing from the MAPA (AOAC) methodology to the IDF standard, need to develop new conversion equations to make their

  16. 低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因及控制措施%Study on the Cause of Low Acidity Alcohol Positive Raw Milk and Prevention Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏景辉

    2015-01-01

    酒精检测是乳品企业接收原料奶时的一项重要检测指标,只有酒精试验检测结果呈阴性的原料奶,乳企才能正常接收并使用。酒精试验结果呈阳性的原料奶中有一部分是低酸度酒精阳性乳,这部分产生低酸度酒精阳性的原料奶,从乳房挤出来时便可能发生。低酸度酒精阳性乳产生的原因很复杂,它是牛体对各种不良应激因素所产生的一种应激反应。本文对不同条件下致使原料奶低酸度酒精阳性产生的因素进行了分析,并针对分析结果提出防控建议。%Alcohol detection of raw milk is an important detection index in receiving by milk dairy enterprises, only alcohol test results were negative, the milk companies can receive and use properly. A portion of alcohol test positive milk is low acidity alcohol positive milk, they may occur when come out from the breast, the causes of low acidity alcohol positive milk is very complex, it is a stress reaction from a variety of adverse stress factors. The different conditions to cause low raw milk acidity alcohol positive factors were analyzed, prevention and control were put forward based on the results of the analysis.

  17. Primary proteolysis of white brined cheese prepared from raw cow milk monitored by high-molarity Tris buffer SDS-PAGE system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Smiljanić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate primary proteolysis of white brined cow cheese prepared from raw milk by SDS-electrophoretic method based on high-molarity Tris buffer system and to correlate with the results of other commonly used parameters. Proteolytic changes of white brined cow cheese were monitored by three parameters: total protein, water soluble proteins and degree of proteolysis. Changes of major casein fractions were followed by SDS-electrophoretic system in reducing conditions. The total protein content and moisture content of white brined cow cheese were significantly affected by ripening. Ripening in brine increased water soluble proteins and degree of proteolysis. Major caseins were differently resistant to proteolysis; αs-CN was more susceptible than β-CN. The αs-CN content was highly and negatively correlated with time of ripening and water soluble proteins whereas no significant correlation (p<0.05 between β-CN content and these parameters was found. Also, a strong significant correlation (p<0.05 between the amount of low molecular weight products and time of ripening, water soluble proteins and αs-CN content was observed. SDS-PAGE method used in this study could be useful for monitoring the white cow cheese proteolysis.

  18. Biodiversity and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Alpine Raw Cow’s Milk Cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Franciosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Nostrano-cheeses” are traditional alpine cheeses made from raw cow’s milk in Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy. This study identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB developing during maturation of “Nostrano-cheeses” and evaluated their potential to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, an immunologically active compound and neurotransmitter. Cheese samples were collected on six cheese-making days, in three dairy factories located in different areas of Trentino and at different stages of cheese ripening (24 h, 15 days, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 months. A total of 1,059 LAB isolates were screened using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR and differentiated into 583 clusters. LAB strains from dominant clusters (n=97 were genetically identified to species level by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. LAB species most frequently isolated were Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The 97 dominant clusters were also characterized for their ability in producing GABA by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. About 71% of the dominant bacteria clusters evolving during cheeses ripening were able to produce GABA. Most GABA producers were Lactobacillus paracasei but other GABA producing species included Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. No Enterococcus faecalis or Sc. macedonicus isolates produced GABA. The isolate producing the highest amount of GABA (80.0±2.7 mg/kg was a Sc. thermophilus.

  19. Comparing the behavior of multidrug-resistant and pansusceptible Salmonella during the production and aging of a Gouda cheese manufactured from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Dennis J; Druart, Marc J; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2014-06-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of cheese, and emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella may be more virulent and more tolerant than less resistant strains to stresses encountered in food production, which may enhance the survival of these resistant strains i