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Sample records for raw meat products

  1. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  2. The Formulation of Binding Agent Concentration on Raw Restructured Goat Meat Trimming Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of raw materials and formulation method would affect the quality of the processed meat product. Therefore, a research on the processing method to produce a raw structured product should be conducted. The research was testing a single factor comprises of following parameters: control (without binding agent; 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% sodium alginat and 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% carragenan, respectively. The results showed that the goat meat trimming could be used as raw materials in the production of the best restructured meat using 0.5% carragenan. This raw restructured meat produced had a loss weight of 1.67%, pH value  7.89, WHC  48.345, and moisture content  75.20%.   Keywords : sodium alginat, carragenan, raw restructured goat meat trimming.

  3. Research on the Sensorial Quality and Economic Efficiency in Obtaining of a certain Raw Meat Product - Mici Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu-Dan Salagean; Dorin Tibulca; Radu Marin

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed the sensorial quality connected with the economic efficiency to obtain a certain raw meat product (mici paste) in 4 experimental variants: 1 and 3 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) and mix of natural spices - fine grinding variant (1) and coarse grinding variant (3) - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3-4 mm; 2 and 4 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon) + vegetable protein supplements (textured soy protein) + binder (protein + fiber) + add...

  4. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...'s experience in reviewing labels of meat and poultry products with added solution, the Agency has... or prior to consumption. Therefore, to ensure that labels adequately inform consumers that raw... of identity and that are sold for retail sale, institutional use, or further processing. If retail...

  5. Enzyme immunoassay and proteomic characterization of troponin I as a marker of mammalian muscle compounds in raw meat and some meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena A; Kovalev, Leonid I; Ivanov, Alexei V; Kovaleva, Marina A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Shishkin, Sergey S; Lisitsyn, Andrey B; Chernukha, Irina M; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-07-01

    The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8 ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52 ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.40 3 ± 0.058 mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Naveena, B M

    2010-06-01

    Effects of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat stored at 4+/-1 degrees C was evaluated. Five treatments evaluated include: control (only meat), MS (meat+2% salt), KRP (meat+2% salt+2% kinnow rind powder), PRP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate rind powder) and PSP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate seed powder). Addition of salt resulted in reduction of redness scores. Lightness increased in control and unchanged in others during storage. Redness scores declined and yellowness showed inconsistent changes during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (PPRP>KRP>control>MS. Therefore, these powders have potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimize the auto-oxidation and salt induced lipid oxidation in raw ground goat meat. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  8. THE USAGE OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN RAW MATERIALS COMBINATORICS IN MEAT PRODUCTS OF “HALAL†CATEGORY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan F. Gorlov; Oksana B. Gelunova; Tatiana M. Giro; Ekaterina P. Mirzayanova

    2014-01-01

    Integrated researches aimed to develop technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal†category using seed fat and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) represent a new generation of scientific and practical interest. In this connection, the authors propose technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal†category, designed on the basis of rational combinatorics of animal and vegetable origin raw materials, that l...

  9. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2017-02-28

    Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P diet significantly (P diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and end products of fermentation. The administration of MD diet promoted a more balanced growth of bacterial communities and a positive change in the readouts of healthy gut functions in comparison to RD diet.

  10. [Instinct therapy--raw food with meat with exclusion of milk products. Report No. 16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallut, O

    1989-06-13

    Instinct therapy is a diet consisting exclusively of food in its natural form, which has not been subjected to cooking, preserving or seasoning. Dairy products are forbidden. Indications are numerous and rather imprecise including especially cancer. Burger developed Instinct therapy in 1964 as a diet according to his own philosophy. 1980 he left Switzerland because the practice of "metasexuality" had caused him problems with the law. He founded a school of Instinct therapy in 1982 in France and published his book "La guerre du cru" (The Raw Food Fight) in 1985. In Switzerland, Besuchet took on the teaching of Burger in 1978 and was very active in giving lectures. He died in June 1985 of mediastinal cancer. According to Burger, man originally ate raw food and his instinct has not evolved since those pre-historic times, but has been "artificially modified" by cooked food and the consumption of non-human milk. If man could re-develop his natural instinct and eat only fresh food, which is not prepared in any way, he could solve his health problems and restore defenses against diseases such that these could become beneficial. Cooked food, milk and cereals are thought to be the cause of cancer but instinctive eating would help to avoid or to cure cancer. No preclinical or clinical trials have been carried out. The theories of Burger and Besuchet are based on unverifiable personal experiences.

  11. Research on the Sensorial Quality and Economic Efficiency in Obtaining of a certain Raw Meat Product - Mici Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Dan Salagean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed the sensorial quality connected with the economic efficiency to obtain a certain raw meat product (mici paste in 4 experimental variants: 1 and 3 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon and mix of natural spices - fine grinding variant (1 and coarse grinding variant (3 - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3-4 mm; 2 and 4 variants, with animal raw materials (meat + bacon + vegetable protein supplements (textured soy protein + binder (protein + fiber + additive mix - fine grinding variant (2 and coarse grinding variant (4 - chopping at the volf through the sieve of 3 - 4 mm. In this respect organoleptic analyzes were performed on appearance (exterior and section, color, smell, texture and taste of the finished product (after roasting, the results highlighting that, in terms of organoleptic, sample 1 obtained the highest score (on a scale of 1-poor to 5-very good quality (average 21.83, followed by sample 3 (average 19.22, the very small difference in the case of sample 2 (average 19.19 and finally, sample 4 (average 18.75. It was noted that sample 1 obtained the highest score (average of all analyzed organoleptic indicators: appearance (4.33, color (4.39, smell (4.67, texture (4.33 and taste (4.11 being favorite by all volunteer subjects who participated at the analysis. The same thing was found in sensory analysis of mici paste in fresh/chilled condition: 65% of subjects preferred variant 1 followed by variant 3 (19.2%, variant 2 (11.5% and finally, variant 4 (3.8%. In terms of economic the highest efficiency was found in 2 (specific consumption 0.73 and 4 (specific consumption 0.77 variants compared to 1 (specific consumption 0.80 and 3 (specific consumption 0.82 variants, which translates into a reduction in the cost of products manufactured in the variants 2 and 4 (with protein supplements and additive mix by about 25-20% (with importance for the manufacturer. Also, thermal processing (roasting revealed the

  12. 'Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from raw meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahi, M D; Kwaga, J K P; Bello, M; Kabir, J; Umoh, V J; Yakubu, S E; Nok, A J

    2014-03-01

    The bacterial genera Listeria and Staphylococcus have been frequently isolated from food products and are responsible for a number of animal and human diseases. The aim of the study was to simultaneously isolate and characterize L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus species from 300 samples of raw meat and meat products, to determine the susceptibility of the organisms to commonly used antimicrobial agents and to determine the presence of haemolysin A (hyl) virulence gene in L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mecA (SCCmec) gene in the Staph. aureus isolates using PCR. Of the 85 Listeria isolates tested, 12 L. monocytogenes were identified and tested for their sensitivity to 14 antimicrobial agents. All the 12 isolates (100%) were resistant to nine antimicrobial agents, but however sensitive to gentamicin. Only one isolate was found to harbour the hylA gene. Twenty-nine isolates were confirmed as Staph. aureus by the Microbact 12S identification system and were all presumptively identified as methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus species using oxacillin-resistant Staph. aureus basal medium (ORSAB). The 29 Staph. aureus isolates were tested for their sensitivity to 16 antimicrobial agents, and 11 were resistant to methicillin. None of the 11 Staph. aureus isolates harboured the methicillin resistance, mecA gene. Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are important agents of foodborne diseases. Occurrence of these infectious agents was established in meat and meat products in Zaria, Nigeria. Majority of isolates obtained from this study, displayed multidrug resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, including methicillin resistance among the Staph. aureus isolates. The potential virulence of L. monocytogenes found in ready-to-eat food was documented by the carriage of hly A gene by one of the isolates. A different mechanism of methicillin resistance or different homologue of mec A gene may be circulating among Nigerian

  13. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  14. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk samp...... from raw milk samples. Arcobacter cryaerophilus was detected less frequently, and Arcobacter skirrowii was detected only as a cocontaminant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Arcobacter spp. prevalence in a diverse range of products of animal origin in Northern Ireland....

  15. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness, green tea improved the meat color, and the panel indicated that irradiation decreased the tenderness of the

  16. Lessons learned from a textbook outbreak: EHEC-O157:H7 infections associated with the consumption of raw meat products, June 2012, Limburg, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeye, Toon; Denayer, Sarah; De Rauw, Klara; Forier, Anmarie; Verluyten, Jurgen; Fourie, Ludo; Dierick, Katelijne; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Quoilin, Sophie; Cosse, Pascale; Noyen, Jeannine; Pierard, Denis

    2014-01-01

    On 5 June 2012 several enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, EHEC, O157:H7 infections were reported to the public health authorities of Limburg. We performed a case-control study, a trace back/forward investigation and compared strains isolated from human cases and food samples. A case was defined as anyone with a laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7-infection in North-East Limburg from May 30 2012 till July 15 2012. Family members with bloody diarrhea were also included as cases. E. coli O157 was isolated by culture and the presence of the virulence genes was verified using (q)PCR. Isolates were genotyped and compared by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and insertion sequence 629-printing (IS629-printing). The outbreak involved 24 cases, of which 17 were laboratory-confirmed. Five cases developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) and fifteen were hospitalized. Cases reported a significantly higher consumption of "steak tartare", a raw meat product (OR 48.12; 95% CI; 5.62- 416.01). Cases were also more likely to buy meat-products at certain butcheries (OR 11.67; 95% CI; 1.41 - 96.49). PFGE and IS629-printing demonstrated that the vtx1a vtx2a eae ehxA positive EHEC O157:H7 strains isolated from three meat products and all seventeen human stool samples were identical. In a slaughterhouse, identified by the trace-back investigation, a carcass infected with a different EHEC strain was found and confiscated. We present a well described and effectively investigated foodborne outbreak associated with meat products. Our main recommendations are the facilitation and acceleration of the outbreak detection and the development of a communication plan to reaches all persons at risk. Foodborne diseases, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Meat products, Case control studies, Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field.

  17. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  18. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  19. Effect of gamma-radiation treatment on the lipids of meat products during storage.II Fatty acid composition in durable raw-dried products of chopped meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, G.; Bakalivanova, T.; Tsvetkova, E.; Grigorova, S.; Marinova, T.

    2004-01-01

    Studied is the effect of gamma rays treatment with 4 kGy on the total fatty acid composition (FAC) of Karlovska Lukanka and Shumenski Sudzhuk for 30 days and nights from the moment of treatment with gamma-rays. The saturated fatty acids in the Lukanka/flat sausage/ are 42,5-44,7% of the total lipids, and in the Sudzhuk/sausage/ the level of the saturated fatty acids is 45,7-49,7%. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the two products are between 44 and 47%. The share of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in the Lukanka is over 10% of the total lipids, and in the Sudzhuk - 7%. It was established that the treatment of Karlovo Lukanka and Shumen Sudzhuk with 4 kGy gamma-rays: does not affect the total fatty acid composition of the tested samples; does not change the balance in the fatty acid composition and the nutritional value of the tested samples; does not change the quantity of the essential fatty acids; quarantees the safety of the treated products

  20. Effect of type of suckling and polyunsaturated fatty acid use on lamb production. 2. Chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Toteda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to examine the chemical and fatty acid composition of raw and cooked meat obtained fromlambs raised under mothers or reared by artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers with or without polyunsaturated fattyacid (PUFA supplementation. Meat samples were taken from twenty Gentile di Puglia male lambs subjected to the followingfeeding treatments: the control group received only maternal milk (MM, n.=6 while two groups were reared by artificial sucklingwith an acidified milk replacer (MR, n.=7 or with an acidified milk replacer supplemented with 10 ml/l of a PUFA enrichedoil (MR+PUFA, n.=7. Lambs were slaughtered at 45 days of age. After 24 hours of refrigeration at 4 °C, the lumbar regionwas dissected from each right half-carcass and split into pieces, one of which was used raw while the other was cooked in aventilated electric oven at 180 °C until an internal temperature of 75 °C was reached. Chemical and fatty acid analysis wereperformed on raw and cooked meat, while only raw meat was assessed for cholesterol. Cooking losses were also evaluated.Meat obtained from MR+PUFA fed lambs contained more fat (Punder mothers increased the total amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA, compared with both the MR group (Pthe MR+PUFA one (Pcomparison with both MR diets. The highest PUFA/SFA ratio of meat was recorded for the MR+PUFA group (0.27, with statisticaldifferences respect to the MR group (0.21; Pmilk produced meat containing more cholesterol than the MR+PUFA group (85.89 vs 76.26 mg/100 g; Pindex of meat was higher following natural rearing in comparison with the MR+PUFA treatment (1.34 vs 1.05;Pand 0.76, respectively; Pparameters evaluated. In conclusion, artificial suckling with acidified milk replacers improves some meat quality features.Supplementation of milk replacers with PUFAs, although in a limited way, may improve the dietetic properties of lamb meat.

  1. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  2. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genetic Diversity of Listeria spp. Isolated from Raw Chicken Meat and Chicken-Related Products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Pui San; Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Tan, Eng Lee; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai Fong; Chan, Kok Gan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie

    2018-02-01

    Listeria spp. are ubiquitous in nature and can be found in various environmental niches such as soil, sewage, river water, plants, and foods, but the most frequently isolated species are Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. In this study, the presence of Listeria spp. in raw chicken meat and chicken-related products sold in local markets in Klang Valley, Malaysia was investigated. A total of 44 Listeria strains (42 L. innocua and 2 L. welshimeri) were isolated from 106 samples. Antibiotic susceptibility tests of the L. innocua strains revealed a high prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (92.9%), ceftriaxone (76.2%), ampicillin (73.8%), tetracycline (69%), and penicillin G (66.7%). Overall, 31 L. innocua and 1 L. welshimeri strain were multidrug resistant, i.e., nonsusceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more antibiotic classes. The majority of the L. innocua strains were placed into five AscI pulsogroups, and overall 26 distinct AscI pulsotypes were identified. The detection of multidrug-resistant Listeria strains from different food sources and locations warrants attention because these strains could serve as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and may facilitate the spread and emergence of other drug-resistant strains.

  3. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonthermal processing technologies to improve the safety of raw meat and poultry products and ready-to-eat foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly emerging nonthermal and advanced thermal processing technologies are now being adopted by the food processing industry for the purpose of providing safe and high quality food products to consumers. Scientists and engineers at USDA’s Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA are activel...

  5. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  6. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  8. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  9. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R

    1965-05-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

  10. Dietary vitamin E affects lipid oxidation and total volatiles of irradiated raw turkey meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Sell, J.L.; Jeffery, M.; Jo, C.; Chen, X.; Lee, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    Breast and leg meat patties, prepared from turkeys fed diets containing 25, 200, 400 or 600 IU of dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (TA) per kg diet, were irradiated at 0 or 2.5 kGy with vacuum or loose packaging. The effects of dietary TA on storage stability and production of volatiles in irradiated raw turkey meat were determined. Dietary TA at 200 IU/kg decreased lipid oxidation and reduced total volatiles of raw turkey patties after 7-days of storage. However, the antioxidant effects of dietary TA were more notable when the patties were loosely packaged than when vacuum-packaged. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of raw turkey meats only when loosely packaged but had limited effects on formation of total volatiles after storage at 4 degrees C for 7 days or longer

  11. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  12. Fate of gamma-irradiated Listeria monocytogenes during refrigerated storage on raw or cooked turkey breast meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G.; Kim, A.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation resistance and ability of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, 15313, 43256, and 49594 to multiply on irradiated, air-packed, refrigerated raw or cooked turkey breast meat nuggets (ca. 25 g) and ground turkey breast meat was investigated. Gamma-radiation D values for L. monocytogenes were significantly different on raw and cooked nuggets, 0.56 +/- 0.03 kGy and 0.69 +/- 0.03 kGy, respectively; but they were not significantly different (P less than or equal to 0.05) on raw and cooked ground turkey meat. High populations (approximately 10(9) CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes declined during 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C in both irradiated and nonirradiated samples of raw but not of cooked ground turkey breast meat. A moderate inoculum (approximately 10(3) CFU/g) did not survive a radiation dose of 3 kGy. The population increased in cooked but not in raw samples of irradiated ground turkey meat stored at either 2 or 7 degrees C for 21 days. The D value changed significantly from 0.70 +/- 0.04 to 0.60 +/- 0.02 kGy when the product was cooked to an internal temperature of 80 degrees C before irradiation. Growth on either raw or cooked turkey meat did not alter the radiation resistance of L. monocytogenes. Analyses were performed for pH, a(w), moisture, and reducing potential of raw and cooked turkey meat and for pH, amino acid profile, thiamine, and riboflavin contents of aqueous extracts of raw and cooked turkey meats without identifying the factor or factors involved in differences in the survival and multiplication of L. monocytogenes on raw and cooked meat

  13. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  14. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  15. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  16. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  17. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication.

  18. 76 FR 76890 - Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    .... FSIS-2005-0018] Nutrition Labeling of Single-Ingredient Products and Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry... major cuts of single-ingredient, raw meat and poultry products and ground or chopped meat and poultry... Ground or Chopped Meat and Poultry Products'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 82148) that, among other...

  19. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  20. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  1. Meat and meat product preservation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egginger, R.

    A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)

  2. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted.

  3. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products....... This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...... and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were...

  4. Artificial neural network as the tool in prediction rheological features of raw minced meat

    OpenAIRE

    Edyta Balejko; Zbigniew Nowak; Jerzy A. Balejko

    2012-01-01

      Background. The aim of the study was to elaborate a method of modelling and forecasting rheological features which could be applied to raw minced meat at the stage of mixture preparation with a given ingredient composition. Material and methods. The investigated material contained pork and beef meat, pork fat, fat substitutes, ice and curing mixture in various proportions. Seven texture parameters were measured for each sample of raw minced meat. The data obtained were processed us...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat at retail level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. R.; Saadbye, P.; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolated from raw poultry meat collected at retail shops in Denmark in the period 1996-2003 were tested for susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. The food samples consisted of raw chicken meat and other raw poultry meat of domestic or imported origin. The highest levels...... for chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin (P food animals....... Monitoring of the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni isolated from raw uncooked poultry has been performed on a yearly basis since 1996, thus providing useful insight into consumer exposure to antimicrobial-resistant C. jejuni....

  6. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.

  7. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  8. Fast and reliable DNA extraction protocol for identification of species in raw and processed meat products sold on the commercial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Pavel Espinoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a protocol for the extraction of DNA from the meat of different animals (beef, pork, and horse was established. The protocol utilized TE lysis buffer with varying concentrations of phenol and chloroform as a base reagent. Reactions were carried out for verying time periods and under differing temperatures. All samples analyzed were obtained from commercial grade meat sourced from the local region. 12 samples were used for methodological optimization with 30 repetitions per sample. Once optimized, purity results for the three species were 1.7 with a concentration (determined spectrophotometrically at 260 nm of 100 μl/ml of DNA. The protocol was tested using 465 different meat samples from different animal species. All meat used was fresh and processed. Results showed a purity of 1.35 ± 0.076 and a DNA concentration of 70 ± 0.31 μl for a time duration of 1.5 hours. These results were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR as reported by several authors. The extracts were tested using different PCR reactions using specific primers for horses. Results suggest that there was 39 positive samples. The proposed methodology provides an efficient way to detect DNA concentration and purity, suitable for amplification with PCR.

  9. USE OF MEAT-BONE PASTE AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN MEAT PRODUCT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Kakimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of the experimental research on developing the technology of a protein complex based on the meat-bone paste and protein-fat-blood emulsion are shown. The technological scheme of meat-bone paste production on the basis of complex grinding meat-bone raw material to bone particle size of 100 ∙10–6 m and further processing of bone particles using reagent, cheese whey, with pH 4,3 is presented. When studying the nutritive and biological value of the protein complex, it was established that the protein complex consisting of the food component from bone and protein-fat-blood emulsion could be used instead of the basic raw material in meat product production. The comparative analysis of the nutritive value of the protein complex and horse meat demonstrated the following results: the amino acid composition of the protein complex showed a balance of the essential amino acids and the high content of the essential amino acids which limit the biological value: lysine, leucine and threonine. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, which justified the biological value of the protein complex.

  10. Czech Foreign Trade with Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pohlová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.

  11. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  14. PREDICTION OF MEAT PRODUCT QUALITY BY THE MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMMING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of the prediction technologies is one of the directions of the research work carried out both in Russia and abroad. Meat processing is accompanied by the complex physico-chemical, biochemical and mechanical processes. To predict the behavior of meat raw material during the technological processing, a complex of physico-technological and structural-mechanical indicators, which objectively reflects its quality, is used. Among these indicators are pH value, water binding and fat holding capacities, water activity, adhesiveness, viscosity, plasticity and so on. The paper demonstrates the influence of animal proteins (beef and pork on the physico-chemical and functional properties before and after thermal treatment of minced meat made from meat raw material with different content of the connective and fat tissues. On the basis of the experimental data, the model (stochastic dependence parameters linking the quantitative resultant and factor variables were obtained using the regression analysis, and the degree of the correlation with the experimental data was assessed. The maximum allowable levels of meat raw material replacement with animal proteins (beef and pork were established by the methods of mathematical programming. Use of the information technologies will significantly reduce the costs of the experimental search and substantiation of the optimal level of replacement of meat raw material with animal proteins (beef, pork, and will also allow establishing a relationship of product quality indicators with quantity and quality of minced meat ingredients.

  15. Fluoroquinolone residues in raw meat from open markets in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunbi Bridget Omotoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Misuse of fluoroquinolones in livestock production may lead to the presence of their residues in tissues of meat animals after slaughter, constituting health hazards to consumers. The present study was designed to screen for residues of three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in raw meat. Microbiological assay, followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to screen three hundred and twenty samples of beef, chicken, pork and chevon purchased from open markets. Initial screening by microbiological assay revealed that 50%, 55%, 40% and 40% of beef, chicken, pork and chevon, respectively were positive for residues of antibiotics. Further analysis by HPLC with UV detection revealed the presence of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin at varying concentrations in the meat samples. Ofloxacin was the least in frequency and abundance in all meat types. Results obtained in this study have implications for public health and will lead to steps that will further enhance the safety of animal foods in order to protect consumers and the animal production industry

  16. Residual Nitrite in Some Egyptian Meat Products and the Reduction Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia A. Zahran; Gehan M.A. Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is a precursor of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions, as well as having its own toxicity. To investigate the residual nitrite level in meat products marketed in Egyptian markets, 160 samples of cured cooked (luncheon and frankfurter) and cured raw (oriental sausages and pastirma) meat products (40 sample each) were analyzed for residual nitrite by a spectrophotometric method. Samples were s...

  17. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxin A Gene Isolated From Raw Red Meat and Poultry in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh Zargar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent infectious agent of food materials. Enterotoxin producing types of S. aureus cause well-known food-borne disease. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA is the most important agent of gastroenteritis. Objectives: The present study aimed to screen the raw meat samples collected from different regions of Tehran for S. aureus infection and type of encoding enterotoxin. Materials and Methods: Hundred and eighty six meat samples were collected randomly from city dealers and transferred to laboratory within screw cap containers. The samples were first cultured according to the standard bacteriological methods and then S. aureus isolates were identified using standard bacteriological tests. The isolates were subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR to detect gene encoding SEA. Results: Staphylococcus aureus isolated from 29 (15.6% meat samples including beef 14.8%, raw lamb 15%, raw chicken 15.7% and raw turkey 16.6%. Using special primer sets proved that the species isolated from five samples (two raw chicken, two raw beef and one raw turkey encoded enterotoxin A. Conclusions: Although staphylococcal contamination within food material is more or less a routine, but detection of enterotoxin encoding species from raw meat samples is alarming for health authorities. These data highlight the importance of periodic surveillance of raw meat distributed among ordinary consumers.

  19. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  1. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  2. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2018-01-01

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...

  3. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  4. IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of the process of improving the system raw materials supply of meat industry and presents the main factors, criteria, principles and algorithm rational distribution of the meat industry. The relevance of the research topic, in a globalized economy and Russia's accession to the WTO, caused by necessity to improve the system of raw material supply domestic enterprises and enhancing food security.

  5. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  7. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  8. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bree, Freek P J; Bokken, Gertie C A M; Mineur, Robin; Franssen, Frits; Opsteegh, Marieke; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Lipman, Len J A; Overgaauw, Paul A M

    2018-01-13

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) to companion animals has become increasingly popular. Since these diets may be contaminated with bacteria and parasites, they may pose a risk to both animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of zoonotic bacterial and parasitic pathogens in Dutch commercial RMBDs. We analysed 35 commercial frozen RMBDs from eight different brands. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 was isolated from eight products (23 per cent) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing E coli was found in 28 products (80 per cent). Listeria monocytogenes was present in 19 products (54 per cent), other Listeria species in 15 products (43 per cent) and Salmonella species in seven products (20 per cent). Concerning parasites, four products (11 per cent) contained Sarcocystis cruzi and another four (11 per cent) S tenella In two products (6 per cent) Toxoplasma gondii was found. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of potential zoonotic pathogens in frozen RMBDs that may be a possible source of bacterial infections in pet animals and if transmitted pose a risk for human beings. If non-frozen meat is fed, parasitic infections are also possible. Pet owners should therefore be informed about the risks associated with feeding their animals RMBDs. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  11. Meat and Meat Product Consumption among Infants in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Širina Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.

  12. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  13. Augmented Cellular Meat Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Philipsen, Mark Philip; Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    The project is focused on a collaborative robot cell concept as an alternative to the serial production line that is currently used in major slaughterhouses. With a robot cell, where a robot and an operator share tasks and workload, we get the strength of the robot and the flexibility of the oper...

  14. QUALITY CONTROL OF SOME TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DOBRINAS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the characterization of six traditional meat products: smoked file, smoked bacon, pork sausages, sausage prepared from swine’s entrails, pork pastrami, sheep sausages. Organoleptic tests (the aspect and shape, the aspect of freshly cut in the section, smell, taste and consistency, physico-chemical and microbiological determinations (NTG, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were performed. These analyzes are a part of quality control that must be done in order to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Agriculture for a traditional product. After identification of H2S and starch and according to fat oxidation degree it was concluded that analyzed samples didn’t contain counterfeiters and all parameters analyzed are within the maximum limits allowed by law. Considering all the procedures for manufacturing, characteristics of raw and auxiliary materials, organoleptic properties of final products analyzed in this study, it can be concluded that analyzed meat specialties meet the requirements of Ministry Order no. 690/28.09.2004 for the traditional products certification.

  15. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Quantification of meat proportions by measuring DNA contents in raw and boiled sausages using matrix-adapted calibrators and multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, René; Eugster, Albert; Ruf, Jürg; Rentsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of meat proportions in raw and boiled sausage according to the recipe was evaluated using three different calibrators. To measure the DNA contents from beef, pork, sheep (mutton), and horse, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was applied. Nineteen laboratories analyzed four meat products each made of different proportions of beef, pork, sheep, and horse meat. Three kinds of calibrators were used: raw and boiled sausages of known proportions ranging from 1 to 55% of meat, and a dilution series of DNA from muscle tissue. In general, results generated using calibration sausages were more accurate than those resulting from the use of DNA from muscle tissue, and exhibited smaller measurement uncertainties. Although differences between uses of raw and boiled calibration sausages were small, the most precise and accurate results were obtained by calibration with fine-textured boiled reference sausages.

  17. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (Pcooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (Plamb meat.

  18. Flavonoids in the development of functional meat products: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K. Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids or bioflavonoids are unique low molecular weight ubiquitous polyphenolic compounds produced by plants during their metabolic activities as a secondary metabolites and responsible for major organoleptic characteristics and health benefits of plant derived foods. The flavonoids are potent antioxidants agents and protect the cells by scavenging and inhibiting the production and initiation of free radicals, superoxide anions and lipid peroxy radicals. Besides potent antioxidant capacity, flavonoids also shows antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidiabetic, antithrombosis, antirheumatic, antiatherosclerotic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcers and hepatoprotectives and better termed as neutraceuticals. The antioxidant capacity of meat is very low and this can be increased by adding flavonoids in meat during processing in the form of plant parts rich in flavonoids such as seeds, fruit skin or peel, bark and flower as raw or in extract form without comprising the sensory attributes of meat and meat products. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 573-578

  19. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes in retailed raw chicken meat in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriken, Belgin; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Erol, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were, to find the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of L. monocytogenes from a total of 116 chicken meat samples including 50 carcasses and 66 meat parts marketed in Turkey between 2008 and 2009 using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) based cultivation technique, to detect the hlyA gene for the verification of the isolates by PCR, and to identify the genoserotypes of the L. monocytogenes isolates by multiplex PCR assay. In the study, 51 L. monocytogenes colonies were isolated from 34 (29.3%) chicken meat samples (eleven [22.0%] carcasses and 23 [34.8%] pieces of meat) by IMS based cultivation technique and confirmed by PCR. According to the multiplex PCR results, all the 51 isolates were identified as genoserotype IIa (1/2a or 3a). L. monocytogenes isolates were also tested for their susceptibility to eight antibiotic (gentamicin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, penicillin G, erythromycin) agents using the disk diffusion method. 14 isolates (27.45%) were susceptible to all eight antimicrobials drugs tested and the remaining 37 isolates (72.54%) were resistant to gentamicin (one isolate, 1.96%), vancomycin (four isolates, 7.84%), penicillin G (six isolates, 11.76%), streptomycin (nine isolates, 17.64%; resistant or intermediate), tetracycline (seven isolates, 13.72%) and ampicillin (six isolates, 11.76%). This study showed that antimicrobial resistance is not highly prevalent in L. monocytogenes isolated from chicken carcasses and pieces of meat. The presence of L. monocytogenes in chicken samples suggests an importance of this pathogen in chicken.

  1. Artificial neural network as the tool in prediction rheological features of raw minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balejko, Jerzy A; Nowak, Zbigniew; Balejko, Edyta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate a method of modelling and forecasting rheological features which could be applied to raw minced meat at the stage of mixture preparation with a given ingredient composition. The investigated material contained pork and beef meat, pork fat, fat substitutes, ice and curing mixture in various proportions. Seven texture parameters were measured for each sample of raw minced meat. The data obtained were processed using the artificial neural network module in Statistica 9.0 software. The model that reached the lowest training error was a multi-layer perceptron MLP with three neural layers and architecture 7:7-11-7:7. Correlation coefficients between the experimental and calculated values in training, verification and testing subsets were similar and rather high (around 0.65) which indicated good network performance. High percentage of the total variance explained in PCA analysis (73.5%) indicated that the percentage composition of raw minced meat can be successfully used in the prediction of its rheological features. Statistical analysis of the results revealed, that artificial neural network model is able to predict rheological parameters and thus a complete texture profile of raw minced meat.

  2. The Influence of Stunning Method, Refrigeration and Freezing Time on the Rheological and Textural Properties of Raw Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to provide information on the influence of stunning methods in conjunction with refrigeration and freezing time on the textural and rheological properties of raw meat. Pork raw meat, commercially available, was analyzed for textural properties such as hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and fracture force. Sample were analyzed fresh, after 3 days of refrigeration, and 15 days, 30days and 60 days freezing time in commercially available refrigerators mimicking the storing conditions used by consumers. For pork raw meat, hardness increased sharply after 3 days of refrigeration and showed no significant differences after 15days of freezing compared to 3days refrigeration time. After 30 days of freezing the raw pork meat samples’ hardness decreased significantly compared to the hardness of the samples freeze for15 days. Hardness of gas stunning raw pork meat samples compared to electrical stunning raw pork meat samples was 2.57 times higher indicating a better firmness of the gas stunning raw pork meat. The cohesiveness of the raw pork meat from gas stunned animals maintained its levels after 60 days of freezing while the meat from electrically stunned animals showed significant modificatio

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.; Leonova B. I.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of spe...

  4. 9 CFR 317.344 - Identification of major cuts of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of major cuts of meat... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.344 Identification of major cuts of meat products. The major cuts of single-ingredient, raw...

  5. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  6. Valorization of functional properties of extract and powder of olive leaves in raw and cooked minced beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouidi, Fathia; Okba, Aicha; Hamdi, Moktar

    2017-08-01

    Olive leaves (OL), available in huge amounts from pruning, are known to be a useful source of biologically active compounds. This study investigated the potential application of OL as a supplement to minced beef meat in order to develop a functional product. The effect of OL extract or powder (100 and 150 µg phenols g -1 meat) on the quality and stability of raw and cooked meat during refrigerated storage was examined. Microwave drying at 600 W gave OL with the highest antioxidant quality (evaluated by TEAC/[phenols] (mg mg -1 ) and DPPH/[phenols] (mg mg -1 )) compared with other methods. OL showed an ability to inhibit (P production was 43-65% in control samples and 14-35% in treated samples). OL also improved the technological quality of the meat, decreasing (P functional meat products of good technological quality that remain stable during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of listeria species isolated from different types of raw meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Farzad; Farzinezhadizadeh, Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Listeria and particularly Listeria monocytogenes are important foodborne pathogens that can cause listeriosis and severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, children, pregnant women, and the elderly. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw meat in Iran. From July 2010 to November 2011, a total of 1,107 samples of various raw meats were obtained from randomly selected retail butcher shops. The results of conventional bacteriologic and PCR methods revealed that 141 samples (12.7%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw buffalo meat samples (7 of 24 samples; 29.2%) followed by quail meat (26 of 116 samples; 22.4%), partridge meat (13 of 74 samples; 17.6%), and chicken meat (27 of 160 samples; 16.9%). The most common species recovered was Listeria innocua (98 of 141 strains; 75.9 % ); the remaining isolates were L. monocytogenes (19.1% of strains), Listeria welshimeri (6.4% of strains), Listeria seeligeri (3.5% of strains), and Listeria grayi (1.4% of strains). Susceptibilities of the 141 strains to 11 antimicrobial drugs were determined using the disk diffusion assay. Overall, 104 (73.8%) of the Listeria isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and 17.0% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. The present study provides the first baseline data on the prevalence of Listeria in raw meat derived from sheep, goat, buffalo, quail, partridge, chicken, and ostrich in Iran and the susceptibility of these isolates to antimicrobials.

  8. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irais Sánchez-Ortega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  9. Ionizing energy treatment of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, J.J.; Eustace, I.J.; Grau, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation treatments that have received most attention with respect to red meats are radappertization, i.e. radiation sterilization (25-70 kGy), to enable the long term storage of meat without refrigeration, and radurization (0.5-10 kGy) in which a sufficient proportion of spoilage organisms are inactivated to enable the storage life of chilled meat to be extended. Shelf-stable radappertized meats cannot be produced in the fresh-like condition; they need to be heated to about 70 deg. C to inactivate endogenous enzymes that would otherwise cause flavour and texture defects. The products should be vacuum sealed in oxgyen-impermeable packages and irradiated in the frozen state, otherwise pronounced off-flavours and off-odours are formed. The radiation dose required to give a useful degree of microbial inactivation and permit an increase of storage life depends upon treatment and storage conditions. The dose required is likely to be in the range 0.25 to 1.0 kGy if aerobic conditions apply, and 1 to 4 kGy if anaerobic conditions apply. An acceleration in the rate of development of rancidity in meat as a result of irradiation may be of concern when meat is treated under aerobic conditions. At the highest dose indicated above for meat irradiated under anaerobic conditions (4 kGy), effects on the organoleptic attributes of mutton have been detected

  10. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  11. Survival of Salmonella Copenhagen in food bowls following contamination with experimentally inoculated raw meat: Effects of time, cleaning, and disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, J.

    2006-01-01

    There are concerns regarding the safety of feeding raw meat to household pets. This study demonstrated that Salmonella persists in food bowls that are inoculated with Salmonella-containing raw meat. Standard methods of cleaning and disinfection were minimally effective at eliminating Salmonella contamination.

  12. Multiplex-PCR As a Rapid and Sensitive Method for Identification of Meat Species in Halal-Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikord, Mahsa; Keramat, Javad; Kadivar, Mahdi; Momtaz, Hassan; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad N; Homayouni-Rad, Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Species identification and authentication in meat products are important subjects for ensuring the health of consumers. The multiplex-PCR amplification and species- specific primer set were used for the identification of horse, donkey, pig and other ruminants in raw and processed meat products. Oligonucleotid primers were designed and patented for amplification of species-specific mitochondrial DNA sequences of each species and samples were prepared from binary meat mixtures. The results showed that meat species were accurately determined in all combinations by multiplex-PCR, and the sensitivity of this method was 0.001 ng, rendering this technique open to and suitable for use in industrial meat products. It is concluded that more fraud is seen in lower percentage industrial meat products than in higher percentage ones. There was also more fraud found in processed products than in raw ones. This rapid and useful test is recommended for quality control firms for applying more rigorous controls over industrial meat products, for the benefit of target consumers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Designing a time-effective TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a time-effective method comprising a short pre-enrichment step in a non-selective broth in combination with the TaqMan probe applied in the real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect Yersinia enterocolitica strains in raw pork meat. The method enabled to detect 1 colony forming unit per 25 mg of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork meat. The specificity and reliability of the method was not diminished by the company of microflora naturally present in meat. The method was found successful to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains in pork meat. It is advised to be used for assessing the microbial risk and for controlling the microbial quality of meat and meat products.

  14. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Freek P J; Bokken, Gertie C A M; Mineur, Robin; Franssen, Frits; Opsteegh, Marieke; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Lipman, Len J A; Overgaauw, Paul A M

    2018-01-01

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBDs) to companion animals has become increasingly popular. Since these diets may be contaminated with bacteria and parasites, they may pose a risk to both animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of zoonotic bacterial and

  15. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  16. NEW MEAT PRODUCTS WITH IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT CREATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kaltovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method reflecting differential characteristics of technological stages of manufacture of those types of meat products, including issues on the selection of primary and secondary raw materials, guidelines for development of formulations and production technologies, legislative requirements towards its labeling, etc, has been developed for the first time. A list of prospective meat raw materials for the manufacture of products with immunomodulatory effect was established: beef, pork, rabbit meat, broiler chicken meat, turkey, veal, ostrich meat, which have high content of protein (14,3– 21,7%, low content of fat (1,2–16,1%, excluding pork (33,3%, high levels of minimum amino-acid score (90,0–104,0%, protein quality indicator(0,91–1,64, essential amino acid index (1,16-1,25, coefficient of utility of amino acid content (0,72–0,86 and close to optimum fatty acid content, and also contain a great number of vitamins and minerals which play a significant role for immunity improvement. It was determined that the following functional ingredients are recommended to use: amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, lysine, histidin, phenylalanyl, vitamins and provitamins (C,E, beta-carotene, B vitamins(Bc, B12, PP, etc., P(bioflavonoid complex, H, K, minerals (calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, manganese, selenium, polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6, pseudo-vitamins (L-carnitin, coenzyme Q10, polysaccharides and peptides naturally occurring(squalen, B-Carotene, ginger, shiitake mushrooms, probiotics and prebiotics, glutathione, indole and lycopienes, bioflavonoids, L-arginine, N-acetylcysteine, gel from seaweed «Lamifaren». The use of the developed meat products with immunomodulatory effect creation method by process engineers of meat processing factories will allow them to form a single scientifically grounded approach during the

  17. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  18. Ecological safety of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  19. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  20. Specific primer design of mitochondrial 12S rRNA for species identification in raw meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, M.; Puruhita; Barido, F. H.; Hertanto, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular technique that widely used in agriculture area including species identification in animal-based products for halalness and food safety reasons. Amplification of DNA using PCR needs a primer pair (forward and reverse primers) to isolate specific DNA fragment in the genome. This objective of this study was to design specific primer from mitochondrial 12S rRNA region for species identification in raw beef, pork and chicken meat. Three published sequences, HQ184045, JN601075, and KT626857, were downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. Furthermore, those reference sequences were used to design specific primer for bovine, pig, and chicken species using primer3 v.0.4.0. A total of 15 primer pairs were picked up from primer3 software. Of these, an universal forward primer and three reverse primers which are specific for bovine, pig, and chicken species were selected to be optimized using multiplex-PCR technique. The selected primers were namely UNIF (5’-ACC GCG GTC ATA CGA TTA AC-3’), SPR (5’-AGT GCG TCG GCT ATT GTA GG-3’), BBR (5’-GAA TTG GCA AGG GTT GGT AA-3’), and AR (5’-CGG TAT GTA CGT GCC TCA GA-3’). In addition, the PCR products were visualized using 2% agarose gels under the UV light and sequenced to be aligned with reference sequences using Clustal Omega. The result showed that those primers were specifically amplified mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions from bovine, pig, and chicken using PCR. It was indicated by the existence of 155, 357, and 611 bp of DNA bands for bovine, pig, and chicken species, respectively. Moreover, sequence analysis revealed that our sequences were identically similar with reference sequences. It can be concluded that mitochondrial 12S rRNA may be used as a genetic marker for species identification in meat products.

  1. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular obligate parasite. Its transmission is usually attributed to ingestion of undercooked or raw meat. The aim of this study was the detection and genotyping of T. gondii in meat products using the molecular method in East Azerbaijan. DNA was ...

  2. Use of artificial intelligence in the production of high quality minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapovsky, B. R.; Pchelkina, V. A.; Plyasheshnik, P. I.; Dydykin, A. S.; Lazarev, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A design for an automatic line for minced meat production according to new production technology based on an innovative meat milling method is proposed. This method allows the necessary degree of raw material comminution at the stage of raw material preparation to be obtained, which leads to production intensification due to the traditional meat mass comminution equipment being unnecessary. To ensure consistent quality of the product obtained, the use of on-line automatic control of the technological process for minced meat production is envisaged. This system has been developed using artificial intelligence methods and technologies. The system is trainable during the operation process, adapts to changes in processed raw material characteristics and to external impacts that affect the system operation, and manufactures meat shavings with minimal dispersion of the typical particle size. The control system includes equipment for express analysis of the chemical composition of the minced meat and its temperature after comminution. In this case, the minced meat production process can be controlled strictly as a function of time, which excludes subjective factors for assessing the degree of finished product readiness. This will allow finished meat products with consistent, targeted high quality to be produced.

  3. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  4. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  5. Radiation preservation of meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, J F

    1985-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980 clarified the position regarding the medical acceptability of irradiated foods when it said'…no health hazard results from consuming any food irradiated up to a dose of one megarad (1 Mrad)'. This resulted in renewed interest in irradiation as a cost-effective alternative to traditional preservation methods such as canning and freezing. Thus, radurisation (the application of ionising radiation at a dose level which substantially reduces the microbial population) increases the shelf life of poultry, comminuted meat and meat dishes significantly. Low dose irradiation, or radicidation, eliminates parasites such as Trichinae and cysticerci in pork and, very importantly, salmonella organisms in poultry and red meat. Therefore, irradiation has an important rôle to play in public health protection. High dose irradiation, or radappertisation ('cold sterilisation'), uses doses in excess of 1 Mrad and is analogous to retorting as understood in the canning industry. However, it can adversely affect quality in producing 'free radicals' in high protein foods such as meat. To prevent this, special precautions are necessary, e.g. irradiation is conducted at very low temperatures and the product is usually vacuum packed. A further potential use of irradiation is its ability to reduce the quantity of nitrite necessary in cured meats. This may become of practical significance if legislation further reduces the amount of nitrite permitted in these products. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  7. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Ewelina; Atanasov, Atanas G; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2018-01-31

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i) fatty acids; (ii) minerals; (iii) vitamins; (iv) plant antioxidants; (v) dietary fibers; (vi) probiotics and (vii) bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Jalali, Mohammad; Weese, J Scott

    2014-02-05

    Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial pathogen associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalised patients and the infection is believed to be acquired nosocomially. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of C. difficile in food animals which may act as a source of infection to humans.The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile in retail raw beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo meat in Iran. From April to October 2012, a total of 660 raw meat samples from beef, cow, sheep, goat, camel and buffalo were purchased from 49 butcheries in Isfahan and Khuzestan provinces, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of C. difficile using a method including selective enrichment in C. difficile broth, subsequent alcohol shock-treatment and plating onto C. difficile selective medium. C. difficile isolates were tested for the presence of toxin genes and were typed using PCR ribotyping. In this study, 13 of 660 meat samples (2%) were contaminated with C. difficile. The highest prevalence of C. difficile was found in buffalo meat (9%), followed by goat meat (3.3%), beef meat (1.7%), cow (0.94%) and sheep meat (0.9%). Seven of the 13C. difficile strains (53.9%) were positive for tcdA, tcdB and cdtB toxin genes and were classified as ribotype 078. Four strains (30.8%) were positive tcdA, and tcdB, and one strain (7.7%) was possessed only tcdB. The remaining isolate was non-toxigenic. Susceptibilities of 13C. difficile isolates were determined for 11 antimicrobial drugs using the disk diffusion assay. Resistance to clindamycin, gentamycin, and nalidixic acid was the most common finding. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the isolation of C. difficile from raw buffalo meat. This study indicates the potential importance of food, including buffalo meat, as a source of transmission of C. difficile to humans.

  9. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  10. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  11. Ecological safety of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  12. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E; Hanson, Blake M; Smith, Tara C

    2017-09-07

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n = 3347) and contemporaneously from meat products in stores where participants report purchasing meat (n = 913). The staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene was sequenced for all isolates to determine a spa type. Morisita indices and Permutational Multivariate Analysis of Variance Using Distance Matrices (PERMANOVA) were used to determine the relationship between spa type composition among human samples and meat samples. spa type composition was significantly different between households and meat sampled from their associated grocery stores. spa types found in meat were not significantly different regardless of the store or county in which they were sampled. spa types in people also exhibit high similarity regardless of residential location in urban or rural counties. Such findings suggest meat is not an important source of S. aureus colonization in shoppers.

  13. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw meat, raw milk, and street vended juices in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad A; Mondol, Abdus S; Azmi, Ishrat J; de Boer, Enne; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Zwietering, Marcel H; Heuvelink, Annet E; Talukder, Kaisar A

    2010-11-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in different types of food samples and to compare their genetic relatedness with STEC strains previously isolated from animal sources in Bangladesh. We investigated a total of 213 food samples, including 90 raw meat samples collected from retail butcher shops, 20 raw milk samples from domestic cattle, and 103 fresh juice samples from street vendors in Dhaka city. We found that more than 68% (n = 62) of the raw meat samples were positive for the stx gene(s); 34% (n = 21) of buffalo meats and 66% (n = 41) of beef. Approximately 10% (n = 2) of the raw milk and 8% (n = 8) of the fresh juice samples were positive for stx. We isolated STEC O157 from seven meat samples (7.8%), of which two were from buffalo meats and five from beef; and no other STEC serotypes could be isolated. We could not isolate STEC from any of the stx-positive raw milk and juice samples. The STEC O157 isolates from raw meats were positive for the stx(2), eae, katP, etpD, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli hly virulence genes, and they belonged to three different phage types: 8 (14.3%), 31 (42.8%), and 32 (42.8%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed six distinct patterns among seven isolates of STEC O157, suggesting a heterogeneous clonal diversity. Of the six PFGE patterns, one was identical and the other two were ≥90% related to PFGE patterns of STEC O157 strains previously isolated from animal feces, indicating that raw meats are readily contaminated with fecal materials. This study represents the first survey of STEC in the food chain in Bangladesh.

  14. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  15. Importance of the producer on retail broiler meat product contamination with Campylobacter spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudirkiene, Egle; Buneviciene, Jurgita; Serniene, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry meat being considered the most important source of the infection. To obtain data on broiler meat contamination with Campylobacter spp. in Lithuania, the occurrence, counts and genotypes...... of these pathogens on raw broiler meat products from different producers were examined. Results Out of 312 broiler meat product samples examined, 46.8% were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni was identified in 51.4% and Campylobacter coli in 37.7% of positive samples. Campylobacter jejuni...

  16. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs...... the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small....

  17. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  18. Geriatric dietary meat-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Agunova, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary nutrition pattern referring to different age groups of the population does not meet quantitative and qualitative requirements. In Ukraine the manufacture of geriatric meat-based dietary products is underdeveloped. Therefore, the development of healthy and functional foods is the priority objective for the food industry. The research is devoted to considering the possibility of using quail meat, wheat germ flakes and walnut oil in the production process of the sausages for ...

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of special strains of microorganisms in production of functional meat products offers some opportunities. Thus, such action is associated with formation of the following specific dietary components: organic acids, bactericins, enzymes, vitamins and others. They promote to improve the sanitary microbiological, organoleptic, functional and technological parameters of meat products. Using of denitrifying microbial strains could reduce the residual content of sodium nitrite in the finished product, minimizing the possible carcinogenic and mutagenic impact of this compound on a human body, producing functional safe products while maintaining its high organoleptic characteristics.

  20. Effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Staphylococcus aureus in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J; Wiszniewska, A

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 2 Staphylococcus aureus strains in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The study also considered water activity (a(w)) and pH of the products investigated. The results obtained are demonstrated in 5 diagrams. It was found that among 15 strains of Lactobacillus aureus investigated only one strain, Lactobacillus helveticus T 78, showed antagonistic effect on studied strains of Staphylococcus aureus both in vitro as well as in meat and raw sausages. Five other strains of Lactobacillus spp. displayed the antagonistic effect in vitro only. The temperature and incubation time of sausages, but also the type of sausage stuffing were found to have a distinct or slight influence, respectively, on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria. However, this phenomenon was affected by neither a(w) nor pH.

  1. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  2. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  3. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  5. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Zagorec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage.

  6. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage. PMID:28878171

  7. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  8. Campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with eating habits of raw meat and raw liver in a healthy patient: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  9. Healthier meat products as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Eric A; Park, Yeonhwa

    2010-09-01

    A promising approach to improving health care would be to produce a healthier food supply as a preventive health care strategy. The food supply could be improved by producing functional foods that have nutritional profiles that are healthier than conventional products. However, production of functional foods is not always easily accomplished since they must also taste good, be convenient and reasonably priced so that consumers will regularly purchase and use the products. Meats have great potential for delivering important nutrients such as fatty acids, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants and bioactive peptides into the diet. However, to produce successful products with these ingredients, technologies must be developed to increase their stability and decrease their flavor impact on muscle foods. In addition, many regulatory hurdles must be overcome for the commercial production of meats with added nutrients. These include redefinition of standard of identities and policies that allow front of the package nutritional claims. Without these regulatory changes, production of healthier meat products won't become a reality since these products would not have a competitive advantage over unfortified meats.

  10. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter species isolated from raw camel, beef, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza

    2010-04-01

    Campylobacter spp. are one of the most common causes of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in human beings which are transmitted mostly via food originating from animals. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail raw meats in Iran. From June 2008 to June 2009, a total of 722 raw meat samples from camel (n = 107), beef (n = 190), lamb (n = 225), and goat (n = 180) were purchased from randomly selected retail outlets in Isfahan and Yazd, Iran, and were evaluated for the presence of Campylobacter spp. In this study, 50 of the 722 meat samples (6.9%) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in lamb meat (12.0%), followed by goat meat (9.4%), beef meat (2.4%), and camel meat (0.9%). The most prevalent Campylobacter spp. isolated from the meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (84.0%); the remaining isolates were Campylobacter coli (16.0%). Susceptibilities of 50 Campylobacter isolates were determined for 10 antimicrobial drugs using the disk-diffusion assay. Resistance to tetracycline was the most common finding (68.0%), followed by resistance to ciprofloxacin (46.0%) and nalidixic acid (40.0%). All of the isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol. Significantly higher prevalence rates of Campylobacter spp. (p meat samples taken in spring (20.0%) and summer (18.9%). To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from raw camel, lamb, and goat meat in Iran.

  12. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  13. U.S. Food safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: an establishment-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblen, Denise R; Barlow, Kristina E; Naugle, Alecia Larew

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) pathogen reduction-hazard analysis critical control point systems final rule, published in 1996, established Salmonella performance standards for broiler chicken, cow and bull, market hog, and steer and heifer carcasses and for ground beef, chicken, and turkey meat. In 1998, the FSIS began testing to verify that establishments are meeting performance standards. Samples are collected in sets in which the number of samples is defined but varies according to product class. A sample set fails when the number of positive Salmonella samples exceeds the maximum number of positive samples allowed under the performance standard. Salmonella sample sets collected at 1,584 establishments from 1998 through 2003 were examined to identify factors associated with failure of one or more sets. Overall, 1,282 (80.9%) of establishments never had failed sets. In establishments that did experience set failure(s), generally the failed sets were collected early in the establishment testing history, with the exception of broiler establishments where failure(s) occurred both early and late in the course of testing. Small establishments were more likely to have experienced a set failure than were large or very small establishments, and broiler establishments were more likely to have failed than were ground beef, market hog, or steer-heifer establishments. Agency response to failed Salmonella sample sets in the form of in-depth verification reviews and related establishment-initiated corrective actions have likely contributed to declines in the number of establishments that failed sets. A focus on food safety measures in small establishments and broiler processing establishments should further reduce the number of sample sets that fail to meet the Salmonella performance standard.

  14. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species...

  15. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp . jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp . doylei ). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon . Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter . The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  16. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microorganisms, Qualitative Indicators for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that, for a few years now, our focus is more and more concentrated on safety and security of meat and vegetable products, this study’s aim is to evaluate the quality of certain well - known meat products (sausages, dry salami, and half-dried salami, purchased in a supermarket, from Timisoara. Microbiological tests were made especially on sanitary microbiological indicators (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella. These tests emphasize hygiene in processing ang handling of products. In some cases, it higtlights how various heat treatments (pasteurization type apply to food products. It also establishes the microbial load on the microscopic field and the colony forming units, by a culture method in plates, at 37º C for 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, it has been established that, concerning the microbial load and the presence or absence of coliform bacteria, studied products fall into the quality permitted by applicable law.

  18. Meat products and consumption culture in the East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Chang; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption is a basic activity necessary for survival of the human race and evolved as an integral part of mankind's existence. This not only includes food consumption habits and styles but also food preparation methods, tool development for raw materials, harvesting and preservation as well as preparation of food dishes which are influenced by geographical localization, climatic conditions and abundance of the fauna and flora. Food preparation, trade and consumption have become leading factors shaping human behavior and developing a way of doing things that created tradition which has been passed from generation to generation making it unique for almost every human niche in the surface of the globe. Therefore, the success in understanding the culture of other countries or ethnic groups lies in understanding their rituals in food consumption customs. Meat consumption culture in the East has not been well developed by its characteristic environment, religion, history, and main food staples. However, recently, the amount of meat production and consumption of the Eastern countries has grown rapidly by the globalization of food industry and rapid economic growth of the countries. This manuscript introduces meat-based products and consumption culture in Asian countries. However, because the environments and cultures within Asia are too diverse to cover all food cultures, this manuscript focused mainly on three northeast Asian countries including China, Japan, and Korea (Republic of) and some southeast Asian countries including Vietnam and Thailand, which have similar environments and cultural interactions historically but retain their own characteristic food culture.

  19. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  20. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hathwar, Swapna C.; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared t...

  1. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  3. Comparison of the amounts of taste-related compounds in raw and cooked meats from broilers and Korean native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the taste-related compound content in the breast and leg meat from 100-d-old Korean native chickens (KNC-100) and 32-d-old commercial broilers (CB-32) and determining the changes in these compounds during cooking. Cocks from certified meat-type commercial broiler (Ross) and Korean native chicken (Woorimatdag) strains were raised under similar standard commercial conditions, and a total of 10 birds from each breed were slaughtered at 32 and 100 d of age, which represents their market ages, respectively. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared separately from the breast and leg and analyzed. The KNC-100 showed significantly higher concentrations of inosine 5'-monophosphate, reducing sugars, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid than CB-32 did. Additionally, significantly higher inosine 5'-monophosphate, cysteine, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were observed in the breast meat, whereas the leg meat had higher concentration of glutamic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid (P cooking process, except oleic and linoleic acids. We suggest that the higher levels of taste-related compounds present in KNC-100 meat compared with CB-32 meat may result in the unique taste of the former meat, as has been previously reported. In addition, the results of this study may provide useful information for selection and breeding programs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; Pcooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (Pcooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities.

  5. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  6. Immunofluorescent determination of wheat protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In food industry nowadays, there are various plant-origin protein additives which are meant for production of meat products. Among the most frequent additives of this type there are different kinds of flour, starch, fiber, and plant-origin proteins. Their usage at present is limited by the existing legislation not to prevent consumer deception but also for reasons of possible influence on consumer health. Therefore, this problem is paid a lot of attention not only in the Czech Republic but also all over the world. The main risk is seen in the impossibility to choose a suitable foodstuff for an individual prone to allergic reactions. Potential allergens are also often plant-origin raw materials which are added into foodstuffs for their technological qualities and low price. Wheat is widely cultivated cereal as well as an important source of proteins. After ingestion or inhalation, wheat proteins may cause adverse reactions. These adverse effects include a wide range of disorders which are dependent on the method of contact with wheat protein. These adverse effects can then take the form of various clinical manifestations, such as celiac disease, T-cell mediated inflammatory bowel disease, dermatitis, skin rash, breathing difficulties, allergy to pollen or to wheat flour or food allergy to foodstuffs containing gluten. The only possible protection against adverse immune reactions for those with food allergies is strictly excluding the allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. In order to avoid misleading consumers and also to protect allergic consumers, analytical methods applicable to all types of foodstuffs have been developed. Unfortunately, detection of allergens in

  7. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  8. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  9. Perspectives of the radurization of meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmin, V.V.; Silaev, M.P.; Makarova, M.P.; Prizenko, V.K.

    1973-01-01

    At present radiation doses of 0.2-0.6 Mrad are the most promising for meat treatment as they do not result in undesirable changes of the organoleptic properties of the products. Radurization of the half-finished products beefsteak (I), ''schnitzel'' (II) and comminuted salted meat (III), vacuum packed in polymer packages, was studied. In order to exclude exudation and inhibit oxidative changes some samples (II) were rolled in an ascorbic acid-tripolyphosphate mixture. Some samples (III) were cured with pyrophosphate. Irradiation was carried out by means of gamma rays with doses of 0.2-0.4 (I), 0.6 (II) and 0.3 (III) Mrad. Samples were kept at +5 0 C. On the basis of organoleptic and chemical investigations, microbiological and technological tests for III it was found that the shelf-life of high-quality beefsteak irradiated with doses of 0.4 Mrad lasted 4 weeks, with doses of 0.2 Mrad for 2 weeks, with 0.3 Mrad for 3 weeks. Schnitzel breaded and irradiated with 0.6 Mrad was of high quality after 2 months of storage. The meat cured with pyrophosphate kept its technological and consumer qualities during the same period of time. It was calculated that by using a 60 Co installation, with an activity of 400 kg-equivalent of radium and irradiating a ton of half-finished products per day with doses of 0.4 Mrad and a coefficient of radiation utilization of 30%, transport expenses of radurized half-finished meat products (I) would be profitable at distances above 100 km compared to the transport of cattle or, at distances over 700 km, as compared to that of carcasses halves or quarters. (F.J.)

  10. Protein-carbohydrate supplements in the production of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Tolpigina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationality of the use of protein-carbohydrate additive in the technology of meat products was justified. The capability of the fiber to stabilizate properties of meat systems was investigated. There was established permissible limits of the use of additives in prescription solutions in the production of sausage products of a various price level according to the criterion of biological values. The trial production of sausage products was held. By the methods of mathematical statistics were optimized compositions of protein-polysaccharide additives.

  11. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss th...

  12. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-12-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss the concept of In Vitro Meat production system, articulate the underlying technology and analyse the context of its implications, as proposed by several scientists and stakeholders. The challenges facing this emerging technology have also been discussed.

  13. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  14. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market | Asheim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A goat's meat production system based on suckling cashmere goats might also be ... The demand for goat's meat is high when sold at equal price of lamb's meat, but ... It is concluded that goat farmers should be paid a premium when keeping ...

  15. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste perception established that a decrease in a salt crystal size to 20 µm enabled reducing an amount of added table salt due to an increase in the salty taste intensity in food products. Investigation of the compatibility of different taste directions is also interesting as one of the approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in food products. The use of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w double emulsions allows controlling a release of encapsulated ingredients (salt, which enables enhancement of salty taste. The other alternative method of technological processing of meat raw material for reducing salt in meat products is the use of high pressure processing. This method has several advantages and allows not only an increase in the salty taste intensity, but also formation of a stable emulsion, an increase in water binding capacity of minced meat and extension of shelf-life.

  16. Impact of rearing conditions on the microbiological quality of raw retail poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bridgshe; Crilly, Nate; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Wallis, Audra; Zhang, Nan; Hanning, Irene

    2013-08-01

    There is a gap in knowledge of microbiological quality in raw chicken products produced by nonconventional methods and no studies have reported the microbiological quality of turkeys produced under different rearing environments. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the microbiological quality of conventionally and organically reared whole chicken and turkey carcasses purchased from 3 retail outlets in Knoxville, Tenn., U.S.A. A total of 100 raw broiler chickens organically (n = 50) and 50 raw turkey carcasses consisting of 3 brands reared either conventionally (n = 25) or organically (n = 25) were evaluated. The FDA BAM protocol for rinsing poultry carcasses was used to enumerate of aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus spp., and for qualitative analysis of Salmonella. Organic chickens from one brand had the highest average counts of aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter (4.8, 4.8, and 4.7 Log10 CFU/mL rinsate, respectively) while the other organic brand had the lowest average counts (3.4, 3.3, and 3.1, respectively) of all 4 brands evaluated. The organic turkeys had the highest average counts of these same bacteria (4, 3.9, and 3.8, respectively) compared to the 2 brands of conventional turkeys evaluated. Salmonella (5% prevalence) was isolated only from organic chickens and turkeys. From these data, it appears that the microbiological quality of the raw product was not dependent on rearing conditions and, thus, it cannot be assumed that organic raw poultry is safer than conventionally raised poultry in terms of microbiological quality. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  18. The Sensory Quality of Meat, Game, Poultry, Seafood and Meat Products as Affected by Intense Light Pulses: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasevic, Igor; Rajkovic, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of 16 different varieties of meat, meat products, game, poultry and seafood are reviewed. Changes induced by ILP are animal species, type of meat product and fluences applied dependent. ILP significantly deteriorates sensory quality of cooked meat products. It causes less change in the sensory properties of dry cured than cooked meat products while fermented sausage is least affected. The higher fluence applied significantly changes ...

  19. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Al-Hijazeen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1 control (none added, (2 2.5 ppm TA, (3 5 ppm TA, (4 10 ppm TA, and (5 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05 lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage.

  1. The potentiality of synbiotic minced meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Khavaninzade; Mahnaz Hashemiravan; Shila Berenji

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of veal and mutton with high protein and the most important iron source at growth age is of great importance. Red meat has high vitamin (B12), mineral (zinc) and pigments. To produce function food, various compounds as probiotics, prebiotics and diet fiber and secondary plant metabolites as phenol compound are added to food products. The present study applied the mixture of mutton and veal, 0.5% Inulin and three levels of microbial inoculation of lactobacillus plantarum1.5× 107 ...

  2. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  3. Assessing the potential for raw meat to influence human colonization with Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; Zhao, Chang; Thapaliya, Dipendra; Bitterman, Patrick; Kates, Ashley E.; Hanson, Blake M.; Smith, Tara C.

    2017-01-01

    The role of household meat handling and consumption in the transfer of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from livestock to consumers is not well understood. Examining the similarity of S. aureus colonizing humans and S. aureus in meat from the stores in which those individuals shop can provide insight into the role of meat in human S. aureus colonization. S. aureus isolates were collected from individuals in rural and urban communities in Iowa (n?=?3347) and contemporaneously from meat produc...

  4. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production.

  5. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat at retail markets in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, T Y; Mahyudin, N A; Basri, D F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, C W J; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the major food-borne diseases in many countries. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium in raw chicken meat from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. The most probable number (MPN) in combination with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method was used to quantify the Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in the samples. The occurrence of Salmonella spp., S. Enteritidis, and S. Typhimurium in 120 chicken meat samples were 20.80%, 6.70%, and 2.50%, respectively with estimated quantity varying from retail chicken meat could be a source of multiple antimicrobial-resistance Salmonella and may constitute a public health concern in Malaysia. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Meat Products and Meat Processing Plants in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in several types of ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and in the environment of meat processing plants. A total of 129 samples of RTE meat products and 110 samples from work surfaces and equipment were analyzed. L. monocytogenes was detected in 6 out of 35 cooked products (17.14%, 21 out of 57 raw-cured products (36.84%, and 9 out of 37 dry-cured, salted products (24.32%. The number of sample units that exceeded the food safety limit of 100 cfu/g decreased from the manufacture date to half shelf life, and then it was further reduced at the end of shelf life. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25 out of 110 (22.72% food contact surfaces. The number of positive and negative results from both food and environmental samples were cross-tabulated and the calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ was 0.3233, indicating a fair agreement in terms of Listeria contamination. L. monocytogenes was recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures in four plants, highlighting the importance of thorough cleaning and disinfection.

  8. Scope of millet grains as an extender in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman; Sharma, B D

    2015-01-01

    India stood first for millet production in the world and plays a significant role in meat production and consumption too. To meet the demand of health conscious consumers for healthy and nutritious meat food item, the incorporation of millet grains and its byproducts to the meat products by the processors can serve the purpose. The multidimensional positive nutritional and functional characteristics millet grain not only improve the acceptability of the meat products but also increase its own demand as a main coarse food grain in competition to the wheat and rice over the world.

  9. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  10. Microbial analysis of meat and meat products sold in fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the rate of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat meat and meat products sold in different fast food restaurants in Aba. This study was carried out between June and August, 2015. Samples were collected aseptically from five fast food restaurants using sterile polythene bags.

  11. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.

  12. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  13. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  14. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  15. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shirzadegan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15. A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05. Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05. Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05. According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities at week 6 (P<0.05, but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels.

  16. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  17. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  18. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  19. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Client-Owned Dogs and Cats, and Retail Raw Meat Pet Food in the Manawatu, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, K; Midwinter, A C; Marshall, J C; Rogers, L E; Biggs, P J; Acke, E

    2017-09-01

    Campylobacter causes acute gastroenteritis in people worldwide and is frequently isolated from food, animals and the environment. The disease is predominately food-borne but many routes of transmission and sources of infection have been described, including contact with pets. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs and cats varies widely, and data on New Zealand pets are limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in dogs, cats and retail raw meat pet food products in New Zealand and to characterize Campylobacter jejuni isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ninety dogs and 110 cats examined at the Massey University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for elective procedures, and fifty locally purchased retail raw meat pet diets were sampled. Two culture protocols combining Bolton broth enrichment and mCCDA and CAT agars in a microaerobic atmosphere at 42°C and 37°C with species identification using PCR were performed. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus was 36%, 13%, 23% and 1% in dogs and 16%, 5%, 5% and 7% in cats, respectively. One dog had Campylobacter lari confirmed, and three dogs and one cat had multiple Campylobacter spp. detected. Significantly more animals tested positive using CAT than mCCDA agar (P dogs, whereas attendance for dental treatment was a risk factor for cats. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 28%, C. jejuni 22%, C. lari 6% and Campylobacter coli 6% of food samples. Six isolates positive by Campylobacter genus PCR were identified as Arcobacter butzleri. Poultry meat was more likely to be positive than non-poultry meat (P = 0.006). Of the 13 C. jejuni pet isolates with full MLST profiles, eight were of different sequence types (ST) and all nine food isolates were of different STs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Lee, K.-H.; Kim, H.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, or β-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO 2 to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams

  1. Improvement of shelf stability and processing properties of meat products by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Kyong-Haeng; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the processing properties of meat products, emulsion-type sausage, beef patties and pork loin ham were manufactured. Most contaminated bacteria were killed by 3 kGy-irradiation to raw ground beef, and sausage can be manufactured with desirable flavor, a reduction of NaCl and phosphate, and extension of shelf life using gamma irradiation on the raw meat. The beef patties were manufactured with the addition of antioxidants (200 ppm), BHA, ascorbyl palmitate, α-tocopherol, or β-carotene, and gamma-irradiation. Retardation of lipid oxidation appeared at the patties with an antioxidant. A dose of 5 kGy was observed to be as effective as the use of 200 ppm NaNO 2 to provide and maintain the desired color of the product during storage. After curing, irradiation, heating and smoking could extensively prolong the shelf life of the hams.

  2. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  3. Land and Water requirements for meat production in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Wanli

    2010-01-01

    China will face a challenge for meat production with its available land and water. The production of meat requires substantial amounts of livestock feed, which in turn require vast amounts of land and water to produce it. As China has continued to develop

  4. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  5. Meat and milk products in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Hermansen, John Erik; Eder, P.

    2009-01-01

    The overall environmental impacts from consumption of meat and dairy products in EU-27 have been assessed by the use of hybrid life cycle assessment (input-output data supplemented by specific process data). For the impact assessment, we applied a flexible model that allows results to be presented...... both in 15 traditional environmental midpoint indicators (global warming potentials, photochemical ozone creation potential, etc.) and in monetary units (Euro). Specifically for this project, a damage model for aquatic eutrophication was developed. We identified and quantified the improvement options...... for all processes contributing more than 10% to each of the midpoint impact categories. Rebound effects, synergies and dysergies of the different options were taken into account and we show the importance of rebound effects and interrelationships of the improvement options, as well as market constraints...

  6. Tourist ships on the Danube as an opportunity for export of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development launches growth of other complementary industries. River tourism, as a special selective tourism form, experiences intensive development, with an importance for all the regions through which the Danube, as an integral part of the Rhine - Main - Danube waterway, flows. During cruising, the largest consumption is achieved on the ship itself, where meat and meat products are an integral element of every meal and represent the most expensive component of the dish. The task of this paper is to analyse the consumption of meat and meat products on six tourist ships run by to 'Grand Circle Corporation' in 2013, in order to point out the possibility of supplying them with meat and meat products from sources in the territory where the ships sail. The paper presents the current suppliers and manufacturers of meat and meat products in Republic of Serbia that could supply the company 'Grand Circle Cruise Line' and other tourist ships that cruise on the Danube. Also, the research indicates that the export of meat products from the Republic Serbia could have a significant effect on improving the agricultural conditions and food production through increased competition, assuming the Serbian manufacturers supply most of tourist ships and not only the six ships analysed in this paper. Research results, specifically, point out the possibility of increasing export of poultry and beef if the potential demand of each of the eight companies with their 54 ships which operate tourist cruises on the Danube is taken into account. The data have been systematized, analysed and presented statistically in tables and graphs.

  7. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  8. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  9. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  10. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for families. When you see the DfE logo on a product it means that the DfE scientific review team has screened each ingredient for potential human health and environmental effects and that-based on currently available information, EPA predictive models, and expert judgment-the product contains only those ingredients that pose the least concern among chemicals in their class. Product manufacturers who become DfE partners, and earn the right to display the DfE logo on recognized products, have invested heavily in research, development and reformulation to ensure that their ingredients and finished product line up on the green end of the health and environmental spectrum while maintaining or improving product performance. EPA's Design for the Environment Program (DfE) has allowed use of their logo on over 2500 products. These products are formulated from the safest possible ingredients and have reduced the use of chemicals of concern by hundreds of millions of pounds. A Spanish version of this dataset is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/dfe/pubs/products/list_of_labeled_products.html

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (Pcooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C 20 ) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A digital PCR method for identifying and quantifying adulteration of meat species in raw and processed food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junan Ren

    Full Text Available Meat adulteration is a worldwide concern. In this paper, a new droplet digital PCR (ddPCR method was developed for the quantitative determination of the presence of chicken in sheep and goat meat products. Meanwhile, a constant (multiplication factor was introduced to transform the ratio of copy numbers to the proportion of meats. The presented ddPCR method was also proved to be more accurate (showing bias of less than 9% in the range from 5% to 80% than real-time PCR, which has been widely used in this determination. The method exhibited good repeatability and stability in different thermal treatments and at ultra-high pressure. The relative standard deviation (RSD values of 5% chicken content was less than 5.4% for ultra-high pressure or heat treatment. Moreover, we confirmed that different parts of meat had no effect on quantification accuracy of the ddPCR method. In contrast to real-time PCR, we examined the performance of ddPCR as a more precise, sensitive and stable analytical strategy to overcome potential problems of discrepancies in amplification efficiency discrepancy and to obtain the copy numbers directly without standard curves. The method and strategy developed in this study can be applied to quantify the presence and to confirm the absence of adulterants not only to sheep but also to other kinds of meat and meat products.

  13. [Update on microbiological quality assurance meat and meat products in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, H; Latrache, H

    2018-03-01

    Food safety has become an absolute necessity in all countries. As a result, Morocco has taken several measures and actions to develop food safety and food-borne disease control. This study aimed to highlight the level of improvement in the quality assurance of meat and meat products in Morocco. It is based on a non-exhaustive review of the regulatory texts governing food safety in the country, as well as a statistical study on establishments of meat and meat products adopting a self-checking system and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food. Morocco has introduced several laws and regulations requiring sanitary control of food products. Also, the number of establishments of meat and meat products adopting a system of self-control and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food has improved significantly. It has increased from 58 in 2007 to 273 in 2016. The adoption of self-monitoring systems allows better access to international markets, improved quality of food products and a considerable reduction in microbial contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Safe poultry meat production in the next century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    The revolutionary industrialisation of the poultry industry in the last 30 years has made the food poultry meat available for large groups of consumers. Due to its nutritional, sensory and economical characteristics, poultry meat is by far the most popular animal food product world-wide.

  15. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km 2 , with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  16. Radioactivity in New Zealand meat products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    Full text: New Zealand has no nuclear power programme of radioactive waste disposal programme. The only artificial radioactivity detectable in the New Zealand environment is global fallout from nuclear weapons tests conducted mainly in the northern hemisphere before 1964. This fallout in New Zealand is currently at its lowest level since environmental monitoring began in 1960. The total beta activity deposited in rain during 1985, for example, averaged 76 MBQ/km{sup 2}, with most of that being due to naturally occurring radionuclides, principally lead-210/Bismuth-210. Levels of artificial radioactivity in New Zealand dairy products reflect this very low deposition rate. During 1985, for example, Strontium-90 and Caesium-137 levels in cow's milk averaged 0.035 BG/GCA and 0.27BQ/QK respectively. Those levels were similar to, or less than, levels reported in northern hemisphere countries during 1985. No change in environmental contamination levels has been recorded in New Zealand during 1985. The very low deposition rate and milk contamination levels indicate that fallout contamination levels generally are insignificant in New Zealand and monitoring of other foodstuffs such as meat products is not warranted. (author)

  17. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  18. APPLICATION FULLERENE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS CONTAINING KLENBUTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In modern conditions the majority of developing livestock complexes, various chemical additives, apply to cattle feeding. One of such preparations is clenbuterol. Clenbuterol is β-2-adrenostimulyator belonging to group β-agonist who stimulate growth of muscular weight and regulate a ratio of fatty and muscular tissue at cultivation of agricultural animals and birds. In Russia results of researches in which it is recommended to apply clenbuterol as a growth factor at cattle cultivation are published. Thus the risk of influences of the residual maintenance of a preparation in animal husbandry production on health of consumers wasn't estimated. We conducted researches in the field of studying of properties fullerene and clenbuterol and their opportunities interaction among themselves. For identification clenbuterol in meat raw materials the synthesis of Prato based on a functionalization fullerene by C60 and C70 consisting in its transformation in fullerene on reactions of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide on multiple communications of C=C of a fulleren kernel was moved. Reaction took place with allocation of a deposit of the dark color which analysis proved that is a product of interaction of substances investigated by us. This experiment gives the chance to identify clenbuterolfullerene.

  19. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity decreased residual nitrite level in finished cured meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  20. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk and commercial starter, respectively, for production of yoghurt. The cow milk used was both Fresh milk and dried powdered milk (DANO). The cost of production of the yoghurt samples as well as their chemical, microbial and organoleptic ...

  1. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  2. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  3. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Weijzen, Pascalle; Engels, Wim; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2011-06-01

    What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  5. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance (γ-D 10 = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of γ-D 10 values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N 2 , whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  6. MONITORING OF A GLUTEN CONTENT IN SELECTED MEAT PRODUCTS FROM THREE BIGGEST MEAT PRODUCERS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on a monitoring of a gluten content in selected meat products from three biggest and most popular meat producers in Slovakia. Gluten is a type of protein complex which is typical naturally presented component of wheat, barley and rye. Flour from this sources with natural gluten content is also added into the some type of meat products and other foodstuffs for a technological reasons hand in hand with economic reasons.  Some of the gluten quantities could be hazardous for sensitive people as celiatics and allergic to gluten. Within the context of this reasons there is a need to control the amounts of this hidden type of gluten inclusive of spice mixes using in a meat production. Monitoring by itself was realized with a use of the sandwich ELISA RIDASCREEN® Fast Gliadin test. ELISA means enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is based on a specific reaction among the enzyme and antigen leading to a creation of a complex.  This test provides us exact quantitification of a gluten content in this type of food products using a colorimetric reaction of a complex by observing of all fundamentals of this technique. There were analysed 16 meat products and 5 types of spice mixes in total.doi:10.5219/167

  7. Authentication of traditional game meat products by the use of species-specific PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Cristina; Melo, Vítor S.; Mafra, I.; Amaral, J.S.; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity evaluation in meat products encompasses many issues, including the fraudulent substitution of higher commercial valued meats by cheaper meats and the presence of undeclared species. Due to its characteristic and intensive flavour and its healthier composition, game meats are considered as delicacy products and command higher prices compared to other meats, thus being susceptible targets for frauds. The manufacture of traditional meat products is a long-established practice in ...

  8. Design and analysis of fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, J.A.; Cardona, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three configurations for fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol using Escherichia coli were simulated and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus, respectively. These assessments considered raw glycerol (60 wt%) purification to both crude glycerol (88 wt%) and pure glycerol (98 wt%). The highest purification cost (PC) was obtained using pure glycerol due to its higher energy consumption in the distillation stage. In addition, the remaining methanol in the raw glycerol stream was recovered and recycled, decreasing the purification costs. The E. coli strain is able to convert crude glycerol (at 10 g/L or 20 g/L), or pure glycerol (at 10 g/L) to ethanol. Among these three glycerol concentrations, the lowest bioconversion cost was obtained when crude glycerol was diluted at 20 g/L. Purification and global production costs were compared with the commercial prices of glycerol and fuel ethanol from corn and sugarcane. Purification costs of raw glycerol were lower than previously reported values due to the methanol recovery. Global production costs for fuel ethanol from glycerol were lower than the reported values for corn-based production and higher than those for cane-based production. (author)

  9. Polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M; González, I; Pavón, M A; Pegels, N; Hernández, P E; García, T; Martín, R

    2010-05-01

    A PCR assay was developed for the identification of meats and commercial meat products from quail (Coturnix coturnix), pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), partridge (Alectoris spp.), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), pigeon (Columba spp.), Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), and song thrush (Turdus philomelos) based on oligonucleotide primers targeting specific sequences from the mitochondrial D-loop region. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 96, 100, 104, 106, 147, 127, and 154 bp in length for quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock, and song thrush tissues, respectively. The specificity of each primer pair was tested against DNA from various game and domestic species. In this work, satisfactory amplification was accomplished in the analysis of experimentally pasteurized (72 degrees C for 30 min) and sterilized (121 degrees C for 20 min) meats, as well as in commercial meat products from the target species. The technique was also applied to raw and sterilized muscular binary mixtures, with a detection limit of 0.1% (wt/wt) for each of the targeted species. The proposed PCR assay represents a rapid and straightforward method for the detection of possible mislabeling in game bird meat products.

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  11. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  12. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  13. Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-05

    Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products.  Created: 3/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/5/2012.

  14. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  16. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  17. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honikel, Karl-Otto

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are used for the purpose of curing meat products. In most countries the use of both substances, usually added as potassium or sodium salts, is limited. Either the ingoing or the residual amounts are regulated by laws. The effective substance is nitrite acting primarily as an inhibitor for some microorganisms. Nitrite added to a batter of meat is partially oxidized to nitrate by sequestering oxygen - thus it acts as an antioxidant - a part of nitrite is bound to myoglobin, forming the heat stable NO-myoglobin, a part is bound to proteins or other substances in meat. Nitrate may be reduced to nitrite in raw meat products by microorganisms. As oxidation and reduction may occur the concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate in a product has to be controlled and measured especially if the residual amounts are regulated. This sum of both compounds is important for the human body. Intake of nitrate with food leads to its absorption over the digestive tract into the blood. In the oral cavity nitrate appears again where it is reduced to nitrite. With the saliva the nitrite is mixed with food, having the same effect as nitrite in a batter (inhibiting growth of some pathogenic microorganisms) and swallowed. In the stomach nitrite can eventually form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the acidic environment.

  18. Effects of heat on meat proteins - Implications on structure and quality of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornberg, E

    2005-07-01

    Globular and fibrous proteins are compared with regard to structural behaviour on heating, where the former expands and the latter contracts. The meat protein composition and structure is briefly described. The behaviour of the different meat proteins on heating is discussed. Most of the sarcoplasmic proteins aggregate between 40 and 60 °C, but for some of them the coagulation can extend up to 90°C. For myofibrillar proteins in solution unfolding starts at 30-32°C, followed by protein-protein association at 36-40°C and subsequent gelation at 45-50°C (conc.>0.5% by weight). At temperatures between 53 and 63°C the collagen denaturation occurs, followed by collagen fibre shrinkage. If the collagen fibres are not stabilised by heat-resistant intermolecular bonds, it dissolves and forms gelatine on further heating. The structural changes on cooking in whole meat and comminuted meat products, and the alterations in water-holding and texture of the meat product that it leads to, are then discussed.

  19. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  20. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus. The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  1. Dynamic strategic responses among advertisers: the case of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Hyde; Brent Gloy

    2007-01-01

    The case of strategic advertising response is examined for branded and generic meat products (beef, pork, and poultry). A dynamic conceptual model is developed to identify the determinants of advertising expenditures. A time-series model is then used to examine the competitive behavior of branded and generic meat advertisers. The results identify two types of advertising strategies those based upon changes in revenues and those based upon changes in competitor advertising expenditures. Most g...

  2. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2010-01-01

    and Campylobacter, and to a lesser extent Yersinia, Escherichia coli O157 and Listeria. Danish initiatives to improve the safety of meat products have focused on the entire production chain from the farm to the consumer, with a special emphasis on the pre-harvest stage of production. The control of bacterial......During the last two decades the major food safety problems in Denmark, as determined by the number of human patients, has been associated with bacterial infections stemming from meat products and eggs. The bacterial pathogens causing the majority of human infections has been Salmonella...

  3. ELISA for Detection of Soya Proteins in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect competitive ELISA method for the detection of soya proteins in meat products was developed. The detection limit of the method is 0.5% of the weight of added soya protein. A total of 131 meat product samples such as salamis or sausages from the Czech Republic market were investigated for the presence of soya proteins. Soya proteins were detected in 84% of the investigated samples without any declaration on the package of the product. The use of vegetable additives, namely soya in meat products in the market of the Czech Republic is very frequent and the restriction of its usage by legislation relates only to some kinds of durable products and ham (Act 264/2003 Coll.. The need for sensitive inspecting methods for soya protein detection is not only associated with the economic aspect (adulteration, but mainly with consumer health protection in case of allergy to soya proteins.

  4. Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Raw Meat in Ağrı, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Deniz Ayaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC are significant foodborne pathogens worldwide. While S. aureus can cause mild superficial skin infections or life-threatening bacteremia and endocarditis, as well as toxininduced cases such as toxic shock syndrome; E. coli O157:H7 can cause symptoms from mild diarrhea to severe hemorrhagic colitis (HC, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to find out the prevalence and seasonal distribution of S. aureus in 214 frozen raw meat (turkey, chicken and beef and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in 70 raw beef with the characterization of the E. coli O157:H7 isolate by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: For the detection of S. aureus, a total of 214 frozen raw meat samples including 74 turkey meat, 70 chicken meat and 70 beef cuts (approximately 2 × 3 cm cubic parts; and for the detection of E. coli O157:H7, a total of 70 frozen raw beef samples that all were produced from national companies and consumed in Ağrı, Turkey were analyzed. Results: Out of 214 meat samples, 25.7 % (18/70 of the beef, 11.4 % (8/74 of the chicken meat, and 5.4 % (4/70 of the turkey meat samples were contaminated with S. aureus. Out of 70 frozen raw beef samples, only 1 (1.4% was identified as both Shiga toxin 1 and 2producing E. coli O157:H7 by the detection of stx1, stx2, eaeA, hly, and fliCh7 according to multiplex PCR analysis. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that occurrence frequency of S. aureus was higher in frozen raw beef than in raw chicken and turkey meat samples. Although the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was low in beef, the presence of virulence genes, especially toxin genesrema in a significant public health concern.

  5. Immunomagnetic separation and conventional culture procedure for detection of naturally occurring Salmonella in raw pork sausages and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripabelli, G; Sammarco, M L; Ruberto, A; Iannitto, G; Grasso, G M

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and conventional selective enrichment procedures using selenite cystine broth (SC) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV) in 137 naturally contaminated food samples (69 raw pork sausages and 68 chicken meat). The utilization of SC or IMS appeared to be the most appropriate enrichment procedure: 15 out of 18 Salmonella-positive samples (83.3%) were detected by SC and 12 (66.7%) by IMS; RV yielded only seven positive isolations (38.9%). However, RV yielded the highest count of Salmonella colonies per plate and the lowest interference by competing organisms. IMS could become a reliable alternative to standard enrichment procedures and a combined IMS and selective enrichment broth could increase the chance of Salmonella recovery.

  6. INULIN AS A PREBIOTIC AND FAT REPLACER IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vasilev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat reduction in meat products is demanded by consumers concerninghealth issues but represents a serious challenge for meat industry as fatty tissue plays an important role for the products properties. Because of that, a special attention is paid to the substances that could replace fatty tissue in meat products. Inulin represents a non digestible fructooligosaccharide that on the one hand represents a good prebiotic substance and from the other hand posses such technological propeties that make it a good fat replacer. In  aqueous systems inulin forms a gel having a structure similar to fats, it has neutral taste and smell and have no impact on the aroma of meat products. Inulin could be added to meat products in form of powder as well as a water suspension. Low fat fermented sausages with good sensory quality could be produced with the addition of inulin as a fat replacer, and such products have abit lower pH- and aw-value and contain a higher number of lactic acid bacteria then conventional products. In heat treated sausages, inulin improves water holding capacity and stability of the low fat meat batter, which reduces cooking loss and shows no adverse effect on the sensory properties of the low fat product. But, there are also certain limitations because it should be paid attention to the degree of polymerization as well as the amount of inulin added the product. Otherwise, on the one hand there could be some adverse effectson sensory properties of the product and from the other hand an excessive amount of inulin could lead to digestive problems by consumers.

  7. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  8. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  9. Test marketing and consumer acceptance of irradiated meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhicheng; Feng Zhixiong; Jiang Peizhen

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two parts: irradiation processing of cooked meat and irradiation preservation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut meats. Irradiation of prepackaged pickled meat products dipped in grains stillage at a dose 6-8 kGy eliminated common food-borne microorganisms, such as E. Coli and other microbial pathogens and extended the shelf life of the product to 10 days at 5 deg. C. Test marketing of 40,000 bags (about 10,000 kg) of the product in more than 100 supermarkets in the city of Shanghai showed no untoward problem with consumer acceptance. Irradiation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut pork at a dose 3 kGy led to inactivation of microbial pathogens and parasites with a concomitant reduction in numbers of common spoilage microorganisms and extension of shelf life of the product for 30 days at 5 deg. C. The cost benefit and marketing applications were evaluated. (author)

  10. Effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuoyao; Cai, Jingyi; Shi, Zhujun; Tian, Gang; Yan, Dong; Chen, Delin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material extrusion and steam conditioning on feed pellet quality and nutrient digestibility of growing meat rabbits, in order to determine appropriate rabbit feed processing methods and processing parameters. In Exp. 1, an orthogonal design was adopted. Barrel temperature, material moisture content and feed rate were selected as test factors, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content was selected as an evaluation index to research the optimum extrusion parameters. In Exp. 2, a two-factor design was adopted. Four kinds of rabbit feeds were processed and raw material extrusion adopted optimum extrusion parameters of Exp. 1. A total of 40 healthy and 42-day-old rabbits with similar weight were used in a randomized design, which consisted of 4 groups and 10 replicates in each group (1 rabbits in each replicate). The adaptation period lasted for 7 d, and the digestion trial lasted for 4 d. The results showed as follows: 1) ADF was significantly affected by barrel temperature ( P  digestibility of dry matter and total energy ( P  digestibility of crude fiber (CF), ADF and NDF ( P  digestibility of rabbit feed. Thus, using extrusion and steam conditioning technology at the same time in the weaning rabbits feed processing can improve the pellet quality and nutrient apparent digestibility of rabbit feed.

  11. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  12. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2008-01-01

    processing plants and was in addition found on moulded meat products. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified. The most frequently isolated were P. brevicompactum and the closely related P. bialowiezense, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. fagi and a new, not described species named P. “milanense” (ined......Mould growth is not accepted on most types of North European meat products and is considered as both an economic and aesthetic problem for the producers. In order to determine the mycobiota in processing areas of fermented sausage and liver pâté, filamentous fungi were isolated from air, equipment.......; Frisvad, 2007 personal com.). Isolation of a new species illustrates that the mycobiota in the processing areas of North European meat products has not yet been intensively investigated. Several mycotoxin producing species were isolated; the most prevalent were P. brevicompactum/P. bialowiezense and P...

  13. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    /neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species....... Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally......, lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin...

  14. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Gadgil, Priyadarshini; Houser, Terry A; Hunt, Melvin C; Smith, J Scott

    2012-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs), potent mutagens and a risk factor for human cancers, are produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The aim of this study was to determine the HCA content in cooked meat products (beef, chicken, pork, fish) prepared by various cooking methods (pan frying, oven broiling, and oven baking at 170 to 230°C) that are preferred by U.S. meat consumers. The primary HCAs in these samples were PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine) (1.49-10.89ng/g), MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-4.0ng/g), and DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline) (not detected-3.57ng/g). Type and content of HCAs in cooked meat samples were highly dependent on cooking conditions. The total HCA content in well-done meat was 3.5 times higher than that of medium-rare meat. Fried pork (13.91ng/g) had higher levels of total HCAs than fried beef (8.92ng/g) and fried chicken (7.00ng/g). Among the samples, fried bacon contained the highest total HCA content (17.59ng/g). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrospun antimicrobial hybrid mats: Innovative packaging material for meat and meat-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef; Yang, Jieun; Ryu, Kyeong-Seon; Hwang, I H

    2015-07-01

    To prevent the development and spread of spoilage/pathogenic microorganisms via meat foodstuffs, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging can serve as a potential alternative. The objective of this study was to develop a new class of antimicrobial hybrid packaging mat composed of biodegradable polyurethane supplemented with virgin olive oil and zinc oxide via electrospinning. Instead of mixing antimicrobial compounds directly with food, incorporation in packaging materials allows the functional effect at food surfaces where microbial activity is localized. The nanofibers were characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD and TEM. The antibacterial activity was tested against two common foodborne pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium. The present results indicated that incorporation of olive oil in the polymer affected morphology of PU nanofibers and nanocomposite packaging were able to inhibit growth of pathogens. Thus; as-spun mat can be used as prospective antimicrobial packaging, which potentially reduces contamination of meat/meat-products. Moreover, introduced biodegradable packaging for meat products could serve to replace PVC films and simultaneously help to protect natural environment.

  16. Approaches to the production and use of microbial transglutaminase in emulsified meat and vegetable systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Glotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the technology of traditional and new forms of food, the modification of structure of proteins is carry out in two opposite directions: the hydrolytic destruction of high-molecular polymers and the artificial creation of polymeric structures of high molecular mass. The transglutaminase preparations (protein-glutamine (-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13, TG are used in practical work for realization of the second direction. The main mechanisms of action are polymerization reactions, which lead to a change in the hydrophobicity of protein molecules. The main catalyzed reactions are acyl transfer, binding between glutamine and lysine residues of proteins and deamination. The authors analyzed the approaches to the preparation, properties and studied the joint effect of temperature and pH on the activity of the commercial preparation Revada TG 11 with the application of an enzymatic colorimetric test. The authors studied combined stuffing systems based on beef, pork, poultry mechanical deboning, as well as replacing part of the raw material with protein-carbohydrate compositions with Revada TG 11. The results were used to develop simulated meat systems of biopolymer compositions (SMSBC, approximate in structure and properties to the gels formed by actin and myosin during extraction from myofibrils under the traditional technological processes of meat products production - maturation, salt curing, fine meat grinding. SMSBC includes lupine flour bio-activated by germination, a preparations of dietary fiber as well as a preparation of transglutaminase Revada TG 11. The protein components of the secondary raw materials during the processing of milk such as sodium caseinate, and also whey were used to balance the amino acid composition of the food systems. For practical use, the following options for SMSBC introducing into the composition of minced meat emulsions were recommended by the authors: in the form of hydrated biopolymer dispersion at cutting

  17. Effect of radiation parameters on the formation of radiolysis products in meat and meat substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, C. Jr.; Angelini, P.; Graham, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical chemical methods, employing gas and liquid chromatography for separation and mass spectrometry for identification, have been used to study the formation of radiolysis products in various meats such as beef and pork and in fats and proteins derived from meat. In this study the dependency of the amount of product formed in beef is evaluated as a function of various parameters such as radiation dose, dose rate, temperature of irradiation, precursor concentration, and various other factors. Statistical analysis of data accumulated from a large number of samples is provided by means of a laboratory automation computer. The significance of the data is assessed with particular regard to the wholesomeness of the irradiated product

  18. Meat products: main pathogens and non-thermal control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Heredia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a rich nutrient matrix that allows the proper environment for diverse microorganisms’ proliferation, deteriorative and pathogen. E. coli O157 and non-O157, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are among the pathogen ones. On other hand, the growing demand for “fresh-like” products with high sanitary, organoleptic and nutritional quality had drive the development of alternative technologies to traditional or thermal, to satisfy consumers’ demand. In the last decades new food preservation techniques with no effect on nutritional or organoleptic characteristics had been developed, maintaining or improving microbiological stability and quality. This work is review of the most common pathogen microorganisms in meat and meat products, and the emerging technologies like high hydrostatic pressure, radiation, intelligent and active packages, and the use of natutal compounds for their control.

  19. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  20. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  1. Nutritional value of milk and meat products derived from cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Daniel; Dubarry, Michel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    The development and use of milk and meat products derived from cloning depends on their safety and on the nutritional advantages they can confer to the products as perceived by consumers. The development of such products thus implies (i) to demonstrate their safety and security, (ii) to show that their nutritional value is equivalent to the traditional products, and (iii) to identify the conditions under which cloning could allow additional nutritional and health benefit in comparison to traditional products for the consumers. Both milk and meat products are a source of high quality protein as determined from their protein content and essential amino acid profile. Milk is a source of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium and vitamin B2 and B12. Meat is a source of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. An important issue regarding the nutritional quality of meat and milk is the level and quality of fat which usually present a high content in saturated fat and some modification of the fat fraction could improve the nutritional quality of the products. The role of the dietary proteins as potential allergens has to be taken into account and an important aspect regarding this question is to evaluate whether the cloning does not produce the appearance of novel allergenic structures. The presence of bio-activities associated to specific components of milk (lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, growth factors, anti-microbial components) also represents a promising development. Preliminary results obtained in rats fed cow's milk or meat-based diets prepared from control animals or from animals derived from cloning did not show any difference between control and cloning-derived products.

  2. Extrusion Processing of Raw Food Materials and by-products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Vivian; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Falade, Kolawole O

    2018-05-22

    Extrusion technology has rapidly transformed the food industry with its numerous advantages over other processing methods. It offers a platform for processing different products from various food groups by modifying minor or major ingredients and processing conditions. Although cereals occupy a large portion of the extruded foods market, several other types of raw materials have been used. Extrusion processing of various food groups, including cereals and pseudo cereals, roots and tubers, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, and animal products, as well as structural and nutritional changes in these food matrices are reviewed. Value addition by extrusion to food processing wastes and by-products from fruits and vegetables, dairy, meat and seafood, cereals and residues from starch, syrup and alcohol production, and oilseed processing are also discussed. Extrusion presents an economical technology for incorporating food processing residues and by-products back into the food stream. In contemporary scenarios, rising demand for extruded products with functional ingredients, attributed to evolving lifestyles and preferences, have led to innovations in the form, texture, color and content of extruded products. Information presented in this review would be of importance to processors and researchers as they seek to enhance nutritional quality and delivery of extruded products.

  3. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  4. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Listeriosis, a bacterial disease in humans and animals, is mostly caused by ingestion of Listeria monocytogenes via contaminated food and/or water, or by a zoonotic infection. Globally, listeriosis has in general a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Objective. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  5. Quantitative Detection of Horse Contamination in Cooked Meat Products by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienes, Cortlandt P; Masiri, Jongkit; Benoit, Lora A; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Samuel, Santosh A; Cox, David P; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2018-05-01

    Concerns about the contamination of meat products with horse meat and new regulations for the declaration of meat adulterants have highlighted the need for a rapid test to detect horse meat adulteration. To address this need, Microbiologique, Inc., has developed a sandwich ELISA that can quantify the presence of horse meat down to 0.1% (w/w) in cooked pork, beef, chicken, goat, and lamb meats. This horse meat authentication ELISA has an analytical sensitivity of 0.000030 and 0.000046% (w/v) for cooked and autoclaved horse meat, respectively, and an analytical range of quantitation of 0.05-0.8% (w/v) in the absence of other meats. The assay is rapid and can be completed in 1 h and 10 min. Moreover, the assay is specific for cooked horse meat and does not demonstrate any cross-reactivity with xenogeneic cooked meat sources.

  6. Immunofluorescence detection of milk protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are various vegetable protein additives intended for the manufacture of meat products in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. The most common vegetable additives include various types of flour, starch, fiber and plant protein. Among animal proteins, the most commonly used are plasma, collagen or milk protein. Milk protein is added to meat products due to its functional properties, such as emulsifying fats, improving the holding capacity of meat, improving juiciness, gel-forming capacity and affecting the taste of the product. Usage of these proteins, however, is currently limited by the effective legislation, not only in order to prevent consumer deception, but also because of their potential impact on consumers' health of. Thus, this issue has received considerable attention not only in the Czech Republic, but also globally. The main risk is the impossibility of selecting a suitable foodstuff for individuals with potential allergic reactions. The only option for allergic consumers to protect themselves is to strictly exclude the given allergen from their diet. Although the number of studies dealing with the reduction or loss of allergenicity is increasing, yet these practices are not common. Most of the population suffering from food allergies is thus still dependent on strict exclusion of foodstuffs causing adverse allergic reactions from their diet. Detection of allergens in foodstuffs is unfortunately quite difficult due to the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by different parts of the foodstuff. This research dealt with the detection of milk protein in meat products purchased in the market network of the Czech Republic, whereas declaration given by the manufacturer on the packaging for the small meat products purchased from the market was used to verify the detection of milk protein by the immunofluorescence method. 20 products were

  7. Guinea pig for meat production: A systematic review of factors affecting the production, carcass and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Barba-Maggi, Lida; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Palmay-Paredes, Julio

    2018-09-01

    In developing countries, interest in guinea pig farming is growing exponentially because it provides a regular source of high quality animal protein for domestic consumption. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are prolific animals, grow and are capable of reproduction on a flexible diet, and are adaptable to a wide range of climates. This article mainly reviews findings on guinea pig meat production, including factors affecting raising guinea pigs, carcass and meat quality. We also present some studies that describe biological and pathologic effects on carcass component composition. During the last decades no standard procedure has been established for guinea pig carcass evaluation, which makes very difficult any comparison of results with other studies around the world. Herein we highlight a variety of factors that significantly affect carcass and meat quality. Some of these factors are production systems, environmental and genetic factors, management systems, the diet and health status, age, sex and reproductive management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  9. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  10. Evaluation of cashmere production of the meat producing Boer goat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa does not produce cashmere commercially and presently there is no local cashmere industry. The Boer goat is well known for its meat production and is an established farming enterprise in South Africa. The aim of this study is to evaluate...

  11. The Use of Cytochrome b Gene as a Specific Marker of the Rat Meat (Rattus norvegicus on Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sumantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Falsification of the origin of livestock meat and its processed with rat meat is a problem that must be overcome to ensure food safety. One way that is often used to detect forgeries by using cytochrome b gene as a marker. The purpose of this study was to create a specific primer derived from cytochrome b sequences in rat (Rattus norvegicus as the DNA marker to detect any contamination of rat meat on fresh livestock meat and its processed meat products. Meatballs were made from beef meat with the addition of rat 1%-25%, and the meatballs were obtained from traditional markets. DNA extraction was conducted from seven species (goat, chicken, cattle, sheep, pig, horse, and rat by using phenol-chloroform. The highest success rate in detecting the presence of rat meat in a mixture of beef meatballs at concentration of 15% was 100%. The specific fragment of cytochrome b gene in R. norvegicus has no similarity with the cytochrome b gene from six other species, so it can be used as molecular markers to detect the presence of rat meat contamination in the processed of meat products. Amplified fragment length for goats, chickens, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and rats 157, 227, 274, 331, 398, 439 and 603 bp respectively. The amplification of cytochrome b gene in seven species of animals with different fragment length indicated the specificity of cytochrome b gene sequences among species.

  12. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  13. Radiation decontamination (hygienisation) of cosmetic raw materials and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec-Czechowska, K.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Microbiological purity of cosmetics is a problem of today because of growing hygienic requirements to these products. The demand for high hygienic purity from one side and the limitation in the use of conservants to cosmetics from the other side stimulate the research activity, the aim of which is to satisfy present requirements in this field. The application of radiation decontamination (hygienisation) seems to be one of solutions. In present report were present the results of the study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on microbial contamination of selected cosmetics and some raw materials used in cosmetic industry. Radiation doses applied were not higher than 6.0 kGy. The level of microbial contamination in both unirradiated and irradiated samples was determined by applying the standard microbiological methods. In addition, the quality and usefulness of irradiated cosmetics were examined by methods used in cosmetic industry. The results obtained show conclusively that radiation treatment can be successfully used for the decontamination (hygienisation) of cosmetics and some raw materials used in their production, without changing the quality and the usefulness of the product released. (author)

  14. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  15. The Use of Starter Cultures in Traditional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Laranjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starter cultures could play an essential role in the manufacture of traditional cured meat products. In order to achieve objectives related to meat products’ quality and safety improvement, the selection of particular strains constituting a starter culture should be carried out in the context of its application, since its functionality will depend on the type of sausage and process conditions. Also, strain selection should comply with particular requirements to warrant safety. The aim of the current review is to update the knowledge on the use of starter cultures in traditional meat products, with focus on dry-fermented products. In this manuscript, we will try to give answers to some relevant questions: Which starter cultures are used and why? Why are LAB used? What are their role and their specific mode of action? Which other groups of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi are used as starter cultures and how do they act? A particular revision of omics approach regarding starter cultures is made since the use of these techniques allows rapid screening of promising wild strains with desirable functional characteristics, enabling the development of starter cultures better adapted to the meat matrix.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro structural characteristics of minced meat products from use of protein-mineral additive

    OpenAIRE

    M. Golovko; M. Serik; T. Golovko; V. Polupan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Infringement of balance mineral substances is widely manifested in the meat products which is much wealthier in phosphorus than calcium. List of additives that containing calcium and technology meat products with their using are limited. Purpose of the work is studying and scientific substantiation of influence proteinmineral additive (PMA) on the technological microstructural properties of minced meat products. Matherials and...

  18. The Effects of Agricultural Raw Product Exports on Environment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The relationship between openness, trade and environmental damaging are the most important problems in the early 1990s. Some scientists assume the environmental quality is a normal good and increasing income increases demand for environmentally safe products. Therefore, Firms will be encouraging the using of safer and less polluting procedure. On the other hand other scientists assume international trade grows the environmental degradation through environmentally polluting industries and expand economics scales in developing countries. While environmental standards are low in these countries, the expansion of trade will lead to more pollution. Some experimental studies have confirmed a negative relationship between trade and environment. The effect of import and export of trade is not considered as important components of trade, despite very consideration of the relationship between openness, trade and environmental by researchers while in general part trade may have different effect on environmental. Materials and Methods: The base model is used to study the relationship between economic growth and environmental indexes and trade. Grossman and Krueger (1991 and Shafik and Bandvpady (1992 used the trade intensity variable, obtained from the ratio of exports plus imports divided by GDP as the World Trade openness of an economy measure. Grossman and Krueger (1991, the first person who developed environmental Kuznets curve (EKC used multiple versions of the model. Instrumental variable regression model has been estimated using panel data of period 1998 and 2009 for 73 countries, including 27 development countries and 46 developing countries. Countries with more than 0.9 Human Development Index eligible as developed countries and countries by Human Development Index between 0.7 to 0.9 considered as developing countries., based on the standard international trade classification. For exports of agricultural raw materials, 5

  19. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.S.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  20. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J. S.; Maxcy, R. B.

    1985-07-15

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product.

  1. Complex and rational use fish raw material at production of the fish products

    OpenAIRE

    Saltanova, N.; Saltanov, D.

    2011-01-01

    There was developed resource saving technology of herring preserves, which allows to rationally use raw, to cut lasting of the technological process, to lower the production costs and rise the economical effectiveness of production. There were defined the optimal conditions of getting broths of herring wastes. There were developed the recipes of fills at the base of broth from collagen-containing wastes of herring with the addition of vegetable raw.

  2. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  3. Rapid detection of peptide markers for authentication purposes in raw and cooked meat using ambient liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montowska, Magdalena; Alexander, Morgan R; Tucker, Gregory A; Barrett, David A

    2014-10-21

    In this Article, our previously developed ambient LESA-MS methodology is implemented to analyze five types of thermally treated meat species, namely, beef, pork, horse, chicken, and turkey meat, to select and identify heat-stable and species-specific peptide markers. In-solution tryptic digests of cooked meats were deposited onto a polymer surface, followed by LESA-MS analysis and evaluation using multivariate data analysis and tandem electrospray MS. The five types of cooked meat were clearly discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. 23 heat stable peptide markers unique to species and muscle protein were identified following data-dependent tandem LESA-MS analysis. Surface extraction and direct ambient MS analysis of mixtures of cooked meat species was performed for the first time and enabled detection of 10% (w/w) of pork, horse, and turkey meat and 5% (w/w) of chicken meat in beef, using the developed LESA-MS/MS analysis. The study shows, for the first time, that ambient LESA-MS methodology displays specificity sufficient to be implemented effectively for the analysis of processed and complex peptide digests. The proposed approach is much faster and simpler than other measurement tools for meat speciation; it has potential for application in other areas of meat science or food production.

  4. meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    These nutrient values determined in meat from red hartebeest could ... percentage of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Wiklund et al., 2001). .... system (1525 HPLC with a binary gradient delivery, 717 auto-sampler and Injector, 1500 ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork: A review.

  5. Detection and quantification of beef and pork materials in meat products by duplex droplet digital PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Yicun; He, Yuping; Lv, Rong; Chen, Hongchao; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Liangwen

    2017-01-01

    Meat products often consist of meat from multiple animal species, and inaccurate food product adulteration and mislabeling can negatively affect consumers. Therefore, a cost-effective and reliable method for identification and quantification of animal species in meat products is required. In this study, we developed a duplex droplet digital PCR (dddPCR) detection and quantification system to simultaneously identify and quantify the source of meat in samples containing a mixture of beef (Bos t...

  6. Organic beef production by Maremmana breed: qualitative meat characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Prof. Marcello; Morbidini, Prof. Luciano; Cozza, Dr. Francesca; Pauselli, Prof. Mariano; Pollicardo, Dr. Alice

    2008-01-01

    Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a low...

  7. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON PIG PRODUCTION PROPERTIES, ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND MEAT QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šperanda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food containing functional ingredients to achieve a positive effect on health and reducing the risk of infection is increasing production. It is also very important to improve the quality of pork with respect to change the genetic makeup of pigs that raised leanness, being inversely correlated with the quality of meat. This study monitored the effectiveness of addition of higher doses of organic selenium in the diet of fattening pigs in relation to their growth, immunity, antioxidant power, the quality of meat and possibility of meat enriching with selenium. The experiment was carried out on 100 pigs (crossbred WJxSLxP of both sexes, from 28 kg to 98 kg body weight during a period of 98 days. Piglets fed the finished feed mixture for fattening up to 60 kg (ST-1 and a mixture for fattening up to 100 kg (DM-2 in addition, by the groups as follows: K-0. 3 mg/kg organic selenium, P1-0.5 mg/kg inorganic selenium, P2-0.5 mg/kg organic selenium, P3-0.5 mg/ kg organic selenium +0.2% zeolite clinoptilolite treated vibrotehnology and P4-gradual increase in selenium so that the concentration of the last month was 0.7 mg/ kg diet of organic selenium. All groups of pigs fed high concentration of organic selenium had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, especially CD4 T lymphocytes. Glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in all groups fed elevated selenium levels and significantly higher in the P3 and P4 groups 71st and 98th days of the trials. Glutathione reductase was significantly higher in the P3 and P4 group 98th days compared to the control. Antioxidant indicators suggested increased antioxidant protection in groups supplemented with 0.5 ppm organic selenium and selenium formulations of the same with the addition of zeolite under stress intensive pig production. No differences were found in the products of lipid peroxidation (TBARS in raw meat or in meat after a week in refrigerator storage. By histological examination statistically higher level of

  8. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  9. Combination of irradiation with other treatments to improve the shelf-life and quality of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.; Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    The effects were studied of low dose gamma irradiation in combination with other treatments (acetic acid and a sodium tripolyphosphate dip for buffalo meat; a hot water dip for lamb meat; ascorbic acid for chicken and curing for meat products) on the shelf-life of prepacked meats at chilled and ambient temperatures in terms of the microbiological, chemical and sensory qualities. Meats irradiated at 2.5 kGy had a shelf-life of 4 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 2 weeks at 7-10 deg. C and 42 h at 28-30 deg. C, and showed a remarkable improvement in the microbiological quality. irradiation resulted in the reduction/elimination of microorganisms of public health significance, e.g. Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella, staphylococci and faecal coliforms. In contrast, the corresponding control samples had a shelf-life of less than 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C, 1 week at 7-10 deg. C and 18 h at ambient temperature (28-30 deg. C). A high level of microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, Salmonella and sulphite reducing Clostridia were detected in the control samples during storage. A combination of acetic acid/hot water pretreatment and irradiation further improved the microbiological quality of the meats, while a pretreatment of sodium tripolyphosphate enhanced the retention of colour and the juiciness of the meat samples. The effects were observed at all the storage temperatures. For the meat products, a low dose of irradiation reduced the total viable counts by 1-2 log cycles, and also eliminated Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and Salmonella throughout the storage period. The irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 2 weeks at 0-3 deg. C and 24 h at 28-30 deg. C, while the non-irradiated meat products had a shelf-life of 1 week at 0-3 deg. C and 18 h at 28-30 deg. C. (author)

  10. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  11. Trichinellosis acquired in Nunavut, Canada in September 2009: meat from grizzly bear suspected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, S; Ancelle, T; Matra, R; Boceno, C; Carlier, Y; Gajadhar, A A; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2009-11-05

    Five cases of trichinellosis with onset of symptoms in September 2009, were reported in France, and were probably linked to the consumption of meat from a grizzly bear in Cambridge Bay in Nunavut, Canada. Travellers should be aware of the risks of eating raw or rare meat products in arctic regions, particularly game meat such as bear or walrus meat.

  12. Species identification and quantification in meat and meat products using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, C; Wiedemann, I; Brenig, B; Schütz, E; Beck, J

    2015-04-15

    Species fraud and product mislabelling in processed food, albeit not being a direct health issue, often results in consumer distrust. Therefore methods for quantification of undeclared species are needed. Targeting mitochondrial DNA, e.g. CYTB gene, for species quantification is unsuitable, due to a fivefold inter-tissue variation in mtDNA content per cell resulting in either an under- (-70%) or overestimation (+160%) of species DNA contents. Here, we describe a reliable two-step droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay targeting the nuclear F2 gene for precise quantification of cattle, horse, and pig in processed meat products. The ddPCR assay is advantageous over qPCR showing a limit of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) in different meat products of 0.01% and 0.001%, respectively. The specificity was verified in 14 different species. Hence, determining F2 in food by ddPCR can be recommended for quality assurance and control in production systems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  14. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  15. Control of the dehydration process in production of intermediate-moisture meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Huang, T C; Pearson, A M

    1996-01-01

    IM meat products are produced by lowering the aw to 0.90 to 0.60. Such products are stable at ambient temperature and humidity and are produced in nearly every country in the world, especially in developing areas where refrigeration is limited or unavailable. Traditionally IM meats use low cost sources of energy for drying, such as sun drying, addition of salt, or fermentation. Products produced by different processes are of interest since they do not require refrigeration during distribution and storage. Many different IM meat products can be produced by utilizing modern processing equipment and methods. Production can be achieved in a relatively short period of time and their advantages during marketing and distribution can be utilized. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the principles involved in heat transfer and efficiency of production are still needed to increase efficiency of processing. A basic understanding of the influence of water vapor pressure and sorption phenomena on water activity can materially improve the efficiency of drying of IM meats. Predrying treatments, such as fermentation and humidity control, can also be taken advantage of during the dehydration process. Such information can lead to process optimization and reduction of energy costs during production of IM meats. The development of sound science-based methods to assure the production of high-quality and nutritious IM meats is needed. Finally, such products also must be free of pathogenic microorganisms to assure their success in production and marketing.

  16. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P banana and sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of lowering consumption of meat and meat products in the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimized and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation...... to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...... of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat....

  18. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    2004-01-01

    of purchase, based on own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications...... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...

  19. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    of purchase, based on own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications...... for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding...

  20. A MEAT PRODUCTION STRATEGYFOR SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the task of formulating a rneat prclduction strategy fclr. Southern Africa .... Ch ickcn. '55. '5? '59. '61. 6l. '65. '61. '69. '71. '7-f is. "47. Fig. I Edible protein deived from various animal products ...... of the effort and finance expended on the original.

  1. Vegetable fats and oils as functional ingredients in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sausages are a widely consumed food in México, and due to their low fat content (ca. 10% they can be employed to enrich diet by including functional or nutraceutic ingredients as vegetable fats and oils. The replace or incorporation of vegetable fats or oils in cooked sausages is a way to improve their nutritional profile to offer functional meat products.

  2. Microbial contamination of spices used in production of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Klimešová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There was investigated microbial quality of spices used in production of meat products (black pepper, allspice, coriander, juniper, cumin, cinnamon, badian, mustard, bay leaf, paprika, rosemary, garlic, ginger, thyme, cardamom. The spices were analysed on the presence of total count of mesophilic, thermoresistant and coliforming microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and moulds. For the detection of fungal contamination was used agar with glucose, yeast extract and oxytetracyklin and dichloran-glycerol agar. The cultivation was performed at 25 ±1°C for 5 - 7 days. The microscopic method was used for species identification. The aflatoxin presence was confirmed by ELISA test in all of tested spices and was performed in ppb (pars per billion = μg/kg. TCM ranged from 200 to 5600000 cfu/g, TRM from 20 to 90000 cfu/g and coliforming bacteria from 30 to 3200 cfu/g. B. cereus was present in juniper, mustard, bay leaf, thyme and cardamom (32%, while B. licheniformis was confirmed in 58% of cases (allspice, pepper, ground juniper, badian, bay leaf, paprika, garlic, thyme and cardamom. S. aureus was detected in whole coriander, cinnamon, badian and mustard but only in law number (30, 40, 20 and 10 cfu/g respectively. No strains S. aureus was identified as MRSA. The presence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli was not confirmed. The fungal contamination was found in 14 spices and the their count varied from 0 to 1550 cfu/g. There were confirmed the presence of Aspergillus flavus (allspice whole and ground, black pepper whole and ground, whole coriander, ground cumin, ground bay leaf, Aspergillus niger (allspice whole and ground, black pepper ground, ground juniper, cumin ground, bay leaf ground, ground rosemary, ground thyme, Penicillium glaucum (allspice whole and ground, whole juniper, whole cinnamon, Penicillium claviforme (whole black pepper

  3. Underlying principles and actual problems for the processing of organic meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The processing of meat products is regulated by a wide range of different national standards and regulations. Some countries have very strict regulations on additives for organic meat products. Standard setting often involves a balance between maintaining the purity and integrity of the organic system and ensuring that certain quality demands are met. Especially for meat this dilemma has been clearly recognized. Currently the most urgent challenge for the organic meat sector is to offer ...

  4. Detection of adulterations in tradictional portuguese game meat products by polymerase chain reaction technique

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.G.; Melo, V.S.; Amaral, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Mafra, I.

    2013-01-01

    Authenticity assessment and fraud detection in processed meat products have becn attracting an increased attention driven by public health, economic and legal cancems, and also for religiolls reasons. Currcntly, ooe af the major issues conceming adulterations in the meat indust:ry regards the fraudulent substitution af higher commercial valued meat species by less expensive oDes [1]. The manufacture af traditional meat products is a long-established practice in the Northeast of Po...

  5. Dietary exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in meat and meat products from 20 provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Runhua; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Cui, Lili; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is one of the main pathways of human exposure to chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study assessed the dietary exposure for the general Chinese population to short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) through meat and meat products. Twenty samples of meat and meat products from 20 Chinese provinces were collected in 2011. As the sampling sites covered about two-thirds of the Chinese population, the meat samples were considered to be representative of the true characteristics of CPs contamination in Chinese meat products. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in the meat samples were measured using the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Forty-eight SCCP and MCCP homolog groups were detected in the meat samples. The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in all meat samples were 129 ± 4.1 ng g -1 wet weight and 5.7 ± 0.59 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs varied in samples from different provinces. The geographical distribution of CP concentrations was similar to the distribution of CPs manufacturing plants in China. The most abundant groups of SCCPs in all samples were C 10-11 Cl 6-7 , and the most abundant groups of MCCPs in most samples were C 14 Cl 7-8 . The possible sources of SCCPs and MCCPs in meat and meat products might be CP-42 and CP-52. The 50th percentile estimated daily intakes of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption for a "standard" Chinese adult male were 0.13 and 0.0047 μg kg -1 bw d -1 , respectively, both much lower than the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) for SCCPs and MCCPs. This preliminary risk assessment has indicated that the indirect exposure of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption does not pose significant risk to human health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting the concentration of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria during processing and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, E J; Arinder, P; Axelsson, L; Heir, E; Holck, A; Lindqvist, R; Lindblad, M; Andreou, P; Lauzon, H L; Marteinsson, V Þ; Pin, C

    2014-05-01

    A model to predict the population density of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) throughout the elaboration and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages (FRMS) was developed. Probabilistic and kinetic measurement data sets collected from publicly available resources were completed with new measurements when required and used to quantify the dependence of VTEC growth and inactivation on the temperature, pH, water activity (aw), and concentration of lactic acid. Predictions were compared with observations in VTEC-contaminated FRMS manufactured in a pilot plant. Slight differences in the reduction of VTEC were predicted according to the fermentation temperature, 24 or 34°C, with greater inactivation at the highest temperature. The greatest reduction was observed during storage at high temperatures. A population decrease greater than 6 decimal logarithmic units was observed after 66 days of storage at 25°C, while a reduction of only ca. 1 logarithmic unit was detected at 12°C. The performance of our model and other modeling approaches was evaluated throughout the processing of dry and semidry FRMS. The greatest inactivation of VTEC was predicted in dry FRMS with long drying periods, while the smallest reduction was predicted in semidry FMRS with short drying periods. The model is implemented in a computing tool, E. coli SafeFerment (EcSF), freely available from http://www.ifr.ac.uk/safety/EcoliSafeFerment. EcSF integrates growth, probability of growth, and thermal and nonthermal inactivation models to predict the VTEC concentration throughout FRMS manufacturing and storage under constant or fluctuating environmental conditions.

  7. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic weights in rabbit meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cartuche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A profit function was designed for an industrial commercial rabbitry with the most common management in industrial rabbit production. The incomes, costs, and profit function were calculated and economic weights of the traits were estimated. The variable costs (feeding, artificial insemination, health and replacement represented 62% of the total costs, and the fixed costs (labour, utilities, amortisation and administration represented 38% of the total costs. Major costs were feeding of fattening kits and labour cost, at 26% and 18% of the total cost, respectively. The economic weights were feed conversion rate during fattening (–20.2 €/[g feed/g liveweight], number of kits born alive (15.7 €/kit, pregnancy rate (1.7 €/percentage unit, weaning survival (1.7 €/percentage unit, fattening survival (2.0 €/percentage unit, daily feed intake (–0.50 €/(g feed/d, daily gain during fattening (1.33 €/(g weight/d, and replacement rate (–0.29 €/percentage unit. When varying the prices of kg of fattening feed and kg of liveweight, only the economic weights of feed conversion rate during fattening in the first case and the number of kits born alive in the second case changed considerably. Changes in labour cost produced appreciable changes in the whole production cost. Although economic weights are robust to changes in prices, these weights should be recalculated after some generations of selection, because changes in the mean of the traits due to selection can also change economic weights.

  9. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.

  10. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Methods for Identification of Microorganisms in Traditional Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    Traditional fermentations are those that have been used for centuries and even pre-date written historical records. Fermentation processes have been developed to upgrade plant and animal materials, to yield a more acceptable food, to add flavor, to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and to preserve food without refrigeration (Hesseltine & Wang, 1980). Among fermented foods, sausages are the meat products with a longer history and tradition. It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians, in what is Iraq today, around 3000 BC. Chinese sausage làcháng, which consisted of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. Homer, the poet of The Ancient Greece, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey (book 20, verse 25), and Epicharmus (ca. 550 BC-ca. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled “The Sausage”.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F

    2008-01-01

    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, pfood showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  13. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... amenable species, such as processing game meat or for busy times in their retail shops around holidays. The... Service 9 CFR Parts 321, 332, and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and... Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule...

  14. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  15. THE DEMAND FOR MEAT PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Olowolayemo, Surajudeen O.; Martin, Neil R., Jr.; Raymond, Jennie E.

    1993-01-01

    Given the importance of meat consumption, and the proportion of consumers' income spent on meat, this study estimates the demand for eight meat categories using two different functional forms. An inverse almost ideal demand system (IAIDS), and linear double-log price dependent demand models are specified. In most cases, flexibilities obtained from both methods are comparable and show that the demand for meat products is price inflexible. In addition, there are regional as well as seasonal var...

  16. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  17. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U; Oviasogie, Faith E; Igbinosa, Owen O

    2016-09-24

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%-100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities.

  18. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  19. Quality characteristics of raw and canned goat meat in water, brine, oil and Thai curry during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yoottana Polpara; Thanyaporn Sornprasitt; Saowakon Wattanachant

    2008-01-01

    The quality characteristics of three groups of goat meat obtained from one year and three years old Anglonubian crossed native, and culled Saanen crossed native were investigated. Significant differences in fat, ash and total collagen content, were observed among groups of goat meat (P

  20. Associations of the variation in the porcine myogenin gene with muscle fibre characteristics, lean meat production and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Choi, B D; Kim, B C; Park, S S; Hong, K C

    2009-04-01

    Pig breeding is aimed at improving lean meat production ability as well as meat quality, and muscle fibre characteristics may be important for enhancing these traits. Therefore, new molecular markers have been demanded for selecting lean meat production ability and meat quality in live animals. Myogenin belongs to the MyoD gene family, and is a candidate gene responsible for muscle fibre characteristics. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site in the 5' upstream region of the myogenin gene (nucleotides C and T). A total of 252 pigs of three breeds were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using BspCNI. Additionally, they were genotyped for the previously detected MspI site in the 3'-flanking region (alleles A and B). The CCBB diplotype had the highest frequency over breeds, followed by TCBB and CCAB. The other diplotypes were not found in studied pigs. Association analysis performed for the markers found that the TCBB diplotype has desirable effects on the total number of fibres (p lean meat production ability with good meat quality.

  1. Substitution of saturated fat in processed meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-E, J C; Sierra-C, A; Ochoa, O; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2012-01-01

    The food industry is increasingly directing its efforts to produce and commercialize functional foods where the reduction or even elimination of saturated fat is an important goal. This situation arises from the concern of many institutions and individuals worldwide on the growth of non-transmissible diseases, particularly cardiovascular ones. This article presents a revision of the most important research carried out on processed meat products production and looks at the topic from two principal points of view: the nutritional and technological function of fat and the way in which it is gradually being replaced in the above-mentioned products. Many ingredients have been used to substitute fat but while the results concerning the nutritional composition of the final products are generally acceptable, the sensory aspects are not completely solved. This review emphasizes the use of plastic fats because they allow the highest fat substitution levels during its process and consumption without affecting the product behavior.

  2. Milk production, raw milk quality and fertility of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius) under intensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Péter; Thomas, Sonia; Markó, Orsolya; Juhász, Jutka

    2013-03-01

    In many arid countries, dromedaries play an important role as a milk source in rural areas. However, the milk and meat production potential of this species is not well understood and documented. A large-scale camel dairy farm was established in 2006 in the United Arab Emirates. This study summarises the most important data on milk production, raw milk quality and reproductive efficiency collected on this farm during the first three years of operation. The average daily milk production, the mean length of lactation and the mean total milk production per lactation of 174 dromedaries were 6.0 ± 0.12 kg (± SEM), 586 ± 11.0 days (± SEM) and 3314 ± 98.5 kg (± SEM), respectively. The lactation curve reached its peak during the 4th month after parturition (mean ± SEM, 8.9 ± 0.04 kg), then it declined gradually, falling to 50% of the maximum by the 16th month postpartum (mean ± SEM, 4.3 ± 0.06 kg). Milking three times a day did not increase daily milk production compared to two times milking. Mean total viable bacterial count (TVC) and mean somatic cell count (SCC, ± SEM) of bulk raw camel milk were 4,403 ± 94 CFU/cm3 and 392,602 ± 5,999 cells/cm3 for a one-year period, respectively. There was a significant difference among months (P fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS) and solid-non-fat (SNF) concentrations of individual milk samples were 2.51 ± 0.03%, 2.60 ± 0.01%, 4.03 ± 0.03%, 9.98 ± 0.03% and 7.56 ± 0.03%, respectively. Lactation period, average daily milk production and morning vs. evening milking significantly influenced milk chemical composition. For the 470 camels in the breeding programme, end-of-season pregnancy rate and birth rate were 87.0% and 82.6%, respectively, after natural mating. We have demonstrated that sustainable milk production is possible from a traditional species, the dromedary camel, under an intensive management system.

  3. Microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; El-Nashaby, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the possibility of using gamma irradiation for microbial decontamination of some chicken meat products (Luncheon, Burger and debonded minced chicken) which are produced by three companies (Halwany Bros.(H)-Faragalla (F) and Egypco (E)). The samples were purchased from local supermarkets and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The examination illustrated that all examined samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. While Luncheon (F), Burger (H) and debonded minced chicken (E) were only positive for Salmonella spp. Therefore, these product samples were gamma irradiated at 0, 3, 6 and 9 kGy. The effects of radiation treatments and cold storage (5+,-1 degree) on the total volatile basic nitrogen (T.V.B.N.), microbiological quality and sensory properties of samples under investigation were studied. The results indicated that 3kGy dose of gamma irradiation completely destroyed Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. and caused slight increase in (T.V.B.N.) content for all samples. A gradual increase in total bacteria, molds and yeast and T. V. B. N. during storage were observed, while 6 kGy dose was also sufficient for destroying Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in all chicken meat products under investigation without any detectable effects on the sensory properties of these products and increased the shelf-life of luncheon, burger and minced for 8, 4 and 3 weeks respectively as compared with 4, 2 and 1 weeks for control samples

  4. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae in food producing animals, minced meat and raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geser Nadine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of food animals as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. In this study 334 fecal samples from pigs, cattle, chicken and sheep were investigated at slaughter. Additionally, 100 raw milk samples, representing bulk tank milk of 100 different dairy farms, 104 minced meat (pork and beef samples and 67 E. coli isolates from cattle E. coli mastitis were analyzed. Results As many as 15.3% of the porcine, 13.7% of the bovine, 8.6% of the sheep and 63.4% of the chicken fecal samples yielded ESBL producers after an enrichment step. In contrast, none of the minced meat, none of the bulk tank milk samples and only one of the mastitis milk samples contained ESBL producing strains. Of the total of 91 isolates, 89 were E. coli, one was Citrobacter youngae and one was Enterobacter cloacae. PCR analysis revealed that 78 isolates (85.7% produced CTX-M group 1 ESBLs while six isolates (6.6% produced CTX-M group 9 enzymes. Five detected ESBLs (5.5% belonged to the SHV group and 2 isolates (2.2% contained a TEM-type enzyme. A total of 27 CTX-M producers were additionally PCR-positive for TEM-beta-lactamase. The ESBL-encoding genes of 53 isolates were sequenced of which 34 produced CTX-M-1, 6 produced CTX-M-14, 5 produced CTX-M-15 and also 5 produced SHV-12. Two isolates produced TEM-52 and one isolate expressed a novel CTX-M group 1 ESBL, CTX-M-117. One isolate--aside from a CTX-M ESBL-- contained an additional novel TEM-type broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, TEM-186. Conclusions The relatively high rates of ESBL producers in food animals and the high genetic diversity among these isolates are worrisome and indicate an established reservoir in farm animals.

  5. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of raw meat for heavy metals and bacterial contamination and comparison of antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the study was to analyze the commercially available meat for its heavy metal contents and bacterial contamination. The meat samples were collected from four commercial markets of Lahore, i.e., as Wafaqi Colony (Site I),Township (Site II), G-1 Market (Site III) and Zenith (Site IV), and analyzed for heavy metal [i.e., manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu)] contents and bacterial contaminants (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Salmonella sp.) Atomic absorption spectrophotometery was employed for the detection of the heavy metals and plate count method was used for the detection of bacterial contaminants. The Ni concentration in the Site II sample only and Cd concentration in all meat samples were found above the standard value and the concentration of other metals (Cu, Cr, and Mn) was less than the standard concentrations. Bacterial (E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus sp.) contamination was found in all meat samples; however, the number was a little lower in the Site IV samples. Statistical analysis was done, by one-way ANOVA using SPSS, to compare heavy metal contamination in the meat samples. The results showed distribution of heavy metals in all meat samples there was significant difference of Ni concentration in the meat samples. The measure of antibiotic susceptibility showed that isolated species of bacteria were resistant to lincomycin, streptomycin, tertracyclin, ampicillin, amoxicillin and doxycyclin, but did not survive in the medium containing ofloxacin. (author)

  7. VacA and cagA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw meat in Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Ali; Razavilar, Vadood; Rokni, Nordahr; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Foods with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori . The present investigation was carried out to study the vacA and cagA genotypes status of H. pylori isolated from various types of meat samples. Two hundred and twenty meat samples were collected and cultured. H. pylori -positive strains were analyzed for the presence of vacA and cagA genotypes. Eleven out of 220 (5.00%) samples were positive for H. pylori . Findings were confirmed by nested PCR. Prevalence of H. pylori in the meat samples of slaughterhouses and butcheries were 72.20% and 27.70%, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the meat samples of slaughterhouses and butcheries were vacA m1a (66.66%) and vacA s1a (37.50%), respectively. The S1am1a was the most commonly detected genotype. Meat sampled from butcheries had the higher prevalence of H. pylori and its genotypes than those of slaughterhouses ( p meat samples could be the potential sources of virulent strains of H. pylori . Application of sanitary measures in the storage, transportation and sale of meat is essential for reducing the levels of H. pylori cross contamination.

  8. UK bovine carcass meat consumed as burgers, sausages and other meat products: by birth cohort and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J D; Bird, S M

    2002-01-01

    The most likely human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is dietary, through beef mechanically recovered meat (MRM) and head meat used in burgers, sausages and other meat products. The majority, reportedly 90% of beef MRM and 80% of head meat, was used in burgers. To enable quantification of UK dietary exposure to BSE, we quantified bovine carcass meat consumed as burgers, sausages and other meat products by birth cohort, gender and calendar period (1980-1989, 1990-1996). Synthesis of dietary data (cross-sectional National Dietary and Nutrition Surveys, and serial National Food Surveys and Realeat Surveys) to simulate weekly consumption by one-thousandth of the UK population in each year from 1980 to 1996. In 1980-1989, the highest number of consumers (per 7 days) of all three food groups was in the 1940-1969 birth cohort - averaging 3.7 million male consumers of burgers, 2.6 million of sausages and 8.5 million of other meat products. The post-1969 birth cohort had the next highest number of consumers of burgers (1.8 million males). In 1990-1996, consumer numbers declined for the two older cohorts, most strikingly for burgers (down to 2.5 million males in the 1940-1969 cohort). The 1940-1969 cohort retained the highest number of consumers of sausages and other meat products, and second place for burgers. Male consumption was higher, even in the pre-1940 birth cohort where, for demographic reasons, female consumers outnumbered males. In the post-1969 birth cohort, female consumption of bovine carcass meat weight as burgers increased from 68 tonnes in 1980-1989 to 81 tonnes in 1990-1996, and male consumption increased more markedly (by 41%) from 84 tonnes to 119 tonnes; and similarly for other meat products. Properly marshalled age-group and gender-specific consumption data contribute to a clearer understanding of the demography of those who were at risk of dietary exposure to BSE and of when their exposure intensity was greatest. Other countries may

  9. INFLUENCE OF SOFT MEAT PRODUCTS STORAGE ON THEIR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the topic was to analyze the microbiological quality of soft meat products (ham sausage in relation to the retention period. We focused on the determination of total count of microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. The results shown that the strongest growth of microorganisms was recorded at the 21st storage day of ham at 2 to 6 °C. It is essential to keep the cold chain and to comply with the requirements set by the manufacturer.  doi:10.5219/20

  10. INFLUENCE OF SOFT MEAT PRODUCTS STORAGE ON THEIR MICROBIOLOGICAL SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kopčeková; Kristína Kulichová; Lucia Zeleňáková

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the topic was to analyze the microbiological quality of soft meat products (ham sausage) in relation to the retention period. We focused on the determination of total count of microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms. The results shown that the strongest growth of microorganisms was recorded at the 21st storage day of ham at 2 to 6 °C. It is essential to keep the cold chain and to comply with the requirements set by the manufacturer.  doi:10.5219/20

  11. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  12. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  13. CRITICAL CONTROL POINT IDENTIFICATION THROUGH TROPHOLOGICAL MEAT PRODUCTION CHAINFROM FIELD TO FORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borodin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available  Competitive production management is impossible without comprehensive hazard monitoring and critical parameters control at every stage of food production from raw material and auxiliary materials delivery to ready product realization, which is difficult without modern IT-support. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points approach to product safety differs from ready product testing for compliance with NaTD requirements (Normative and Technical Documentation and emphasizes the importance of the process approach to monitoring at every stage of food production. Critical control points (CCP identification is a stage, where the presence of a risk of manufacturing products that are unsafe for human health is recognized and it is possible to take action to its elimination, prevention or reduction to an acceptable level. The use of soſtware package significantly increases the enterprise HACCP system efficiency. The article describes methodological bases for IT-approach to the CCP identification in the trophological meat production chain from field to fork. The algorithmic support and soſtware for the «Decision tree», which allows detecting existing hazards, identifying risks, determining CCPs and describing them, has been developed.

  14. An integrated production-inventory model for food products adopting a general raw material procurement policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauza, G.; Prasetyo, H.; Amanto, B. S.

    2018-05-01

    Studies on an integrated production-inventory model for deteriorating items have been done extensively. Most of the studies define deterioration as physical depletion of some inventories over time. This definition may not represent the deterioration characteristics of food products. The quality of food production decreases over time while the quantity remains the same. Further, in the existing models, the raw material is replenished several times (or at least once) within one production cycle. In food industries, however, a food company, for several reasons (e.g., the seasonal raw materials, discounted price, etc.) sometimes will get more benefit if it orders raw materials in a large quantity. Considering this fact, this research, therefore, is aimed at developing a more representative inventory model by (i) considering the quality losses in food and (ii) adopting a general raw material procurement policy. A mathematical model is established to represent the proposed policy in which the total profit of the system is the objective function. To evaluate the performance of the model, a numerical test was conducted. The numerical test indicates that the developed model has better performance, i.e., the total profit is 2.3% higher compared to the existing model.

  15. Some Nutritional, Technological and Environmental Advances in the Use of Enzymes in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne y Castro Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing consumer demand for healthier products has stimulated the development of nutritionally enhanced meat products. However, this can result in undesirable sensory consequences to the product, such as texture alterations in low-salt and low-phosphate meat foods. Additionally, in the meat industry, economical aspects have stimulated researchers to use all the animal parts to maximize yields of marketable products. This paper aimed to show some advances in the use of enzymes in meat processing, particularly the application of the proteolytic enzymes transglutaminase and phytases, associated with nutritional, technological, and environmental improvements.

  16. CONSOLIDATED COST ACCOUNTING AT MEAT AND FAT PRODUCTION: METHODOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is to study and improve methods of consolidated cost accounting at meat and fat production to obtain detailed information about production costs and to find ways to reduce the cost of meat production. It is offered to account expenses at meat and fat department for individual production areas that will receive detailed information for the purposes of control, analysis, calculation and reporting. For expedient budgeting activities of each structural unit of meat and fat production and for needs to saving production is proposed to reflect the costs of each production plant to separate groups of analytical accounts. Key words: consolidated accounting, production costs of meat and fat production, cost accounting.

  17. NAFTA AT 21: STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN MEXICAN’S DEMAND FOR U.S. MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kyekyeku Nti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA on the change in consumer preference for U.S. meat and meat products in Mexico and to provide empirical estimates of the extent of sensitivity of meat price change to change in quantity demand. The analyses used an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS model to address the study objectives due to its appropriateness in modeling the level of utility for commodities with fixed or exogenously determined short run supply. The study findings show that Mexico’s participation in NAFTA could have indirectly effected a structural change in demand for imported meat from the U.S. but the direction of change is heterogeneous among the different meat groups. Also, while Mexican demand for U.S. meat is inflexible, price response to changes in the quantity of imported U.S. poultry is much sensitive compared to pork and beef.

  18. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  19. Inclusion of liver in meat products from sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Borghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical (pH, color, water retention capacity, cooking losses, shear force, iron content, and lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of koftas and sausages prepared from lamb meat and enriched with sheep liver. Meat from eight lambs weaned at 60 days and slaughtered at a body weight of 32.0 ± 0.2 kg was used. Percentages of 10 and 20% sheep liver were included in koftas and of 15 and 30% in sausages. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The inclusion of liver in koftas linearly increased pH (P=0.001 and shear force (P=0.028, and reduced luminosity (P=0.005 and lipid oxidation at the time of (P=0.001 and 24 hours after (P=0.004 fabrication of the products. In sausages, the inclusion of liver linearly increased shear force (P=0.03. The inclusion of liver exerted decreasing linear effects on the scores related to the flavor of kofta and sausage products (P=0.001 and 0.033, respectively and a quadratic effect (P=0.008 on the overall acceptance of sausages. Although the inclusion of liver altered some relevant quality-related attributes of sheep koftas and sausages, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics were not compromised.

  20. Industrial halal meat production and animal welfare: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Pufpaff, K M; Amir, M

    2016-10-01

    Islam teaches zero-tolerance to all forms of animal abuse throughout the halal meat production supply chain and demands that when animals are slaughtered, they must be slaughtered in the mindful and attentive way espoused by the Prophet Muhammad. Why then are poor practices and animal welfare abuses still occurring during halal meat production, and how can they be reduced or eliminated? In this review we discuss how improvements might be achieved through: (1) training of staff regarding the religious and regulatory requirements of animal welfare from on-farm to slaughter; (2) empathy and compassion assessment of applicants prior to employment; (3) installation of CCTV cameras around lairage and slaughter sites; (4) regular employee follow-up training to minimise 'compassion fatigue'; (5) incorporating animal welfare requirements in halal certification; (6) using mosque-based sermons by Imams to increase awareness of animal welfare issues; and (7) making portable humane slaughter units available to small cottage operations and home/neighbourhood-kills through mosque-based organizations/structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Authentication of meat and meat products vs. detection of animal species in feed - what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nešić, K.; Stojanović, D.; Baltić, Ž. M.

    2017-09-01

    Authenticity of food is an issue that is growing in awareness and concern. Although food adulteration has been present since antiquity, it has broadened to include entire global populations as modern food supply chains have expanded, enriched and become more complex. Different forms of adulteration influence not only the quality of food products, but also may cause harmful health effects. Meat and meat products are often subjected to counterfeiting, mislabelling and similar fraudulent activities, while substitutions of meat ingredients with other animal species is one among many forms of food fraud. Feed is also subject to testing for the presence of different animal species, but as part of the eradication process of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). In both food and feed cases, the final goal is consumer protection, which should be provided by quick, precise and specific tools. Several analytical tests have been employed for such needs. This paper provides an overview of authentication of meat and meat products compared with species identification in feed control, highlighting the most prevalent laboratory methods.

  2. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background : An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective : The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design : A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results : This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants' opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion : Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour.

  3. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  4. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  5. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  6. Role of Nitrite in Processed Meat Products and its Degradation during their Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ILIRJANA BOCI; ELDA ZIU; GENTJANA BARDHI

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents the analytical data of nitrite level obtained from the experimental work done on meat processed samples taken from a meat processing plant in Tirana. There has been a long debate and health concern about the nitrite content in meat products. Nitrite is added to e.g. sausages, and hams and other meat products to preserve these products and keep them free from dangerous bacteria. Among the aims are preventing botulism, a dangerous food poison. But also it’s important to us...

  7. The functionality of plum ingredients in meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nathan; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2015-04-01

    Dried plums (prunes) have been marketed to consumers for consumption directly from the package as a convenient snack and have been reported to have broad health benefits. Only recently have fractionated, dried plum ingredients been investigated for their functionality in food and feed products. Dried plum puree, dried plum fiber, dried plum powder, dried plum concentrate, and fresh plum concentrate have been investigated to date. They have been evaluated as fat replacers in baked goods, antioxidants in meat formulations, phosphate replacers in chicken marinades, and antimicrobials in food systems. Overall, dried plum products have been shown to be effective at reducing lipid oxidation and show promise as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Aerobic Mesophilic, Coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus Counts of Raw Meat from the Formal and Informal Meat Sectors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Ishmael Festus; Green, Ezekiel; Muchenje, Voster

    2018-04-21

    Foodborne disease (FBD) is a global public health concern, and foods from animal sources have been associated with outbreaks of food-related illness. In this study, animal carcasses from the two abattoirs (HT1 and HT2) in the formal meat sector (FMS) and slaughter points in the informal meat sector (INMS) were examined at two stages of slaughter (before washing and after washing) for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and total viable count (TCC), as well as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus count. At each stage, carcasses were sampled by swabbing at the neck, brisket, flank, and rump. ACC for beef, mutton, and pork carcasses at HT1 and HT2 before washing were between 2.5⁻5.8, 2.2⁻4.7, and 2.7⁻3.7 mean log CFU/cm², respectively, and TCC count before washing was highest on the neck of cattle (6.3 ± 2.4) and after washing was highest on the perineal of sheep (5.7 ± 6.9). In the INMS, TCC count was highest on the brisket (6.9 ± 3.2) and in the neck (5.5 ± 2.4). Higher ACC values of 6.2⁻6.7 mean log CFU/cm² were obtained in the INMS. The highest count for E. coli (4.2 mean log CFU/cm²) after washing was in the neck, while the highest count for S. aureus (4.0 mean log CFU/cm²) was in the flank. All bacteria count in the INMS exceeded acceptable limits, and washing did not significantly reduce microbial load in meat in the FMS and INMS. Bacteria count in the FMS and INMS exceeded acceptable standards. However, meat processed in the INMS poses a more significant risk of FBD to consumers.

  9. FEEDING OF FERRETS WITH THE RAW MEAT AND LIVER OF CHICKENS CHRONICALLY POISONED WITH TOXIC GROUNDNUT MEAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PLATONOW, N; BEAUREGARD, M

    1965-03-01

    Chickens were fed a ration containing 30 per cent of toxic groundnut meal for up to six weeks. The concentration of aflatoxin (toxic metabolites of Aspergillus flavus) in the above ration was 3.06 p.p.m. At the end of 2nd, 4th or 6th week the birds were killed. The meat was removed from the bones and put through a meat grinder. The livers of three groups were pooled together. Three control groups of birds kept on commercial pellets were treated similarly. Female ferrets, two years of age, were used in the present study. They were divided into four groups. The first three groups were given for one month meat from chickens fed the toxic ration for 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. Each of these three groups contained one control ferret that was fed with the meat of chickens fed a commercial ration for a similar period of time. One half of the 4th group was fed pooled liver from intoxicated birds and one half was fed liver from control birds. No significant changes in the ferret tissues were observed as a consequence of feeding them with the meat or liver from the chickens chronically poisoned with toxic groundnut meal.

  10. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  12. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi[Bulgogi; Traditional meat products; Irradiation; Safety; Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10{sup 6} CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10{sup 4} CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  13. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10 6 spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  14. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  15. Micro structural characteristics of minced meat products from use of protein-mineral additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Golovko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infringement of balance mineral substances is widely manifested in the meat products which is much wealthier in phosphorus than calcium. List of additives that containing calcium and technology meat products with their using are limited. Purpose of the work is studying and scientific substantiation of influence proteinmineral additive (PMA on the technological microstructural properties of minced meat products. Matherials and methods. Studies water-and fat-holding ability (WHA, FHA of samples carried out by gravimetric and refract metric methods. Histological sections were produced at microtome, followed by coloring with hematoxylin and eosin and by the method of Mallory. Results and discussion. Created a technology of the minced meat products for health improvement using the PMA which is a carrier of Bioorganic calcium. Rational is the addition of PMA in powder form in amount of 7,5 % of the meat systems. Technological parameters of minced meat increase when making additions in particular WHA and FHA approx about 5 and 10 % respectively. Histological studies have shown that PMA promotes the preservation of meat juice and sarcoplasmic proteins in the meat systems during thermal processing. Conclusions. PMA has a positive impact on the properties of water-holding properties of minced meat and output the finished product.

  16. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  18. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  19. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  20. Prediction of enthalpy and thermal conductivity of frozen meat and fish products from composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present models predicting thermophysical properties of frozen meat products purely using their composition data. Based on our previous model, predicting the water activity of (frozen) meat and fish products, while taking into account the non-ideality of the unfrozen solution, we can

  1. Process redesign for effective use of product quality information in meat chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil segmented consumer demand and add value, meat processors seek to exploit quality differences in meat products. Availability of product quality information is of key importance for this. We present a case study where an innovative sensor technology that provides estimates of an important

  2. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Luning, P.A.; Weijzen, P.; Engels, W.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n = 553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and

  3. Sika deer (Cervus nippon)-specific real-time PCR method to detect fraudulent labelling of meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Maria; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2018-05-08

    Since game meat is more valuable and expensive than meat from domesticated animal species it is a potential target for adulteration. Analytical methods must allow the identification and quantification of meat species to be applicable for the detection of fraudulent labelling. We developed a real-time PCR assay for the authentication of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and products thereof. The primer/probe system amplifies a 71 bp fragment of the kappa-casein precursor gene. Since the target sequence contained only one sika deer-specific base, we introduced a deliberate base mismatch in the forward primer. The real-time PCR assay did not show cross-reactivity with 19 animal and 49 plant species tested. Low cross-reactivity was observed with red deer, fallow deer, reindeer and moose. However, with a ΔCt value of ≥11.79 between sika deer and the cross-reacting species, cross-reactivity will not affect the accuracy of the method. LOD and LOQ, determined by analysing serial dilutions of a DNA extract containing 1% (w/w) sika deer DNA in pig DNA, were 0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by analysing DNA mixtures and DNA isolates from meat extract mixtures and meat mixtures. In general, recoveries were in the range from 70 to 130%.

  4. VacA and cagA genotypes status and antimicrobial resistance properties of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from meat products in Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A; Razavilar, V; Rokni, N; Rahimi, E

    2017-01-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori has a significant impact on the occurrence of severe clinical syndromes, its exact ways of transmission and origin have not been identified. According to the results of some previously published articles, foods with animal origins play a substantial role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The present investigation was carried out to study the vacuolating cytotoxin A ( vacA ) and cytotoxin associated gene A ( cagA ) genotypes status and antibiotic resistance properties of H. pylori strains recovered from minced-meat and hamburger samples. A total of 150 meat product samples were collected from supermarkets. All samples were cultured and the susceptive colonies were then subjected to nested-PCR, PCR-based genotyping and disk diffusion methods. 11 out of 150 samples (7.33%) were positive for H. pylori . All the isolates were further identified using the nested-PCR assay. Prevalence of H. pylori in hamburger and minced-meat samples was 1.42% and 12.5%, respectively. S1a , m1a and cagA were the most commonly detected genotypes. The most commonly detected combined genotypes in the H. pylori strains of minced-meat were s1am1a (10%), s1am1b (10%) and s2m1a (10%). Helicobacter pylori strains of meat products harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (90.90%), erythromycin (72.72%), amoxicillin (72.72%), trimethoprim (63.63%), tetracycline (63.63%), and clarithromycin (63.63%). Hamburger and minced-meat samples may be the sources of virulent and resistant strains of H. pylori . Meat products are possible sources of resistant and virulent strains of H. pylori similar to those vacA and cagA genotypes. Using healthy raw materials and observation of personal hygiene can reduce the risk of H. pylori in meat products.

  5. Analysis of micro-structure in raw and heat treated meat emulsions from multimodal X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Miklos, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a novel non-destructive X-ray technique for analyzing meat emulsions before and after heat treatment. The method is based on X-ray grating-interferometry where three complementary imaging modalities are obtained simultaneously measuring the absorption, refraction and scatterin...

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci isolated from traditional fermented meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, J; Ferreira, V; Teixeira, P

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated for 182 Enterococcus spp. isolated from Alheira, Chouriça de Vinhais and Salpicão de Vinhais, fermented meat products produced in the North of Portugal. Previously, a choice was made from a group of 1060 isolates, using phenotypic and genotypic tests. From these, 76 were previously identified as Enterococcus faecalis, 44 as Enterococcus faecium, one as Enterococcus casseliflavus and 61 as Enteroccocus spp. In order to encompass several of the known chemical and functional classes of antibiotics, resistance to ampicillin, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin, tetracycline and vancomycin was evaluated. All the isolates were sensitive to antibiotics of clinical importance, such as penicillins and vancomycin. Some differences in Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics, could be associated with the enterococcal species.

  7. 77 FR 26706 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. Under this proposal, new uses of these substances in meat or poultry products would continue to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  8. 78 FR 14636 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed and Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Production of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is amending the Federal meat and poultry products... substances that the regulations prohibit for use in meat or poultry products. New uses of these substances in...

  9. Production of fungal chitosan from date wastes and its application as a biopreservative for minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Sami I A; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Moussa, Shaaban H

    2014-08-01

    Raw and processed meat contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms is a continuing worldwide problem facing health and industry overseers. Fungal chitosan was extracted, purified and characterized from Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404 grown in date syrup (dips) and applied as a potential meat biopreservative. The main features of produced chitosan were a deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 31,000Da, 96% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution and a harmonized IR-spectrum to standard commercial chitosan. The application of fungal chitosan, as a natural and safe biopreservative for minced meat, was conducted in comparison with potassium sorbate, as a commercial meat preservative. Treated meat samples with 0.02% chitosan was the least trials in microbial contents, i.e. total count, coliforms, β-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase positive staphylococci. The antimicrobial activity of fungal chitosan was considerably greater than that of potassium sorbate or their combination at 0.01% from each. Sensory characteristics, e.g. color, odor and texture, of treated meat with chitosan, were higher than those of control and potassium sorbate treated samples. Fungal chitosan, however, could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative for meat preservation and overall quality maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R E; Hurley, F J; Havery, D C

    2001-01-01

    Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.

  11. Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products by pregnant women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sales of raw or unpasteurized milk and milk products are still legal in at least 30 states in the United States. Raw milk and milk products from cows, goats, and sheep continue to be a source of bacterial infections attributable to a number of virulent pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species, Brucella species, and Escherichia coli O157. These infections can occur in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals, including older adults, infants, young children, and pregnant women and their unborn fetuses, in whom life-threatening infections and fetal miscarriage can occur. Efforts to limit the sale of raw milk products have met with opposition from those who are proponents of the purported health benefits of consuming raw milk products, which contain natural or unprocessed factors not inactivated by pasteurization. However, the benefits of these natural factors have not been clearly demonstrated in evidence-based studies and, therefore, do not outweigh the risks of raw milk consumption. Substantial data suggest that pasteurized milk confers equivalent health benefits compared with raw milk, without the additional risk of bacterial infections. The purpose of this policy statement was to review the risks of raw milk consumption in the United States and to provide evidence of the risks of infectious complications associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, especially among pregnant women, infants, and children.

  12. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  13. Not appropriate dinner table conversation? Talking to children about meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Heather J; Zambrano, Sofia C; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Ankeny, Rachel A

    2016-05-01

    Although Australians on average consume large quantities of meat, their attitudes to farm animal welfare are poorly understood. We know little about how farm animal production is discussed in Australian households or how children learn about the origins of meat. This study consisted of an online survey completed by 225 primary carers throughout Australia recruited through social media. Findings include that conversations about the origin of meat were generally stimulated by meal preparation within the home rather than visits to agricultural shows or similar activities. Parents preferred to initiate conversations with children about meat production before they were 5 years of age. Urban parents were more likely than rural parents to reveal that they were conflicted about eating meat and would be more empathetic to children who chose to stop eating meat. Rural parents were more likely than urban parents to feel that children should eat what they are given and that talking about meat is not a major issue. Both groups felt that it was important that children should know where their food comes from. The findings of this study suggest that parental attitudes to meat production and consumption influence conversations about meat origins with children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for verifying the authenticity of meat and commercial meat products from game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, María; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel Angel; Pegels, Nicolette; Lago, Adriana; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2010-06-01

    Species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using TaqMan probes have been developed for verifying the labeling of meat and commercial meat products from game birds, including quail, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl, pigeon, Eurasian woodcock and song thrush. The method combines the use of species-specific primers and TaqMan probes that amplify small fragments (amplicons meat products from the target species demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection of the target DNAs.

  15. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  16. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  17. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  18. Utilization of Delignified Sawdust as Raw Material of Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumalla Asfarina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one alternative to replace the irreplaceable energy source that has begun to diminish its existence. The raw materials for biogas manufacture are renewable biomass, usually using plantation waste, agriculture, and livestock. Using biogas can also reduce environmental pollution. One of the agricultural waste that has great potential to become the raw material of biogas is teak sawdust. Wood processing industry in Indonesia quite a lot, but wood has a high lignosesluosa content, so it needs the right method to process it. With the delignification of lignin levels on teak sawdust will decrease. Wood sawdust is soaked using NaOH for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days with 4% w / v concentration. The lowest lignin and hemicellulose content was 25.79% and 87.9% in pretreatment for 4 days, while the highest cellulose level was 57, 34%. The accumulated volume of biogas at 1 day pretreatment, ie 709 ml / g TS. Gcms shows the enlarged peak area of methanamine, N-methyl from before pretreatment. The fastest biogas formation (λ in 4 days pretreatment, 1.60403 days and the largest constant A and U variables at 1 day were 914.5903 ml / g TS and 34.59765 ml / g TS.

  19. Yeast diversity and dynamics in the production processes of Norwegian dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Dereje T; Møretrø, Trond; Gjerde, Ragnhild O; Langsrud, Solveig; Kure, Cathrine F; Sidhu, Maan S; Nesbakken, Truls; Skaar, Ida

    2009-07-31

    This study investigate the diversity and dynamics of yeasts in the production processes of one unsmoked and two smoked dry-cured meat products of a Norwegian dry-cured meat production facility. A longitudinal observational study was performed to collect 642 samples from the meat, production materials, room installations and indoor and outdoor air of the production facility. Nutrient rich agar media were used to isolate the yeasts. Morphologically different isolates were re-cultivated in their pure culture forms. Both classical and molecular methods were employed for species identification. Totally, 401 yeast isolates belonging to 10 species of the following six genera were identified: Debaryomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus and Sporidiobolus. Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides were dominant and contributed by 63.0% and 26.4% respectively to the total isolates recovered from both smoked and unsmoked products. The yeast diversity was higher at the pre-salting production processes with C. zeylanoides being the dominant. Later at the post-salting stages, D. hansenii occurred frequently. Laboratory studies showed that D. hansenii was more tolerant to sodium chloride and nitrite than C. zeylanoides. Smoking seems to have a killing or a temporary growth inhibiting effect on yeasts that extend to the start of the drying process. Yeasts were isolated only from 31.1% of the environmental samples. They belonged to six different species of which five of them were isolated from the meat samples too. Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula glutinis were dominant with a 62.6% and 22.0% contribution respectively. As none of the air samples contained D. hansenii, the production materials and room installations used in the production processes were believed to be the sources of contamination. The dominance of D. hansenii late in the production process replacing C. zeylanoides should be considered as a positive change both for the quality and safety

  20. SELECTION OF MICROORGANISMS FOR FERMENTATION OF MEAT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylenko S. G.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Principal criteria for the selection of microorganisms with a wide range of biological and technological properties for fermentation of raw meats are considered. Attention is paid to the main groups of microorganisms such as Micrococсus, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Propionibacterium which are promising for creation of bacterial preparations. To create bacterial preparations, the basic criteria of selection for microorganisms were determined as follows: the ability of microorganisms to be developed within the specific ecological niche (raw meat materials and their influence on flavor characteristics of the final product under the conditions of intensification of production technologies of meat products. Methods used for search and retrieval of technologically promising strains from different natural sources (fresh meats, minced meats, meat, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables, fruit, brines and mixtures for salting are considered.

  1. Improvement of biomolecular methods for the identification and typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, A; Bonardi, S; Bacci, C; Boni, E; Salmi, F; Bassi, L; Brindani, F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity of two m-PCR methods for the quantitative determination of E. coli O157:H7 in foodstuffs. Genomic serotyping was carried out on bacterial cultures, and the necessary time was optimized to increase the resolution of the method. Subsequently, artificial contamination trials using meat were conducted to assess method accuracy in foodstuffs and pursue the genetic typing of pathogens. Measurement thresholds were shown to range between 10(5) and 10(6) CFU/mL, but were reduced by four logarithmic cycles in 80% of samples. Relative to the meat contamination trials, serotypes were identified after 24 hours, corresponding to 10 CFU/mL inoculum, with higher rates seen when m-TSB was used for enrichment. Inoculated samples were found to contain three virulence factors (hlyA, eaeA, and stx1).

  2. Review of scientific Research results in identification of plant raw materials in food products

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUBTSOVA YU. V.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the science-based capabilities have been generated to develop and test various identification methods of food products and reveal adulteration using advanced technique and processes. This article reviews researches and developments to identify the plant raw materials in food products based on morphological, anatomic, physical and chemical test methods and the latest DNA-technologies. Review of physical, chemical, anatomic and morphological test methods to identify raw materials bot...

  3. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ..., meat, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or..., Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... governing the importation of live birds and poultry and poultry meat and products from the APHIS-defined EU...

  4. Meat and Fish Entree Item Production Guides Prepared for Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    diced Salt 0.41 Vinegar, cider 0.32 Sugar, granulated 0.27 Paprika 0.13 Garlic, dehydrated 0.05 granular Pepper, black, ground 0!01 ARROZ CON...table pans. ARROZ CON POI.l.O Ingredients Percent Pounds Grans Procedure TarALs 100.00 2$708 NarES: 1. Reheating: Reheat in a convection oven at...yield from raw weigpt-~to cooked edible (boned) meat. Edible weight of chicken equals 12 lb {5443 g). 68 ARROZ CON POLLO Meat 1. Bacon - NSN

  5. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    per capita consumption of mutton is five kg and the sheep meat ... A market segment for goat's meat has been identified in the growing Muslim .... basis of studies at two farms; one located in the fjord and the other in .... But in most cases the differences are small as ..... behaviour of Korean American Families in. California.

  6. Research of principles for estimating the freshness of meat products by color analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Petukhova, Daria B.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2015-03-01

    Color is one of the most important metrics of foodstuffs quality. It gives an indication of freshness, ingredient composition as well as about the presence or absence of falsification. Most often, the color is estimated visually, and thus, the evaluation is subjective. By automating the color analysis a wide application for this method could be found. The aim of this research is to study the principles of color analysis as applied to the task of evaluating the freshness of meat products using modern machine vision systems. From a scientific point of view, the color of meat depends on the proportion of myoglobin and its derivatives. It's the main pigment that characterizes the freshness of meat. Further color of meat can change due to oxidation of myoglobin during storage. Myoglobin exists in three forms. There are oxygenated form, oxidized form and form without oxygen. The meat color changes not only due to the conversion of one form into another. The content of amino acids and ammonia are another characteristics and constant signs of meat products spoilage. The paper presents the results of meat color computer simulation based on data on the content of various forms of myoglobin in different proportions. The spectral characteristic of the light source used to illuminate the meat sample is taken into account. Also the experimental studies were conducted using samples of beef. As a result the correlations between said biochemical indicators of the quality and color of the meat obtained with the help of machine vision system were found.

  7. ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSING TO REDUCE SALT IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    E. K. Tunieva; N. A. Gorbunova

    2017-01-01

    The world trends in table salt reduction in meat products contemplate the use of different methods for preservation of taste and consistency in finished products as well as shelf life prolongation. There are several approaches to a sodium chloride reduction in meat products. The paper presents a review of the foreign studies that give evidence of the possibility to maintain quality of traditional meat products produced with the reduced salt content. The studies in the field of salty taste percep...

  8. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  9. Influence of meat products served at some drinking bars on sale of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Preliminary survey was carried out in the Tamale Metropolis to assess the influence of meat products served at major drinking bars on sales of beverages. Structured questionnaire and interviews were used to elicit information from consumers (51) and bar operators (20). Data collected included types of meat and ...

  10. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of SAG2 locus revealed that all of the samples belonged to genotype I. The detection of the parasite in uncooked meat and commercial meat products, and the high ratio of seropositive slaughtered animals, emphasis that the risk still exists for.

  11. Impacts of reducing red meat consumption on agricultural production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Sakari Lehtonen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the simulated effects on Finnish agricultural production and trade of a 20% decrease in Finnish demand for red meat (beef, pork, lamb. According to our results, reduced red meat consumption would be offset by increased consumption of poultry meat, eggs, dairy products and fish, as well as small increases in consumption of fruits and vegetables, peas, nuts, cereal products and sweets. By including the derived demand changes in an agricultural sector model, we show that livestock production in Finland, incentivised by national production-linked payments for milk and bovine animals, would decrease by much less than 20% due to the complex nature of agricultural production and trade. Overall, assuming unchanged consumer preferences and agricultural policy, a 20% reduction in red meat consumption is not likely to lead to a substantial decrease in livestock production or changed land use, or greenhouse gas emissions, from Finnish agriculture.

  12. The influence of animal fat replacement with vegetable oils on sensorial perception of meat emulsified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian TUDOSE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of the present study, in an emulsified meat product the pork backfat was replaced with a vegetable oil pre-emulsion and its effect on quality attributes were investigated. In order to do so, a classic and a new meat products were manufactured. Extra virgin olive oil and palm oil pre-emulsion were added instead of animal fat in the new product. Texture and physiochemical properties were analyzed by instrumental measurements. It was observed that during storage moisture and pH decreased. Using vegetable oils determined substantial increase of TBA values. Texture was influenced mainly by storage time for both products, while replacement of pork backfat with vegetable oil pre-emulsion had no influence on sample firmness. The sensory properties of meat products were evaluated by a group of trained panelists using an analitycal sensory evaluation technique. Overall the new product presented good acceptability which recommends it like a new healthier meat product.

  13. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  14. Technology development of protein rich concentrates for nutrition in extreme conditions using soybean and meat by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenik, Tatiana K; Costa, Rui; Motkina, Elena V; Kosenko, Tamara A; Skripko, Olga V; Kadnikova, Irina A

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to develop new foods for participants of expeditions in extreme conditions, which must be self-sufficient. These foods should be light to carry, with a long shelf life, tasty and with  high nutrient density. Currently, protein sources are limited mainly to dried and canned meat. In this work, a protein-rich dried concentrate suitable for extreme expeditions was developed using soya, tomato, milk whey and meat by-products. Protein concentrates were developed using minced beef liver and heart, dehydrated and mixed with a soya protein-lycopene coagulate (SPLC) obtained from a solution prepared with germi- nated soybeans and mixed with tomato paste in milk whey, and finally dried. The technological parameters of pressing SPLC and of drying the protein concentrate were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimized technological parameters to prepare the protein concentrates were obtained, with 70:30 being the ideal ratio of minced meat to SPLC. The developed protein concentrates are characterized by a high calorific value of 376 kcal/100 g of dry product, with a water content of 98 g·kg-1, and 641-644 g·kg-1 of proteins. The essential amino acid indices are 100, with minimum essential amino acid content constitut- ing 100-128% of the FAO standard, depending on the raw meat used. These concentrates are also rich in micronutrients such as β-carotene and vitamin C. Analysis of the nutrient content showed that these non-perishable concentrates present a high nutritional value and complement other widely available vegetable concentrates to prepare a two-course meal. The soups and porridges prepared with these concentrates can be classified as functional foods, and comply with army requirements applicable to food products for extreme conditions.

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF CORRELATIONS BETWEEN THE MAIN TRAITS OF WOOL PRODUCTION ON PALAS SHEEP LINE FOR MEAT, MILK AND HIGH PROLIFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA ENCIU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the coefficient of phenotypic correlation and regression between main wool production traits for the sheep belonging to the Palas line specialized for meat, milk and with high prolificacy. The study was performed on a 10 years interval, the phenotypic correlation and the regression being determined for age groups and body weight classes for the following traits: raw wool production, the staple length, wool diameter and body weight at shearing. The obtained results are showing that for the specialized sheep lines the efficiency of wool production is also higher for the sheep with moderate body weights but for these sheep lines the selection for body weight will be done based on the morphoproductive parameters specific to the purpose of exploitation (milk production, meat production or high prolificacy.

  16. Ionization of bovine meat products. Microbiological, nutritional and organoleptic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmonts, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis, the author analyses simultaneously the characteristics of sliced beef steaks, of minced beef steaks from industrial making and of beef and calf ionized liver rounds: microbiological quality, nutritional quality, and organoleptic quality. These analyses are systematically effected during 3 to 4 weeks on vacuum packaged products and stored at 3-4 deg C. The influence of ionization on microbiological, nutritional and organoleptic qualities is studied. These products are vacuum packaged in oxygen-porous films, ionized under accelerated electron with radiation doses from 1 to 5 kGy and stored at 3-4 deg C during 3-4 weeks. Then, other parameters are studied : fats rate of minced steaks (5 and 10%), packing quality (oxygen-tight packing and oxygen-porous film) and finally, the radiation dose rate (X or gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons). In conclusion, the ionization allows to improve the preservation time of vacuum packaged beef and calf liver rounds. Meat can be preserved during 10-14 days after having received a radiation dose of 3-4 kGy, without nutritional quality alteration

  17. Vanadium determination in raw materials and products of aluminium production using pulse polarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, M.F.; Bal'de, I.; Markovich, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    Possibility of using differential pulse polarography (DPP) for determination of vanadium in raw materials and products of aluminium production was studied. Ammonium-cheoride buffer solution with pH 9-10, aqueous solution of mixture of sodium carbonate and borax (1:3) and rhodanide-acefic acid solutions (1:1) were tested as a background. Current-voltage curves of vanadium reduction were plotted and peak potentials on DPP were determined against the background of chosen electrolytes. Effect of parameters, providing the maximal height of DPP peak, on the height of measured signal, was studied. Rhodanide background was chosen for polarographic determination of vanadium, because the detection limit of vanadium was the lowest against this background. Pulse polarography enafles to determine vanadium in products of aluminium production in amounts from 1x10 -4 to 0.01 % and more

  18. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  19. Effect of irradiation dose and irradiation temperature on the thiamin content of raw and cooked chicken breast meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.D.; Stevenson, M.H.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of ionising radiation for the elimination of pathogenic bacteria in poultry meat has been well documented as have the effects of this processing treatment on the nutritional status of the food, in particular, the vitamins. Unfortunately, much of the earlier research carried out on the effect of irradiation on vitamins was carried out in solution or in model systems at doses much greater than those used commercially thereby resulting in considerable destruction of these compounds. Thus, those opposed to the process of food irradiation labelled the treated food as nutritionally poor. However, in reality, due to the complexity of food systems the effects of irradiation on vitamins are generally not as marked and many processes, for example cooking, cause the same degree of change to the vitamins. Thiamin (vitamin B1) is the most radiation sensitive of the water-soluble vitamins and is therefore a good indicator of the effect of irradiation treatment. In this study the effects of irradiation at either 4°C or −20°C followed by cooking on the thiamin content of chicken breast meat was determined. Results showed that whilst both irradiation and cooking resulted in a decrease in thiamin concentration, the losses incurred were unlikely to be of nutritional significance and could be further minimised by irradiating the chicken meat at a low temperature. Thiamin analyses were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography since this technique is faster and more selective than the chemical or microbiological methods more commonly employed. Total thiamin, both free and combined form, was determined following acid and enzyme hydrolysis. © 1998 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Functional or constructive attitudes: Which type drives consumers' evaluation of meat products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards meat can be divided up into two types: Functional attitudes which are stable and exist over long periods of time, and constructive attitudes which are ephemeral and usually constructed at the point of sale. This research investigated the temporal and situational stability of meat consumers' attitudes by using the same established functional, multidimensional attitude instrument to generate attitude profiles for the four meat types: chicken/beef/lamb/poultry both as an abstracted construct and as a cue on a range of meat and meat-based products. The results showed that strong attitude profile was generated by the meat types as abstracted constructs, but that this profile broke down completely when the food products carrying the same meat types were evaluated. This result indicates that consumer attitudes may not be temporally or situationally stable, which in turn suggests that consumers' evaluation and choice of meat products may be driven to a greater or lesser extent by constructive rather than functional attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presence of sulphites in different types of partly processed meat products prepared for grilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.; Trbović, D.; Petronijević, R.; Parunović, N.

    2017-09-01

    In the period January 2016 to May 2017, the presence and levels of sulfite were examined in 270 samples of hamburger, sausage (various types), pljeskavica (Serbian-style meat patties of various types) and ćevapi or ćevapčići (grill kebabs) from the Serbian market. Some (12.59%) of these partly processed meat products contained sulfites, expressed as SO2, at levels above 10 mg/kg, and so did not meet requirements laid down in the National Regulation. In the remainder of the meat products (87.41%), sulfite contents were below 10 mg/kg, which is considered as “not detected”. By groups, 100% of hamburgers, 91.76% of sausages and 90.48% of pljeskavica met requirements of National Regulation. The meat product group with the biggest percentage of non-compliant meat products in which sulfites were detected was the ćevapi or ćevapčići - 18.10% of them contained sulfites. All in all, most of the partly processed meat products from the Serbian market met the National Regulation regarding sulfite content, and they were safe for consumption. Nonetheless, the high percentage of ćevapi or ćevapčići that contained sulfites leads us to conclude that regular and periodic control is necessary and one of the most important steps in ensuring safe and quality meat products for consumers.

  2. Fat reduction and alternatives for its substitution un emulsified meat products, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natalia Rivera Ruiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat employed in emulsified meat products elaboration is important for the flavor and texture characteristics. Nonetheless, the association of this kind of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease is a negative factor against their consumption. Different alternatives had been studied to reduce their content, replacing the fat with water, hydrocolloids, gums, proteins and/or vegetable oils. This modifies the meat products functional properties like yield, cocking stability and water retention, affecting moisture content and oxidative rancidity, texture and color. All these alternatives had advantages and disadvantages in their use and application, but the particular needs will determinate the optimum formulation for healthier meat products.

  3. Increasing the quality and safety of meat products through high technology methods during their storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Georgieva, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the quality and safety of different meat products by applying two high technology methods – lyophilization and gamma-irradiation. Object of study were chicken, pork and beef meat products. The organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological properties after lyophilization, irradiation with gamma-rays and during the preservation of the samples were studied. The results indicated that the application of the two original technologies for preservation could ensure qualitative and long-lasting preservation of meat products with excellently preserved taste and organoleptic properties

  4. Irradiation of pre-packaged sliced cooked meat products with low and normal sodium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekelenburg, F.K.

    1990-01-01

    Irradiation experiments were carried out with pre-packaged sliced cooked meat products with different initial counts of Enterobacteriaceae and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. In low-sodium meat products Enterobacteriaceae could effectively be inactivated in refrigerated or frozen products by irradiation with a dose of 1 or 2 kGy respectively, provided the number of these bacteria was below 10(3) to 10(4) per g. The low-sodium meat products involved endured above treatment without being seriously affected as to sensory qualities. Shelf-life of salted cooked meat products could be prolonged by irradiating the frozen product. Irradiation with a dose of 2 kGy enabled uncooled storage of the product for a restricted period (5-7 days). Best results were obtained for meat products with a salt content in the brine phase of greater than 4.0% (w/w) and having a good hygienic quality, i.e. an initial bacterial count below 10(4)/g. Packaging in a gas atmosphere (CO2) slightly enhanced protection as compared to vacuum packaging. Off-flavours as a result of irradiation of salted cooked meat products varied from slight to strong and depended on the type of product

  5. Comprehensive review on application of edible film on meat and meat products: An eco-friendly approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaraw, Pramila; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-04-13

    The functions of packaging materials are to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation, improve some of their sensorial properties (color, taste and smell) and provide microbial stability of foods. Edible films can be made from protein, polysaccharides and lipids or by combination of any of these to form a composite film. Nanocomposites are composite films made by incorporation of nanoparticles. Edible packaging and coating of the meat and meat products enhances the self-life by the incorporation of the active compound (such as antimicrobial and antioxidant compound) in to the packaging matrix. Incorporation of the some ingredients in the matrix may also improve the nutritional as well as sensory attributes of the packed products. Edible packaging material also reduces environmental pollution by overcoming the burden degradation as edible films are biodegradable and thus eco-friendly.

  6. Multivariate analysis of meat production traits in Murciano-Granadina goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Herrera, P; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Camacho, M E

    2011-07-01

    Growth, carcass quality, and meat quality data from Murciano-Granadina kids (n=61) raised under three different systems were collected. Canonical discriminatory analysis and cluster analysis of the entire meat production process and its stages were performed using the rearing systems as grouping criteria. All comparisons resulted in significant differences and indicated the existence of three products with different quality characteristics as a result of the three rearing systems. Differences among groups were greater when comparing carcass and meat qualities as compared with growth differences. The paired analyses of canonical correlations among groups of variables integrated in growth, carcass and meat quality, resulted in all being statistically significant, pointing out the canonical correlation coefficient between carcass quality and meat quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mineral raw materials for power production in legislation of the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisa, Z.

    1999-01-01

    According to the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, mineral wealth is a public good of legal interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoys its special protection. The Mining Law establishes that mineral wealth (including mineral resources that are used for power production) is the property of the Republic of Croatia. Among other mineral raw materials, this refers to mineral raw materials that are used for power production: coal, oil, natural gas, radioactive mineral raw materials and geothermal waters. These mineral resources are as almost all other mineral raw materials with the exception of geothermal waters, an unrecoverable natural resource. The right to use that natural resource may be granted only by a concession. The mining legislation provides for exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials. Exploration of oil and gas is considered to comprise operations and testing with the aim to establish the existence, position and form of oil and natural gas deposits, their quality and quantity, as well as exploitation conditions. Exploitation of oil and natural gas is considered to comprise extraction from deposits, refining and transport, as well as disposal in geological structures. Mineral raw materials used in power production amount to 63% of national total primary energy production, and they cover 33% of total power consumption in the country. Legislation in the Republic of Croatia, which refers to exploration and exploitation of oil and natural gas, allows economic utilization of that unrecoverable natural wealth to run smoothly and in compliance with practices in our European environment. (author)

  8. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  9. Influence of Skin Packaging on Raw Beef Quality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed revision of several aspects related to the application of skin packaging to raw beef was considered. Skin packaging, a relatively new technique derived from vacuum packaging, was developed with the aim of retailing small portions of fresh meat, minced meat, or meat preparations. Above all, the influence of this typology of packaging on the microbial population of raw meat was studied, with particular attention to total viable count, aerobic spoilage bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the effect on acidification by LAB was also deepened. As colour is the main characteristic influencing purchase decisions at the point of sale, the effect of skin packaging on this parameter was evaluated for raw meat but also for cooked meat. Tenderness, juiciness, and the ability to hold liquid of raw meat when packed in skin conditions were also considered. Furthermore, odour and flavour were considered as sensorial parameters possibly affected by skin packaging. Finally, acceptability by consumer was also investigated. In the studies considered, results showed that skin packaging is advantageous in terms of maintenance of meat quality and for prolonging shelf-life, improving the stability of the products.

  10. Incomplete sanitation of a meat grinder and ingestion of raw ground beef: contributing factors to a large outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, T H; Frazak, P A; Kazmierczak, J J; Mackenzie, W R; Proctor, M E; Kurzynski, T A; Davis, J P

    1997-10-01

    Consumers in the United States continue to eat raw or undercooked foods of animal origin despite public health warnings following several well-publicized outbreaks. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infection in 158 patients in Wisconsin during the 1994 Christmas holiday period. To determine the vehicle and source of the outbreak, we conducted cohort and case-control studies, and environmental investigations in butcher shop A. Eating raw ground beef purchased from butcher shop A was the only item significantly associated with illness [cohort study: relative risk = 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-21.8; case control study: odds ratio = 46.2, 95% CI = 3.8-2751]. Inadequate cleaning and sanitization of the meat grinder in butcher shop A likely resulted in sustained contamination of ground beef during an 8-day interval. Consumer education, coupled with hazard reduction efforts at multiple stages in the food processing chain, will continue to play an important role in the control of foodborne illness.

  11. Reducing the amount of nitrites in the production of pasteurized organic meat : summary of the project and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, D.; Verkleij, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the production of organic meat products like cold meats, nitrites and nitrates are used for several reasons: for the antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties, forming and stabilizing the red, cured meat colour, and for forming a cured flavour. From literature, it is concluded that it is not

  12. Detection of irradiated meat, fish and their products by measuring 2-alkylcyclobutanones levels after frozen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obana, H.; Furuta, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2007-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones, such as 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone, were analyzed to assess the irradiation history of irradiated meats or fish, and cooked foods with irradiated ingredients, which had been stored frozen for up to one year. The purpose of the study was to show that irradiated meats could be detected even after having been stored in the distribution system. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones showed a small decrease in irradiated raw meats that had been stored frozen for one year. Cooked foods, such as pancake and fried chicken made with irradiated eggs and chicken, respectively, contained detectable levels of 2-alkylcyclobutanones after storage frozen for one year. The 2-alkylcyclobutanones became undetectable in highly dried samples, such as feed for lab animals, during the same period

  13. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in game meat and ready-to-eat meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Sánchez, M; Herrera-León, S; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2012-11-15

    A total of 142 samples of game meat and ready-to-eat meat products from red deer and wild boar were analysed in order to assess the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Shiga-toxin encoding genes (stx genes) were detected by PCR in 36 (25.4%) of the samples and STEC was isolated from 8 (5.6%) of the same samples. None of the samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Four different serotypes were found among the 8 STEC isolates, with serotype O27:H30 being predominant (62.5%, 5/8). The PCR assay indicated the presence of the stx2 gene in all of the STEC isolates and further subtyping resulted in detection of three different subtypes: stx2a, stx2b and stx2g. The only stx1-positive isolate was further subtyped as stx1c. The ehxA gene was detected in 3 (37.5%) of the isolates and none of them contained the eae gene. All STEC isolates were sensitive to the 13 antibiotics tested. Some isolates possessed serotypes and virulence gene profiles previously associated with STEC infections in humans. The isolation of a STEC strain carrying the stx2a subtype from a ready-to-eat meat product from deer suggests the role of these products as a potential source of STEC infections in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat quality of "Galician Mountain" foals breed. Effect of sex, slaughter age and livestock production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Rodríguez, Eva; Purriños, Laura; Crecente, Santiago; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José M

    2011-06-01

    The effects of sex, slaughter age (9 vs. 12 months) and livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) vs. semi extensive system (SES)) of "Galician Mountain" foals breed on meat quality from the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were investigated. Forty-two foals had been used for this study, 19 (11 females and 8 males) were reared in a semi extensive system and weaned three months prior to slaughtering (8 and 11 were slaughtered at 9 and 12 months, respectively) while the other 23 (11 females and 12 males) were reared together with its mothers in a system in freedom and were slaughtered at the age of 9 months. The obtained results showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes and the slaughter age whereas the livestock production system was a significant variation source on intramuscular fat content and meat tenderness because SES foals showed 51.6% more of IMF and the improved meat tenderness achieved a shear force of lean meat (20.5%) and heme-iron (1.62 mg/100g meat) comparable to veal meat. Furthermore, the meat samples showed a higher luminosity (L*>40), a very good water holding capacity, measured by cooking losses (<18.3%), and a tenderness less than 4 kg. Thus, it can be classified as "very tender" meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DESIRABLE ATTRIBUTES FOR VALUE ADDED MEAT PRODUCTS SURVEY 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, Jean D.; Senauer, Benjamin; Jonk, Yvonne

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this consumer survey was to learn more about consumer preferences for meat characteristics. Value added meat processors faced with the problem of trying to identify market niches wanted to know what types of consumers had similar preferences and what their specific preferences and concerns are. In addition, we wanted to learn more about attitudes that are believed to be changing due to new information about the relationship between diet and long term health, lifestyles that dem...

  16. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  17. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  18. [Vitamin A excess by feeding with horse meat products containing high levels of liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N; Kienzle, E

    2013-01-01

    Horse meat is often used in the context of an elimination diet. For reasons of practicability some pet owners feed canned horse meat, which is commercially available. Based on a report of a cat with food allergy that displayed cervical spondylosis, the vitamin A content was analyzed in various horse meat products. The vitamin A (retinol) content was analyzed in 14 commercially available horse meat products. The content of metabolizable energy was calculated on the basis of the declaration by using estimation equations. High amounts of vitamin A were found in some products for which liver, offal or animal by-products were labelled as contents. When feeding exclusively with one of these products, the vitamin A supply was just below the safe upper limit for cats while above the safe upper limit for dogs. Labelling and content of all-meat-products should be thoroughly checked to identify products with high liver percentages. An excessive vitamin A intake can occur when feeding with horse-meat products with a high liver content over a long period.

  19. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  20. Some technological aspects of combined processing of meat by heat and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Nomenotskaya, N.F.; Mozul', M.Ya.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of ionizing radiation to prolong the storage life of meat and meat products. Irradiating raw meat with doses of 0.4-0.6 Mrad increased storage life up to two months at low above-zero C temperatures. The difficulty of inhibiting autolytic processes during storage of irradiated raw meat led to searches for combined methods of meat treatment. A series of experiments was staged with pre-irradiation heating of meat up to 75, 77, and 80 0 C in order to see how cathepsin activity is affected by the duration and temperature of heating in the case of combined treatment. To increase the resistance of meat products to microbial damage, tests were carried out in which meat was exposed to short-term but intensive heat by immersing it in hot (130-160 0 C) vegetable oil (frying grease). The results are presented in the form of tables and diagrams. (E.T.)

  1. Rep-PCR typing of Staphylococcus spp. strains in meat paste production line and identification of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A meat paste production line and its microbial parameters have been evaluated in single Czech company. The raw meat paste samples before heat treatment were tested positively for the presence of three staphylococci species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Subsequent microbial analysis of meat paste components and ingredients (fresh meat, water, spices, equipment identified only the spices used as positive for S. aureus (coriander, cinnamon, badian, mustard – (10 - 40 cfu/g and S. haemolyticus strains (juniper, ginger. The collection of sixteen collected strains (S. aureus (n = 4, S. haemolyticus (n = 4, S. epidermidis (n = 8 has been typed with the rep-PCR method utilising (GTG5 primer. Analysis of the fingerprints using the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA clustering method revealed presence of eleven strain clusters with similarity lower than 90%: two fingerprint clusters of S. aureus, three individual clusters characteristic for S. haemolyticus and six different S. epidermidis specific clusters. The S. aureus strains from different types of spice were identical, resp. very similar. Molecular tracking composed from the rep-PCR analysis of acquired isolates and comparison among all collected fingerprints confirmed the spices to be the source of both S. aureus and S. haemolyticus strains identified in raw meat paste. The additional rep-PCR analysis of the S. epidermidis collection confirmed usability and performance of this method. The antibiotic susceptibility to fourteen individual antibiotics has been examined among the collected staphylococci strains. The predominant erythromycin resistance (68.8% was followed with the resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.2%. Other resistances observed were less frequent (clindamycin – 12.5%, oxacillin – 6.3%, tetracycline – 6.3%, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim – 6.3%, chloramphenicol – 6.3%, novobiocin – 6

  2. Effect of ethanolic flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; Hęś, Marzanna

    2014-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue.

  3. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    and NVNA in meat. Secondly data on the occurrence of VNA and NVNA in processed meat products on the Danish market were to be generated and used for an evaluation of the exposure level resulting from consumption of processed meat products. A method allowing for the simultaneous determination of both VNA......, NPIP, NTCA and NMTCA were inversely related to the amount of erythorbic acid (396-1104 mg kg-1). The levels of the individual NA were reduced with up to 20 to 75%. No additional protection against NA formation was obtained by also adding ascorbyl palmitate, a fat soluble antioxidant. Sodium chloride...

  4. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10 6 CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10 4 CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality

  5. Analysis of poultry meat production volume in Serbia from 1984. to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glamočlija Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat production has doubled in past 40 years in the world, with the tendency of constant growth, and its production volume exceeds beef, but is behind pork production. For poultry meat production it is typical that its annual increase exceeds pork as well as beef production. The biggest producers of poultry meat are Asia, North and South America and Europe. The most significant category of poultry is meat of young chicken (broilers. Cobb, Ross and Hubbard broiler provenance are most common in Serbia. The objective of this investigation was to analyse poultry meat production volume in Serbia, observed during three six-years periods - A (1984-1989, B (1994-1999 i C (2004-2009. For data processing there were used the data obtained from Statistical Yearbooks of Serbia from 1984. to 2009. It was found out that average poultry meat production in period A was 108,33 ± 7,00 thousand tonnes, than it statistically significantly decreased and in period B it was 76,67±5,54 thousand tonnes, and finally in period C it was 72,17± 5,78 thousand tonnes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31034

  6. Low-sodium meat products: retaining salty taste for sweet health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-01-01

    There is a positive correlation between excessive intake of sodium and incidence of hypertension. As diet is the main source of sodium, awareness among people regarding its possible role upon health has driven demand for various low sodium foods including meat products. Meat products contribute a significant amount of dietary sodium, thus maligning their own image. However, this is not an easy task as common salt affects taste and flavor, functional attributes, stability, and food safety of meat products. The various properties such as taste and flavor, binding, as well as microbiological characteristics should be given due care while developing low salt meat products and accordingly different approaches have been proposed for processing of such products. Potassium chloride has been mostly used to replace sodium; however, a number of other salts, flavor enhancers, bitter blockers and water, as well as fat binders have also been attempted either alone or in different combinations. A number of low sodium meat products have been developed but their economy and consumer acceptability are the major concerns needing proper attention. In future it is anticipated that these challenges would be overcome to provide well acceptable and cost-effective healthier meat products to the consumers.

  7. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PRODUCTION OF POULTRY MEAT AND EGGS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA AND IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Bošnjaković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat and eggs are a significant source of nutrients in the human diet. Poultry products are widely consumed because they are nutritionally valuable, there are no religious restrictions on consumption, it is relatively easy to prepare diverse meals based on poultry, and the price of such products is relatively low. The aim of this research was to investigate the development of poultry production in the Republic of Croatia in the period 2010-2014, comprising the period of two years after Croatia joined the EU. The paper also compares data of poultry production in Croatia and in the EU. Over the period in question, total meat production in Croatia was reduced by 23%, meat import was increased by 45%, poultry meat export was increased by 46%, and production of eggs decreased by 20%. At the same time, in the EU countries poultry production was increased by 8.8% on average, export was increased by 10%, and import was reduced by 3.7%, while the egg production stagnated. In 2014, consumption of poultry meat in Croatia was 18.3 kg per capita, and in the EU 26.8 kg per capita. Self-sufficiency in the poultry production over the analyzed period was not satisfactory, therefore in the coming years, Croatia will have to develop quickly this important branch of livestock breeding. In addition to conventional production, faster development refers to production of organic and functional poultry products.

  9. ANTE-MORTEM FORMATION OF THE QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY MEAT RAW MATERIAL BY INTENSIFICATION OF THE MECHANISMS OF THE METABOLIC PROCESSES IN GILTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Giro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to reduce the time of feeding, increase the intensity of weight gain without hormones, antibiotics, anabolic drugs, as well as to obtain high-quality meat with marble structure, the authors studied the influence of ovarioectomy on the intensification of the metabolic processes in gilts. The experiments were carried out in the FGUP “Mummovskoe” – the educational experimental enterprise of the Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy (RSAU – MAA named after K.A.  Timiryazev, in the Atkarsky district of the Saratov region. Two groups of Duroc gilts (10 animals each raised under the same conditions were studied. As a result of the experiment, the influence of ovariectomy on the level of insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and indicators of metabolic processes in gilts were established. It is confirmed that stimulation of the the somatotropin/insulin-like growth factor (ST-IGF system along with hereditary factors and the characteristics of feeding contributes to the development of muscle tissue. Stimulation of ST secretion with insulin-like growth factor facilitates the development of muscle tissue.An increase in IGF-1 level leads to the development of new muscle fibers and muscle hyperplasia. After surgery, the major factors of changes in meat and feeding indicators in gilts were the rise in the metabolic activity of muscle tissue and fat metabolism, enhancement of production of IGF-1, which has insulin-like action and ensures activation of the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. Increase in IGF-1 level had a positive impact on meat productivity, chemical and biochemical composition of pork. Simultaneous triggering of the systemic catabolic and local anabolic reactions in gilts after ovariectomy contributed to obtaining higher nutritional value of meat.

  10. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Dairy and Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador; Sadeghi Kalani; Valian; Irajian; Lotfollahi

    2015-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a serious threat to the public health in the world. Consumption of traditional foods such as dairy and meat products can be a major reason for relative abundance and isolation of these bacteria. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy and meat products. ...

  11. Utilization of Iron Ore Tailings as Raw Material for Portland Cement Clinker Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has for some time been seeking alternative raw material for the Portland cement clinker production. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of utilizing iron ore tailings (IOT to replace clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the production of Portland cement clinker. For this purpose, two kinds of clinkers were prepared: one was prepared by IOT; the other was prepared by clay as a reference. The reactivity and burnability of raw meal, mineralogical composition and physical properties of clinker, and hydration characteristic of cement were studied by burnability analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, and hydration analysis. The results showed that the raw meal containing IOT had higher reactivity and burnability than the raw meal containing clay, and the use of IOT did not affect the formation of characteristic mineralogical phases of Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, the physical and mechanical performance of two cement clinkers were similar. In addition, the use of IOT was found to improve the grindability of clinker and lower the hydration heat of Portland cement. These findings suggest that IOT can replace the clay as alumina-silicate raw material for the preparation of Portland cement clinker.

  12. Radioactivity of raw materials, metallurgical and casting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, J.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the radioactive contamination of metallurgical products and initial materials represent a potential obstacle in foreign and domestic trade. It is of course an undesirable threat o the living environment on the one side and, at the same time, a new incorrectly used means for suppressing competition and forming a protection 'umbrella' of the national market to desirable imports on the other hand

  13. Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2008-02-01

    The water holding capacity of meat products is a very important quality attribute which has an influence on product yield, which in turn has economic implications, but is also important in terms of eating quality. A number of pre-and post-mortem factors influence the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. During the growth and development of meat animals, genotype and animal diet are important due to their direct influence on muscle characteristics. In the immediate pre-slaughter period, stresses on the animal such as fasting, and different stunning methods are likely to influence meat WHC. In the post-slaughter period chilling, ageing, injecting non-meat ingredients, as well as tumbling have important influences on WHC. Furthermore, cooking and cooling procedures for the final meat products can also affect the WHC of the product, in particular the cooking and the cooling methods, the heating and the cooling rate, the cooking temperature, and the endpoint temperature. This paper provides an overview of recent research on important intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect the WHC of beef, pork, and lamb products, and reveals explanations and solutions to some of the critical problems related to WHC and product quality.

  14. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  15. The quality evaluation of frankfurter-type sausages from hand and mechanically deboned turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomyski, T; Niewiarowicz, A

    1987-03-01

    A quality evaluation was made of frankfurter-type sausages made from hand and mechanically deboned meat from various parts of turkey carcasses. The results led to the conclusions that despite some differences in objective measurements of the sausage quality, mechanically deboned turkey meat can be considered as an exclusive meat raw material for the production of frankfurter-type sausages. The quality of sausages from mechanically deboned turkey meat from wings and frames with skin was the least satisfactory.

  16. Rfa method application for determination of heavy metals content in foods and industrial raw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The issue of improvement of the people's lives quality is considered to be of the highest priority according to the U N classification. It is known that its solution lies with the quality of drinking water and foods, which is defined, to a great extent, by the ecological situation of a concrete living region. As a rule, the existing methods of food analysis are mostly meant for determination of one chemical substance in a certain food. The analysis methods developed by authors are versatile and allow determining the quantitative content of Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Pb, Bi in the widely used basic foods and industrial raw products according to the common analytical scheme. The methods sensitivity allows determining the MCL of the toxic substances in foods and industrial raw products, specified in 'Medical and biological requirements and health-related quality standards in regards to the industrial raw products and foods

  17. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  18. Tylosin production by Streptomyces fradiae using raw cornmeal in airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dubok; Choi, On You; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Chung, Dong-Ok; Shin, Dae-Yewn

    2007-07-01

    Using a 50-l airlift bioreactor, for the effective production of tylosin from Streptomyces fradiae TM-224 using raw cornmeal as the energy source, various environmental factors were studied in flask cultures. The maximum tylosin concentration was obtained at 32 degrees C and pH between 7.0 and 7.5. When seed was inoculated after 24 h of culture, the maximum tylosin concentration, 5.7 g/l, was obtained after 4 days of culture. Various concentrations of raw cornmeal were tested to investigate the optimum initial concentration for the tylosin production. An initial raw cornmeal concentration of 80 g/l gave the highest tylosin concentration, 5.8 g/l, after 5 days of culture. Of the various nitrogen sources, soybean meal and fish meal were found to be the most effective for the production of tylosin. In particular, with the optimal mixing ratio, 12 g/l of soybean meal to 14 g/l of fish meal, 7.2 g/l of tylosin was obtained after 5 days of culture. To compare raw cornmeal and glucose for the production oftylosin in the 50-1 airlift bioreactor for 10 days, fed-batch cultures were carried out under the optimum culture conditions. When raw corn meal was used as the energy source, the tylosin production increased with increasing culture time. The maximum tylosin concentration after 10 days of culture was 13.5 g/l, with a product yield from raw cornmeal of 0.123 g/g of consumed carbon source, which was about 7.2 times higher than that obtained when glucose was used as the carbon source.

  19. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

  20. Economic Feasibility of Functional Meat Products for Commercial Production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varalakshmi Kandanuri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production of functional chicken meat products from economic perspectives. It analyses and compares the economics and investment feasibility on different size groups of processing plants in India. The primary data on input use and output yield were taken from studies of NRCM and data was analysed using economic analysis and investment appraisal techniques like NPV, IRR(%, BC ratio, and Break even analysis. The results indicated that the cost of production of functional products was 5.2 and 5.18 and 4.59 US dollars per kg on small, medium and large scale units respectively. All the processing units are found to be economically feasible with NPV of US$ 12727, 64661 and 153703, IRR of 26%,31% and 42% and B-C ratio was estimated as 1.56, 1.78 and 2.29 for small, medium and large scale units respectively. Economies of scale is evident form all perspectives like production costs, profits, discounting measures and breakeven point. The study found the feasibility of functional meat products in India for commercial production.

  1. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of..., and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is the Web- based portal for... products (21 U.S.C. 620, 466). The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.) prohibits...

  2. Possibilities of microscopic detection of isolated porcine proteins in model meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various protein additives intended for manufacture of meat products have increasing importance in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. Among animal proteins, blood plasma, milk protein or collagen are used most commonly. Collagen is obtained from pork, beef, and poultry or fish skin. Collagen does not contain all the essential amino acids, thus it is not a full protein in terms of essential amino acids supply for one's organism. However, it is rather rich in amino acids of glycine, hydroxyproline and proline which are almost absent in other proteins and their synthesis is very energy intensive. Collagen, which is added to the soft and small meat products in the form of isolated porcine protein, significantly affects the organoleptic properties of these products. This work focused on detection of isolated porcine protein in model meat products where detection of isolated porcine protein was verified by histological staining and light microscopy. Seven model meat products from poultry meat and 7 model meat products from beef and pork in the ratio of 1:1, which contained 2.5% concentration of various commercially produced isolated porcine proteins, were examined. These model meat products were histologically processed by means of cryosections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining, toluidine blue staining and Calleja. For the validation phase, Calleja was utilized. To determine the sensitivity and specificity, five model meat products containing the addition of isolated porcine protein and five model meat products free of it were used. The sensitivity was determined for isolated porcine protein at 1.00 and specificity was determined at 1.00. The detection limit of the method was at the level of 0.001% addition. Repeatability of the method was carried out using products with addition as well as without addition of isolated porcine protein and detection was repeated

  3. Meat production traits of local Karayaka sheep in Turkey 1. The meat quality characteristic of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. AKSOY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is an investigation into the meat quality parameters of Karayaka lambs at differentslaughter weights (SWs. The single-born Karayaka male lambs (n=30 selected for this study were an average live-weight of 20 kg and weaned at 2.5-3 months of age. The animals with pre-specifiedSWs were divided into slaughter weight (SW groups (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kg using a fully randomized design. To determine the M. longissimus dorsi et thoracis (LD muscle meat qualitycharacteristics, six lambs from each weight group were slaughtered. Results revealed significant differences among the slaughter groups with regard to pH, color parameters (L*-lightness,a*-redness, b* -yellowness, cooking loss (CL, drip loss (DL, moisture (M, crude protein (CP and intramuscular fat (IF ratios. Increasing water holding capacities (WHCs and hardness valueswere observed with increasing SW. Significant differences were also observed among the slaughter groups with regard to total monounsaturated fatty acid + total polyunsaturated fatty acid/totalsaturated fatty acid ratios and total cholesterol content.

  4. Occurrence and growth of yeasts in processed meat products - implications for potential spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jacobsen, Tomas; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    of the processed meat products. The yeast microflora was complex with 4-12 different species isolated from the different production sites. In general, Candida zeylanoides, Debaryomyces hansenii and the newly described Candida alimentaria were found to be the dominant yeast species. In addition, three putatively......Spoilage of meat products is in general attributed to bacteria but new processing and storage techniques inhibiting growth of bacteria may provide opportunities for yeasts to dominate the microflora and cause spoilage of the product. With the aim of obtaining a deeper understanding of the potential...... role of yeast in spoilage of five different processed meat products (bacon, ham, salami and two different liver patés), yeasts were isolated, enumerated and identified during processing, in the final product and in the final product at the end of shelf life. Yeasts were isolated along the bacon...

  5. Red mud addition in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Agatzini-Leonardou, S; Oustadakis, P

    2004-12-10

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal for the production of Portland cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample ((PC)Ref), and another with 3.5% red mud ((PC)R/M). The effect on the reactivity of the raw mix was evaluated on the basis of the unreacted lime content in samples sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 degrees C. Subsequently, the clinkers were produced by sintering the two raw meals at 1450 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the red mud did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced Portland cement clinker. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of the red mud did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  6. Meat and meat products – analysis of the most common threats in the years 2011-2015 in Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononiuk, Anna D.; Karwowska, Małgorzata

    The key tool used in the European Union in order to eliminate the risks associated with the consumption of potentially hazardous food is RASFF - Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed Safety. The RASFF was established to increase accountability and strengthening cooperation between states of the European Union in the field of food safety control. The aim of this study was to explore the trends and temporal and spatial distribution of notifications on food safety hazards between January 2011 and December 2015 with a special emphasis on meat and meat products on the basis of notification from RASFF. The study analyzed notifications on the annual reports of the RASFF published by the European Commission and requests added to the portal RASFF in the period 01.01.2011 - 31.12.2015 on the category of “meat and meat products (other than poultry) and “poultry meat and poultry meat products”. Analysis included detailed information on each notification, such as the classification and date, hazard category, notifying country, country origin. The most common classifications of notification were ‘alert’ and ‘border rejection’. Generally, basis of this notifications were ‘company’s own check’ and ‘official control on the market’. Pathogenic microorganisms were the most often hazard of category in which the higher number of notifications concerned with Salmonella spp. Alert notification which is the most dangerous for consumers were the most common type of classification for notifications on ‘meat and meat product’ category. The most of notifications in category ‘poultry meat and poultry meat products’ were the result of border control. Pathogenic microorganisms were the reason for the huge number of notifications in studied product categories. Many of notifications were associated with products which origin countries were outside RASFF member states.

  7. Effect of residual ascorbate on determination of nitrite in commercial cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J B; Doerr, R C; Gates, R

    1984-01-01

    Residual ascorbate in cured meat slurries results in different amounts of pigment being produced from different Griess reagent combinations. The phenomenon was used to study residual ascorbate in commercial cured meat products which had a variety of textures, acidities, moisture and meat content, fat, homogeneity, initial nitrite, and processing conditions. Diluting and heating the samples according to the AOAC procedure did not completely eliminate the ascorbate interference, but making the sample alkaline did. Determining nitrite separately in supernate and precipitate from the first dilution showed the effect of heating to be the elimination of interferences and solubilization or extraction of nitrite from the precipitate.

  8. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  9. Rare earth permanent magnets in China: production and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    With the development of computer, electronics, communication and modern information industries, NdFeB magnet industry is growing rapidly as a booming business worldwide. Based on the abundance of rare earth and manpower, supporting by the technical teams and the huge domestic market, China NdFeB magnet industry made big jump during the last decade. Its growth rate is the highest one among all other countries. Now China occupies number one place in the world not only due to its richest rare earth reserves, but also due to its output of rare earth, especially, its sales to the international market. China is the only country, who is able to meet the market needs of rare earth worldwide. The current situation of NdFeB magnet industry can be concluded as ''five highs'', i.e. ''high volume growth'', ''high grade development'', ''high expansion of capacity'', ''high value added product'' and ''high variation speed''. The connotations of these ''five highs'' and a brief review on Chinese rare earth industry will be given in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I

    2006-01-01

    Meat and meat products are essential components of diets in developed countries and despite the convincing evidence that relate them to an increased risk for CVD, a growing consumption of meat products is foreseen. Epidemiological studies show that regular consumption of nuts, in general, and walnuts in particular, correlates inversely with myocardial infarction and ischaemic vascular disease. We assess the nutritional basis for and technological approach to the development of functional meat-based products potentially relevant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Using the available strategies in the meat industry (reformulation processes) and a food-based approach, we address the design and development of restructured beef steak with added walnuts, potentially functional for CVD risk reduction. Its adequacy as a vehicle for active nutrients is confirmed by a pharmacokinetic pilot study in humans using gamma-tocopherol as an exposure biomarker in chylomicrons during the post-prandial state. Effect and potential "functionality" is being assessed by a dietary intervention study in subjects at risk and markers and indicators related to CVD are being evaluated. Within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine, development of meat-based functional products may become a useful approach for specific applications, with a potential market and health benefits of great importance at a population level.

  11. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  12. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in uncooked ground meat products from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Scott R; Marsh, Jane W; Schlackman, Jessica L; Harrison, Lee H

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retail meat samples has varied widely. The food supply may be a source for C. difficile infections. A total of 102 ground meat and sausage samples from 3 grocers in Pittsburgh, PA, were cultured for C. difficile. Brand A pork sausages were resampled between May 2011 and January 2012. Two out of 102 (2.0%) meat products initially sampled were positive for C. difficile; both were pork sausage from brand A from the same processing facility (facility A). On subsequent sampling of brand A products, 10/19 samples from processing facility A and 1/10 samples from 3 other facilities were positive for C. difficile. The isolates recovered were inferred ribotype 078, comprising 6 genotypes. The prevalence of C. difficile in retail meat may not be as high as previously reported in North America. When contamination occurs, it may be related to events at processing facilities.

  13. Fate of acid-resistant and non-acid resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in experimentally contaminated French fermented raw meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, M P; Christieans, S; Thevenot, D; Coppet, V; Ganet, S; Muller, M L Delignette; Dunière, L; Miszczycha, S; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2009-02-28

    Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli exhibit a stress response to sublethal environmental stresses. Several studies have reported acid tolerance and survival characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 in foodstuffs, but there are few reports about the tolerance of non-O157 serogroups (STEC) to organic acids in foods. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the manufacturing process of French fermented raw meat sausages on the growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid resistant (NAR) STEC strains. The six strains, 3 AR and 3 NAR, were inoculated separately into raw sausage mixture at a level of 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g. A total of 19 batches of sausages were manufactured. A rapid and similar decrease in the number of both AR and NAR STEC strains, from less than 1 to 1.5 log(10) CFU/g, was observed during the first 5 days of fermentation at 20-24 degrees C. This rapid decrease was followed by a more gradual but continuous decrease in STEC counts after drying at 13-14 degrees C, up to day 35. The STEC counts were <10 CFU/g after 35 days for the NAR strains and the same concentration for the AR strains on the best before date (day 60). It was not possible to detect any NAR STEC after 60 days. The present study shows that the process used in the manufacture of French sausages results in a complete destruction of NAR STEC strains after 60 days, but it does not have the same effect on the AR STEC strains.

  14. Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    D?Amato, Maria Eugenia; Alechine, Evguenia; Cloete, Kevin Wesley; Davison, Sean; Corach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild animals? meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum lik...

  15. Meat and fermented meat products as a source of bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Joanna; Kęska, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are short amino acid sequences, that upon release from the parent protein may play different physiological roles, including antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and other bioactivities. They have been identified from a range of foods, including those of animal origin, e.g., milk and muscle sources (with pork, beef, or chicken and various species of fish and marine organism). Bioactive peptides are encrypted within the sequence of the parent protein molecule and latent until released and activated by enzymatic proteolysis, e.g. during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Bioactive peptides derived from food sources have the potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the muscle-derived bioactive peptides, especially those of fermented meats and the potential benefits of these bioactive compounds to human health.

  16. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian; Raziye Montazerolfaraj; Hakime Selsele Vaziri; Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush; Alireza Arsalan; Tahere Zarabie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM) techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Tex...

  17. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsifi ed Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seline Glorieux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsifi ed meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The eff ect of seven diff erent phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had litt le eff ect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06 % TSPP was suffi cient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsifi ed meat products can be signifi cantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  18. Phosphate Reduction in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Phosphate Type and Dosage on Quality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorieux, Seline; Goemaere, Olivier; Steen, Liselot; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-01

    Phosphate reduction is of important industrial relevance in the manufacturing of emulsified meat products because it may give rise to a healthier product. The effect of seven different phosphate types was tested on the physicochemical and quality characteristics to select the most promising phosphate type for further cooked sausage manufacturing. Next, phosphate mass fraction was gradually reduced. Tetrasodium di- or pyrophosphate (TSPP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) increased pH, reduced structural properties, resulted in the highest emulsion stability, lowest cooking loss and had little effect on hardness. Based on the viscoelastic properties, a minimum mass fraction of 0.06% TSPP was sufficient to obtain an acceptable quality product. Rheology proved to be a very useful tool to evaluate the quality of meat products, as it gives insight in the structure of the meat product and especially the functional properties of meat proteins. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the current amount of phosphate added to emulsified meat products can be significantly reduced with minimal loss of product quality.

  19. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  20. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  1. [Effect of a new low-cholesterol meat and vegetal product on correction of simulated lipid metabolism disorders in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, I F; Slozhenkina, M I; Karpenko, E V; Giro, T M; Andreeva, S V

    2015-01-01

    spread with vegetable supplements (pumpkin by-products and alginates), and group 3 received a standard diet within the next month. The results of biochemical blood serum studies have shown that the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and sulphydryl groups in the experimental groups 1 and 2 decreased, indicating a positive influence on lipid metabolism and prevention of peroxides formation in the organism. These changes were more pronounced when meat product with plant additives and alginate was used in the diet. Only under the application of the meat-vegetable pate cholesterol level ceased to differ from that of the control group of animals. Based on the significant reduction of blood malondialdehyde level, antioxidant properties of vegetable supplements have been proven. The experimental data showed that the spread, developed on the basis of low-cholesterol raw meat with vegetable ingredients (pumpkin by-products and alginates) can be used to correct metabolic disorders of lipids, reducing the risk of cardio pathology in the body.

  2. Biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide as catalyst and different raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Joana Maia; Conceição Machado Alvim-Ferraz, Maria; Fonseca Almeida, Manuel; Méndez Díaz, José Diego; Sánchez Polo, Manuel; Rivera Utrilla, José

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Biodiesel production using a calcium manganese oxide catalyst was studied. ► The active specie was Ca 0.9 Mn 0.1 O and its deactivation occurred by hydration. ► The studied catalyst presented lower activation temperature than CaO. ► Biodiesel production and quality using different raw materials is reported. ► Compared to the conventional process, biodiesel water content improved. - Abstract: The use of heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production aims to simplify the production process as well as to reduce purification costs and related environmental impacts. Calcium manganese oxide was recently identified by the authors as an interesting heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from animal fat; however, the difference between this and other catalysts, the catalyst activation/deactivation mechanisms, its behaviour in the synthesis using different raw materials as well as the impacts of its use on product quality remained unclear. Therefore, the present work: (i) compared biodiesel production using calcium manganese oxide and other catalysts (CaO and NaOH); (ii) studied the reasons leading to activation/deactivation of the heterogeneous catalyst; (iii) analysed biodiesel heterogeneous synthesis using calcium manganese oxide and different raw materials (lard, waste frying oil and a mixture); and (iv) evaluated raw material and catalyst impact on the product quality. Considering the use of different catalysts, the results showed that, after 8 h of reaction, product purity was similar using the different catalysts, being 92.5 wt.% using both NaOH and calcium manganese oxide and 93.8 wt.% using CaO. The active species of the heterogeneous catalysts were CaO, in the case of calcinated calcium carbonate, and Ca 0.9 Mn 0.1 O, in the case of calcinated calcium manganese oxide. Because the deactivating species were different for both catalysts, the calcium manganese oxide required lower activation temperature, which should be an advantage

  3. Characterization of transferable tetracycline resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Licht, Tine Rask

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of tetracycline resistance, and of specific genetic determinants for this resistance was investigated in 1003 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from various raw food products originating from five categories including chicken meat, other poultry meat, beef, pork, and 'other...

  4. USE OF NEAR INFRARED TECHNOLOGY TO PREDICT FATTY ACID GROUPS IN COMMERCIAL GROUND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared transmittance (NIT, 850 to 1048 nm spectroscopy was used to predict groups of fatty acids (FA, namely saturated FA (SFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA, in commercial ground meat samples aiming to develope a fast and reliable method for their determination in support of label declaration by the new EC Regulation 1169/2011. Dataset was built using 81 samples of commercial ground meat from different species: beef, pork, chicken and turkey. In some samples, meat was mixtured with different ingredients such as bread, cheese, spices and additives. Samples were first analysed by NIT instrument for spectral information and reference FA values were obtained by gas chromatographic analysis. Prediction models for SFA, MUFA and PUFA expressed on total FA exhibited coefficients of determination of calibration of 0.822, 0.367 and 0.780 on intact samples, and 0.879, 0.726 and 0.908 on minced samples, respectively. Good results were also obtained when FA groups were expressed as g/100g of fresh meat: the coefficient of determination of calibration increased to values larger than 0.915. Moreover, comparing the slightly lower coefficient of determination in crossvalidation of intact compared with minced meat suggested that equations developed for minced samples were more accurate than those built for intact products. Results highlighted the effectiveness of NIT spectroscopy to predict the major FA groups in commercial meat products.

  5. Oat raw materials and bakery products - amino acid composition and celiac immunoreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickowska, Barbara; Litwinek, Dorota; Gambuś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical and immunochemical properties of avenins in some special oat raw materials and additionally the possibility of using them as a raw material for the gluten-free bakery products. The compared oat raw materials were - oat flakes, commercial oat flours (including gluten-free oat flour) and residual oat flour, which is by-product of β-glucan preparation. Biochemical characteristic included amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE profiles of extracted avenins. The immunochemical reactivity with polyclonal anti-gluten and monoclonal anti-gliadin antibodies was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by immunoblotting and ELISA methods. Additionally, experimental bakery products made of examined raw materials were assessed according to their suitability for the celiac patients' diet. The highest protein content was measured in the β-glucan preparation "Betaven" and gluten-free oat flour. Proteins of all materials are rich in glutamic and aspartic acid, leucine and arginine. Proportions of amino acids in avenins extracted from most of oat raw materials are similar, excluding gluten-free oat flour, which has a very low avenin content and proportions of individual amino acids are different. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern consisted of proteins with molecular weight of about 25-35 kDa. Polyclonal anti-gluten anti-body recognized all protein fractions of molecular weight higher than 20 kDa. Quantitative ELISA analysis shows that the majority of samples has a gliadin-like protein content within the range of 80-260 mg/kg, excluding gluten-free flours and corresponding bakery products. Altogether, β-glucan preparation has extremely high level of gliadin-like proteins. In the examined oat raw materials and foods the contents of immunoreactive amino acid sequences exceeded the limit of 20 mg/kg (considered as gluten-free) except for gluten-free flours (oat and  the prepared mixture) and the bakery products based on gluten

  6. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Dairy and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a serious threat to the public health in the world. Consumption of traditional foods such as dairy and meat products can be a major reason for relative abundance and isolation of these bacteria. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy and meat products. Materials and Methods A total of 317 dairy products and meat-processed samples were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on each sample by the disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer. Five reference loci were used for typing of L. monocytogenes strains by MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis Technique. Results A total of 24 L. monocytogenes isolates were collected from the dairy and meat products. Resistance of isolated L. monocytogenes strains to penicillin G were 54.54% (from dairy products and 46.15% (from processed meat. Genetic relatedness of isolates were assessed by MLVA. Out of 13 different types, type 2 with 6 strains and type 3 with 4 strains, were the most common types. Conclusions MLVA analysis showed that samples obtained from different sources could have similar genetic profile. As a result, administration of penicillin in patients with listeriosis (especially pregnant women and antibiotic susceptibility test are recommended. The fast and accurate methods such as MLVA for tracking of pollution sources of L. monocytogenes are recommended during outbreaks.

  7. Development of radicidation process for eradicating Salmonella and Staphylococcus from pork meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alur, M.D.; Kamat, A.S.; Doke, S.N.; Nair, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Processed meat products including pork salami, luncheon meat, ham and cocktail sausages maintained at sub-zero temperatures in retail cold storage were found to possess counts of mesophilic aerobes, Staphylococcus and Salmonella counts in the ranges of 10 6 - 10 7 and 10 4 - 10 5 and 10 - 100 cfu/g, respectively. When these processed meat products were subjected to a gamma radiation dose of 2.5 kGy, under cryogenic condition, counts of mesophilic aerobes and Staphylococcus of the samples were reduced by 3-4 log cycles. At the same time, products were completely free from Salmonella. Inoculated pack studies indicated that gamma radiation dose of 4 kGy would suffice to eliminate Salmonella completely even in the case of samples, which were artificially inoculated with a heavy initial inoculum of 10 6 cfu/g. A trained taste panel gave high organoleptic ratings, the radicidized meat products in terms of odour, colour and texture, establishing 4 kGy as an optimum radicidation dose for frozen pork meat products. (author)

  8. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats offer numerous nutritional and health benefits and provide unique eating satisfaction in the lifestyle of the modern society. However, consumption of red meat including processed products is subjected to increasing scrutiny due to the health risks associated with cytotoxins that potentially could be generated during meat preparation. Evidence from recent studies suggests free radical pathways as a plausible mechanism for toxin formation, and antioxidants have shown promise to mitigate process-generated chemical hazards. The present review discusses the involvements of lipid and protein oxidation in meat quality, nutrition, safety, and organoleptic properties; animal production and meat processing strategies which incorporate natural antioxidants to enhance the nutritional and health benefits of meat; and the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to eliminate or minimize the formation of carcinogens for chemical safety of cooked and processed meats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    “milanense” was isolated from 21 items. The other penicillia were rarely isolated. Of the isolated and identified species, those that can produce mycotoxins are: A. versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. nordicum, and Penicillium polonicum. Their growth on dry-cured meat products......The surface mycobiota of three types of Slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. The predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Eurotium spp., Aspergillus...

  10. Sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Andersen, Lone Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    These years, the consumption of pork is not only stagnating in Denmark but also on many other European markets. This coincides with a rise in consumer demand for increased welfare among farm animals. In a project about sustainable production and sales of meat from free-range pigs, guidelines...... are developed on a European level for the production of pork from outdoors production systems, which combine animal welfare with high quality of consumption and high quality of health. In cooperation with colleagues in France, Great Britain and Sweden, MAPP is examining the market potential of this type of meat......, based on consumer surveys in these four countries....

  11. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  12. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce... with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. “Spaghetti with Meatballs and Sauce” and “Spaghetti with Meat and Sauce,” and similar products shall contain not less than...

  13. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  14. The water footprint of animal products : The meat crisis: Developing more sustainable and ethical production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; D'Silva, Joyce; Webster, John

    2017-01-01

    Meat and dairy production and consumption are in crisis. Globally, 70 billion farm animals are used for food production every year. It is well accepted that livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish Smoked Fish and Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; White, S.; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2006-01-01

    Twenty seven PAH were detected in 45 selected smoked food samples produced in Denmark, including mackerel, herring, trout, small sausages, salami, and bacon. The sum of PAH in smoked meat products ranged from 24 mu g/kg for salami to 64 mu g/kg in bacon, while those in fish products ranged from 2...

  16. Colour and fat content as intrinsic cues for consumers attitudes towards meat product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers’ attitudes towards sensory properties of chicken, royal and beef salami, meat products from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1018) in four retail stores (Delhaize) in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference concerning the colour and fat of three selected salami and then completed questionnaire of socio-demographic information including eating behaviour. Selected smoked meat products were evaluated in the DLG Test Center Food, Germany. Consumers, at all education levels and in all age groups, evaluated colour as good and fat as sufficient with a significantly (psmoked products passed the DLG tests and received “DLG award winner” medals in Gold (73%) or Silver (27%).

  17. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  18. Inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds by Debaryomyces hansenii strains for biopreservation of dry-cured meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Maria J.; Thorsen, Line; Rodríguez, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    mould growth and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The inoculation of D. hansenii should be made at the beginning of processing (at the end of post salting) when the a(w) of the product is still high (near 0.94). This action in addition to application of appropriate hygienic actions......The ability of the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii to inhibit Penicillium nordicum, the most common ochratoxigenic mould encountered in dry-cured meat products, was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of ten D. hansenii strains isolated from dry-cured ham was screened in vitro using malt...... extract media and meat extract peptone media with the water activity (a(w)) adjusted to 0.97 and 0.90. A significant inhibition of the two tested P. nordicum strains by D. hansenii cells and cell-free supernatants was observed. At 0.97 a(w), increasing D. hansenii inoculum concentrations significantly...

  19. Volatile N-nitrosamines in meat products: Potential precursors, influence of processing, and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-02

    Meat products can be contaminated with carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, which is ascribed to the reaction between a nitrosating agent, originating from nitrite or smoke, and a secondary amine, derived from protein and lipid degradation. Although in model systems it is demonstrated that many amine containing compounds can be converted to N-nitrosamines, the yield is dependent of reaction conditions (e.g., low pH and high temperature). In this article, the influence of the composition of the meat products (e.g., pH, a w , spices) and processing (e.g., ageing, ripening, fermentation, smoking, heat treatment and storage) on the presence and availability of the amine precursors and the N-nitrosamine formation mechanism is discussed. In addition, this article explores the current N-nitrosamine mitigation strategies in order to obtain healthier and more natural meat products.

  20. Influence of processing on the gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane content of meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.; Hecht, H.; Coretti, K.

    1975-01-01

    Meat from rabbits, which had been fed with 14 C γ-HCH, was processed to dried sausage and to various meat products. Micrococci and lactobacilli from a commercial starter culture metabolize the labelled pesticide to 20 and 10%, respectively. In dried sausage the γ-HCH content decreased in the course of 30 d by an average of about 25%. By curing, about 20% and by hot-smoking, 12% of the γ-HCH were degraded in the meat products. Cooking (1 1/2 h at 100 0 C) was the most effective treatment; more than 50% of the pesticide content were removed. In all kinds of products, besides small amounts (less than 2%) of chlorinated benzenes and phenols, the residues consisted mainly of γ-HCH. (author)

  1. Exploiting epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) as a starting raw material for latex-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nor Qamarina, M.; Fatimah Rubaizah, M. R.; Nurul Suhaira, A.; Norhanifah, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber latex (ENRL) is a chemically modified natural rubber latex produced from epoxidation process that involves usage of organic peracids. Conversion of the ENRL into dry rubber products has been known to exhibit many beneficial properties, however limited published works were found on diversifiying the ENRL latex-based products applications. In this preliminary work, different source of raw materials and neutralization systems were investigated. The objective was to explore possibilities in producing distinctive ENRL. Findings have demonstrated that different source of raw materials and neutralization systems influenced the typical ENRL specifications, stability behavior and particle size distribution. Morphological observations performed on these ENRL systems appeared to agree with the ENRL characteristics achieved. Since experimenting these two main factors resulted in encouraging ENRL findings, detailed work shall be further scrutinized to search for an optimum condition in producing marketable ENRL specifically for latex-based products applications.

  2. Production, performance, slaughter characteristics, and meat quality of Ziwuling wild crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan

    2018-02-01

    Wild boars, because of their large size and ability to survive adverse conditions, are usually used to cross with domestic breeds to improve the quality of domesticated pigs. This study aimed to investigate the growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of Ziwuling crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs in four groups (n = 8 per group, 4 boars and 4 sows, all aged 100 days), F 1 [wild × B (Bamei)], F 1  × B, F 1  × Y (Yorkshire), and F 1  × F 1 , were selected at a commercial pig farm. Growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of these crossbred pigs were determined. Characteristics of fatty acids, amino acids, and longissimus muscle fiber in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were also investigated. Pigs in F 1 and F 1  × F 1 groups had lower average daily weight gain, water and storage loss rates, larger meat color score, higher muscle amino acid levels, larger muscle fiber diameter, and higher ratio of flavor amino acids to unsaturated fatty acids compared to other groups. Crossbred pigs with higher rate of wild boar's consanguinity could improve production performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality. Thus, crossbreeding wild pig with domestic breeds might be an effective method to improve meat quality and flavor.

  3. Prevalence of Listeria species in raw milk and traditional dairy products in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shamloo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk and traditional non-pasteurized dairy products in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 292 samples of raw milk and traditional dairy were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. using a two-step selective enrichment recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. L. monocytogenes strains were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results: Of 292 samples, 21 (7.14% and 4 (1.47% were positive for Listeria spp. and pathogenic L. monocytogenes, respectively. The prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk, ice cream, cream, and freni were 5.91 (5.49%, 12.63 (19.04%, 3.27 (11.11% and 1.25 (4%, respectively. Listeria was not detected from yogurt, butter, Kashk, and cheese. Listeria innocua at 16.21 (5.44% was the most prevalent species isolated, followed by L. monocytogenes at 4.21 (19% and L. seeligeri at 1.21 (4.7%. All strains of L. monocytogenes identified by biochemical tests were also confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: The study shows the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and traditional dairy products sold in the market. Consumption of raw milk with mild heat treatment or its usage in traditional dishes could pose serious health problems due to lack of appropriate control measures. The lack of knowledge on the risks of listeriosis transmission indicates the need for implementation of a food safety education program. In addition, the Iranian food safety authorities should urgently set up an effective standard to screen all susceptible food products for the presence of Listeria.

  4. Isolation and molecular identification of Vibrio spp. by sequencing of 16S rDNA from seafood, meat and meat products in Libya

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Azwai; E.A. Alfallani; S.K. Abolghait; A.M. Garbaj; H.T. Naas; A.A. Moawad; F.T. Gammoudi; H.M. Rayes; I. Barbieri; I.M. Eldaghayes

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vibrio includes several food-borne pathogens that cause a spectrum of clinical conditions including septicemia, cholera and milder forms of gastroenteritis. Several Vibrio spp. are commonly associated with food-borne transmission including Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus. Microbiological analysis for enumeration and isolation of Vibrio spp. were carried out for a total of 93 samples of seafood, meat and meat products from different geographic localitie...

  5. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, I.; Deveci, H.; Suenguen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe 2 O 3 mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials

  6. Utilization of flotation wastes of copper slag as raw material in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Süngün, H

    2008-11-30

    Copper slag wastes, even if treated via processes such as flotation for metal recovery, still contain heavy metals with hazardous properties posing environmental risks for disposal. This study reports the potential use of flotation waste of a copper slag (FWCS) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker. The FWCS appears a suitable raw material as iron source containing >59% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of fayalite (Fe(2)SiO(4)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The clinker products obtained using the FWCS from the industrial scale trial operations over a 4-month period were characterised for the conformity of its chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products was evaluated. The data collected for the clinker products produced using an iron ore, which is currently used as the cement raw material were also included for comparison. The results have shown that the chemical compositions of all the clinker products including those of FWCS are typical of a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the standard mortars prepared from the FWCS clinkers were found to be similar to those from the iron ore clinkers with the desired specifications for the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. Furthermore, the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) have revealed that the mortar samples obtained from the FWCS clinkers present no environmental problems while the FWCS could act as the potential source of heavy metal contamination. These findings suggest that flotation wastes of copper slag (FWCS) can be readily utilised as cement raw material due to its availability in large quantities at low cost with the further significant benefits for waste management/environmental practices of the FWCS and the reduced production and processing costs for cement raw materials.

  7. The impact of processing meat and fish products on phosphorus intake in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Arnal, Luis M; Caverni-Muñoz, Alberto; Arnaudas-Casanova, Laura; Vercet-Tormo, Antonio; Gimeno-Orna, José A; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Caramelo-Gutiérrez, Rocío; Alvarez-Lipe, Rafael; Sahdalá-Santana, Laura; Gracia-García, Olga; Luzón-Alonso, Marta

    2013-11-13

    The use of phosphate additives in meat and fish processing leads to a phosphorus overload that we cannot quantify through labelling or food composition tables. We analysed this increase by measuring phosphorus content in these products by spectrophotometry. We determined the phosphorus/protein ratio in fresh meat and fish products with varying degrees of processing by spectrophotometry (phosphorus) and the Kjeldahl method (proteins). We contrasted these results with those reflected in the food composition tables. The phosphorus/protein ratio was higher in processed meat products (15.83 mg/g) than in battered (11.04 mg/g) and frozen meat products (10.5mg/g), and was lower in fresh (8.41 mg/g) and refrigerated meat products (8.78 mg/g). Fresh white fish had a phosphorus/protein ratio of 8.58mg/g, while it increased by 22% (10.3mg/g) in frozen white fish and by 46% (12.54 mg/g) in battered fish. The information in the tables was poor and confusing, and no reference is made to the brands tested. Processing meat and fish products poses a serious obstacle to the reduction of phosphorus intake. The current regulatory framework does not assist us in the objective of reducing phosphorus additives, since it considers them safe for public consumption. Overcoming these barriers requires a coordinated effort to demonstrate that a high intake of these additives may be harmful to the general population and it should be more closely examined by regulators.

  8. Consumer evaluations of processed meat products reformulated to be healthier - A conjoint analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liran C; De Brún, Aoife; Henchion, Maeve; Li, Chenguang; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n=481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advances in the industrial production of halal and kosher red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M

    2013-12-01

    The worldwide volume and value of trade in halal and kosher meat and co-products are huge. Muslim countries alone consumed meat estimated to be worth USD 57.2 billion in 2008. The halal and kosher principles that govern the production of red meat have many similarities, as well as some fundamental differences. Perhaps the most significant difference is that at the time of slaughter, the animal needs only to be alive to meet the minimum halal requirement, but must be both alive and conscious for kosher. It is for this reason that reversible pre-slaughter stunning is acceptable only for halal meat, although a compromise form of post-slaughter stunning is now considered kosher in some countries. Extensive research on animal physiology and welfare has characterised and optimised the methods for stunning livestock, and enabled advancement in associated technologies. This forms the basis for harmonising the religious and secular requirements for the protection of animal welfare at slaughter. These technologies and the associated processing practices for the industrial production of halal and kosher meat are reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aflatoxin production in a meat mix model system in the presence of Pediococcus and Lactobacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchese, R.H.; Martins, J.F.P.; Harrigan, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus of eight individual strains of Pediococcus and Lactobacillus was determined. The study was conducted in an axenic cultural system in which irradiated meat was employed in the formulation of a meat medium. The medium composition and incubation temperatures were simulations of Brazilian salami processing conditions. All single cultures of A. parasiticus supported aflatoxin production. More aflatoxin was produced in samples treated by the addition of lactic acid than in nontreated ones. Aflatoxin was not detected when A. parasiticus was grown with lactic acid bacteria, although visible mold growth was observed in all such cultures

  11. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of a raw bacteriocin extract in combination with chemical preservatives employed in meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Aguado Bautista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopreservation can be defined as the foods shelf life extension employing antibacterial products like bacteriocins. The objective of this work was to determinate the efficacy of E. faecium MXVK29 bacteriocin in combination with chemical preservatives against spoilage and pathogens microorganisms. Bacteriocin raw extrac antimicrobial activity was 46.34 UA/g of protein. Growth of Pseudomonas putida was not affected by the preservatives employed at the conditions employed. Antimicrobial response was different for other microorganisms since a synergetic effect of the preservatives combination inhibited Brochothrix thermosphacta and Escherichia coli growth. Sodium lactate had additive effect only against Listeria innocua.

  13. Identifying and Prioritizing Cleaner Production Strategies in Raw Materials’ Warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Company in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaner productions in textile industry is achieved by reducing water and chemicals’ consumption, saving energy, reducing production of air pollution and solid wastes, reducing toxicity and noise pollution through many solutions. The purpose of the present research was to apply Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT and Quality Systems Planning Matrix (QSPM techniques in identifying and prioritizing production in raw materials’ warehouse of Yazdbaf Textile Factory. Materials and Methods: In this research, effective internal and external factors in cleaner production were identified by providing the required information through field visit and interview with industry managers and supervisors of raw materials’ warehouse. Finally, To form matrix of internal and external factors 17 important internal factors and 7 important external factors were identified and selected respectively.Then, QSPM matrix was formed to determine the attractiveness and priority of the selected strategies by using results of internal and external factors and SWOT matrixes. Results: According to the results, the total score of raw materials’ warehouse in Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE matrix is equal to 2.90 which shows the good situation of warehouse than the internal factors. However, the total score in External Factor Evaluation (EFE matrix is 2.14 and indicates the relative weak situation of warehouse than the external factors. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, continuity, monitor, and improvement of the general plan of qualitative control (QC of raw materials and laboratory as well as more emphasis on quality indexes according to its importance in the production processes were selected as the most important strategies. 

  14. Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Species in Pig Tonsils and Raw Pork Meat by the Real-Time Pcr and Culture Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, M A

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol. The probe was labelled at the 5' end with the fluorescent reporter dye (FAM) and at the 3' end with the quencher dye (TAMRA). The real-time PCR cycling parameters included 41 cycles. A Ct value which reached a value higher than 40 constituted a negative result. The developed for the needs of this study qualitative real-time PCR method appeared to give very specific and reliable results. The detection rate of locus _tag CH49_3099 - positive Y. enterocolitica in 150 pig tonsils was 85 % and 32 % with PCR and culture methods, respectively. Both the Real-time PCR results and culture method results were obtained from material that was enriched during overnight incubation. The subject of the study were also raw pork meat samples. Among 80 samples examined, 7 ones were positive when real-time PCR was applied, and 6 ones were positive when classical culture method was applied. The application of molecular techniques based on the analysis of DNA sequences such as the Real-time PCR enables to detect this pathogenic bacteria very rapidly and with higher specificity, sensitivity and reliability in comparison to classical culture methods.

  15. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Availability of Previously Unprocessed ALSEP Raw Instrument Data, Derivative Data, and Metadata Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Kiefer, W. S.; Hager, M. A.; Hills, H. K.

    2016-01-01

    In year 2010, 440 original data archival tapes for the Apollo Lunar Science Experiment Package (ALSEP) experiments were found at the Washington National Records Center. These tapes hold raw instrument data received from the Moon for all the ALSEP instruments for the period of April through June 1975. We have recently completed extraction of binary files from these tapes, and we have delivered them to the NASA Space Science Data Cordinated Archive (NSSDCA). We are currently processing the raw data into higher order data products in file formats more readily usable by contemporary researchers. These data products will fill a number of gaps in the current ALSEP data collection at NSSDCA. In addition, we have estabilished a digital, searcheable archive of ALSEP document and metadata as part of the web portal of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. It currently holds approx. 700 documents totaling approx. 40,000 pages

  17. Energy saving cement production by grain size optimisation of the raw meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Simons

    Full Text Available The production of cement clinker is an energy consuming process. At about 50% of the energy is associated with grinding and milling of the raw meal, that normally is in the range 100% <200 μm with 90% <90 μm. Question: is it possible to use coarser components of the raw meal without reducing the clinker quality. With synthetic raw meals of various grain sizes the clinker formation was studied at static (1100 - 1450°C and dynamic conditions (heating microscope. A routine to adjust the grain size of the components for industrial raw meals is developed. The fine fraction <90 μm should mainly contain the siliceous and argileous components, whereas the calcitic component can be milled separately to a grain size between 200-500 μm, resulting in lower energy consumption for milling. Considering the technical and economical realizability the relation fine/coarse should be roughly 1:1. The energy for milling can be reduced significantly, that in addition leads to the preservation of natural energy resources.

  18. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of broilers fed with different levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristides, L G A; Venancio, E J; Alfieri, A A; Otonel, R A A; Frank, W J; Oba, A

    2018-05-16

    Fermented products and components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been widely used in animal nutrition to promote the development and quality of broilers. This study aims to evaluate different levels of inclusion (0, 250, 750, 1,500 g/t) of S. cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) in broiler feed to gauge its effect on carcass characteristics and cuts beyond the quality of breast meat. For analyses of carcass yield, cuts, and meat quality, 16 broilers per treatment were slaughtered. The meat quality analyses were performed 24 h after slaughter and evaluated color, pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. Lipid oxidation was determined in frozen breast samples stored at -20°C for 45 d. The results indicate that different levels of inclusion of SCFP provided no changes in carcass yield, color, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and shear force; however, inclusion of 1,500 g/t of SCFP increased leg yield and reduced pH. The inclusion of 750 g/t of SCFP decreased the lipid oxidation of breast meat (P improve leg yield and the lipid oxidation of breast meat.

  19. Crossbreeding locally adapted hair sheep to improve productivity and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of lambs from crossing of local with specialized sheep breeds for meat production may lead to higher meat deposition and a smaller fat amount in the carcass, with a more adequate nutritional profile for human consumption. This study investigated the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of lambs from the Morada Nova and Santa Inês locally adapted hair breeds and crosses between Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês slaughtered at approximately 35 kg. Morada Nova lambs showed lower (p < 0.05 performance compared to the other genetic groups resulting in a higher age at slaughter (p < 0.05. Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês and Dorper × Morada Nova lambs showed better characteristics for meat production with better (p < 0.05 conformation as well as leg and carcass compacteness index. Dorper × Santa Inês have a fatty acid profile that is more suitable for human consumption than Dorper × Morada Nova lambs do (p < 0.05; however, both had lower (p < 0.05 intramuscular lipid content (as measured by ether extract levels from Longíssimus lumborum compared with purebred lambs. Therefore, when the objective is to obtain lean meat, with improved nutritional profile to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the use of breeds and crosses that reduce animal slaughter age, such as the ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês crossbred, is an interesting alternative.

  20. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products. Laktobazillen und ionisierende Strahlung als Beispiel einer Anwendung auf Fleisch und Fleischprodukte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, W.H. (Inst. fuer Hygiene und Toxikologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance ([gamma]-D[sub 10] = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of [gamma]-D[sub 10] values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N[sub 2], whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO[sub 2]. (orig.)

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  2. Prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and/or biocides on meat processing plant surfaces throughout meat chain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of resistant bacteria to biocides and/or antibiotics throughout meat chain production from sacrifice till end of production line, samples from various surfaces of a goat and lamb slaughterhouse representative of the region were analyzed by the culture dependent approach. Resistant Psychrotrophs (n=255 strains), Pseudomonas sp. (n=166 strains), E. coli (n=23 strains), Staphylococcus sp. (n=17 strains) and LAB (n=82 represented mainly by Lactobacillus sp.) were isolated. Resistant psychrotrophs and pseudomonads (47 and 29%, respectively) to different antimicrobials were frequently detected in almost all areas of meat processing plant regardless the antimicrobial used, although there was a clear shift in the spectrum of other bacterial groups and for this aim such resistance was determined according to several parameters: antimicrobial tested, sampling zone and the bacterial group. Correlation of different parameters was done using a statistical tool "Principal component analysis" (PCA) which determined that quaternary ammonium compounds and hexadecylpyridinium were the most relevant biocides for resistance in Pseudomonas sp., while ciprofloxacin and hexachlorophene were more relevant for psychrotrophs, LAB, and in lesser extent Staphylococcus sp. and Escherichia coli. On the other hand, PCA of sampling zones determined that sacrifice room (SR) and cutting room (CR) considered as main source of antibiotic and/or biocide resistant bacteria showed an opposite behaviour concerning relevance of antimicrobials to determine resistance being hexadecylpyridinium, cetrimide and chlorhexidine the most relevant in CR, while hexachlorophene, oxonia 6P and PHMG the most relevant in SR. In conclusion, rotational use of the relevant biocides as disinfectants in CR and SR is recommended in an environment which is frequently disinfected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FOOD FIBRES OF THE DOMESTIC PRODUCTION FOR THE MEAT-PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The range of meat products with food fibers can be rather wide. The choice of the corresponding type of fibers or creation of a mixed product according to specific objectives allows to develop the products enriched with fibers, or products with the high content of fibers which possess pleasant taste. The right choice of fibers also gives technological and economic advantages. Concrete functional properties of polysaccharides, obviously, are connected with their spatial structure. Experience of food technologies with all evidence testifies to it. Ability to thicken water solutions are among such properties, to form jellies, to create emulsions, foams, to act as their stabilizers, to connect heavy metals, etc. Beet and wheat celluloses promote preservation of juiciness and decrease in losses at heat treatment, stabilize a good trade dress of finished products from chopped meat. Their introduction in minced products – chopped semi-finished products, pastes, canned food is most expedient. The amount of food fibers brought in compounding of products, is caused by touch properties of products and can differ for different types of food fibers. For the purpose of improvement of quality and expansion of the range of meat products studied properties of food fibers of a domestic production of ECOLIGHT native (JSC EFKO-NT. For an assessment of possibility of use of preparations in technology of meat products investigated the microbiological status and the maintenance of ions of heavy metals in objects according to requirements the SanPiN 2.3.2.1078-01. An inspection of harmlessness of cellulose of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native" was carried out on the Paramecium caudatum biotest culture. For definition of conditions of application of a preparation of food fibers of beet cellulose "ECOLIGHT native" investigated functional and technological and commodity properties of granules of food fibers "ECOLIGHT native", developed with their application of a

  4. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  5. 9 CFR 94.11 - Restrictions on importation of meat and other animal products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animal products, and ship stores, airplane meals, and baggage containing such meat or animal products... carcass of any ruminant or swine, other than meat and articles regulated under part 95 or 96 of this... conveyance that will bring the article to the United States in a manner to preclude its being commingled or...

  6. The ways of enhancement and optimization of production by separate types of meat on the basis of modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaymanova D.K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available in this article the ways of optimization and enhancement of production of meat in the Kyrgyz Republic are considered. And also on the basis of statistical data and economic-mathematical modeling forecast calculations for the predicted years (2016–2020 are performed. Questions to increase the production volume by separate types of meat in the country are considered.

  7. Identification of meat products by shotgun spectral matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohana, D.; Dalebout, H.; Marissen, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method, based on shotgun spectral matching of peptide tandem mass spectra, was successfully applied to the identification of different food species. The method was demonstrated to work on raw as well as processed samples from 16 mammalian and 10 bird species by counting spectral matches...... to spectral libraries in a reference database with one spectral library per species. A phylogenetic tree could also be constructed directly from the spectra. Nearly all samples could be correctly identified at the species level, and 100% at the genus level. The method does not use any genomic information...

  8. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  9. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-09-20

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazquez, M.J.; Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vaca, F.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize several raw materials and co-products from the titanium dioxide industry in relation to their elemental composition (major, minor and trace elements), granulometry, mineralogy, microscopic morphology and physical composition. The main objective was to gain basic information for the future potential application of these co-products in fields such as agriculture, construction, civil engineering, etc. Microscopic studies were performed by applying scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XRMA) while the mineralogical compositions were analysed by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The concentrations of major elements such as Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, S and K were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while heavy metals and other trace elements were determined by ICP-MS. The physicochemical characterization of the raw materials used in the titanium dioxide industry, in addition to the characterization of the co-products generated, has enabled the evaluation of the degree of fractionation of different elements and compounds between the different co-products, as well as the control of the possible variations in the physicochemical composition of the raw materials throughout the time and the study of the influence of these variations in the characteristics of the obtained co-products. As a main conclusion of our study, it is possible to indicate that the levels of the pollutant elements associated to the co-products analysed were, in general, within safe limits and, therefore, they could potentially be used in composites as fertilizers or for building materials in road construction, etc. Nevertheless, for the specific application of each of these co-products in agriculture, construction and civil engineering, additional studies need to be performed to evaluate their appropriateness for the proposed application, together with specific studies on their health and environmental impact.

  11. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao

    2013-11-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  12. Predicting the initial freezing point and water activity of meat products from composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Boer, E.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we predict the water activity and initial freezing point of food products (meat and fish) based on their composition. The prediction is based on thermodynamics (the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, the Ross equation and an approximation of the Pitzer equation). Furthermore, we have taken

  13. Meat and milk production scenarios and the associated land footprint in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosire, Caroline; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Ogutu, J.O.; de Leeuw, J.; Lannerstad, M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for meat and milk in developing countries and the associated production growth are driving the expansion of agriculture at the expense of environmental conservation and other land uses. While considerable attention has been directed at improving crop yields to alleviate the

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on olive leaves and application on meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, Hana

    2009-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a high technology in the treatment of food product, for this reason we have been interested to study the effect of gamma irradiation on microbial charge (Bioburden), the phenolics compounds and their antioxidant activities on the olive leaves. The irradiated olive leaves are added as an antimicrobial and antioxidant compound on minced meat for preservation.

  15. Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Antoine, J.M.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Reykdal, O.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dairy products and meat from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis ontransfatty acids. In cow's milk, butter, and cheese the proportions oftransfatty acids ranged between 3.2 and 6.2% of fatty acids. C18:1 isomers comprised about 60% and C16:1 and

  16. RESEARCH ON THE MEAT PRODUCTION DIFFERENCES DETERMINED BY THE BIRTH MONTH OF THE FATTENED STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to assess the effect of the birth month on some meat production characters such as live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period in progeny testing for bulls' breeding value estimation in order to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor. In this purpose, the following linear mathematical model was used: xij=m . ai . eij, where xij - the live record of the "j" steer in the month "i" (i=1,2,....12, m- geometrical average of the meat production characters taken into account, ai- the multiplicative effect of the birth month "i" and eij – the residual multiplicative effect. A number of 1,705 half-brothers belonging to 105 Friesian bulls from Romania was included in this progeny testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the effects of birth month on the meat production in terms of live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period should not be ignored, on the contrary, they should be eliminated by correcting the real data using corresponding adjusting factors. Therefore, adjusting factors are justifed to be used in order to improve the accuracy of the bulls' breeding value estimation for meat production.

  17. Simultaneous determination of ochratoxin A, mycophenolic acid and fumonisin B-2 in meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Mogensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2010-01-01

    Here we present a method for simultaneous determination of the fungal metabolites mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B-2 (FB2) in meat products. Extraction was performed with water-acetonitrile, followed by acetone-induced precipitation of salts and proteins. Purification...

  18. Marketing channels and control the distribution of products in the meat industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the formation of distribution channels in the meat industry. Question of finding channels. Awareness of the problem-added customer value in the channel. The task of shaping the company's own distribution channel products. The procedure of forming a channel of distribution. The main problem in forming their own distribution channel. Prospects of development of different channels

  19. Detection of Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat Products in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN, toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile isolates belonged to different pulsotypes, all of which had been previously isolated from the stool of Manitoba patients with C difficile disease. Because cooking of meat will not eradicate C difficile spores, this raises a concern regarding potential foodborne transmissibility of this organism.

  20. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanlayakrit, Werasit; Piadang, Nattayana; Maweang, Metinee

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.