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Sample records for raw ground pork

  1. Volatile organic compounds and Photobacterium phosphoreum associated with spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged raw pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieminen, Timo T.; Dalgaard, Paw; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile organic compounds was monitored in association with sensory quality, bacterial concentrations and culture-independent microbial community analyses in raw pork loin and pork collar during storage under high-oxygen modified atmosphere at +4°C. Of the 48 volatile compounds...

  2. Effect of antioxidants and chitosan on reducing off-odor of irradiated raw pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Cheng Wei; Lin Ruotai; Zhang Jinmu; Xia Hezhou; Chen Yuxia; Zeng Hanting

    2006-01-01

    The raw pork was pre-refrigerated and treated with antioxidants chitosan, tee polyphenol and sesamol at different concentration. The kind pork irradiated at 3.0 kGy and stored at 4 degree C ± 1 degree C. The irradiated off-odor was assessed during the storage time. The effects of antoxidant, accession style and accession quantity on reducing off-odor of irradiated pork were tested. Results showed that the optimum treatment was solution accession style, 0.01% concentration of sesamol or tea polyphenol. (authors)

  3. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-08-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P emulsion than control throughout storage period. Our results indicated that pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  4. Lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color changes, and volatile compounds production in irradiated raw pork batters with different fat content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheo Run; Byun, Myung Woo

    2000-01-01

    An emulsion-type product was prepared to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid and cholesterol oxidation, color change, and volatile production in raw pork with different fat content. Lipid oxidation increased with an increase in fat content or irradiation dose. Irradiated batters had higher cholesterol oxides than did non-irradiated batters, and the major cholesterol oxides formed in irradiated pork batters were 7α- and 7β- hydroxycholesterol. Hunter color a- and b-values of raw pork batters were decreased by irradiation regardless of fat content. Irradiation significantly increased the amount of volatile compounds. Although lipid oxidation of high fat products (10 and 15% fat) was higher than that of low fat products (4%), high fat products did not always produce greater amount of volatile compounds in raw pork batters. In summary, irradiation increased lipid and cholesterol oxidation, and volatile compounds production, and had detrimental effects on the color of raw pork batter under aerobic conditions

  5. Vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 in raw and cooked pork cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Jakobsen, Jette; Leth, Torben

    2003-01-01

    The contents of vitamin D-3 and its metabolically active metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25OHD(3)) were examined by HPLC in different parts of four common raw pork cuts (loin boneless, leg inside, thin belly, neck) and in cooked meat (loin boneless). In whole raw pork cuts, varying in fat content......, and that rind, despite its limited fat content, has a high concentration of vitamin D-3 and 25OHD(3). Cooking increased vitamin D-3 and 25OHD(3) calculated per 100 g of tissue in all parts and in the whole cut (in whole cuts in raw and cooked meat, respectively: vitamin D-3: 0.15 (0.08-0.24) mug/100 g and 0...... 25OHD(3) contributes significantly to vitamin D activity. Food databases should include concentrations of both vitamin D and 25OHD(3). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P 

  7. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and IS days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs...... the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small....

  8. Efficacy of Various Preservatives on Extending Shelf Life of Vacuum-Packaged Raw Pork during 4°C Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Qi, Yan; Zheng, Jiayi; Fan, X U; Liang, Peixin; Song, Cunjiang

    2018-04-01

    Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses. Data indicated that all the preservatives were able to inhibit bacterial growth and extend the shelf life of pork. High-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosome cDNA indicated that Pseudomonas was inhibited under vacuum conditions, whereas facultative anaerobes ( Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, Brochothrix, and Myroides) were the most active genera in the spoiled pork. Photobacterium was further inhibited by each preservative. The inhibition of Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, and Myroides could be responsible for the extended shelf life of vacuum-packaged pork; they were effectively inhibited by KA, which also induced the longest shelf life. Moreover, 19 types of volatile organic compounds were detected. 3-Methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanol acetate, 2-butanone, toluene, benzeneacetaldehyde, dimethyl trisulfide, and acetoin were associated with spoilage. Furthermore, KA is a potential preservative in raw pork; because no phenol was detectable within 35 days, excessive intake of phenol induced by preservatives was avoided.

  9. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  10. Generic global regression models for growth prediction of Salmonella in ground pork and pork cuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschhardt, Tasja; Hansen, Tina Beck; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives Models for the prediction of bacterial growth in fresh pork are primarily developed using two-step regression (i.e. primary models followed by secondary models). These models are also generally based on experiments in liquids or ground meat and neglect surface growth....... It has been shown that one-step global regressions can result in more accurate models and that bacterial growth on intact surfaces can substantially differ from growth in liquid culture. Material and Methods We used a global-regression approach to develop predictive models for the growth of Salmonella....... One part of obtained logtransformed cell counts was used for model development and another for model validation. The Ratkowsky square root model and the relative lag time (RLT) model were integrated into the logistic model with delay. Fitted parameter estimates were compared to investigate the effect...

  11. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Chaillou, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    . However, salt has been used for a very long time as a hurdle technology, and salt reduction in meat products raises the question of spoilage and waste of food. The study was conceived to assess the role of sodium chloride reduction in meat products, both at the level of spoilage development and at the level of bacterial diversity, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and raw pork sausage as a meat model. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Reducing Salt in Raw Pork Sausages Increases Spoilage and Correlates with Reduced Bacterial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougy, Lysiane; Desmonts, Marie-Hélène; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Fassel, Christine; Hamon, Erwann; Hézard, Bernard; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    dietary salt intake. However, salt has been used for a very long time as a hurdle technology, and salt reduction in meat products raises the question of spoilage and waste of food. The study was conceived to assess the role of sodium chloride reduction in meat products, both at the level of spoilage development and at the level of bacterial diversity, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and raw pork sausage as a meat model. PMID:27107120

  13. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2001-04-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments.

  14. Lipid oxidation and volatile production in irradiated raw pork batters prepared with commercial soybean oil containing vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, D.U.; Byun, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    An emulsion-type raw pork batter was prepared using 10% (meat weight) of backfat or commercial soybean oil enriched with vitamin E to determine the effect of irradiation on lipid oxidation and volatile production during storage. Batters (approximately 100 g) were vacuum- or aerobically packaged and irradiated at 0, 2.5 or 4.5 kGy. Irradiation increased lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged raw pork batters prepared with both backfat and soybean oil. Lipid oxidation of vacuum-packaged pork batters was not influenced by irradiation except for the batter prepared with backfat at day 0. Aerobically packaged batters prepared with soybean oil had lower (P<0.05) TBARS than that with backfat, but vacuum-packaged ones were not different. The sum of volatile compounds with short retention time (<1.80) increased by irradiation, and with storage time except for aerobic packaging at day 7. The amount of total volatile compounds had an increasing trend until day 3, but not at day 7. Irradiation increased the production of total volatile compounds in the batters prepared with soybean oil and vacuum packaged, but irradiation effect on volatile production was not consistent with other treatments

  15. Identification of microbial isolates from vacuum-packaged ground pork irradiated at 1 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehioba, R.M.; Kraft, A.A.; Molins, R.A.; Walker, H.W.; Olson, D.G.; Subbaraman, G.; Skowronski, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial cultures from irradiated (1 kGy) and nonirradiated, vacuum-packaged ground pork held at 5 0 C were isolated and characterized over a 12-day storage period. The initial flora of the meat was composed mostly of Pseudomonas sp., and Enterobacter sp. Although the microflora of nonirradiated samples gradually shifted from Gram-negative to Gram-positive microorganisms, 76% of the isolates were characterized as Gram-negative at the onset of spoilage (9 days at 5 0 C). In contrast, the irradiated ground pork microflora was mainly Gram-positive (66%) shortly after irradiation and increased to 97% after 9 days at 5 0 C. A total of 720 isolates were identified to genus

  16. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  17. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.

    1985-01-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references

  18. Infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pork buried in the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovic S.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Time of survival and infectivity of Trichinella spiralis larvae in pig muscle tissue, buried at various depths in the ground were assessed. In the pork pieces the number of infective larvae was 250 ML/g. Meat originated from pig halves was divided in 39 equal pieces, 0.7 kg each, disposed in three groups of 1 3, and buried in depths of 30, 50, and 100 centimeters respectively. The pork was dug up at 13 intervals, approximately every week, until 91st day of the experiment. After each time interval, infectivity of larvae was assessed by bioassay on rats. The artificially infected rats were sacrificed on 42nd day after the infection and meat was examined by the following methods - artificial digestion and trichinoscopy. It was found that the larvae during all 90 days preserved infectivity in each depth.

  19. Effect of the Ratio of Raw Material Components on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Hur, Sun-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of raw material ratio on the physicochemical characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages. Experiment design was divided into 12 treatments, based on protein level (P), fat level (3P, 3.5P, and 4P), and water level (4P+10, 4P+15, 4P+20, and 4P+25). The pH and shear force values were significantly higher in T7 (3.5P fat and 4P+20 water) than those of other treatments. The lightness and redness were greatly reduced by increasing the quantity of water. The treatments containing 3P fat and 4P+20 water had the highest values of cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness. On the whole, when the protein (P) and fat (3P, 3.5P, 4P) levels were fixed, an increase over the appropriate moisture level deteriorated many physicochemical characteristics. PMID:26732451

  20. Immunomagnetic separation and conventional culture procedure for detection of naturally occurring Salmonella in raw pork sausages and chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripabelli, G; Sammarco, M L; Ruberto, A; Iannitto, G; Grasso, G M

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and conventional selective enrichment procedures using selenite cystine broth (SC) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth (RV) in 137 naturally contaminated food samples (69 raw pork sausages and 68 chicken meat). The utilization of SC or IMS appeared to be the most appropriate enrichment procedure: 15 out of 18 Salmonella-positive samples (83.3%) were detected by SC and 12 (66.7%) by IMS; RV yielded only seven positive isolations (38.9%). However, RV yielded the highest count of Salmonella colonies per plate and the lowest interference by competing organisms. IMS could become a reliable alternative to standard enrichment procedures and a combined IMS and selective enrichment broth could increase the chance of Salmonella recovery.

  1. Study on off-odor volatiles of irradiated packaged raw pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Liu Yangmin

    2008-01-01

    Analysing the compositions of off-odor volatiles in irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork and research on its origin. First, the off-odor volatiles were collected by a cooled via in liquid nitrogen, then the main composition of off-odor volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main composition of off-odor volatiles are dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol and S-methyl thioacetate. The off-odor volatiles come from irradiated cystine, methionine and VB1. The main composition of off-odor volatiles are S-containing compounds from irradiated S-containing amino acid and VB1

  2. Designing a time-effective TaqMan probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction protocol for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica in raw pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a time-effective method comprising a short pre-enrichment step in a non-selective broth in combination with the TaqMan probe applied in the real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect Yersinia enterocolitica strains in raw pork meat. The method enabled to detect 1 colony forming unit per 25 mg of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork meat. The specificity and reliability of the method was not diminished by the company of microflora naturally present in meat. The method was found successful to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains in pork meat. It is advised to be used for assessing the microbial risk and for controlling the microbial quality of meat and meat products.

  3. Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enterococci and Occurrence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Raw Minced Beef and Pork in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Günter; Pack, Alexander; Reuter, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    The food chain, especially raw minced meat, is thought to be responsible for an increase in the incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in human nosocomial infections. Therefore, 555 samples from 115 batches of minced beef and pork from a European Union-licensed meat-processing plant were screened for the occurrence of VRE. The processed meat came from 45 different slaughterhouses in Germany. Enterococci were isolated directly from Enterococcosel selective agar plates and also from Enterococcosel selective agar plates supplemented with 32 mg of vancomycin per liter. In addition, peptone broth was used in a preenrichment procedure, and samples were subsequently plated onto Enterococcosel agar containing vancomycin. To determine resistance, 209 isolates from 275 samples were tested with the glycopeptides vancomycin, teicoplanin, and avoparcin and 19 other antimicrobial substances by using a broth microdilution test. When the direct method was used, VRE were found in 3 of 555 samples (0.5%) at a concentration of 1.0 log CFU/g of minced meat. When the preenrichment procedure was used, 8% of the samples were VRE positive. Our findings indicate that there is a low incidence of VRE in minced meat in Germany. In addition, the resistance patterns of the VRE isolates obtained were different from the resistance patterns of clinical isolates. A connection between the occurrence of VRE in minced meat and nosocomial infections could not be demonstrated on the basis of our findings. PMID:9572958

  4. Effect of low-pressure plasma treatment on the color and oxidative stability of raw pork during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbin-Figlewicz, Natalia; Jarmoluk, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The effect of low-pressure plasma on quality attributes of meat is an important aspect, which must be considered before application in food. The aim of this study was to determine the color, fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total antioxidant capacity of raw pork samples exposed to helium low-pressure plasma treatment (20 kPa) for 0, 2, 5, and 10 min during the storage period. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations of all plasma-treated samples during storage were in the range from 0.26 to 0.61 mg malondialdehyde/kg. Exposure time caused significant changes only in total color difference, hue angle, and chroma after 10 min of treatment. Ferric reducing ability of plasma values of meat samples decreased from 1.93 to 1.40 mmol Trolox Eq/kg after 14 days of storage. The storage period significantly affected proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, with an increase about 3% after 14 days of refrigeration storage while the content of saturated fatty acids was at the same level. Helium low-pressure plasma does not induce oxidative processes. Application of this decontamination technique while maintaining product quality is possible in food industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Guk; Bae, Su Min; Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed ( p cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar ( p >0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher ( p egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

  6. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyejeong [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lacroix, Monique [Canadian Irradiation Center, Research Laboratory in Science Applied to Food, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Qebec (Canada); Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keehyuk [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejeon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun, E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10{sup 6} CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: > Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. > Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. > The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  7. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients. - Highlights: → Several food ingredients increased the efficiency of irradiation sterilization. → Different forms of food ingredients may affect the efficiency. → The increase of efficiency decreased the required irradiation dose, thereby avoiding sensory impairments of food.

  8. Effect of several food ingredients on radiation inactivation of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lacroix, Monique; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Keehyuk; Lee, Ju Woon; Jo, Cheorun

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of several food ingredients on the relative radiation sensitivity (RRS) of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto ground pork. Garlic, leek, onion, and ginger were prepared in 3 different forms; pressurized, freeze-dried, and 70% ethanol extracted. The prepared food ingredients were subdivided into 2 groups, non-irradiated and irradiated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation, before addition to ground pork. The prepared food ingredients were added at concentrations of 1% and 5% (w/w) into radiation-sterilized ground pork and inoculated with E. coli and L. monocytogenes (10 6 CFU/mL). For E. coli inoculated pork, the most efficient ingredient was ethanol extracted leek (RRS=3.89), followed by freeze-dried ginger and leek (RRS=3.66 and 3.63, respectively) when used without pasteurization. However, when the food ingredients were irradiation-pasteurized, the freeze-dried ginger showed the highest RRS (4.10). When 5% natural materials were added, RRS was the highest for freeze-dried and ethanol extracted onion (4.44 and 4.65, respectively). For L. monocytogenes, the RRS was relatively lower than E. coli in general. The most efficient material was pressurized and freeze-dried onion (RRS=2.13 and 2.08, respectively) at a concentration of 1%. No increase in RRS was observed at increased concentration of food ingredients. These results suggest that the addition of particular food ingredients increased the efficiency of radiation-sterilization. However, changes in RRS were dependent on the species of microorganism as well as the form of the food ingredients.

  9. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA UHF 449 PROFILER RAW DATA SPC FORMAT MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NOAA UHF 449 Profiler Raw Data SPC Format MC3E dataset was collected during the NASA supported Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  10. Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Species in Pig Tonsils and Raw Pork Meat by the Real-Time Pcr and Culture Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, M A

    2017-09-26

    The aim of the present study was to establish a rapid and accurate real-time PCR method to detect pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in pork. Yersinia enterocolitica is considered to be a crucial zoonosis, which can provoke diseases both in humans and animals. The classical culture methods designated to detect Y. enterocolitica species in food matrices are often very time-consuming. The chromosomal locus _tag CH49_3099 gene, that appears in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, was applied as DNA target for the 5' nuclease PCR protocol. The probe was labelled at the 5' end with the fluorescent reporter dye (FAM) and at the 3' end with the quencher dye (TAMRA). The real-time PCR cycling parameters included 41 cycles. A Ct value which reached a value higher than 40 constituted a negative result. The developed for the needs of this study qualitative real-time PCR method appeared to give very specific and reliable results. The detection rate of locus _tag CH49_3099 - positive Y. enterocolitica in 150 pig tonsils was 85 % and 32 % with PCR and culture methods, respectively. Both the Real-time PCR results and culture method results were obtained from material that was enriched during overnight incubation. The subject of the study were also raw pork meat samples. Among 80 samples examined, 7 ones were positive when real-time PCR was applied, and 6 ones were positive when classical culture method was applied. The application of molecular techniques based on the analysis of DNA sequences such as the Real-time PCR enables to detect this pathogenic bacteria very rapidly and with higher specificity, sensitivity and reliability in comparison to classical culture methods.

  11. Effect of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microflora of vacuum-packaged ground pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehioba, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of low-dose (1 kGy) gamma radiation and selected phosphates on the microbiology of refrigerated, vacuum-packaged ground pork were studied. Low-dose gamma radiation reduced the numbers of naturally occurring mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and anaerobes. The effect of low-dose radiation on the populations of lactic acid bacteria was minimal. On storage of the irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork at 5 0 C, there was a partial bacterial recovery, suggesting sublethal bacterial injury due to irradiation. When 10 7 CFU/g of meat is taken to be the level beyond which the meat would be considered spoiled, uninoculated, vacuum-packaged ground pork treated with 1 kGy (100 krad) of gamma radiation had 3.5 more days of shelf-life in terms of psychrotrophic total counts. In relation to anaerobic bacterial numbers, meat shelf-life was extended 2.5 days, while the shelf-life of meat was extended 1 day in terms of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Irradiation prolonged shelf-life in inoculated (10 5 CFU/g) meat for 1.0-1.5 days. Addition of 0.4% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) contributed 2 additional days to inoculated, irradiated vacuum-packaged ground pork shelf-life. However, SAPP had no added effect on naturally occurring microflora. Irradiation greatly decreased the numbers of gram-negative microorganisms, resulting in predominance of the gram-positive, nonsporeforming Lactobacillus and coryneform bacteria

  12. An exponential model equation for thiamin loss in irradiated ground pork as a function of dose and temperature of irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. B.; Thayer, D. W.; Phillips, J. G.

    The effect of low dose γ-irradiation on the thiamin content of ground pork was studied in the range of 0-14 kGy at 2°C and at radiation doses from 0.5 to 7 kGy at temperatures -20, 10, 0, 10 and 20°C. The detailed study at 2°C showed that loss of thiamin was exponential down to 0kGy. An exponential expression was derived for the effect of radiation dose and temperature of irradiation on thiamin loss, and compared with a previously derived general linear expression. Both models were accurate depictions of the data, but the exponential expression showed a significant decrease in the rate of loss between 0 and -10°C. This is the range over which water in meat freezes, the decrease being due to the immobolization of reactive radiolytic products of water in ice crystals.

  13. Cooked meat products made of coarsely ground pork: the main bacterial strains of bacterial flora, their heat resistance and effect on spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Petäjä

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the bacterial flora of the surface layer and the core of meat products made of coarsely ground pork at the moment of spoilage when stored at 7°C or 4°C. The dominating strains were isolated, their heat resistance was studied in APT-broth, on APT-agar and in coarsely ground cured pork, and their growth after heating and effect on spoilage were followed in coarsely ground cured pork. The first signs of spoilage appeared in the surface layer of the products. The strains were coccoid lactic acid bacteria with counts ranging from 3,5 to 7.8 log cfu (colony forming units/g. They survived only accidentally after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth. The core of the products contained only coccoid lactic acid bacteria or only pseudomonads or both as the main bacterial strains. The counts ranged from 2.6 to 6.0 log cfu/g. Most of the strains isolated from the core survived after heating for 30 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth in at least three tests out of six. The most noticeable result of the study was the occurence of heat-resistant pseudomonads in the core. It must be pointed out that all pseudomonads found survived after heating for 60 minutes at 72°C in APT-broth, and often after heating for 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork (core 72°C. The cfu number of the two most heat-resistant streptococcus strains decreased only 1 log unit over 15 minutes at 72°C in coarsely ground cured pork. The numbers of inoculated pseudomonads decreased but those of streptococci rose by a maximum of 1 log unit when the experimental porks were kept at 4°C after heating. This indicates that streptococci and pseudomonads probably do not constitute a serious spoilage factor in cooked meat products, but spoilage is generally effected by bacteria which have contaminated the surface layer of the products after heat treatment.

  14. Growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth and validation in ground pork meat during simulated home storage abusive temperature and home pan-frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground pork meat with natural microbiota and inoculated with low initial densities (1-10 or 10-100 CFU/g of Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes was stored under abusive temperature at 10°C and thermally treated by a simulated home pan-frying procedure. The growth and inactivation characteristics were also evaluated in broth. In ground pork meat, the population of S. enterica increased by less than one log after 12-days of storage at 10°C, whereas L. monocytogenes increased by 2.3 to 2.8 log units. No unusual intrinsic heat resistance of the pathogens was noted when tested in broth at 60°C although shoulders were observed on the inactivation curves of L. monocytogenes. After growth of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes at 10°C for 5 days to levels of 1.95 log CFU/g and 3.10 log CFU/g, respectively, in ground pork meat, their inactivation in the burger subjected to a simulated home pan-frying was studied. After thermal treatment S. enterica was undetectable but L. monocytogenes was recovered in three out of six of the 25 g burger samples. Overall, the present study shows that data on growth and inactivation of broths are indicative but may underestimate as well as overestimate behavior of pathogens and thus need confirmation in food matrix conditions to assess food safety in reasonably foreseen abusive conditions of storage and usual home pan-frying of of meat burgers in Belgium.

  15. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  16. Growth of a plasmid-bearing (pYV) Yersinia pestis KIM5 in retail raw ground pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersinia pestis can cause oro-pharyngeal plague as a result of consumption or handling of meat from infected animals. Thus, food naturally or intentionally contaminated can have a role in the dissemination of human plague. The growth of a conditionally virulent plasmid (pYV)-bearing rifampicin-res...

  17. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted.

  18. Mathematical modeling of growth of Salmonella in raw ground beef under isothermal conditions from 10 to 45 Degree C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop primary and secondary models to describe the growth of Salmonella in raw ground beef. Primary and secondary models can be integrated into a dynamic model that can predict the microbial growth under varying environmental conditions. Growth data of Salmonel...

  19. Mathematical modeling of growth of non-O157 Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, including serogroups O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in raw ground beef and to develop mathematical models to describe the bacterial growth under different temperature conditions. Three prima...

  20. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  1. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA UHF 449 PROFILER RAW DATA SPC FORMAT MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NOAA UHF 449 Profiler Raw SPC foramt data was collected during the NASA supported Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). The Ultra High...

  3. Analysis of the possibility for obtaining oil from the spend coffee grounds as potential raw material for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličković Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater, whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 g/cm3, and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.

  4. Pork in good company?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2,156) in five European countries...... to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks...

  5. Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, C J; Morris, C L; Kappen, K L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (; 3), jaguars (; = 3), leopards (; 2), puma (; 1), and Bengal tiger (; 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater ( digestibility was greater ( digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater ( digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different ( digestibility and palatability compared with standard zoo carnivore formulations. In conclusion, pork-based diets could be included among dietary options for large zoo felids.

  6. Radiation resistance and loss of crystal violet binding activity in Y. enterolitica suspended in raw ground pork exposed to gamma radiation and modified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The virulence of many foodborne pathogens is directly linked to genes carried on plasmids, self-replicating extra-chromosomal elements, which can transfer genetic material, both vertically and horizontally, between bacteria of the same and different species. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harbo...

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, and Campylobacter jejuni in raw ground beef by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavero, M.R.S.; Monk, J.D.; Beuchat, L.R.; Doyle, M.P.; Brackett, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Raw ground beef patties inoculated with stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonellae, or Campylobacter jejuni were subjected to gamma irradiation (60Co) treatment, with doses ranging from 0 to 2.52 kGy. The influence of two levels of fat (8 to 14% [low fat] and 27 to 28% [high fat]) and temperature (frozen [-17 to -15 degrees C] and refrigerated [3 to 5 degrees C]) on the inactivation of each pathogen by irradiation was investigated. In ascending order of irradiation resistance, the D10 values ranged from 0.175 to 0.235 kGy (C. jejuni), from 0.241 to 0.307 kGy (E. coli O157:H7), and from 0.618 to 0.800 kGy (salmonellae). Statistical analysis revealed that E. coli O157:H7 had a significantly (P 0.05) higher D10 value when irradiated at -17 to -15 degrees C than when irradiated at 3 to 5 degrees C. Regardless of the temperature during irradiation, the level of fat did not have a significant effect on the D10 value. Salmonellae behaved like E. coli O157:H7 in low-fat beef, but temperature did not have a significant effect when the pathogen was irradiated in high-fat ground beef. Significantly higher D10 values were calculated for C. jejuni irradiated in frozen than in refrigerated low-fat beef. C. jejuni was more resistant to irradiation in low-fat beef than in high-fat beef when treatment was at -17 to -15 degrees C. Regardless of the fat level and temperature during inactivation, these pathogens were highly sensitive to gamma irradiation. An applied dose of 2.5 kGy would be sufficient to kill 10(8.1) E. coli O157:H7, 10(3.1) salmonellae, and 10(10.6) C. jejuni, resulting in a high probability of complete inactivation of populations much higher than those occasionally present in ground beef patties

  8. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  9. Prevalência e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de sorovares de Salmonella isolados de lingüiças suínas tipo frescal em Lages, SC Prevalence and profile of resistance to antimicrobials of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw pork sausage in Lages, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Spricigo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and profile of resistance to antimicrobials of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw pork sausage were studied in Lages county, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 125 samples of 12 trademarks were collected in different commercial establishments. Salmonella sp. was present in 12.8% (16/125 of the samples and Typhimurium serovar was the most prevalent. Fourteen different antimicrobials were tested and most of the samples showed resistance to sulfonamide and tetracycline (81.2%. Eight positive samples (50% were resistant at least to four antimicrobials, being considered as multi-resistant Salmonella. Seven (58.3% trademarks were disagreement with the Brazilian law, representing a risk to the public health. The high level of resistance to the antimicrobials should produce a concern by the pig industry and veterinarians in order to prevent the transmission of resistant strains through the food chain.

  10. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  11. Effect of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Naveena, B M

    2010-06-01

    Effects of salt, kinnow and pomegranate fruit by-product powders on color and oxidative stability of raw ground goat meat stored at 4+/-1 degrees C was evaluated. Five treatments evaluated include: control (only meat), MS (meat+2% salt), KRP (meat+2% salt+2% kinnow rind powder), PRP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate rind powder) and PSP (meat+2% salt+2% pomegranate seed powder). Addition of salt resulted in reduction of redness scores. Lightness increased in control and unchanged in others during storage. Redness scores declined and yellowness showed inconsistent changes during storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were higher (PPRP>KRP>control>MS. Therefore, these powders have potential to be used as natural antioxidants to minimize the auto-oxidation and salt induced lipid oxidation in raw ground goat meat. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION NOAA S-BAND PROFILER RAW DATA NETCDF FORMAT MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The S-band Profiler Raw dataset was saved in two data formats: netCDF anda proprietary Vaisala SPC format. The numeric values in both formats are exactly the same....

  13. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    2008-01-01

    demands. A large EU-project (Q-PorkChains) funded by EU 6th framework programme was initiated in January 2007. The aim of Q-PorkChains is to improve the quality of pork and its products for the consumer and to develop innovative, integrated and sustainable food production chains with low environmental....... The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... impact. Q-PorkChains is composed of six research modules (consumer and citizen demands, pig production, product development, pork chain management, molecular quality control and knowledge synthesis) and two horizontal modules focusing on implementation of obtained knowledge in pilot and demonstration...

  14. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  15. Perceptions of pork quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers per...... of the pork on expected and experienced quality. The study uses the Total Food Quality Model (Grunert et al, 1996) as a theoretical framework.......This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers...... perceive the quality of pork (n=200). The main objectives of the study are 1) to investigate which factors determine expected and experienced quality of pork, 2) to investigate the relation between exp and experienced quality, and 3) to investigate the impact of the physiological characteristics...

  16. Validation of low-volume enrichment protocols for detection of Escherichia coli O157 in raw ground beef components, using commercial kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imtiaz; Hughes, Denise; Jenson, Ian; Karalis, Tass

    2009-03-01

    Testing of beef destined for use in ground beef products for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become an important cornerstone of control and verification activities within many meat supply chains. Validation of the ability of methods to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 is critical to confidence in test systems. Many rapid methods have been validated against standard cultural methods for 25-g samples. In this study, a number of previously validated enrichment broths and commercially available test kits were validated for the detection of low numbers of E. coli O157:H7 in 375-g samples of raw ground beef component matrices using 1 liter of enrichment broth (large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocol). Standard AOAC International methods for 25-g samples in 225 ml of enrichment broth, using the same media, incubation conditions, and test kits, were used as reference methods. No significant differences were detected in the ability of any of the tests to detect low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in samples of raw ground beef components when enriched according to standard or large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols. The use of large-sample:low-volume enrichment protocols provides cost savings for media and logistical benefits when handling and incubating large numbers of samples.

  17. Incomplete sanitation of a meat grinder and ingestion of raw ground beef: contributing factors to a large outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roels, T H; Frazak, P A; Kazmierczak, J J; Mackenzie, W R; Proctor, M E; Kurzynski, T A; Davis, J P

    1997-10-01

    Consumers in the United States continue to eat raw or undercooked foods of animal origin despite public health warnings following several well-publicized outbreaks. We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infection in 158 patients in Wisconsin during the 1994 Christmas holiday period. To determine the vehicle and source of the outbreak, we conducted cohort and case-control studies, and environmental investigations in butcher shop A. Eating raw ground beef purchased from butcher shop A was the only item significantly associated with illness [cohort study: relative risk = 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-21.8; case control study: odds ratio = 46.2, 95% CI = 3.8-2751]. Inadequate cleaning and sanitization of the meat grinder in butcher shop A likely resulted in sustained contamination of ground beef during an 8-day interval. Consumer education, coupled with hazard reduction efforts at multiple stages in the food processing chain, will continue to play an important role in the control of foodborne illness.

  18. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk samp...... from raw milk samples. Arcobacter cryaerophilus was detected less frequently, and Arcobacter skirrowii was detected only as a cocontaminant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Arcobacter spp. prevalence in a diverse range of products of animal origin in Northern Ireland....

  19. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...

  1. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  2. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  3. The Influence of Stunning Method, Refrigeration and Freezing Time on the Rheological and Textural Properties of Raw Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to provide information on the influence of stunning methods in conjunction with refrigeration and freezing time on the textural and rheological properties of raw meat. Pork raw meat, commercially available, was analyzed for textural properties such as hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and fracture force. Sample were analyzed fresh, after 3 days of refrigeration, and 15 days, 30days and 60 days freezing time in commercially available refrigerators mimicking the storing conditions used by consumers. For pork raw meat, hardness increased sharply after 3 days of refrigeration and showed no significant differences after 15days of freezing compared to 3days refrigeration time. After 30 days of freezing the raw pork meat samples’ hardness decreased significantly compared to the hardness of the samples freeze for15 days. Hardness of gas stunning raw pork meat samples compared to electrical stunning raw pork meat samples was 2.57 times higher indicating a better firmness of the gas stunning raw pork meat. The cohesiveness of the raw pork meat from gas stunned animals maintained its levels after 60 days of freezing while the meat from electrically stunned animals showed significant modificatio

  4. 7 CFR 1230.614 - Pork product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork product. 1230.614 Section 1230.614 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.614 Pork product. The term Pork product means an edible product processed in whole or in part from pork. ...

  5. Artificial neural network as the tool in prediction rheological features of raw minced meat

    OpenAIRE

    Edyta Balejko; Zbigniew Nowak; Jerzy A. Balejko

    2012-01-01

      Background. The aim of the study was to elaborate a method of modelling and forecasting rheological features which could be applied to raw minced meat at the stage of mixture preparation with a given ingredient composition. Material and methods. The investigated material contained pork and beef meat, pork fat, fat substitutes, ice and curing mixture in various proportions. Seven texture parameters were measured for each sample of raw minced meat. The data obtained were processed us...

  6. Enhancement of Pork Jerky Using Co-cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Angel Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changqing; Lu, Ziyang; Huang, Jing; He, Sha; Tan, Hui; Wang, Gang; Liu, Dayu; Li, Yubin

    2016-09-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Angel Yeast were combined to ferment raw pork and make pork jerky. After fermentation, the jerky was dried and then tested for sensory evaluation, pH and free amino acid content. The results showed that the optimal conditions for fermentation using L. bulgaricus and Angel Yeast were: a pH of 6.5, a 1:1 (v/v) ratio of L. bulgaricus to Angel Yeast, a fermentation time of 42 h and temperature of 25 °C. The results showed that the pork jerky fermented with the combined strains was not very sour which was close to the pH of 7.0 and had a higher free amino acid content which was more than 68.3 mg/100 g compared with the pork jerky fermented by either L. bulgaricus or Angel Yeast alone. Overall, the results demonstrate that fermentation of raw pork with combined strains of L. bulgaricus and Angel Yeast improves the quality and flavor of pork jerky.

  7. The transfer and growth of Salmonella modelled during pork processing and applied to a risk assessment for the catering sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide

    Salmonellosis is an important cause of foodborne human gastroenteritis in most European countries, and pork contributes significantly to the disease burden caused by Salmonella infections. A traditional, and very popular, pork product in Denmark is fried meatballs. Danish meatballs are typically...... made with ground pork as the main ingredient. They are consumed as a component in hot meals but are also widely used as filling in cold sandwiches. Because of their popularity, pork meatballs are often part of the product range in Danish catering settings. As illustrated by the fact that 55 of 77...... Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), following the Codex Alimentarius Principles and using the modular process risk model (MPRM) methodology, was used as the tool to investigate the fate of Salmonella during processing of pork meatballs from the reception of whole pork cuttings, through processing, until...

  8. The Genetics of Pork Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetics of carcass composition and pork quality traits. A large population of commercial finishers was extensively phenotyped for growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits. Genetic parameters were estimated based on those measurements. The population was

  9. Comparision of the BAX® System with an in-house MSRV method for the detection of Salmonella in chicken carcasses and pork meat

    OpenAIRE

    Franchin,Paulo R.; Ogliari,Paulo J.; Andrade,Dalton F.; Chiapinoto,Maura; Lemos,Giovana; Rebelatto,Marina; Silva,Ivair G. da; Batista,Cleide R.V.

    2006-01-01

    A study was performed to compare the analytical procedure of the BAX® System for Salmonella PCR assay with the Modified Semi-Solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) method, for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated chicken carcass samples (n = 762) and raw pork meat (n = 566). The chicken carcasses samples were collected during slaughtering after defeathering or immediately after evisceration and the raw pork meat collected from the deboned head of recently slaughtered pigs and oth...

  10. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine, pork, or pork products and shipstores, airplane meals, and baggage containing pork or pork products, other than those articles regulated under parts 95 or 96 of this chapter, may not be imported...

  11. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used.

  12. Acceptability and storage stability of pork products with increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several batches of back bacon, belly bacon, Dutch-style cervelat sausage, pork loin roll, shoulder with fat, Bologna, Guelders ring sausage, Saxon liver sausage and luncheon meat were produced with increasing PUFA-levels using raw materials containing up to 30% linoleic acid in their fats. Only

  13. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.20 - Pork product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork product. 1230.20 Section 1230.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... product. Pork product means an edible product produced or processed in whole or in part from pork. ...

  15. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In... from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region must meet the following conditions: (1) The pork or pork products...

  16. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  17. Epidemiology and control measures for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Hald, Tine; Wolf, P. J. van der

    2002-01-01

    at the abattoir and during lairage, exposing negative pigs to Salmonella. Positive pigs carry Salmonella on the skin, in the gastro-intestinal system or in the mouth. The (cross-)contamination of carcasses is basically a matter of redistributing the Salmonella bacteria from the positive pigs during the various...... slaughter processes. Although the manufacturing and retail levels of pork production depend on the quality of raw materials that are delivered, they share the responsibility for the quality and safety of the end products reaching the consumer. At this level and onwards, the three main factors which...

  18. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P 

  19. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF NEW UNCOOKED SMOKED PORK PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Zabalueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The article presents the results of the study on nutritional value of the uncooked smoked pork product with the complex brine. It was found that the use of the starter cultures on the basis of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum in an amount of 5% by weight of the raw materials and the aqueous extract of dog-rose hips (Rosa Davurica in an amount of 0.5% by weight of the raw materials, as recipe ingredients of the brine, allows reducing the duration of the drying process by 24 hours and the salting process also by 24 hours.It was found that the product meets the requirements of the standard for this type of products by the content of protein (13.2% and fat (27.8%. The uncooked smoked pork loin, which was made using starter cultures on the basis of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum and the aqueous extract of dog-rose hips, is close to the recommended ratio of PUFAs : MUFAs : SFAs (10:60:30. The authors also noted that the presence of ascorbic acid in the extract led to a significant decrease in the residual amount of sodium nitrite by almost three times in the innovative smoked pork product, which increased its food safety.The results of the study showed that addition of the starter cultures L. brevis and L. fermentum and the extract of dog-rose hips (Rosa Davurica to the brine during salting had a positive effect on the formation of the sensory characteristics of the pork loin: taste, aroma, color and its structural and mechanical properties. The product had the more monolithic, firm texture and rich color. The research on the quantitative detection of viable cells of L. brevis and L. fermentum in the uncooked smoked pork loin «Pikantnaya» was also done in this work. It was found that on the 25th day of storage, the total number of viable cells in the loin was 1*107 CFU/g, which corresponded to the requirements for the probiotic products.

  20. International Synchronisation of the Pork Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLST

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of pork prices has been analysed since the 1920s. Well known economic concepts such as Hanaus pork cycle or Ezekiels cobweb theorem are based on the empirical analysis of pork markets. We analyze whether pork price developments in different countries have become more synchronised over time. In a first stage of our analysis, annual pork price data collected by the FAO reveals much heterogeneity of pork price developments across countries. However, for some groups of countries the observed price patterns are very similar or even identical. This is especially the case for neighbouring countries with integrated pork markets, such as the members of the European Union (EU. We then compare pork price developments in Germany and the USA based on 36 years of monthly producer prices for slaughter pigs. Since the middle of the 1990s cyclical pork price movements in the USA and Germany have become increasingly synchronous. We attribute this to two developments: the fact that the USA has become a large net exporter of pork over this period, and policy reform in the EU that has strengthened the link between international and EU feed prices.

  1. Raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . Although science and technology studies (STS) makes a strong case for associating relationality with certainty, the article argues that a particular form of data, ‘raw data’, complicates this association. It further argues that scientific data is not simply composed out of relations, but is a relation......This article takes scientific ‘raw data’ as its ethnographic object in order to investigate the co-implication of nature and culture in scientific knowledge practices. The article traces out some of the activities that are involved in producing numerical climate data from the Brazilian Amazon...... itself. The article ends with a brief reflection on the possible repercussions of shifting from thinking of science as producing multiple natures and cultures to thinking of it as producing the potential for relations....

  2. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  3. Organic pork: Consumer quality perception: Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Previous research indicates that consumers expect substantially higher eating quality in pork that was produced in organic and free-range systems. Sensory studies and comparisons of objective quality suggest that these expectations are not completely realistic: in most cases, the performance...... of organic and free-range pork is equal to, and in some times even lower than that of conventional pork. However, consumers' expectations may be so strong that they may override differences in experienced quality. An experiment was conducted with 185 consumers to separate these effects and estimate...... were (a) organic pork, (b) free-range pork, (c) conventional pork, and (d) no information. Samples were prepared at a sensory lab following a standardised protocol. Serial positions of samples were counterbalanced across subjects. Before tasting each sample, consumers rated expected quality. After...

  4. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products containing pork to destroy trichinae. 318.10 Section 318.10 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... ESTABLISHMENTS; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.10 Prescribed treatment of pork and... thorough cooking because of the appearance of the finished product or otherwise. Cured boneless pork loins...

  5. Societal concerns about pork and pork production and their relationships on the production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, E.; Groen, A.F.; Greef, de K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pork producers in Western Europe more and more encounter a variety of societal concerns about pork and pork production. So far, however, producers predominantly focused on low consumer prices, therewith addressing just one concern. This resulted in an intensive and large-scale production system,

  6. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... into the United States. Therefore, pork or pork products and ship's stores, airplane meals, and baggage containing such pork, other than those articles regulated under part 95 or part 96 of this chapter, produced... article to the United States in a manner that precludes its being commingled or otherwise coming in...

  7. Marketing possibilities of new pork qualities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    -range and organic pork, and point to an assimilation effect when the objective quality of such meats differs only slightly from that of conventional pork. For successful marketing of pork from extensive production systems, continuous improvements in eating quality, moderate pricing, and a credible certification......The paper presents results of three studies conducted by the SUSPORKQUAL consumer research team to investigate consumers' quality perception and willingness to pay with regard to pork from conventional and extensive production systems. Results show that consumers expect superior quality from free...

  8. SMART GROUND Project: SMART data collection and inteGRation platform to enhance availability and accessibility of data and infOrmation in the EU territory on SecoNDary Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; de la Feld, Marco; Pizza, Antonietta; Coulon, Frederic; Wagland, Stuart; Gomes, Diogo

    2016-04-01

    The issue of resource security has come to the forefront of the debate over recent years, partly due to considerable concern over the security of supply of the so called 'critical' materials, with rare earths attracting the greatest attention in the press. Their supply is fundamental to maintain and develop EU economy and its industries relied on a steady supply of Raw Materials. Thus considering the increasing scarcity and raising prices of both, energy raw materials and other raw materials, such as metals and minerals, the recycling and recovery of these materials from anthropogenic deposits such as landfills is of increasing relevance. Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" pre-dating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999. Thus historical background makes the numerous old waste dumps as possible sources of critical and secondary raw materials (SRM and CRM). However, to date there is no inventory available of SRM and CRM present in EU landfills, and best management practices to recover SRM from landfill activities are inefficient. In this context, the EU SMART GROUND (SG) project (Grant Agreement No 641988) intends to foster resource recovery in landfills by improving both the availability and the accessibility of data and information on SRM in the EU and creating synergies among the different stakeholders involved in the SRM value chain. To do so, the project aims to collect and integrate in a single EU databank (SMART GROUND Data Bank) all the data from existing databases and new information retrieved during project activities. Such data will be collected from the different waste streams including municipal, industrial and mining wastes across EU landfills. It will improve data gathering on SRM from different types of waste, by defining new and integrated data acquisition methods and standards. At last, but not least, the project will also improve the SRM economic and employment potential

  9. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  10. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Sean Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…

  11. The Effect of Drying Parameters on the Quality of Pork and Poultry-Pork Kabanosy Produced according to the Traditional Specialties Guaranteed Recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chmiel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of differentiated air relative humidity during the drying process on selected quality features of TSG (traditional specialties guaranteed pork and poultry-pork kabanosy. After heat treatment and 24-hour cooling at 4–6°C, the products were placed in three chambers at 15°C with differentiated air relative humidity: 60, 70, and 80%, respectively. The drying process was carried out until all variants of kabanosy achieved the required final yield of the product (<68%. Color components, water activity and shear force, water, protein, fat, and salt content, and the TBARS indicator values were determined. The drying process might be shortened (~50% by a reduction of humidity in the drying chamber from 80 to 60%. The changes in the content of chemical components in pork kabanosy compared to poultry-pork ones demonstrated the different dynamics of the drying of the two types of kabanosy and the need for the selection of optimum drying conditions relative to raw material composition.

  12. The Sarcocystis-cyst containing beef and pork as the sources of natural intestinal sarcocystosis in Thai people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratvej, Sukhum; Unpunyo, Piyapong; Pongtippan, Atcharaporn

    2007-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by two coccidians, i.e. Sarcocystis fusiformis (syn. S. bovihominis, S. hominis) due to consumption of raw infected beef and Sarcocystis meischeriana (syn. S. suihominis) due to consumption of infected raw pork. In 1987, survey of the macroscopic S. fusiformis cysts in market beef mainly from old water buffalos aged more than 15 years were commonly observed in Bangkok. In 2005, the macroscopic cyst was no longer seen in beef of cattle and water buffalo aged less than three years. The epidemiological investigation of Sarcocystis spp. infected meat in Bangkok and Lampang. Samples for each of the tongue and beef of cattle and water buffalo, pork from Bangkok markets and pork of domestic swine from some remote villages in various subprovinces (Ampurs) in Lampang were obtained for microscopic examination by H and E and selectively by PAS staining. The microscopic S. fusiformis cysts were seen in all five specimens of tongues and ten specimens of muscles of cattle and water buffalo obtained from fresh-food markets in Bangkok. Ten samples of pork from Bangkok markets revealed no coccidian infection. The microscopic S. meischeriana cysts were seen in three specimens of swine muscles collected from two subprovinces in Lampang. The present merozoites in coccidian cysts retrieved from beef and pork are similar to those previously observed in human intestine. This may histologically indicate an invasive sarcocystosis by both species leading to a condition presently known as chronic inflammation of undetermined etiology in man.

  13. Identification of pork contamination in meatball using genetic marker mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by duplex-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novianty, E.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Lee, J. H.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Meat based food products have a big opportunity to mix and adulterated with other meats. Muslim communities are prohibited to consume pork-containing product or other pig derivatives in food. Therefore, the high sensitivity, fast, cheap and accurate approach is needed to detect pig contamination in raw meat and meat-processed product such as meatball. The aim of this study was to identify pork contamination in meatball using genetic marker of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by duplex-PCR. Samples were prepared and designed by following the proportions 0, 1, 5, 10, 25% of pork in meatballs, respectively. The DNA genome was extracted from meatballs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using species specific primer to isolate mt-DNA cytochrome b gene. The results showed that the DNA genome was successfully isolated from pork, beef, and contaminated meatballs. Furthermore, 2% agarose gels was able to visualize of duplex-PCR to identify pork contamination in meatballs up to very small proportion (1%). It can be concluded that duplex-PCR of mt-DNA cytochrome b gene was very sensitive to identify pork contamination in meatball with the presence of specific 398 bp DNA band.

  14. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  15. Thiamin, riboflavin and alpha-tocopherol retention in processed and stored irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Thayer, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Combination treatments for preservation of irradiated pork were investigated with respect to vitamin loss. Ground pork was prepared under nitrogen and packaged in anaerobic foil. The samples were enzyme denatured by heating before and after irradiation, then cooked and stored. Irradiation resulted in thiamin loss, but neither riboflavin nor alpha-tocopherol was affected. Neither thiamin nor riboflavin was affected by heat denaturation, cooking or storage, but heating and cooking increased the measured alpha-tocopherol. The lack of loss of the vitamins was attributed to the exclusion of oxygen

  16. The prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7 in ground beef and raw meatball by immunomagnetic separation and the detection of virulence genes using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Ozgür; Siriken, Belgin; Inat, Gökhan; Kevenk, Tahsin Onur

    2010-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the presence of Escherichia coli O157 and O157:H7 strains and to detect the presence of the stx1, stx2, and eaeA genes in isolates derived from 200 samples (100 samples from fresh ground beef and 100 samples from raw meatball). The samples were purchased from the Samsun Province in Turkey, over a period of 1 year. Enrichment-based immunomagnetic separation and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were applied for these analyses. E. coli O157 was detected in five of the 200 (2.5%) samples tested (one isolated from ground beef and four from meatball samples), whereas E. coli O157: H7 was not detected in any sample. During the analysis, eight strains of E. coli O157 were obtained. The genes stx1, stx2, and eaeA were detected in two E. coli O157 isolates obtained from two meatball samples, whereas only the eaeA and the stx2 genes were detected in four E. coli O157 strains that were isolated from one meatball sample. None of the stx1, stx2, and eaeA was detected in the E. coli O157 isolates obtained from the ground beef and the one meatball samples. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strand-specific transcriptomes of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in response to interactions with ground beef microbiota: interactions between microorganisms in raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galia, Wessam; Leriche, Francoise; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Garnier, Cindy; Navratil, Vincent; Dubost, Audrey; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2017-08-03

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are zoonotic agents associated with outbreaks worldwide. Growth of EHEC strains in ground beef could be inhibited by background microbiota that is present initially at levels greater than that of the pathogen E. coli. However, how the microbiota outcompetes the pathogenic bacteria is unknown. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways of EHEC that were altered by natural microbiota in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling the growth and survival of EHECs in ground beef. Based on 16S metagenomics analysis, we identified the microbial community structure in our beef samples which was an essential preliminary for subtractively analyzing the gene expression of the EHEC strains. Then, we applied strand-specific RNA-seq to investigate the effects of this microbiota on the global gene expression of EHEC O26 21765 and O157 EDL933 strains by comparison with their behavior in beef meat without microbiota. In strain O26 21765 , the expression of genes connected with nitrate metabolism and nitrite detoxification, DNA repair, iron and nickel acquisition and carbohydrate metabolism, and numerous genes involved in amino acid metabolism were down-regulated. Further, the observed repression of ftsL and murF, involved respectively in building the cytokinetic ring apparatus and in synthesizing the cytoplasmic precursor of cell wall peptidoglycan, might help to explain the microbiota's inhibitory effect on EHECs. For strain O157 EDL933 , the induced expression of the genes implicated in detoxification and the general stress response and the repressed expression of the peR gene, a gene negatively associated with the virulence phenotype, might be linked to the survival and virulence of O157:H7 in ground beef with microbiota. In the present study, we show how RNA-Seq coupled with a 16S metagenomics analysis can be used to identify the effects of a complex microbial community on relevant functions of an individual

  18. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Packaging and irradiation effects on lipid oxidation and volatiles in pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Olson, D.G.; Lee, J.I.; Jo, C.; Wu, C.; Chen, X.

    1998-01-01

    Raw-meat patties were prepared from three pork muscles, irradiated in different packaging environments, and stored for 0 or 3 days before cooking. Lipid oxidation by-products were formed in the raw meat during storage and the baseline lipid oxidation data of raw meat was used to measure the progression of lipid oxidation after cooking. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatiles data indicated that preventing oxygen exposure after cooking was more important for cooked meat quality than packaging, irradiation, or storage conditions of raw meat. Propanal, pentanal, hexanal, 1-pentanol, and total volatiles correlated highly (P 0.01) with TBARS values of cooked meat. Hexanal and total volatiles represented the lipid oxidation status better than any other individual volatile components

  20. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  1. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  2. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  3. Meat species identification and Halal authentication using PCR analysis of raw and cooked traditional Turkish foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulca, Pelin; Balta, Handan; Çağın, Ilknur; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-07-01

    The method performance characteristics of commercially available PCR kits for animal species identification were established. Comminuted meat products containing different levels of pork were prepared from authentic beef, chicken, and turkey. These meat products were analysed in the raw state and after cooking for 20 min at 200 °C. For both raw and cooked meats, the PCR kit could correctly identify the animal species and could reliably detect the addition of pork at a level below 0.1%. A survey of 42 Turkish processed meat products such as soudjouk, salami, sausage, meatball, cured spiced beef and doner kebap was conducted. Thirty-six samples were negative for the presence of pork (meatball sample labelled as 100% beef was found to contain chicken. Another turkey meatball sample was predominantly chicken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A study on the composition of off-odor volatiles in irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Zhang Jinmu; Chen Yuxia; Liu Yangmin; Wang Liping; Wang Hong; Xu Ying; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to lay a foundation on generation mechanisms and removal method of off-odor of irradiated meat products. Vacuum-package and refrigerated raw pork samples were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays. Off-odor volatiles from the irradiated pork samples were taken in by a vacuum system and were collected by a cooled vial in liquid nitrogen. At the same time, the source of off-odor generation was investigated. Main compositions of off-odor volatiles of the irradiated pork were analyzed with gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that main compositions of the off-odor volatiles were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol and S-methyl thioacetate, and the off-odor volatiles came from sulfide-containing amino acid and thiamin of the irradiated pork. Sulfide-containing compounds increased with the dose in the range of 0-3 kGy, and decreased with the refrigeration time, but changed from different kinds of the package. The non-irradiated samples, however, contained just a little sulfide-containing compounds of dimethyl sulfide and vangardbt. (authors)

  5. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pcooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (pcooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Tundetargad meeskonnad on head suhtekorraldajad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2003-01-01

    Psühholoogiaprofessor Mare Pork defineerib meeskonna emotsionaalse intelligentsuse mõiste ja kirjeldab kõrge EQ-ga meeskonna tunnuseid. Lisad: Mis arendab meeskonna EQ-d?; Meeskonna emotsionaalne intelligentsus EQ nelja komponendi järgi

  7. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  8. 7 CFR 65.170 - Ground lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground lamb. 65.170 Section 65.170 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.170 Ground lamb. Ground lamb means comminuted...

  9. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  10. 7 CFR 65.165 - Ground goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground goat. 65.165 Section 65.165 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.165 Ground goat. Ground goat means comminuted...

  11. Characterization of transferable tetracycline resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolated from raw food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Licht, Tine Rask

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of tetracycline resistance, and of specific genetic determinants for this resistance was investigated in 1003 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from various raw food products originating from five categories including chicken meat, other poultry meat, beef, pork, and 'other...

  12. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal... any live swine, and uses only pork or pork products which originate in regions listed in paragraph (a... paying all costs for such inspections (it is anticipated that such inspections will occur up to four...

  13. Modelling transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, C O A; Nauta, M J; Christensen, B B; Dalgaard, P; Hansen, T B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict cross-contamination of Salmonella during grinding of pork. Transfer rates of Salmonella were measured in three experiments, where between 10 and 20 kg meat was ground into 200-g portions. In each experiment, five pork slices of about 200 g per slice were inoculated with 8-9 log-units of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and used for building up the contamination in the grinder. Subsequently, Salmonella-free slices were ground and collected as samples of c. 200 g minced pork. Throughout the process, representative samples were quantitatively analysed for Salmonella. A model suggested by Nauta et al. (2005) predicting cross-contamination of Campylobacter in poultry processing and two modified versions of this model were tested. The present study observed a tailing phenomenon of transfer of Salmonella during a small-scale grinding process. It was, therefore, hypothesized that transfer occurred from two environmental matrices inside the grinder and a model was developed. The developed model satisfactorily predicted the observed concentrations of Salmonella during its cross-contamination in the grinding of up to 110 pork slices. The proposed model provides an important tool to examine the effect of cross-contamination in quantitative microbial risk assessments and might also be applied to various other food processes where cross-contamination is involved. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40 K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  15. A Complete Set of Technologies for Green Food Pork Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing-wu; SHAN An-shan; JIANG Jiu-tian; ZHANG Tian-feng

    2003-01-01

    Key technologies for green food pork production were described in this article,as aspects of business standardization;production equipments and facilities,product quality control;and pork production site establishment.

  16. Study of inhibition on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2006-03-01

    It was studied that the effect factors of irradiation dose, preservation temperature, oxygen content and antioxidant on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. A mechanism was explained on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. The results showed that irradiation might aggravate lipid oxidation of pork and that decreased preservation temperature and oxygen content of the packaging, added antioxidant also could effectively inhibit lipid oxidation of irradiated pork. (authors)

  17. Radiation effects on physicochemical characteristics of pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Cheng Wei; Xiong Guangquan; Geng Shengrong; Qiao Yu; Liao Tao; Liao Li; Lin Ruotai

    2011-01-01

    Pork samples were soaked in antioxidant solution (1 g/L), vacuum-packaged,irradiated at 3 kGy by Co γ-rays or 10 MeV electron beams,and refrigerated at 0 degree C-4 degree C for 30 d. On Day 1, 10, 20, 25 and 30 post irradiation, total bacterial counts,peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, volatiles and off-odor of the irradiated pork samples were analyzed. The total bacterial counts were <10 cfu/g on Day 30. The peroxide values, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatiles contents of pork irradiated by the γ-rays were higher than pork irradiated by electron beams. Pork irradiated by γ-rays combined with antioxidant treatment was most close to the control in odor, with a similarity of 89.68%. The results showed that E-beam irradiation reduced lipid oxidation and volatiles contents, γ-ray irradiation helped to reduce off-odor, and addition of antioxidant could effectively reduce lipid oxidation and off-odor. (authors)

  18. Pork Preference for Consumers in China, Japan and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries.

  19. Pork Preference for Consumers in China, Japan and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S.-H.; See, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries. PMID:25049488

  20. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  1. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pcooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PorkCAD: Case study of the design of a pork product prototyper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Bærentzen, J. Andreas; Igarashi, T.

    2013-01-01

    the usability of porkCAD, we tested it with personnel from the pork industry, using two different controller interfaces, one being a traditional mouse and keyboard input, and the other a six degrees of freedom haptic feedback device. The accurate depiction of pig anatomy guided trained professionals to re......-create standardized pig products using porkCAD. The quantitative results of the usability test with sales personnel did not lean significantly in favor of either interface. Since one interface was extremely well known and the other highly unfamiliar, the fact that users did not express a clear preference...

  3. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symmetry in farm-retail price transmission: pork in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study intends to determine the farm-retail price transmission behaviors of pork in Malaysia to serve as a good implication for pork pricing system in Malaysia. Using data from January 1997 to December 2008, both the Houck and ECM approaches were found symmetric where a change in farm price of pork was observed to have similar change in retail price of pork in Malaysia. The price setting system of pork can therefore be further described by the estimated price transmission elasticities whe...

  5. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  7. An explorative study on pork loin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Hviid, Marchen Sonja; Larsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Bag-of-words (BoW) image description has shown good performance for a large variety of image recognition scenarios. We investigate approaches to alleviating a standard BoW image description pipeline representations for the specific task of recognizing pork loins. Specifically, we extend the Bo...

  8. Oxidative deterioration of pork during superchilling storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In superchilling (SC), meat is kept at temperatures around 1 °C below its initial freezing point, leading to a significant increase in shelf life. This study aimed to address the oxidative changes taking place in pork loins during prolonged storage at SC temperature. Loins were stored...

  9. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and

  10. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  11. Water concentration/activity and loss of vitamins B1 and E in pork due to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Kohout, K.M.; Thayer, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    When irradiated, increasing the water content of pork by partial rehydration of freeze-dried L. dorsi muscle resulted in increasing rate of thiamin loss from zero in dry tissue to ca 6%/kGy of irradiation in tissue with 70% water. Conversely, the rate of loss of alpha-tocopherol decreased from 44%/kGy at 0% to 32%/kGy at 70% water. Decreasing water activity in buffers or in ground or freeze-dried pork by salt or sucrose had no effect on rate of loss of either vitamin following irradiation. Salt decreased the loss of both vitamins in pork due to competition for the hydroxyl radical by chloride ions

  12. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L

    2016-03-01

    In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  14. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  15. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Elimination of salmonella from fermented pork by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noochpramul, K.; Loaharanu, P.

    1974-01-01

    A fermented pork product, locally known as ''Nham'', is usually contaminated with salmonella and occasionally with Trichinella spiralis and Taenea solium. This product is always eaten raw as cooking destroys its delicate flavour. A survey made on the MPN of salmonella revealed that much less than 100 salmonella was found in one gram of the product. Nham was inoculated with S. derby, S. anatum, S. newport, or S. paratyphi B, the most common serotypes of salmonella found in this product, at 10 6 , 10 4 , or 10 2 per gram. The inoculated product was irradiated by the gamma beam-650 Co-60 irradiator at 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 Mrad. Dosage at 0.4 Mrad eliminated salmonella as much as 10 6 per g; 0.3 Mrad eliminated 10 6 /g of S. newport and S. paratyphi B and 10 4 /g of S. derby and S. anatum; and 0.2 Mrad eliminated 10 2 /g of all serotypes of salmonella in the product. No changes in the organoleptic properties of irradiated Nham was found when irradiated at 0.3 Mrad or less. Dosage at 0.2 Mrad appeared to be sufficient for commercial irradiation of Nham for the elimination of salmonella

  17. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  18. Gelling Properties of Fish/Pork Mince Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru; Zhao, Siming; Regenstein, Joe M; Liu, Qing; Yang, Hong; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-02-01

    The gel properties of silver carp/pork mince mixtures were investigated as well as the protein structural changes and interactions during gelling using rheology, SEM, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The breaking force values for gels containing 0% to 40% pork was significantly lower (P breaking force values compared with gels containing 50% to 60% pork. Deformation values were more mixed. Dynamic rheological data suggested that mixing fish and pork at 3:7 could strengthen the gel network. The addition of 40% pork or above, significantly decreased (P reasons for the low water retention for fish/pork mixed gels. Raman spectral analysis confirmed that mixing fish and pork in 7:3 and 3:7 ratios could promote hydrophobic interactions such as bringing tyrosine residues into the intermolecular interface. The interactions in the 3:7 fish/pork mixed gels were favorable for forming a stronger gel. However, the interactions in the 7:3 fish/pork mixed gels were adverse. The water retention of gels was related to both molecular interactions and secondary structures of protein as well as the microstructure of the gels. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Citizen and consumer influence on future pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Stacey, Julia Rolsted; Poulsen, Louise Vestergaard Skøtt

    2008-01-01

    The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers.......The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers....

  20. Oxidative deterioration of pork during superchilling storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    In superchilling (SC), meat is kept at temperatures around 1 °C below its initial freezing point, leading to a significant increase in shelf life. This study aimed to address the oxidative changes taking place in pork loins during prolonged storage at SC temperature. Loins were stored either at chilling (CH) conditions (2-4 °C) for 4 weeks or at SC temperature (around -1 °C) for 12 weeks. Storage at SC temperature diminished the rate of lipid and protein oxidation and discoloration in pork loins, so that final levels of most oxidation products and instrumental color values after 12 weeks of SC storage were similar to those after 4 weeks at CH conditions. However, hexanal content peaked by the end of SC storage, pointing to a potential accumulation of compounds from lipid oxidation during SC storage. SC storage of pork slows down the rate of lipid and protein oxidation. However, accumulation of volatile compounds from lipid oxidation could be a limiting factor for shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Quality characteristics of pork burger added with albedo-fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vargas, Jairo H; Fernández-López, Juana; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work determined the technological, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers, added with different concentrations (2.5 and 5%) of passion fruit albedo (PFA) co-product, obtained from passion fruit juice processing. The addition of PFA on pork burgers improves their nutritional value (higher fiber content). In raw and cooked burger, all textural parameters, except springiness and cohesiveness, were affected by the incorporation of PFA. PFA addition was found to be effective improving the cooking yield, moisture retention and fat retention. The raw and cooked pork burgers added with PFA had lower TBA values and lower counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and enterobacteria than the control samples. No Escherichia coli and molds were found in the samples. The overall acceptability scores showed that the most appreciated sample was the one containing 2.5% PFA. According to the results obtained, 2.5 and 5% of PFA addition can be recommended in pork burger production as a new dietary fiber source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Effect of electron beam irradiation on quality of fresh chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yibin; Gao Meixu; Li Shurong; Pei Ying; Wang Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on nutrient quality, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of fresh chilled pork were investigated. Fresh chilled pork whose fat to muscle ratio was 1 : 6 was grounded and packaged, and then irradiated at doses of 0, 2.0, 3.8, 6.2, 8.3 and 10.5 kGy. The contents of fat andprotein, chromaticity, sensory characteristics, lipid oxidation index of TBARS value, POV, diene value of irradiated and unirradiated samples were measured. The results showed that there were no significant differences (5% level) in content of proteinand fat between irradiated and control samples, but irradiation could significantly increase TBARS value and POV. EB irradiation enhanced the increase of total diene value. The samples treated with 3.8 and 6.2 kGy showed good color during storage. There were no significant differences in sensory characteristics among different EB doses. It is concluded that 4-6 kGy EB irradiation, which is effective for decontamination, shows no significant effect on qualities of fresh chilled pork. (authors)

  4. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  5. Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Howe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32 were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control. Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant (p ≤ 0.01 reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition.

  6. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer.

  7. Mare Pork: emotsionaalsed kangid on kõige tõhusamad / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare, 1950-

    2010-01-01

    Kliinilise psühholoogia professor Mare Pork tutvustab vestluses raamatut: Neale, Stephen; Spencer-Arnell, Lisa; Wilson, Liz. Emotsionaalse intelligentsuse treening : kuidas tõsta tippjuhi, arengutreeneri ja iseendaga tehtava töö tulemuslikkust. [Tallinn] : Äripäev, 2009

  8. Mare Pork : Koolitus olgu puhkus ja pingutus / Mare Pork ; interv. Urve Vilk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 12. märts lk. 16-17. Koolitaja Mare Pork leiab, et töös võiks olla rohkem lõbu ja loovust ning koolitus võiks olla nii korralik pingutus kui ka korralik puhkus täis-ümberlülitusega

  9. Public health and pork and pork products: regional perspectives of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1997-01-01

    in the country. The incidence of pork-related occurrences of human salmonellosis and yersiniosis in 1996 was approximately nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants for both diseases. All swine in Denmark are screened for Trichinella spp. infection, although no positive results have been obtained since 1930. Swine...

  10. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  11. IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data (IPUTG0) data set contains GPS readings, including latitude, longitude, track, ground speed, off distance,...

  12. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... restrictions necessary to mitigate the risk of introducing CSF into the United States via pork, pork products...; and livestock demographics and marketing practices. They also provided information regarding... regions of higher risk; livestock demographics and marketing practices; vaccination against the disease(s...

  13. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  14. Emerging supply chains of indigenous pork and their impacts on small-scale farmers in upland areas of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Huong, Pham Thi Mai; Hau, Nguyen Van; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Valle-Zarate, Anne; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Rising incomes, urbanization and globalization have been leading to profound changes in the consumption habits of an increasing number of people in developing and transition countries, particularly in Asia. These changes are linked to increasing concerns that small-scale farmers are becoming marginalized in new market set-ups. On the back-ground of these developments we analyze how growing demand for indigenous pork – considered a specialty product among consumers in Vietnam – impacts through...

  15. Probabilistic risk model for staphylococcal intoxication from pork-based food dishes prepared in food service establishments in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Griffiths, Mansel W; Fazil, Aamir M; Lammerding, Anna M

    2009-09-01

    Foodborne illness contracted at food service operations is an important public health issue in Korea. In this study, the probabilities for growth of, and enterotoxin production by, Staphylococcus aureus in pork meat-based foods prepared in food service operations were estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation. Data on the prevalence and concentration of S. aureus as well as compliance to guidelines for time and temperature controls during food service operations were collected. The growth of S. aureus was initially estimated by using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Pathogen Modeling Program. A second model based on raw pork meat was derived to compare cell number predictions. The correlation between toxin level and cell number as well as minimum toxin dose obtained from published data was adopted to quantify the probability of staphylococcal intoxication. When data gaps were found, assumptions were made based on guidelines for food service practices. Baseline risk model and scenario analyses were performed to indicate possible outcomes of staphylococcal intoxication under the scenarios generated based on these data gaps. Staphylococcal growth was predicted during holding before and after cooking, and the highest estimated concentration (4.59 log CFU/g for the 99.9th percentile value) of S. aureus was observed in raw pork initially contaminated with S. aureus and held before cooking. The estimated probability for staphylococcal intoxication was very low, using currently available data. However, scenario analyses revealed an increased possibility of staphylococcal intoxication when increased levels of initial contamination in the raw meat, andlonger holding time both before and after cooking the meat occurred.

  16. Modelling transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Nauta, Maarten; Christensen, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to develop a model to predict cross‐contamination of Salmonella during grinding of pork. Methods and Results: Transfer rates of Salmonella were measured in three experiments, where between 10 and 20 kg meat was ground into 200‐g portions. In each experiment, five...... during a small‐scale grinding process. It was, therefore, hypothesized that transfer occurred from two environmental matrices inside the grinder and a model was developed. The developed model satisfactorily predicted the observed concentrations of Salmonella during its cross‐contamination in the grinding...

  17. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Pork Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juae; Kim, Dongwook; Yoon, Seok-Ki; Ham, Jun-Sang; Jang, Aera

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of boiled pork powder (BPP) and hot water extract powder (HWEP) from 4 cuts of meat from Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activities determined were from BPP of Boston butt (13.65 M TE) and HWEP of loin (19.40 M TE) and ham (21.45 M TE). The 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of BPP from shoulder ham (39.28 M TE) and ham (39.43 M TE) were higher than those of other meat cuts, while HWEP of ham exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. A higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity was determined for BPP from ham (198.35 M TE) and in HWEP from loin (204.07 M TE), Boston butt (192.85 M TE), and ham (201.36 M TE). Carnosine content of BPP and HWEP from loin and were determined to be 106.68 and 117.77 mg/g on a dry basis, respectively. The anserine content of BPP (5.26 mg/g, dry basis) and HWEP (6.79 mg/g, dry basis) of shoulder ham exhibited the highest value as compared to the extracts from the other meat cuts. The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was increased with increasing HWEP from loin and ham treatment. In addition, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced by HWEP from loin and ham, in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that boiled pork and hot water extract of pork have antioxidative and cytokine inhibitory effects.

  18. SCCmec type IX element in Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus spa-type t337 (CC9 isolated from pigs and pork in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eVestergaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have emerged among livestock in several countries. In this study, we describe the results of a screening performed in pigs and raw pork samples in Thailand. Ten pork samples and 15 nasal swabs from pigs were collected from two markets and one pig farm in the Samuth Songkhram province in Thailand. MRSA were isolated using selective isolation procedures and confirmed by mecA PCR. The MRSA were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and MLST. Resistance and virulence markers were screened using a microarray. Five of the pork samples and six pig nasal swabs were positive for MRSA. All 11 isolates belonged to spa type t337 and CC9 but showed diversity in antimicrobial resistance patterns and PFGE profiles. All isolates harbored SCCmec IX and were resistant to seven out of 14 tested antimicrobials; additional resistances were found in the pork isolates. Microarray analysis identified blaZ, aac-aphD, vga(A, tetM, and a tet efflux marker, in all strains and additionally ermB and aadD, cat and fex(A in the pork isolates. None of the isolates were found PVL-positive, but enterotoxins were identified in all isolates. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of MRSA in livestock and food products in Thailand and also the first observation of MRSA CC9 associated with SCCmec IX. This study indicates a likely widespread distribution of MRSA in pig and pork in Thailand and further investigation on the prevalence and importance of livestock associated MRSA in Thailand is needed.

  19. A QMRA Model for Salmonella in Pork Products During Preparation and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, A. N.; Leusden, F.; Nauta, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    As part of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) food chain model, this article describes a model for the consumer phase for Salmonella‐contaminated pork products. Three pork products were chosen as a proxy for the entire pork product spectrum: pork cuts, minced meat patties, and ...... factors “knife cleaning” and “preparation of a salad” are important parameters for pork cuts. For minced meat cleaning of the board, salad consumption, refrigerator temperature, and storage time were significant....

  20. Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis with seizure from raw pork ingestion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongjittraporn, Suwarat; Teerasukjinda, Ornusa; Yee, Melvin; Chung, Heath H

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus suis meningoencephalitis is a rare but increasingly important condition. Good history taking will give clues to the diagnosis. This is the fourth case report in the United States. A 52-year-old Filipino man who recently returned from a trip to the Philippines was admitted with classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis. His cerebrospinal fluid culture grew Streptococcus suis. His clinical course was complicated by seizures, hearing loss, and permanent tinnitus. Clinicians should be aware of this emerging disease especially in patients with recent travel history to endemic areas. Early recognition and appropriate management could potentially prevent complications.

  1. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  2. The Influence of Moderate Pressure and Subzero Temperature on the Shelf Life of Minced Cod, Salmon, Pork and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kołodziejska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moderate pressure at subzero temperature on natural microflora of minced cod, salmon, pork and beef meat was studied. Pressure of 193 MPa at –20 °C caused the reduction of total bacterial count in pork and beef meat by 1.1 and 0.6 log cycles, respectively, and by about 1.5 log cycles in fish meat. Under these conditions the psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria were below the detection limit (<10 CFU/g of sample in pork and beef meat, while in cod and salmon meat they were reduced only by 1.3 and 2.0 log cycles, respectively. In all tested samples of meat treated with the pressure of 193 MPa at –20 °C, the number of coliforms was below 10 CFU/g. Under these conditions a significant reduction in the number of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was also observed. During storage of samples at 4 °C after pressurization at 193 MPa and –20 °C, the inhibition of growth of all tested groups of bacteria was observed. Moderate pressure at subzero temperature does not ensure complete inactivation of bacteria; however, it allows the improvement of microbiological quality and extension of shelf life of food, which depends on the level of bacterial contamination of the initial raw material.

  3. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  4. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chinese consumers' perception of imported versus domestic pork quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Maolong; Ortega, David. L; Wang, H.Holly

    2015-01-01

    Economic globalization has opened up international markets for U.S. food products, especially new markets in emerging economies. While opportunities for increased demand for U.S. pork in China look promising, little is known about this emerging market. The objective of this study is to provide a thorough analysis of Chinese consumer’s perception and attitudes towards multiple pork attributes along with an evaluation of the potential for U.S. pork in China. To achieve this goal, an empirical m...

  6. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  8. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Artificial neural network as the tool in prediction rheological features of raw minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balejko, Jerzy A; Nowak, Zbigniew; Balejko, Edyta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elaborate a method of modelling and forecasting rheological features which could be applied to raw minced meat at the stage of mixture preparation with a given ingredient composition. The investigated material contained pork and beef meat, pork fat, fat substitutes, ice and curing mixture in various proportions. Seven texture parameters were measured for each sample of raw minced meat. The data obtained were processed using the artificial neural network module in Statistica 9.0 software. The model that reached the lowest training error was a multi-layer perceptron MLP with three neural layers and architecture 7:7-11-7:7. Correlation coefficients between the experimental and calculated values in training, verification and testing subsets were similar and rather high (around 0.65) which indicated good network performance. High percentage of the total variance explained in PCA analysis (73.5%) indicated that the percentage composition of raw minced meat can be successfully used in the prediction of its rheological features. Statistical analysis of the results revealed, that artificial neural network model is able to predict rheological parameters and thus a complete texture profile of raw minced meat.

  10. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  11. Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage. Jonhny De Azevedo Maia Junior, Fábio Da Costa Henry, Felipe Roberto Ferreira Amaral Do Valle, Meire Lelis Leal Martins, Célia Raquel Quirino, Rafael Dos Santos Costa ...

  12. Consumer preferences for pork chops in five Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork that determine consumer choice in five Canadian provinces. Within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed differences in strategies for pork choice in lean colour (P<0.001) and marbling (P=0.006). High proportions of Nova Scotians (29%) chose light red pork, Albertans (42%) dark red and Quebecers (29%) non-marbled pork. Overall, the most important choice criteria were fat cover (57% preferred lean, 8% fatty) and lean colour (35% dark red, 18% light red). Marbling and drip were less used, but are important noting that 26% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. The preferences are readily met by the industry, but unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Canadian consumers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Farm-retail price spread for pork in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Randy, Stringer; Wendy, Umberger

    2009-01-01

    The price difference between farm and retail levels is called price spread, which is constituted mostly by marketing costs and profits. From the price spread, this paper intends to estimate elasticities of price transmission for pork in Malaysia via different empirical model specifications of markup pricing model. Using data from January 1997 to December 2007, a quantitative analysis of farm-to-retail price spreads was undertaken for pork in Malaysia. It was found that retail price is the onl...

  14. Gas chromatographic measurement of the radiolytic products of irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingcai; Wang Xiuying; Xu Peishu; Yuan Bihuai

    1988-01-01

    The radiolytic products of irradiated pork were isolated, analyzed and identified by the techniques of vacuum distillation, GC-MS. The higher boiling point compounds in fat were collected by cold-finger and its lower boiling point compounds were recovered on a short precolumn packed with alumina, and the volatiles of lean pork were collected on a short column packed with TCEP/Chromosovb. Some experimental conditions were studied. 49 compounds were identified. These compounds include hydrocarbons and sulphides etc. (author)

  15. Effect of natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork – A predictive microbiology approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Ilg, Y.; Aabo, Søren

    2013-01-01

    for lag time, max. specific growth rate and max. population density. Data from literature were used to develop growth models for the natural pork microbiota. Challenge tests at temperatures from 9.4 to 24.1 °C and with Salmonella inoculated in ground pork were used for evaluation of interaction models....... The existing Jameson-effect and Lotka–Volterra species interaction models and a new expanded Jameson-effect model were evaluated. F-test indicated lack-of-fit for the classical Jameson-effect model at all of the tested temperatures and at 14.1–20.2 °C this was caused by continued growth of Salmonella after...

  16. Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1–100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x0.509 with a regression coefficient (R2 of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of microRNA in biodiagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.

  17. Nanobioprobe for the Determination of Pork Adulteration in Burger Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.E.; Hashim, U.K.; Foo, L.; Mustafa, S.; Che Man, Y.B.

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe through a covalent integration of a fluorophore-labeled 27-nucleotide AluI-fragment of swine cytochrome b gene to a 3 nm gold nanoparticle for the determination of pork adulteration in processed meat products. We tested the probe to estimate adulterated pork in ready-to-eat pork-spiked beef burgers. The probe quantitatively detected 1-100% spiked pork in burger formulations with ≥90% accuracy. A plot of observed fluorescence against the known concentration of AluI-digested pork DNA targets generated a concave curve, demonstrating a power relationship (y=2.956x 0.509 ) with a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.986. No cross-species detection was found in a standard set of pork, beef, chicken, mutton, and chevon burgers. The method is suitable for the determination of very short-length nucleic acid targets which cannot be estimated by conventional and real-time PCR but are essential for the determination of micro RNA in bio diagnostics and degraded DNA in forensic testing and food analysis.

  18. Raw material utilization in slaughterhouses – optimizing expected profit using mixed-integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian

    Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP) ...... at slaughterhouses. Finally, we comment on the expected effect of variations in the raw material supply and the demand as well as future research concerning joint modelling of supply chain aspects.......Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest profit. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” final products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP...

  19. Quantification of meat proportions by measuring DNA contents in raw and boiled sausages using matrix-adapted calibrators and multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppel, René; Eugster, Albert; Ruf, Jürg; Rentsch, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The quantification of meat proportions in raw and boiled sausage according to the recipe was evaluated using three different calibrators. To measure the DNA contents from beef, pork, sheep (mutton), and horse, a tetraplex real-time PCR method was applied. Nineteen laboratories analyzed four meat products each made of different proportions of beef, pork, sheep, and horse meat. Three kinds of calibrators were used: raw and boiled sausages of known proportions ranging from 1 to 55% of meat, and a dilution series of DNA from muscle tissue. In general, results generated using calibration sausages were more accurate than those resulting from the use of DNA from muscle tissue, and exhibited smaller measurement uncertainties. Although differences between uses of raw and boiled calibration sausages were small, the most precise and accurate results were obtained by calibration with fine-textured boiled reference sausages.

  20. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in raw and ready-to-eat foods and in a Canadian food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Diane T; Sattar, Syed A; Farber, Jeffrey M; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2008-10-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in a variety of foods from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and raw milk samples from across Canada was determined over a 2-year period. The samples consisted of 55 raw foods (chicken, pork, and beef), 126 raw milk samples from raw milk cheese manufacturers, and 135 ready-to-eat foods (meat products, salads, and raw milk cheeses). Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 4 of the 316 samples analyzed: 1 raw beef liver sample and 3 raw chicken samples. An isolation rate of 9.7% was observed among the raw chicken samples tested. This study also investigated the role of cross-contamination in disseminating Campylobacter from raw poultry within a food service operation specializing in poultry dishes. Accordingly, kitchen surfaces within a restaurant in Ottawa, Ontario, were sampled between March and August 2001. Tests of the sampling method indicated that as few as 100 Campylobacter cells could be detected if sampling was done within 45 min of inoculation; however, Campylobacter spp. were not detected in 125 swabs of surfaces within the kitchens of this food service operation. Despite the reported high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry, this organism was not detected on surfaces within a kitchen of a restaurant specializing in poultry dishes.

  1. Discriminating the quality of local pork from crossbred pork from extensive production of ethnic minorities in mountainous northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Muth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing short food supply chains for products from local pig (Sus scrofa domesticus breeds may offer chances for smallholders in rural areas to participate in niche markets and obtain additional income. Because the authenticity and distinctness of products are crucial for establishing marketing, this study compared selected product characteristics of pork from the Vietnamese Ban breed with pork from crossbreds, each derived at their typical market weight and from their respective extensive and semi-extensive production environment; thus resembling the combination, the products are available for customers. Traditional Ban pork could be effectively discriminated from crossbred pork through cut dimensions, exemplified by the significantly reduced loin eye area (P<0.001, and by the significantly reduced backfat thickness (P<0.001. Also, marbling fat was significantly decreased in local pork (P<0.001, whereas differences in further meat quality parameters were rather weakly expressed. The significantly higher share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in loins of traditionally produced Ban pigs (P=0.003 could possibly result in a preferred nutritional value, but lower oxidative stability of the products. This study provides novel information to improve the marketing of specialty pork in Vietnam and comparable situations in the Southeast Asian Massif.

  2. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  3. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut......’s adolescence without hypostatizing distinctions between inside and outside, or between culture and its raw or primitive origins, while nevertheless not conflating the dissolution of boundaries and hierarchies with a possible end to territoriality and control, nor promoting a resignation of thought...

  4. Exploiting the cointegration properties of U.S. pork - related markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babula, Ronald; Lund, Mogens

    We apply methods of the cointegrated vector autoregression or VAR model to quar-terly U.S. pork-related markets, from the farm gate upstream, to the downstream markets for processed pork and sausage. This study extends prior VAR econometric work by concentrating on the upstream/downstream relatio......We apply methods of the cointegrated vector autoregression or VAR model to quar-terly U.S. pork-related markets, from the farm gate upstream, to the downstream markets for processed pork and sausage. This study extends prior VAR econometric work by concentrating on the upstream....../downstream relationships between the U.S. farm market for pork and markets for processed pork and sausage. Results include a U.S. long run demand for pork, as well as empirical estimates of specific market events on these three pork-related markets....

  5. Consumer expectations of the quality of pork produced in sustainable outdoor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone; Magnussen, Maria

    , most Swedish consumers bought fresh pork at the traditional butcher's. Although large segments of consumers (30-50%) stated higher purchase intentions for pork from outdoor systems than for conventional pork, results should be interpreted with caution. Since intention-behaviour consistency was found...... to be extremely low for pork in general, stated purchase intentions should also be discounted in the case of pork from outdoor production systems. The most striking result in the present research was observed in relation to consumers' quality expectations. Respondents had been asked to state their quality...... to those of conventional pork. Finally, consumers prefer as much information as possible on the label of pork products. Since influences at the point of sale, including the information on product labels, appear to be the major determinants of consumers' pork purchases, the development of clear and credible...

  6. Radiation Preservation of fresh pork from semi-intensive and intensive pig production systems. A case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoakoaa, T. L

    2011-07-01

    dose and refrigeration can reduce microbial growth by 3 log cycles. Spoilage organisms such as Pseudomonas, Listeria, Trichoderma and Penicillium were isolated in all pork samples but they were isolates on the 14th day of storage for 0kGy and on the 21 st day for 1.5 and 3kGy. At the end of the 28 days of storage, microbial count from pork samples irradiated at 3kGy was still within the specified standard for fresh pork of the Ghana Standards Board. Even though irradiation at 1.5 and 3kGy were effective in reducing microbial load, pooled scores from sensory evaluation showed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in irradiated cooked and raw pork samples. Pooled mean scores suggested that consumers preferred pork sample irradiated with 1.5kGy. (au)

  7. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  8. Pre-slaughter stress and pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajković, S.; Teodorović, V.; Baltić, M.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    Stress is an inevitable consequence of handling of animals for slaughter. Stress conditions during transport, lairage and at slaughter induce undesirable effects on the end quality of meat such as pale, soft, exudative meat and dark firm dry meat. Hence, it is very important to define appropriate parameters for objective assessment of level of stress. Attempts to define measures of stress have been difficult and no physiological parameter has been successfully used to evaluate stress situations. One physiological change in swine associated with animal handling stress and with pork quality is an increase in blood lactate concentration. Plasma cortisol was thought to be an appropriate indicator of stress, but the concentration was not consistently changed by different stressors. Therefore, finding alternative parameters reacting to stressors, such as acute phase proteins, would be of great value for the objective evaluation of level of stress and meat quality. As the stress during pre-slaughter handling is unavoidable, the final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, meat quality and animal welfare.

  9. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  10. China as a Potential Market for U.S. Pork Exports

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Amponsah; Xiang Dong Qin; Xuehua Peng

    2003-01-01

    This study provides details of emerging opportunities for U.S. pork exporters following the U.S.-China WTO Accession Agreement. The Agreement will enable the United States to gain unprecedented access to the Chinese pork market. The United States enjoys comparative advantages in producing hogs at lower cost, higher quality, and greater efficiency. Moreover, Chinese preference for pork is highly complementary to that of U.S. consumers. Therefore, U.S. pork exporters are expected to target prim...

  11. Quality factors in beef, pork, and lamb cooked by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, B M; Baldwin, R E; Snider, S

    1976-12-01

    Three cooking treatments were applied to the longissimus muscle of beef and of pork and to deboned leg of lamb. Cooking treatments included: Intermittent energy application (3-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 220V and intermittent energy application (6-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 115V. Control roasts were cooked in a conventional gas oven (163+/-3 degrees C.). Cooking was adjusted so that roasts achieved an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. when cut for analyses. Cooking losses were significantly greater for microwave than for conventionally cooked beef. However, microwave cooking resulted in beef, pork, and lamb roasts with flavor of interior portions similar to those prepared conventionally. Flavor differences in samples from the edge of the slices of lamb and of pork and tenderness of lamb appeared to be related to cooking method. For these attributes, meat cooked conventionally was superior. In contrast, patterns in significant differences in tenderness and juiciness of beef and of pork were not consistent and were not related solely to method of cookery. Neither creatine nor creatinine was a good index of flavor of meat cooked by these methods. Aside from the time-saving aspect of microwave heating, there was no major advantage of one method of cooking over another. Thus, either high- or low- powered microwave equipment, operated at 2450 MHz, can be used satisfactorily for cooking tender cuts of beef, pork, and lamb.

  12. Study on innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guang; Guo Anxi; Xu Zhaomei

    1992-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co gamma rays on pork Trichinella spiralis and nutritional hygiene evaluation of irradiated Trichinella spiralis pork were studied by using animal infestation test and artificial gastric juice digestion method. The results showed that when mouse was infested by Trichinella spiralis pork irradiated with a dose of 0.04 kGy, the number of the second generation larvae and the parasitism in the muscle were reduced. 0.08 kGy irradiation could render the intestine Trichinella spiralis sterile. 0.1 kGy blocked the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted from the body four days after infestation. 0.2-0.8 kGy irradiation could severely block the growth of Trichinella spiralis, which were excreted completely from the body within forth-eight hours when irradiated with 7 kGy and 8 kGy, the Trichinella spiralis body was not found in the intestine within twenty-four hours. 0.3 kGy and 1 kGy irradiation had no harmful effect on nutrition and wholesomeness of Trichinella spiralis pork. Innocent irradiation treatment of Trichinella spiralis pork is practicable, and the lowest dose should be 0.3 kGy

  13. Herbal Extracts for Ensuring Pork Meat Quality during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grāmatiņa Ilze

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation and microbial spoilage have a negative effect on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Herbs contain biologically active compounds, like phenols with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. Phenols can be used as substitutes for commercial antioxidants to prevent lipid oxidation, thus maintaining the colour and flavour of the product. The aim of the study was to investigate the the potential use of herbal extracts in ethanol/water application for the maintenance of pork meat quality during storage. Four herbs growing in Latvia — nettle (Urtica dioica L., lovage (Levisticum officinale L., oregano (Origanum vulgare, and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana L. were chosen for the study. An optimal ethanol concentration for the extraction of the phenolic compounds was obtained with ethanol 50%/water 50% concentration (v/v. Prepared herbal extracts were added to chilled pork to determine the quality of the pork during storage. Changes in meat quality and its sensory properties for chilled pork without extracts appeared on day 18 of storage. Negative changes in sensory properties of meat samples with nettle extract were observed on day 22 of storage, and with lovage, oregano, and horseradish extracts on day 32. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 were observed for microbiological indices between pork samples with herbal extracts and the control sample.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  15. Fontes protéicas e energéticas com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais para vacas em lactação = Protein (raw or rosted soybeans and energy (coursely ground or steamflaked corn sources with varying ruminal degradabilities for lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éberson de Castilho Barnabé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a combinação de fontes de energia e proteína com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas multíparas (23 kg leite dia-1 em Quadrado Latino 4 x 4 com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: duas fontes de proteína (soja crua ou tostada e duas de energia (milho moído, grosso oufloculado. O tratamento com milho moído grosso e soja tostada resultou em maior consumo de matéria seca (p 0,05 o desempenho lactacional. A tostagem da soja e a floculação do milho diminuíram (p The objective of this trial was the evaluation of ruminal degradation synchrony of protein and energy sources. Four Holstein cows (23 kg day-1 were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design and 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: two protein (raw vs. roasted soybeans with two energy sources (coarsely ground vs. steam-flaked corn. Dry matter intake was higher for cows fed coarsely ground corn with roasted soybean (p 0.05. Rumen pH was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. Both roasted soybeans and flaking of corn decreased rumen ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01. Animal fed steamflaked corn tended showed higher total VFA molar concentrations (p = 0.10, but there were no treatments effect on ruminal pH. A higher (p = 0.06 ruminal starch digestibility was observed for raw soybean treatment.

  16. Elicitation of expert knowledge on controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, v.d. M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important risks for food safety, and pork is one of the sources of human salmonellosis. A chain approach is essential to reduce Salmonella in pork products. A survey was carried out among Dutch and Danish experts in the field of Salmonella to evaluate the entire pork

  17. An assessment of chain management practice within the industrial pork value chain: Beijing Ciity, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzhao, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research assesses the value chain and quality control of the pork industry in Beijing municipality of China. Through interviewing all the actors of pork industrial value chain in Beijing, the roles functions and problems of each of the actor of the pork industrial value chain of Beijing were

  18. European pork chains : diversity and quality challenges in consumer-oriented production and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Brinkmann, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this book the results are presented of a comprehensive inventory of pork chains that has been conducted through expert interviews and in-depth case studies. The main focus of the book is on how well diverse and fragmented supply in the European pork sector matches differentiating demands for pork

  19. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cured Meats, Unsmoked and..., or from a single piece of meat from a pork shoulder. They are prepared in accordance with paragraph...Dry Cured Ham,â âCountry Pork Shoulder,â âCountry Style Pork Shoulder,â and âDry Cured Pork Shoulder.â...

  1. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  2. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  3. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  4. Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A

    2012-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment...... and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values...... prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain...

  5. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella in retail raw ground beef using the DuPont™ BAX® system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilenko, Jamie L; Fratamico, Pina M; Sommers, Christopher; DeMarco, Daniel R; Varkey, Stephen; Rhoden, Kyle; Tice, George

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella are food-borne pathogens commonly associated with beef, and reliable methods are needed to determine their prevalence in beef and to ensure food safety. Retail ground beef was tested for the presence of E. coli O157:H7, STEC serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, and Salmonella using the DuPont™ BAX® system method. Ground beef (325 g) samples were enriched in 1.5 L of TSB with 2 mg/L novobiocin at 42°C for 18 h, and then evaluated using the BAX® System real-time PCR assays for E. coli O157:H7 and STEC suite, and the BAX® System standard PCR assays for E. coli O157:H7 MP and Salmonella. Samples positive for STEC target genes by the BAX® System assays were subjected to immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and plating onto modified Rainbow Agar O157. Enrichments that were PCR positive for Salmonella were inoculated into RV broth, incubated for 18 h at 42°C, and then plated onto XLT-4 agar. Presumptive positive STEC and Salmonella colonies were confirmed using the BAX® System assays. Results of the BAX® System STEC assays showed 20/308 (6.5%) of samples positive for both the Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) genes; 4 (1.3%) for stx, eae, and O26; 1 (0.3%) for stx, eae, and O45; 3 (1%) for stx, eae, and O103; and 1 (0.3%) for stx, eae, and O145. There were also 3 samples positive for stx, eae, and more than one STEC serogroup. Three (1.0%) of the samples were positive using the BAX® System real-time E. coli O157:H7 assay, and 28 (9.1%) were positive using the BAX® System Salmonella assay. STEC O103 and E. coli O157:H7 were isolated from 2/6 and 2/3 PCR positive samples, respectively. Salmonella isolates were recovered and confirmed from 27 of the 28 Salmonella PCR positive samples, and a portion of the isolates were serotyped and antibiotic resistance profiles determined. Results demonstrate that the BAX® System assays are effective for detecting STEC and Salmonella in beef.

  6. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of salmonella spp. and listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The cross contamination model (Møller et al. 2012) was evaluated to investigate its capability of describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef of varying sizes (50 – 324 g) and numbers of pieces to be ground (10 – 100), in two...... processing. QMRA risk estimates and TTP both revealed that risk attribution from grinding was mainly influenced by sharpness of grinder knife > specific grinder > grinding temperature whereas the specific pathogen was of minor importance....

  7. Effect of meat appearance on consumer preferences for pork chops in Greece and Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortomaris, P; Arsenos, G; Georgiadis, M; Banos, G; Stamataris, C; Zygoyiannis, D

    2006-04-01

    The effect of meat appearance on consumers' preferences for pork chops was assessed using images manipulated for appearance characteristics. Data were collected from 412 consumers in Greece and Cyprus. Consumers were asked for their preference for pork chops from a book of computer-modified images and then completed a questionnaire of socio-demographic information, including eating and purchasing behaviour. Consumers under the age of 35 years showed preferences for dark red, lean pork, while consumers aged 35 years and older preferred either dark or light red pork. Gender appeared to be an important selection factor as men showed an increased preference for dark red pork while women preferred the light red. Consumers who stated that they like pork for its taste (91%) preferred either dark or light red pork chops while those who like pork for reasons other than taste preferred dark red, lean pork. Urban consumers preferred light red, fatty pork chops while the rural consumers preferred the dark red pork chops.

  8. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in 26 five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data...... included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience...... and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume...

  9. Which product characteristics are preferred by Chinese consumers when choosing pork? A conjoint analysis on perceived quality of selected pork attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu Q; Verkuil, Julia M; Reinbach, Helene C; Meinert, Lene

    2017-05-01

    Due to the economic growth achieved by China over the past 20 years, Chinese consumers have changed their purchasing behavior regarding meat. Instead of buying locally produced pork, they are increasingly willing to purchase imported pork. A conjoint analysis investigated how intrinsic pork attributes ( fat content and processing) and extrinsic pork attributes ( origin , price , and packaging ) relate to the perceived quality of pork and the choices made by Chinese consumers. A questionnaire distributed among a sample of Chinese consumers ( n  = 81) revealed that processing (fresh/frozen) is the most important determinant of pork choice (36%), followed by fat content (27%), origin (18%), price (12%), and packaging (6.6%). Estimates of utility showed that Chinese consumers value fresh pork highly (0.147), followed by lean pork (0.111) and pork imported from countries other than China (0.073). The findings indicate that Chinese consumer's value both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes, and these results may help the meat industry improve China's competitive meat market by developing new and more products that are tailored to the needs of the consumer.

  10. Short-term feeding strategies and pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Buren, van R.G.C.; Savenije, B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ducro, B.J.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Hemke, G.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were done to determine whether short-term supplementation (5 days pre-slaughter) with magnesium acetate, or a combination of magnesium acetate, tryptophan, vitamin E and vitamin C would improve pork quality. In the first experiment the pigs (Pietrain x Yorkshire, n = 96) were fed a

  11. Predicting aged pork quality using a portable raman device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: A need exists for a better on-line evaluation method for pork quality. Raman spectroscopy evaluates structure and composition of food samples, with advantage of being portable, non-invasive and insensitive to water. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between Ra...

  12. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  13. International preferences for pork appearance: I. Consumer choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    Using the same digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in fat cover, colour, marbling and drip, 12,590 consumers from 23 countries each selected their preferred chop. Preferences differed considerably between individuals, between groups and between countries when comparing

  14. Economic modelling of pork production-marketing chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of economic simulation and optimization computer models to support decision making with respect to pork production- marketing chains. The models include three production stages: pig farrowing, pig fattening and pig slaughtering

  15. Juhid otsustavad saatuste üle / Mare Pork

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pork, Mare

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Spekter, nr. 1, 2002, lk. 25-26. Psühholoogiaprofessor ja juhtimiskonsultant Mare Pork sellest, et tunded mõjutavad juhte rohkem, kui nad seda tajuvad ning, et juhid mõjutavad omakorda inimsaatusi. Erinevatest meetoditest juhtide hindamiseks, 360o tagasiside meetod

  16. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  17. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked Sausage...

  18. Quantification of salt concentrations in cured pork by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Eight pork loin samples were mounted in Plexiglas cylinders and cured for five days. Samples were scanned by computed tomography (CT) once every 24 h. At the end of the experiment, the cylinders were cut in 1 cm sections and analyzed for chloride. From image analysis of the CT images, concentration...

  19. Microbiota analysis to reveal temperature abuse of fresh pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschhardt, Tasja; Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    whether temperature induced changes in the community composition on fresh meat surfaces can reflect the temperature-history (combination of time and temperature). Sterile pieces of pork were inoculated with a carcass swab homogenate, to which Salmonella was added. Changes in the meat microbiota were...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of controlling Salmonella in the pork chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.A.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Backus, G.B.C.; Beek, van P.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Pork is one of the sources of food-borne salmonellosis in humans. In this paper, the cost-effectiveness of different control scenarios against Salmonella in the stages finishing, transport, lairage and slaughtering is explored. A stochastic simulation model was used for the epidemiological analysis

  1. PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE COMPONENT PRICING SYSTEMS FOR PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsen, B. Wade; Akridge, Jay T.; Boland, Michael A.; Mauney, Sean; Forrest, John C.

    1998-01-01

    One method of implementing value-based marketing is a component pricing system. This research develops and evaluates alternative component pricing systems for pork. Two electronic technologies for estimating carcass components (optical probe and electromagnetic scanner) were evaluated on two sets of data representing different populations. Model accuracy increased as additional components were added.

  2. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC determined...... by centrifugation revealed that T(2) relaxation times were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in WBC for both non-pressure and pressure-treated sausages. However, only 49% of the variation was explained for pressure-treated sausages with carrot fibre, indicating that combining addition of fibre and high...

  4. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  5. Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwedere, Kudakwashe; Dang, Huu Anh; Mills, Edward W; Cutter, Catherine N; Roberts, Elisabeth L; DeBroy, Chitrita

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the incidence of contamination by the top 7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O-groups, responsible for the majority of E. coli infections in human beings, in retail meat from different animal species. Samples from ground beef (n = 51), ground pork (n = 16), ground chicken (n = 16), and game meat (deer, wild boar, bison, and rabbit; n = 55) were collected from retail vendors for the detection of 7 STEC O-groups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157). Meat samples were tested by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the wzx gene of O antigen gene clusters of the 7 STEC O-groups. The positive samples were further tested for Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2). Out of a total of 83 ground beef, pork, and chicken samples, 17 (20%) carried O121, 9 (10%) carried O45, 8 (9%) carried O157, 3 (3%) carried O103, and 1 (1%) carried O145. None of the samples were positive for O26, O111, or the stx gene. All 3 white-tailed deer samples (100%) were positive for O45, O103, or both, 2 (10%) out of 20 red deer samples exhibited the presence of O103, and all 3 bison samples were contaminated with either O121, O145, or O157. One sample from ground deer, contaminated with E. coli O45, carried the stx1 gene. This preliminary investigation illustrates the importance of microbiological testing of pathogens in meat products, as well as the recognized need for increased surveillance and research on foodborne pathogens.

  6. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  7. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  8. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I - Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zając, Violetta; Wasiński, Bernard; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Kloc, Anna; Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina

    2017-12-23

    . A different epidemiologic situation occurs in the Southeast Asian countries where most people become infected by habitual consumption of raw or undercooked pork, blood and offal products in the form of traditional dishes. Prevention of S. suis infections in pigs includes vaccination, improvement in pig-raising conditions, disinfection and/or fumigation of animal houses, and isolation of sick animals at the outbreak of disease. Prevention of human infections comprises: protection of skin from pig bite or injury with sharp tools by people occupationally exposed to pigs and pig products, prompt disinfection and dressing of wounds and abrasions at work, protection of the respiratory tract by wearing appropriate masks or repirators, consulting a doctor in the case of febrile illness after exposure to pigs or pork meat, avoidance of occupations associated with exposure to pigs and pork by immunocompomised people, avoidance of consumption of raw pork or pig blood, adequate cooking of pork, and health education.

  9. Streptococcus suis: a re-emerging pathogen associated with occupational exposure to pigs or pork products. Part I – Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2017-12-01

    hands and/or arms, or by pig bite. A different epidemiologic situation occurs in the Southeast Asian countries where most people become infected by habitual consumption of raw or undercooked pork, blood and offal products in the form of traditional dishes. Prevention of S. suis infections in pigs includes vaccination, improvement in pig-raising conditions, disinfection and/or fumigation of animal houses, and isolation of sick animals at the outbreak of disease. Prevention of human infections comprises: protection of skin from pig bite or injury with sharp tools by people occupationally exposed to pigs and pig products, prompt disinfection and dressing of wounds and abrasions at work, protection of the respiratory tract by wearing appropriate masks or repirators, consulting a doctor in the case of febrile illness after exposure to pigs or pork meat, avoidance of occupations associated with exposure to pigs and pork by immunocompomised people, avoidance of consumption of raw pork or pig blood, adequate cooking of pork, and health education.

  10. Raw Materials Market of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of raw materials is becoming an important concern for the Chinese economy as it continues to grow. This deficit is amended with imports, which – in their own turn – are limited by the high level of global prices. The build-up issue of raw materials imports is going to solve by the measures of monetary policy (RMB’s revaluation against the USD. Analysis of China’s market of raw materials reveals that the largest increase in the physical volume of imports is concentrated in crude oil, LNG, iron ore and coal. As for Russia, its supplies and share in total Chinese imports of raw materials tend to increase. Author employs regression equations based on international statistics data to show that RMB’s revaluation, ceteris paribus, increases physical volumes of raw materials imports. However, the main factor of coal and LNG imports growth is energy consumption by Chinese heavy industry; imports of oil products – producers’ prices; meanwhile imports of steel products tend to decrease with the growth of steel exports. RMB’s revaluation increases physical volumes of imports of low value added raw materials from Russia (coal, crude oil, iron ore

  11. IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data (IPUTG0) data set contains GPS readings, including latitude, longitude, track, ground speed, off distance,...

  12. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Piotr; Grześkowiak, Eugenia; Lisiak, Dariusz; Borys, Bronisław; Borzuta, Karol; Pospiech, Edward; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out on 32 crossbred pigs of Polish Large White × Danish Landrace with Duroc and 80 rams, crossbreds of the Prolific-Dairy Koludzka Sheep with the Ile de France, a meat sheep. The fodder for the animals was enriched with the unsaturated fatty acids originated mainly from linseed and rapeseed oils. The fatty acid profile was determined in cooked longissimus lumborum, roasted triceps brachii and raw ripened rump from pigs as well as in grilled lambs' legs and their corresponding raw materials. Roasting caused the most pronounced increase of the saturated fatty acids and decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of heated pork muscles. The smallest changes were observed in grilled lamb legs. The heating processes applied in this study, in most cases, did not cause essential changes in the indices of pro-health properties of fatty acid, therefore meat in the majority fulfil the latest recommendations of EFSA and FAO/WHO according to human health.

  13. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (Pemulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Free-range pork: Innovation and control of a new credence good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kristian; Andersen, Esben Sloth

    -range pork should be analysed as a "credence good". In this way a whole set of problems related to production and sale of this kind of pork becomes clear. 2. The problem of evaluating a credence good is intensified in the case of free-range pork, because the responsibility for the credence quality is divided...... among a large number of parties, and the fact that there is no common "standard" or "definition" of what is meant by free-range pork. Thi aggravates the control aspect of free-range pork. This report focuses on this point. 3. The study's empirical basis is three cases, one Dutch and two Danish, about...... withdrawn from the Danish free-range pork market. 8. The Dutch system with an independent control organisation may be a paradigm or a standard for establishing an inspection system for credence goods. The Dutch system, therefore, seems to be more advanced than the other control systems with regard...

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on the colour and activity of lactate dehydrogenase of pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Salplachta, J.; Grolichova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The most significant sensory and quality characteristic of meat is colour. The effect of irradiation of pork was studied in relation to color changes. Samples of M. longissimus lumborum et thoracic were obtained from the pork carcasses 24 h post mortem. Samples were irradiated using a 60 Co source, at dose of 2.5 and 5 kGy; dose rate of 2.86 kGy/h. Unirradiated controls were stored in the same condition as irradiated samples. Measurement of colour was realised with portable spectrophotometer Superchroma S-Spex in CIELAB system. The colour of a freshly cut interior surface of control and irradiated pork was measured before and after irradiation. L * and b * values of controls and irradiated pork did not change after irradiation. The a * values (red colour) of irradiated pork were significantly higher than unirradiated. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase of pork was measured after irradiation. The activity did not change after irradiation. (authors)

  16. To eat or not to eat pork, how frequently and how varied?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Grunert, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    This study uses pork consumption frequency and variety to identify and profile European pork consumer segments. Data (n=1,931) were collected in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. "Non-pork eaters" are profiled as predominantly younger (... of living single and being underweight (BMIprofile as the non-pork eaters, though it is a largely non-Polish and non-German segment. The "High variety, High frequency" segment (18.......6%) consists mainly of rural, lower educated and overweight or obese (BMI>30kg/m²) males. The segment "High variety, Medium frequency" (50.1%) includes families and other non-single households, with a profile that matches the overall sample. Their pork consumption is balanced over a wide range of pork cuts...

  17. The use of risk assessment to support control of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Despite the effectivity of control measures in the past decade, domestic pork was estimated to be the most important food source for salmonellosis in Denmark in 2014 (Anonymous 2015). Therefore, there is a continued focus on the identification of effective intervention measures in the pig and pork...... of salmonellosis for the Danish population. The results of these projects illustrate how quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) can be applied to support the control of Salmonella in pork....

  18. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving...... consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital....

  19. Relating consumer perceptions of pork quality to physical product characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Fertin, Claus

    , or vice versa. 7. Since consumers obviously lack competence in judging the quality of meat when choosing among different kinds of meat in a purchase situation, marketers of pork are faced with a serious problem. One way of dealing with this problem, in cases where quality experience exceeds expectations......1. Consumers form expectations about the quality of meat at the point of purchase based on the quality cues that are available to them in the shop. These expectations can either be confirmed or disconfirmed during consumption, depending on how cap the consumers actually are of predicting...... the quality that they will perceived when preparing and consuming the meat. 2. The study uses the Total Food Quality Model as a frame of reference to investigate how consumers' quality expectations and quality experience with regard to pork are formed, how they are interrelated, and how both of them...

  20. Analysis of terahertz dielectric properties of pork tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Xie, Qiaoling; Sun, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Seeing that about 70% component of fresh biological tissues is water, many scientists try to use water models to describe the dielectric properties of biological tissues. The classical water dielectric models are Debye model, Double Debye model and Cole-Cole model. This work aims to determine a suitable model by comparing three models above with experimental data. These models are applied to fresh pork tissue. By means of least square method, the parameters of different models are fitted with the experimental data. Comparing different models on both dielectric function, the Cole-Cole model is verified the best to describe the experiments of pork tissue. The correction factor α of the Cole-Cole model is an important modification for biological tissues. So Cole-Cole model is supposed to be a priority selection to describe the dielectric properties for biological tissues in the terahertz range.

  1. Pork: why we should not give it up completely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szamocka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly thought that cases of life shorter than the life expectancy for Poles, mainly due to atherosclerosis and certain malignancies, are caused by, among other factors, consumption of large quantities of meat, especially pork. However, essential statistical data do not confirm this hypothesis, as an average Pole eats 41,1 kg pork per year, compared to 66.1 kg eaten by Spaniards, 64.2 kg by Danes, 59.9 kg by Austrians, 53.3 kg by Germans, while the average life expectancy for female and male Poles is 80.1 years and 71.5 years, respectively, and that for female and male Western Europeans is 82,2 years and 75 years, respectively. Meat is a necessary component of human diet because of its unique chemical composition, nutritional value and content of complete protein with favorable proportions of amino acids. Pork, whose nutritional value and pro-health properties have improved over the last 20 years, has a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SAFA and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to beef. Compared to poultry meat, pork has a significantly better proportion of essential unsaturated fatty acids (EUFA, omega-3 (PUFA n-3 to omega-6 (PUFA n-6, whose excess is typical for the so-called “Western” diet. Cholesterol content is fairly similar in all parts of pork carcass, and it is much smaller than even 20 years ago. In comparison with other meat types, pork is characterized by 4–5 times higher content of vitamin B1. Pork is also characterized by a high content of readily available iron, a very often inadequately supplied mineral in humans. It is present in the quantity of 0.014 g/kg, which is higher than in poultry meat (0.009 g/kg but lower than in beef (0.026 g/kg. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC updated its classification of carcinogenic agents. Red meat and processed meat were classified by IARC to group 2.A: substances probably carcinogenic to humans

  2. BRRISON GROUND CALIBRATION - BIRC RAW DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a saved data archive of the Balloon Rapid Response for Comet ISON (BRRISON) mission. This mission was performed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied...

  3. Assessing impacts of organic production on pork and beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Organic livestock farming is based on a low input production method, aiming to provide products of a high product and process quality rather than maximizing production. The production of a high meat quality corresponds to the expectations of consumers who are both seeking a premium product and who are willing to pay premium prices. This review focuses on the question of whether organic pork and beef production currently meet consumer demands, and it elaborates the potentials and limitations f...

  4. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  5. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  7. Effect of low dose irradiation of pork loins on the microflora, sensory characteristics and fat stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, M.L.; Kraft, A.A.; Olson, D.G.; Walker, H.W.; Rust, R.E.; James, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packaged pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4 0 C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values

  8. Governance Structure Choices in Supply Chain Management Evidence from Spanish and Chinese Pork Chain Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The author participated in the 6 th EU Framework Project ―Q-pork Chains (FP6-036245-2)‖ from 2007 to 2009. With understanding of work reports from China and other countries, it is found that compared with other countries, China has great problems in pork quality and safety. By comparing the pork chain management between China and Spain, It is found that the difference in governance structure is one of the main differences in pork chain management between Spain and China. In China, spot-...

  9. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at −45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at −55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples. PMID:26761493

  10. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  11. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  12. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  13. Procedural Priorities of the Pork Loin Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dhein Dill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pork meat production industry is facing new challenges as a consequence of consumers’ expectations regarding the quality and safety of food products. For the present study, experts and consumers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were interviewed to identify the attributes of pork loin that need to be improved. Consumers have particular concerns about the juiciness, fibrousness, and portion size of the meat, the diversity of cuts and safety and animal welfare. The supply chain was also analyzed in order to verify the procedural priorities that need to be improved in order to meet the demands of consumers. Experts were interviewed using the quality function deployment methodology. The findings of the study indicate that, improvements must be made in the production sector in terms of animal handling and transportation. In the processing sector, improvements are required regarding slaughter control of PSE and DFD, the development of new packaging, and product fractionation. The requirements in the distribution sector relate to information campaigns for consumers to diffuse the nutritional characteristics of pork loin and in the product safety through sanitary inspection.

  14. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model for the production of Thai fermented pork sausage (Nham).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukatong, K V; Kunawasen, S

    2001-01-01

    Nham is a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage. The major ingredients of Nham are ground pork meat and shredded pork rind. Nham has been reported to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is a potential cause of foodborne diseases for consumers. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model has been developed for the Nham process. Nham processing plants were observed and a generic flow diagram of Nham processes was constructed. Hazard analysis was then conducted. Other than microbial hazards, the pathogens previously found in Nham, sodium nitrite and metal were identified as chemical and physical hazards in this product, respectively. Four steps in the Nham process have been identified as critical control points. These steps are the weighing of the nitrite compound, stuffing, fermentation, and labeling. The chemical hazard of nitrite must be controlled during the weighing step. The critical limit of nitrite levels in the Nham mixture has been set at 100-200 ppm. This level is high enough to control Clostridium botulinum but does not cause chemical hazards to the consumer. The physical hazard from metal clips could be prevented by visual inspection of every Nham product during stuffing. The microbiological hazard in Nham could be reduced in the fermentation process. The critical limit of the pH of Nham was set at lower than 4.6. Since this product is not cooked during processing, finally, educating the consumer, by providing information on the label such as "safe if cooked before consumption", could be an alternative way to prevent the microbiological hazards of this product.

  15. Comparision of the BAX® System with an in-house MSRV method for the detection of Salmonella in chicken carcasses and pork meat Comparação do Sitema BAX® com o Método MSRV para detecção de Salmonella em carcaças de frango e carnes suínas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Franchin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to compare the analytical procedure of the BAX® System for Salmonella PCR assay with the Modified Semi-Solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV method, for the detection of Salmonella in naturally contaminated chicken carcass samples (n = 762 and raw pork meat (n = 566. The chicken carcasses samples were collected during slaughtering after defeathering or immediately after evisceration and the raw pork meat collected from the deboned head of recently slaughtered pigs and others deboned raw fresh pork meat. The BAX® System detected 134 Salmonella-positive samples in chicken carcasses and 145 samples in pork meat, while the MSRV method isolated 142 and 144 Salmonella-positive samples, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two methods for chicken carcasses and pork meat, according to McNemar test at the 5% level.Um estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o procedimento analítico de detecção de Salmonella com o Sistema BAX® automatizado, baseado na Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR com o método de Rappaport-Vassiliadis em Agar Semi-Sólido modificado (MSRV para detecção de Salmonella em amostras de carcaças de frango naturalmente contaminadas (n=762 e retalhos de carne suía (n=566. O Sistema BAX® detectou 134 amostras positivas para Salmonella em carcaças de frango e 145 amostras positivas para Salmonella em retalhos de carne suína, enquanto o MSRV detectou 142 e 144 amostras positivas respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos, segundo McNemar ao nível de significância de 5%.

  16. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed...

  17. Lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures in fermented pork meat to prevent Clostridium spp. growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Diana; Mazzola, Giuseppe; Nikodinoska, Ivana; Aloisio, Irene; Langerholc, Tomaz; Rossi, Maddalena; Raimondi, Stefano; Melero, Beatriz; Rovira, Jordi

    2016-10-17

    In meat fermented foods, Clostridium spp. growth is kept under control by the addition of nitrite. The growing request of consumers for safer products has led to consider alternative bio-based approaches, the use of protective cultures being one of them. This work is aimed at checking the possibility of using two Lactobacillus spp. strains as protective cultures against Clostridium spp. in pork ground meat for fermented salami preparation. Both Lactobacillus strains displayed anti-clostridia activity in vitro using the spot agar test and after co-culturing them in liquid medium with each Clostridium strain. Only one of them, however, namely L. plantarum PCS20, was capable of effectively surviving in ground meat and of performing anti-microbial activity in carnis in a challenge test where meat was inoculated with the Clostridium strain. Therefore, this work pointed out that protective cultures can be a feasible approach for nitrite reduction in fermented meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice ( L. Var. Glutinosa on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchai Jaturasitha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted.

  19. Topical papers on raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the papers of this working group, the availability of uranium and the long-term supply situation for this raw material are discussed. A problem closely connected with uranium supply are the commercial contracts and their particularities. The points of view of the reporting countries of Great Britain, South Africa, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, and Korea are made clear

  20. Studies on emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages incorporating skeletal and offal meat with different levels of pork fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K R; Sharma, N

    1990-01-01

    Ready-to-eat emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages were developed by using a combination of 80% meat components with 20% pork back fat. The meat components were constituted of 70 parts buffalo skeletal meat and 30 parts offal meat (rumen meat and heart meat in equal proportions). The emulsion stability, cooking losses of emulsions and sausages, composition of cooked sausages, eating quality of sausages and the microscopic characteristics of the raw emulsion and cooked sausages were studied. The light microscope micrograph of the raw emulsion showed uniformly well distributed fat globules embedded in a dense protein gel. The cooked emulsion also showed uniformly sized fat globules well distributed in a fine, compact, coagulated protein gel, which retained their original spherical shape. Good quality emulsion-type sausages could be produced having a high emulsion stability (0·87 ± 0·07 ml fat release/100 g emulsion); a low emulsion cooking loss (9·60 ± 0·60%) and a low sausage cooking loss (8·83 ± 0·48%). The overall acceptability of sausages was also high. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 76 FR 45769 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pork and Poultry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pork and Poultry Products From... regulations for pork and poultry products from Mexico transiting the United States. DATES: We will consider... information on pork and poultry products from Mexico transiting the United States, contact Dr. Lynette...

  2. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  3. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  4. Consumer demand and quality assurance: segmentation basis and implications for chain governance in the pork sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunert, K.G.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Wever, M.; Scholderer, J.; Veflen Olsen, N.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this may have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demands for different pork products. We then present an

  5. 78 FR 14909 - Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program; Section 610 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) review of the Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1230 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-07-0143] Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program; Section 610 Review AGENCY: Agricultural...

  6. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Veflen-Olsen, Nina; Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GLAMUR case-study report: The comparison of three Dutch pork cases (Tasks 3.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindië, H.A.; Horlings, L.G.; Broekhuizen, van R.E.; Hees, E.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the case study results of local-global pork chain performances in The Netherlands. As part of Work Package 3, this case study was carried out in cooperation with our Italian GLAMUR partner. The Dutch pork production sector came up after World War 2 and developed into a highly

  8. Prediction of pork loin quality using online computer vision system and artificial intelligence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng-Hung; Newman, David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images. Artificial intelligence prediction model (support vector machine) was established for pork color and marbling quality grades. The results showed that CVS with support vector machine modeling reached the highest prediction accuracy of 92.5% for measured pork color score and 75.0% for measured pork marbling score. This research shows that the proposed artificial intelligence prediction model with CVS can provide an effective tool for predicting color and marbling in the pork industry at online speeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A survey of Mexican retail chain stores for fresh U.S. pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Leidenz, N; Howard, S T; Ruíz Flores, A; Ngapo, T M; Belk, K E

    2016-09-01

    An overview of fresh US pork in the Mexican market was achieved by surveying fresh US pork packages (n=342) for sale in five Mexican cities. Data on cut, primal/sub-primal from which the cut was sourced, subcutaneous and seam fat thicknesses, marbling scores, and presence of bone were collated. The most prevalent identifiable retail cuts were milanesa (thin slice of pork, breaded or non-breaded) and trozos (diced pork) derived primarily from the leg and accounting for 68% of the total US pork on sale. Over 90% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat and the average marbling score was 2.26. Differences in distribution and fat measures were observed with chain, location and socio-economic status of clientele indicating potential for a targeted marketing approach in Mexico. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus and porcine enteric calicivirus at various stages of pork carcass processing in two pork processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-10-16

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process. A total of 1000 swabs were collected from 2 pork processing plants on 10 separate occasions over the span of a year. The samples were obtained from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 dressing stages (plant A: bleeding, dehairing, pasteurization, and evisceration; plant B: bleeding, skinning, evisceration, and washing) and from meat cuts. Numbers of genome copies (gc) of HEV, RV and PEC were determined by RT-qPCR. RV and PEC were detected in 100%, and 18% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant A and in 98%, and 36% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant B. After evisceration, RV and PEC were detected in 21% and 3% of samples, respectively, for plant A and in 1%, and 0% of samples, respectively for plant B. RV and PEC were detected on 1%, and 5% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant A and on 0%, and 0% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant B. HEV was not detected in any pork carcass or retail pork samples from plants A or B. The frequency of PEC and RV on pork is progressively reduced along the pork processing chain but the viruses were not completely eliminated. The findings suggest that consumers could be at risk when consuming undercooked meat contaminated with pathogenic enteric viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  12. Perceptions of pork and modern pig breeding among Danish consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2002-01-01

    This project report summarises the results of a focus group survey of Danish consumers. This survey was conducted by the MAPP Centre in connection with the project 'Sustainability in the production of pork with improved nutritional and eating quality using strategic feeding in outdoor production...... the Univeristy of Uppsala, the University of Bristol and INRA - INRA as the coordinator of this part of the project. The focus groups were held in Danish following a Danish interview guide, but the results are presented in English in this report for the benefit of the project participants and other interested...

  13. Artificial neural network model of pork meat cubes osmotic dehydration

    OpenAIRE

    Pezo, Lato L.; Ćurčić, Biljana Lj.; Filipović, Vladimir S.; Nićetin, Milica R.; Koprivica, Gordana B.; Mišljenović, Nevena M.; Lević, Ljubinko B.

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer of pork meat cubes (M. triceps brachii), shaped as 1x1x1 cm, during osmotic dehydration (OD) and under atmospheric pressure was investigated in this paper. The effects of different parameters, such as concentration of sugar beet molasses (60-80%, w/w), temperature (20-50ºC), and immersion time (1-5 h) in terms of water loss (WL), solid gain (SG), final dry matter content (DM), and water activity (aw), were investigated using experimental results. Five artificial neural net...

  14. Inactivation of pathogens on pork by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K; Christiansen, Pia; Sørensen, Anders Morten Hay

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate a new pathogen inactivation concept that combines application of pressurized steam simultaneously with high-power ultrasound through a series of nozzles. On skin and meat surfaces of pork jowl samples, counts of total viable bacteria were reduced by 1...... in reduction was observed between samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/cm(2) and those inoculated with 10(7) CFU/cm(2), and cold storage of samples for 24 h at 5°C after steam-ultrasound treatment did not lead to changes in recovery of bacteria....

  15. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Ondřej Bučko; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, f...

  16. Fluoroquinolone residues in raw meat from open markets in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunbi Bridget Omotoso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Misuse of fluoroquinolones in livestock production may lead to the presence of their residues in tissues of meat animals after slaughter, constituting health hazards to consumers. The present study was designed to screen for residues of three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in raw meat. Microbiological assay, followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to screen three hundred and twenty samples of beef, chicken, pork and chevon purchased from open markets. Initial screening by microbiological assay revealed that 50%, 55%, 40% and 40% of beef, chicken, pork and chevon, respectively were positive for residues of antibiotics. Further analysis by HPLC with UV detection revealed the presence of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin at varying concentrations in the meat samples. Ofloxacin was the least in frequency and abundance in all meat types. Results obtained in this study have implications for public health and will lead to steps that will further enhance the safety of animal foods in order to protect consumers and the animal production industry

  17. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  18. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  19. Superbugs in the supermarket? Assessing the rate of contamination with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative bacteria in fresh Australian pork and chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Jade E; Pitcher, Joshua I; Ballard, Susan A; Grabsch, Elizabeth A; Bell, Jan M; Barton, Mary; Grayson, M Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotic misuse in food-producing animals is potentially associated with human acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR; resistance to ≥ 3 drug classes) bacteria via the food chain. We aimed to determine if MDR Gram-negative (GNB) organisms are present in fresh Australian chicken and pork products. We sampled raw, chicken drumsticks (CD) and pork ribs (PR) from 30 local supermarkets/butchers across Melbourne on two occasions. Specimens were sub-cultured onto selective media for third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCR) GNBs, with species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determined for all unique colonies. Isolates were assessed by PCR for SHV, TEM, CTX-M, AmpC and carbapenemase genes (encoding IMP, VIM, KPC, OXA-48, NDM). From 120 specimens (60 CD, 60 PR), 112 (93%) grew a 3GCR-GNB ( n  = 164 isolates; 86 CD, 78 PR); common species were Acinetobacter baumannii (37%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%) and Serratia fonticola (12%), but only one E. coli isolate. Fifty-nine (36%) had evidence of 3GCR alone, 93/163 (57%) displayed 3GCR plus resistance to one additional antibiotic class, and 9/163 (6%) were 3GCR plus resistance to two additional classes. Of 158 DNA specimens, all were negative for ESBL/carbapenemase genes, except 23 (15%) which were positive for AmpC, with 22/23 considered to be inherently chromosomal, but the sole E. coli isolate contained a plasmid-mediated CMY-2 AmpC. We found low rates of MDR-GNBs in Australian chicken and pork meat, but potential 3GCR-GNBs are common (93% specimens). Testing programs that only assess for E. coli are likely to severely underestimate the diversity of 3GCR organisms in fresh meat.

  20. Fontes protéicas e energéticas com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais para vacas em lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.238 Protein (raw or rosted soybeans and energy (coursely ground or steamflaked corn sources with varying ruminal degradabilities for lactating cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.238

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Imaizumi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a combinação de fontes de energia e proteína com diferentes degradabilidades ruminais. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas multíparas (23 kg leite dia-1 em Quadrado Latino 4 x 4 com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2: duas fontes de proteína (soja crua ou tostada e duas de energia (milho moído, grosso ou floculado. O tratamento com milho moído grosso e soja tostada resultou em maior consumo de matéria seca (p 0,05 o desempenho lactacional. A tostagem da soja e a floculação do milho diminuíram (p The objective of this trial was the evaluation of ruminal degradation synchrony of protein and energy sources. Four Holstein cows (23 kg day-1 were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design and 2 x 2 factorial arrangement: two protein (raw vs. roasted soybeans with two energy sources (coarsely ground vs. steam-flaked corn. Dry matter intake was higher for cows fed coarsely ground corn with roasted soybean (p 0.05. Rumen pH was not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. Both roasted soybeans and flaking of corn decreased rumen ammonia nitrogen (p < 0.01. Animal fed steamflaked corn tended showed higher total VFA molar concentrations (p = 0.10, but there were no treatments effect on ruminal pH. A higher (p = 0.06 ruminal starch digestibility was observed for raw soybean treatment.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  2. Mexican consumers at the point of meat purchase. Pork choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Rubio Lozano, M S; Braña Varela, D

    2018-01-01

    Use of within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed that consumers in four cities across Mexico had similar strategies for pork choice. New surveying tools also determined preferred levels of the characteristics used in the decision-making process. The most important choice criteria were colour (31% chose dark and 21% light red), and fat cover (42% chose lean and 8% fatty). Marbling and drip were less used, but are nevertheless important given that 21% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. Split colour and marbling preferences and a range of acceptable limits for both, and a preference for the leanest fat cover available were observed. Preferences within the normal range of pork colour, fat cover achieved through trimming and drip countered by an absorbent pad all favour industry practice. Unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Mexican consumers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificial neural network model of pork meat cubes osmotic dehydratation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Lato L.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer of pork meat cubes (M. triceps brachii, shaped as 1x1x1 cm, during osmotic dehydration (OD and under atmospheric pressure was investigated in this paper. The effects of different parameters, such as concentration of sugar beet molasses (60-80%, w/w, temperature (20-50ºC, and immersion time (1-5 h in terms of water loss (WL, solid gain (SG, final dry matter content (DM, and water activity (aw, were investigated using experimental results. Five artificial neural network (ANN models were developed for the prediction of WL, SG, DM, and aw in OD of pork meat cubes. These models were able to predict process outputs with coefficient of determination, r2, of 0.990 for SG, 0.985 for WL, 0.986 for aw, and 0.992 for DM compared to experimental measurements. The wide range of processing variables considered for the formulation of these models, and their easy implementation in a spreadsheet calculus make it very useful and practical for process design and control.

  4. Differences in quality characteristics of normal, PSE and DFD pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P G; Bolink, A H; Merkus, G S

    1988-01-01

    Differences in water-holding capacity, colour and tenderness/toughness were studied in 21 pork loins belonging to three quality categories, i.e. dark firm dry (DFD), normal and pale soft exudative (PSE). The division into the three groups was based upon the ultimate pH-values of the loins ( 6·4). The PSE loins were characterized by a poor waterholding capacity, higher cooking loss and paler colour in contrast to the DFD category. The normal loins took an intermediate position. Neither sarcomere length, determined on fresh muscle tissue, nor Armour tenderometer values showed significant differences between the various quality categories. This was in contrast to the Warner-Bratzler (W-B) shear force values, determined on cooked loins, which had the lowest values in the DFD category. A strong relationship between the W-B values and the cooking losses was found. It was concluded that neither sarcomere length nor Armour tenderometer measurements were able to predict the shear force values of cooked pork loins. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivinski, Jacek S.

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984.

  6. Efficacy testing and market research for the pork industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Low dose (less than 30 krad) gamma irradiation of Trichinella spiralis infected pork renders the parasites sexually sterile and blocks maturation of the ingested larvae in the host gut. Irradiation of freshly slaughtered, market weight hog carcasses indicate that larvae throughout the carcass have essentially identical sensitivities to radiation. The research data indicate that 30 krad of 0.66 MeV gammas can be delivered to market weight, split carcasses with acceptable uniformity, and that such a dose can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of even heavily infected meat. Feasibility studies of pork irradiation in commercial operations have shown the process to be technically, economically, and financially feasible. Treatment during the first four years of operation in a 2,000 hog per day plant will cost about 0.0034 dollars per pound and 0.0011 dollars per pound thereafter. Social and political feasibility are addressed in a 1,000-family consumer survey completed in the first quarter of 1984. (author)

  7. Thermograms of the combined High Hydrostatic Pressure and Sous-vide treated Longissimus dorsi of pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenesei, Gy; Jónás, G.; Salamon, B.; Dalmadi, I.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, slices of Longissimus dorsi of pork was used as raw material to establish the effects of the sous-vide technology and the high hydrostatic pressure treatments (and their combinations) on meat. The state of the proteins in meat has a very important effect on several quality parameters of the product, such as weight loss, water holding capacity, organoleptic properties. Therefore it is important to follow and analyse the denaturation of the protein content during food processing. The samples were cooked sous-vide (60 °C, 5-480 minutes) or pressurized (100-600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature). Also two steps treatments were studied combining both technologies, applying high hydrostatic pressure treatment (300 or 600 MPa, 5 minutes, room temperature) after or previous to sous-vide cooking (60 °C, 30 minutes). The changes in the condition of meat proteins were followed by a differential scanning calorimeter. The DSC curves were analysed using the unit’s own software where denaturation heat was determined. Thermograms show through the change of the sample’s protein state the dissimilar effect of the treatments. Using the Polar Qualification System -previously proved to be effective with NIR measurements- the spectral information was reduced to a two dimensional polar co-ordinate system where each DSC curve is represented by a “quality point”. As a new experiment the applied PQS data reduction method compared to the traditional thermal analysis data processing gave us less information on the differences of our samples although the results are promising as we were able to detect the same trends and characteristics.

  8. Evaluation of a cross contamination model describing transfer of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of pork and beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, C O A; Sant'Ana, A S; Hansen, S K H; Nauta, M J; Silva, L P; Alvarenga, V O; Maffei, D; Silva, F F P; Lopes, J T; Franco, B D G M; Aabo, S; Hansen, T B

    2016-06-02

    In a previous study, a model was developed to describe the transfer and survival of Salmonella during grinding of pork (Møller, C.O.A., Nauta, M.J., Christensen, B.B., Dalgaard, P., Hansen, T.B., 2012. Modelling transfer of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork. Journal of Applied Microbiology 112 (1), 90-98). The robustness of this model is now evaluated by studying its performance for predicting the transfer and survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes during grinding of different types of meat (pork and beef), using two different grinders, different sizes and different numbers of pieces of meats to be ground. A total of 19 grinding trials were collected. Acceptable Simulation Zone (ASZ), visual inspection of the data, Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA), as well as the Total Transfer Potential (TTP) were used as approaches to evaluate model performance and to access the quality of the cross contamination model predictions. Using the ASZ approach and considering that 70% of the observed counts have to be inside a defined acceptable zone of ±0.5 log10CFU per portion, it was found that the cross contamination parameters suggested by Møller et al. (2012) were not able to describe all 19 trials. However, for each of the collected grinding trials, the transfer event was well described when fitted to the model structure proposed by Møller et al. (2012). Parameter estimates obtained by fitting observed trials performed at different conditions, such as size and number of pieces of meat to be ground, may not be applied to describe cross contamination of unlike processing. Nevertheless, the risk estimates, as well as the TTP, revealed that the risk of disease may be reduced when the grinding of meat is performed in a grinder made of stainless steel (for all surfaces in contact with the meat), using a well-sharpened knife and holding at room temperatures lower than 4°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Characterization of the pork market in nine municipalities in the department of Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Constanza Beltrán Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pork market in the department of Boyacá is subject to fluctuations and instability, exposing it to the producer in unfavorable prices, ignorance of the quality of their product and low profitability. This research establishes the characteristics of the marketing pork systems in nine municipalities, to identify the aspects that contribute to improve the structure of formal marketing and to benefit the producer, sale points and final consumer. The potential for pork supply in volume and quality was determined, it was identified the marketing channels, we identified the motivators or inhibitors of pork purchase, his position in relation to the other meats, and the market potential, according to the existing marketing channels and it was established the requirements, in terms of presentation and pork price, in points of consumption. The statistical analysis was based on an analytical synthetic method, as it is based on the decomposition of the object of study, analyzing each and every one of the actors involved in the process. It was determined that the potential of pork production is relatively low. Both for producers, points of sale and local consumption, the main motivator of consumption is the palatability and the main inhibitor is the risk of transmission of the virus H1N1. It is concluded that the pork industry in Boyacá is in an evolutionary process that requires a continuing advice in production and marketing, and promotional consumption campaigns, in addition to the standardization of prices.

  10. Consumer perception, facts and possibilities to improve acceptability of health and sensory characteristics of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, W; Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Viaene, J; Boucqué, C V

    1999-10-01

    Changes at consumer level, as well as an image decline of the meat sector, resulted in considerable decreases of fresh meat consumption. Consumer orientation is considered as a prerequisite to slow down or reverse the adverse fresh pork consumption evolution. Consumer perception of pork is taken as the starting point of this article. Focus is first on assessing differences between facts related to nutritional value and healthiness aspects of pork and their perception by Belgian meat consumers. Second, possibilities of improving pork characteristics are identified. Pork is perceived worst as compared to beef and poultry on the attributes leanness, healthiness, taste and tenderness. Consumer-oriented response strategies should focus at improving these intrinsic quality characteristics, before other elements like traceability, labelling or marketing can be implemented successfully. The possibilities to improve nutritional value, healthiness and sensory characteristics pertain to selection, pig diet composition, transport, slaughter and post-slaughter circumstances. A successful adoption of consumer orientation urges for co-operation throughout the entire pork production chain. The identified topics are key attention points for adequate production and marketing by the pork sector, as well as for consequent communication by government and public services.

  11. Comparison of flavor changes in cooked-refrigerated beef, pork and chicken meat patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, K S; Anderson, L M; Sams, A R

    2005-10-01

    Beef and pork longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) and chicken breast (B) and thigh (T) muscles excised 24 h postmortem were ground by muscle/species group, formed into patties, pan-fried, refrigerated for 0, 3 or 6 days, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for intensity of specific flavors. The rate of decline in species-specific natural meat flavor intensity and the rate of increase in "cardboard" (CBD) flavor intensity during the first half of the 6-day storage were fastest for beef, while such decline and increase during the entire storage period were slowest for chicken B. Overall trends of natural meat flavor and CBD intensity changes for chicken T appeared more like those for the red meats than chicken B. It was concluded that, while flavor deterioration can occur in cooked-stored meats from all the species, quantitative or the magnitude of differences between species would depend on muscle types and sensory terms/method used.

  12. Inhibition effect on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork by adding hawthorn flavonoid extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming; Liu Chao; Cao Lei; Li Kexi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of hawthorn flavonoid extract and its inhibition effect on irradiated pork lipid oxidant were investigated. The results showed that hawthorn flavonoids had efficient scavenging effect on DPPH free radicals (DPPH ·), and the scavenging rate reached 56% while 2 ml of 0.035 mg/ml hawthorn flavonoid extract was added. Hawthorn flavonoid extract can inhibition the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork effectively and it showed a stronger inhibition ability while the hawthorn flavonoid extract were used together with Vc. It is concluded that can decrease the lipid oxidation of pork, hawthorn flavonoid extract is a remarkable natural antioxidant. (authors)

  13. Effect of different antioxidants on lipid oxidation of irradiated cooked streaky pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shuzhen; Ha Yiming; Zhang Haiwei; Wang Feng; Liu Shuliang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on lipid oxidation of vacuum packaged irradiated cooked streaky pork were studied. The cooked streaky pork were added with 0.02% TeaPolyphenols (TP), rosemary, Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin E separately, then were irradiated with 6 kGy, and stored at 4 degree C. The results showed that antioxidants can reduce the value of TBA, POV value of irradiated cooked streaky pork, and the effects of TBHQ and TP were better, than other antiatidins. (authors)

  14. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork, and poultry products during chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Baker, David A; Thippareddi, H; Snyder, O Peter; Mohr, Tim B

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Clostridium perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in 10 commercially prepared acidified beef, pork, and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted with organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commercial products ranged from 4.74 to 6.35. Products were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of C. perfringens spores to achieve ca. 2-log (low) or 4-log (high) inoculum levels, vacuum packaged, and cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C for 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 h to simulate abusive cooling; the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) recommends a cooling time of 6.5 h. Total germinated C. perfringens populations were determined after plating on tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine agar and incubating the plates anaerobically at 37°C for 48 h. In addition, C. perfringens growth from spores was assessed at an isothermal temperature of 44°C. Growth from spores was inhibited in ground beef with a pH of 5.5 or below, even during extended cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 21 h. In ground beef with a pH of 5.6, the growth was >1 log after 18 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. However, 15 h of cooling controlled the growth to product with a pH ranging from 4.74 to 5.17, both during exponential abusive cooling periods of up to 21 h and during storage for 21 h at 44°C. While product cooled exponentially from 54.4 to 7.2°C in 15 h or less, the pH 6.35 product supported growth, even after 6 h of cooling from 54.4 to 7.2°C. These challenge tests demonstrate that adjustment of ground beef to pH of 5.5 or less and of barbeque products to pH of 5.63 or less inhibits C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during extended cooling periods from 54.4 to 7.2°C up to 15 h. Therefore, safe cooling periods for products with homogeneous, lower pHs can be substantially longer.

  15. Thailand: fertile ground for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Thailand's Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is bringing the benefits of food irradiation and nuclear-based agricultural techniques to the population. One of the most successful OAEP programs involves irradiating a popular Thai delicacy, 'nham' (fermented raw pork) which is otherwise often contaminated with salmonella, and sometimes with trichinella. Irradiated nham has proven popular with Thai consumers. Other nuclear techniques are being applied as follows: neutron densitometry and isotope tracer techniques are providing a better understanding of the relationships between soil, fertilizer and plants; radioimmunoassay of progesterone is improving breeding of cattle and buffaloes; seed irradiation is producing improved varieties of plants; irradiation is being used to sterilize control fruit flies

  16. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  17. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  18. Can a label make consumers lose their senses? The case of organic pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    ) no information. Before tasting each sample, consumers rated expected quality. After tasting each sample, consumers rated experienced quality on four dimensions (including taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability) as well as willingness to pay. Highly significant differences were found between......Previous research indicates that consumers expect substantially higher eating quality in pork that was produced in organic and free-range systems. Sensory studies and comparisons of objective quality suggest that these expectations are not completely realistic: in most cases, the performance...... of organic and free-range pork is equal to, and in some times even lower than that of conventional pork. However, consumers' expectations may be strong enough to override differences in experienced quality. In an experiment with 185 consumers, each participant tasted eight pork chop samples that varied...

  19. The Dutch pork chain: a commodity system resisting threats from the market and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, de K.H.; Casabianca, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch pork sector can be characterized as one massive, homogeneous commodity system, resisting diversification. A closer look at innovation strategies and initiatives leads to the conclusion that efforts are being made to enhance sustainability (including economic viability) through

  20. Effect of Black Rice Powder on the Quality Properties of Pork Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pork patties formulated with black rice powder were investigated. Moisture contents of samples containing black rice powder were significantly higher than that of the control (p

  1. Physico-chemical quality attributes and fatty acid profiles of pork ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madzimure

    2017-01-05

    Jan 5, 2017 ... 3Department of Microbial Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of Free ... produced indigenous pork on the market might enhance the choices for the ..... Meat palatability of Duroc and Chinese first-cross barrows.

  2. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling patterns in both pork and cod muscle which remained the same in stored samples. Desmin was intensely labelled at the cell boundaries and within the body of the cells in both pork and cod in the initial and the stored samples. Vinculin was readily labelled in pork muscle but showed only diffuse...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...

  3. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandii, Anna Franca; Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2015-11-02

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo's sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica , and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log 10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log 10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  4. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4? for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4?. Despite that SSF was conducted with the ...

  5. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  6. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Profile of Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs or Pork in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Houde, A; McEwen, S A

    2017-12-01

    The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP. We calculated summary estimates of prevalence using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3 software, employing the method of moments. Overall, we found the incidence of sporadic locally acquired hepatitis E in Canada, compiled from peer-reviewed literature or from diagnosis at the National Microbiology Laboratory to be low relative to other non-endemic countries. In contrast, we found the prevalence of detection of HEV RNA in pigs and retail pork livers, to be comparable to that reported in the USA and Europe. We drafted risk categories (high/medium/low) for acquiring clinical hepatitis E from exposure to pigs or pork in Canada and hypothesize that the proportion of the Canadian population at high risk from either exposure is relatively small. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  8. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  9. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian F Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I. 0.0002-0.0164 probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134 potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  10. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different feeding systems on the ingredients of wild boar meat, and the accidental analogy with the ingredients of pork. There was no difference in protein content. The value of miristic acid (C14:0 in the samples of extensively and intensively fed group was more favourable than that of pork. Pork contains more MUFA (palmitoleic acid – C16:1. The semi-intensively fed wild boar’s meat and pork contained linoleic acid (C18:3 n3 almost on the same level. The greatest difference was detected in the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6. The samples from all wild boar groups contained more of this fatty acid than it was published about domestic pigs. Out of the microelements, the iodine and zinc had higher value in wild boar meat than in pork.

  11. Conversion of sulfur compounds and microbial community in anaerobic treatment of fish and pork waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Yao, Xing-Zhi; Chen, Min; Ma, Ruo-Chan; Li, Hua-Jun; Wang, Chen; Ding, Shen-Hua

    2018-04-07

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are not only the main source of malodor in anaerobic treatment of organic waste, but also pose a threat to human health. In this study, VSCs production and microbial community was investigated during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. The results showed that after the operation of 245 days, 94.5% and 76.2% of sulfur compounds in the fish and pork waste was converted into VSCs. Among the detected VSCs including H 2 S, carbon disulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, methanethiol was the major component with the maximum concentration of 4.54% and 3.28% in the fish and pork waste, respectively. The conversion of sulfur compounds including total sulfur, SO 4 2- -S, S 2- , methionine and cysteine followed the first-order kinetics. Miseq sequencing analysis showed that Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Proteus, Thiobacillus, Hyphomicrobium and Pseudomonas were the main known sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms in the fish and pork waste. The C/N value had most significant influence on the microbial community in the fish and pork waste. A main conversion of sulfur compounds with CH 3 SH as the key intermediate was firstly hypothesized during the anaerobic degradation of fish and pork waste. These findings are helpful to understand the conversion of sulfur compounds and to develop techniques to control ordor pollution in the anaerobic treatment of organic waste. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Do pig farmers preferences bias consumer choice for pork? Response to critique of the pork preference studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Fortin, J; Martin, J-F

    2010-08-01

    Québec consumers and pig farmers selected their preferred chop from 16 images that had been modified to give 16 treatments: two levels each of fat cover, colour, marbling and drip. The selection process was repeated eight times from different groups of chops. Fat cover (47% preferred lean) and colour (44%, light red) were the most frequently chosen characteristics. No significant differences were observed between farmers and consumers preferences (chi(2) test, Ppreference-based clusters were found; 41% preferring dark red, lean meat and 59%, light red, lean meat, without marbling or drip. Choice-based clusters showed no significant links with either individual socio-demographic items, including pig farmer as occupation, or the three socio-demographic-based clusters observed (chi(2) test, Pconsumers and, therefore, inclusion of pig farmers in consumer panels would not bias consumer choice for pork. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. Photoshop CS3 RAW Transforming your RAW data into works of art

    CERN Document Server

    Aaland, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Because RAW files remain virtually untouched by in-camera processing, working with them has given digital photographers greater flexibility and control during the editing process -- for those who are familiar enough with the format. Camera RAW, the plug in for Adobe Photoshop CS3, has emerged as one of the best and most familiar tools for editing RAW images, and the best way to master this workflow is with Photoshop CS3 RAW. Award-winning author Mikkel Aaland explores the entire RAW process, from the practical reasons to shoot RAW, to managing the images with the new features of Bridge 2.0 n

  16. Washing and chilling as critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.

  17. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  18. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  19. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...

  20. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Raw Meat Products § 319.29... fatty tissue, exclusive of skin. Such product shall have a pinkish color and a fresh odor and appearance. ...

  1. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( ham traits. Overall, traits associated with carcass fatness, including

  2. Assessment of hardened characteristics of raw fly ash blended self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is widely used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Due to the implementation of new thermal power plants as a consequence of electricity demand, generation of fly ash is noticeably increased. In addition to pozzolana blended cement production, it is very imperative to use raw fly ash in concrete. Earlier research studies investigated the performance of processed fly ash in blended cement production as well as in concrete. In general, ground fly ash is used in blended cement production. A comprehensive study on the performance evaluation of raw fly ash in self-compacting concrete is not available in the existing literature. Moreover, utilization of raw fly ash in special concrete such as self-compacting concrete is essential to comprehend the performance of raw fly ash blended concrete compared to ordinary Portland concrete. Additionally, it will help to achieve maximum utilization of raw fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material rather than disposal as a waste, which eventually leads to several environmental issues. In the study, raw fly ash was collected and is directly used in development of self-compacting concrete. Two mixes were cast and hardened characteristics of blended concrete were investigated. Results from the study showed comparable performance with control concrete. Furthermore, significant reduction in chloride permeability was observed for raw fly ash blended concrete.

  3. Economic values of pork production related traits in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate economic values for sow efficiency and meat production traits in the Finnish pork production system including the consideration for subsidies. Economic values were estimated by developing a bio-economic model that describes the Finnish production system. Genetic improvement estimates for meat production traits were also developed in order to evaluate how much genetic gain is reduced due to selection for meat quality. Results showed that the highest economic values, when expressed in genetic standard deviations, were obtained for total number of piglets born (€2.07 per piglet, feed conversion ratio (€2.07 per feed unit per kg, and lean meat percentage (€1.69 per %. Economic values for litter size, piglet mortality, sows length of productive life, and lean meat percentage increased when subsidies were not accounted for in the bio-economic model. Results show further that meat quality should have 15–20 percent weight in the Finnish production trait index in order to prevent its deterioration. When the selection weights are 15–20% for meat quality, the expected loss in genetic gain is approximately 3 percent for other production traits when compared to selection indices where meat quality traits are not included.;

  4. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

  5. Applying multicriteria analysis for choosing the best marination for pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto VMOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to choose a best marination solution using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Materials and methods. Pork meat samples were collected in a commercial slaughterhouse, and they were randomly distributed in four treatments with three different salt contents blend. Color, pH, retention of the solution, exudate and cooking loss, shear force and sensory attributes were assessed and evaluated. Multicriteria analysis using AHP was applied to the results in order to choose the best overall marination solution. Criteria used for selection were the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, and based on these criteria were classified solutions marination. Results. Results showed that the combination of the salts was the best alternative (Na2CO3+NaCl+Na5P3O10, followed by the solutions of (Na2CO3 + NaCl, and (Na5P3O10 + NaCl. Conclusions. All tested solutions with the salts used alone or in combination led to better physical and sensory attributes than the meat not marinated.

  6. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-07-01

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  9. Scientific and technical factors affecting the setting of Salmonella criteria for raw poultry: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, G.; Lammerding, A.M.; Cox, N.; Doyle, M.P.; Humbert, F.; Kulikovskiy, A.; Panin, A.; Pinheiro do Nascimento, V.; Wierup, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about foodborne salmonellosis have led many countries to introduce microbiological criteria for certain food products. If such criteria are not well-grounded in science, they could be an unjustified obstacle to trade. Raw poultry products are an important part of the global food market.

  10. Fate of gamma-irradiated Listeria monocytogenes during refrigerated storage on raw or cooked turkey breast meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G.; Kim, A.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Farrell, H.M. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation resistance and ability of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, 15313, 43256, and 49594 to multiply on irradiated, air-packed, refrigerated raw or cooked turkey breast meat nuggets (ca. 25 g) and ground turkey breast meat was investigated. Gamma-radiation D values for L. monocytogenes were significantly different on raw and cooked nuggets, 0.56 +/- 0.03 kGy and 0.69 +/- 0.03 kGy, respectively; but they were not significantly different (P less than or equal to 0.05) on raw and cooked ground turkey meat. High populations (approximately 10(9) CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes declined during 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C in both irradiated and nonirradiated samples of raw but not of cooked ground turkey breast meat. A moderate inoculum (approximately 10(3) CFU/g) did not survive a radiation dose of 3 kGy. The population increased in cooked but not in raw samples of irradiated ground turkey meat stored at either 2 or 7 degrees C for 21 days. The D value changed significantly from 0.70 +/- 0.04 to 0.60 +/- 0.02 kGy when the product was cooked to an internal temperature of 80 degrees C before irradiation. Growth on either raw or cooked turkey meat did not alter the radiation resistance of L. monocytogenes. Analyses were performed for pH, a(w), moisture, and reducing potential of raw and cooked turkey meat and for pH, amino acid profile, thiamine, and riboflavin contents of aqueous extracts of raw and cooked turkey meats without identifying the factor or factors involved in differences in the survival and multiplication of L. monocytogenes on raw and cooked meat

  11. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  12. Distinct physiological, plasma amino acid, and liver transcriptome responses to purified dietary beef, chicken, fish, and pork proteins in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Müller, M.R.; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Young rats received semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only
    regarding protein source; casein (reference) was replaced by beef, chicken, fish, or pork proteins.
    Compared to casein, all proteins, except pork, increased total plasma AA concentrations.
    Pork protein reduced adipose

  13. Consumer choice and suggested price for pork as influenced by its appearance, taste and information concerning country of origin and organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dransfield, E.; Ngapo, T.M.; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2005-01-01

    of the British and Danish preferred the paler and the French the darker pork. Most people preferred the leaner pork. When information was provided in the form of labels, the vast majority of consumers preferred the pork labelled as originating from their own country as opposed to 'imported' and that labelled...

  14. Towards a chain coordination model for quality management strategies to strengthen the competition of European pork producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, D.; Lang, J.; Petersen, B.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new chain coordination model for quality management strategies of European pork supply chains. It is a result of qualitative research into intensive and extensive pork production in seven selected countries consisting of a literature review, country-specific expert interviews

  15. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  16. New LASER fluorometric HPLC detection for ortho-tyrosine in gamma-irradiated phenylalanine solution and pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio; Nagasawa, Taeko; Izumi, Keiko; Kitamura, Mayumi

    1999-01-01

    New analytical procedure for o-tyrosine was studied to investigate effects of gamma irradiation on aqueous phenylalanine solution and pork. The process includes extraction and hydrolysis of protein, derivatization of the free amino acid by fluororeagent, and finally separation and detection by LASER fluorometric HPLC. The detection limit was 25ng. To study how the procedure works, irradiated phenylalanine solution and pork were analyzed. The samples were irradiated at doses up to 10 kGy at room temperature. Three tyrosine isomers were detected in phenylalanine solution, and 2 isomers (o-and p-tyrosine) were found in pork. Dose response was found in the formation of the isomers both in phenylalanine solution and in pork. O-tyrosine peak obtained from irradiated pork was separated from interference successfully. Those findings illustrate the procedure may be applicable to detection of irradiated food. (author)

  17. PCR-RFLP Using BseDI Enzyme for Pork Authentication in Sausage and Nugget Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erwanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP using BseDI restriction enzyme had been applied for identifying the presence of pork in processed meat (beef sausage and chicken nugget including before and after frying. Pork sample in various levels (1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 25 % was prepared in a mixture with beef and chicken meats and processed for sausage and nugget. The primers CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish existence of porcine species, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. The PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of porcine species. It is a potentially reliable technique for pork detection in animal food processed products for Halal authentication.

  18. Sales determinants of canned pork products: A world-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nick Norman; Grunert, Klaus G.; Baadsgaard, Allan

    1994-01-01

    , understanding the forces which move a product through its life cycle is important for decisions about when to withdraw from or enter a market, when to transfer a product from one country to another, and also with r to obtaining economies of scale and scope by grouping countries where the life cycle position...... is similar. 2. The main factors affecting sales of a canned pork product on a by-country basis are a) economic and socio-demographic factors: income, employment, importance of agricultural sector, education, household size, ownership of household appliances, urbanisation, age of population, b) cultural...... factors: religion, attitude towards meat, pork, and canned pork, usage of product, c) distrib factors: retail structure, outlet characteristics, possibilities for transporting fresh meat, d) competitive factors: primary and secondary competition, tariffs. 3. Information about these factors...

  19. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Irradiation on bacterial atp luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Hua

    2010-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cooled pork and chicken was detected with ATP luminous intensity method. The influences of other factors to ATP luminous intensity were also discussed. There was positive correlation between ATP standard concentration and ATP luminous intensity, and negative correlation between irradiation dosage and ATP luminous intensity. The trend of ATP luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken after irradiation was inverse S, and the maximum ATP luminous intensity appeared at 6.0 kGy, and minimum at 4.0 and 8.0 kGy. Sterilized water and sterilized pork had no interference to ATP luminous intensity of the samples. There was significant positive correlation between E. coli 10003 concentration and ATP luminous intensity, the coefficient correlation was 0.9437. (authors)

  1. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Barcellos, Marcia D de; Krystallis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality, but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries.

  2. Estimation of Pork Quality Traits Using Exsanguination Blood and Postmortem Muscle Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Choe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to estimate the pork quality traits using metabolites from exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle simultaneously under the Korean standard pre- and post-slaughter conditions. A total of 111 Yorkshire (pure breed and castrated male pigs were evaluated under the Korean standard conditions. Measurements were taken of the levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination, and muscle glycogen and lactate content at 45 min and 24 h postmortem. Certain pork quality traits were also evaluated. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis including stepwise regression were performed. Exsanguination blood glucose and lactate levels were positively correlated with each other, negatively related to postmortem muscle glycogen content and positively associated with postmortem muscle lactate content. A rapid and extended postmortem glycolysis was associated with high levels of blood glucose and lactate, with high muscle lactate content, and with low muscle glycogen content during postmortem. In addition, these were also correlated with paler meat color and reduced water holding capacity. The results of multiple regression analyses also showed that metabolites in exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle explained variations in pork quality traits. Especially, levels of blood glucose and lactate and content of muscle glycogen at early postmortem were significantly associated with an elevated early glycolytic rate. Furthermore, muscle lactate content at 24 h postmortem alone accounted for a considerable portion of the variation in pork quality traits. Based on these results, the current study confirmed that the main factor influencing pork quality traits is the ultimate lactate content in muscle via postmortem glycolysis, and that levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination and contents of muscle glycogen and lactate at postmortem can explain a large portion of the variation in pork quality even under

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork fat crystallization during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Edith; García-Pérez, José V; Santacatalina, Juan V; Ventanas, Sonia; Benedito, José

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for characterizing and differentiating the crystallization pattern in 2 pork backfats (Montanera and Cebo Iberian fats) during cold storage (0 °C, 2 °C, 5 °C, 7 °C, and 10 °C) was evaluated. The fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and textural properties (hardness) of fat were also determined. Both fats became harder during cold storage (average hardness increase for both fats, 11.5 N, 8 N, and 1.8 N at 0, °C 2 °C, and 5 °C , respectively), showing a 2-step pattern related with the separate crystallization of the different existing triacylglycerols, which was well described using a modified Avrami equation (explained variance > 99%). Due to a greater content of saturated triacylglycerols, Cebo fat (45.1%) was harder than Montanera (41.8%). The ultrasonic velocity followed a similar 2-step pattern to hardness during cold storage, being found an average increase for both fats of 184, 161, and 150 m/s at 0 °C 2 °C, and 5 °C, respectively. Thus, ultrasonic measurements were useful both to characterize the textural changes taking place during cold storage and to differentiate between fats with different composition. The cold storage of dry-cured meat products during their distribution and retail sale exert an important effect on their textural properties and consumers' acceptance due to the crystallization of the fat fraction, which is greatly influenced by the type of fat. In this work, a nondestructive ultrasonic technique was used to identify the textural changes provoked by the crystallization during cold storage, and to differentiate between fats, which could be used for quality control purposes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  5. raw data collected from Malvern Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These are raw data/image files from the Malvern Zetasizer Instrument. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse, H., J. Hoelle, C. Muhlen, and...

  6. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  7. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  8. A large point-source outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to chicken, pork and salad rolls from a Vietnamese bakery in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Cullen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In January 2011, Sydney South West Public Health Unit was notified of a large number of people presenting with gastroenteritis over two days at a local hospital emergency department (ED.Methods: Case-finding was conducted through hospital EDs and general practitioners, which resulted in the notification of 154 possible cases, from which 83 outbreak cases were identified. Fifty-eight cases were interviewed about demographics, symptom profile and food histories. Stool samples were collected and submitted for analysis. An inspection was conducted at a Vietnamese bakery and food samples were collected and submitted for analysis. Further case ascertainment occurred to ensure control measures were successful.Results: Of the 58 interviewed cases, the symptom profile included diarrhoea (100%, fever (79.3% and vomiting (89.7%. Salmonella Typhimurium multiple-locus-variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA type 3-10-8-9-523 was identified in 95.9% (47/49 of stool samples. Cases reported consuming chicken, pork or salad rolls from a single Vietnamese bakery. Environmental swabs detected widespread contamination with Salmonella at the premises.Discussion: This was a large point-source outbreak associated with the consumption of Vietnamese-style pork, chicken and salad rolls. These foods have been responsible for significant outbreaks in the past. The typical ingredients of raw egg butter or mayonnaise and pate are often implicated, as are the food-handling practices in food outlets. This indicates the need for education in better food-handling practices, including the benefits of using safer products. Ongoing surveillance will monitor the success of new food regulations introduced in New South Wales during 2011 for improving food-handling practices and reducing foodborne illness.

  9. Myowater dynamics and protein secondary structural changes as affected by heating rate in three pork qualities: a combined FT-IR microspectroscopic and 1H NMR relaxometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyun; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Böcker, Ulrike; Ofstad, Ragni; Kohler, Achim

    2007-05-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of heating rate on myowater dynamics and protein secondary structures in three pork qualities by proton NMR T2 relaxation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy measurements. Two oven temperatures at 100 degrees C and 200 degrees C corresponding to slow and fast heating rates were applied on three pork qualities (DFD, PSE, and normal) to an internal center temperature of 65 degrees C. The fast heating induced a higher cooking loss, particularly for PSE meat. The water proton T21 distribution representing water entrapped within the myofibrillar network was influenced by heating rate and meat quality. Fast heating broadened the T21 distribution and decreased the relaxation times of the T21 peak position for three meat qualities. The changes in T21 relaxation times in meat can be interpreted in terms of chemical and diffusive exchange. FT-IR showed that fast heating caused a higher gain of random structures and aggregated beta-sheets at the expense of native alpha-helixes, and these changes dominate the fast-heating-induced broadening of T21 distribution and reduction in T21 times. Furthermore, of the three meat qualities, PSE meat had the broadest T21 distribution and the lowest T21 times for both heating rates, reflecting that the protein aggregation of PSE caused by heating is more extensive than those of DFD and normal, which is consistent with the IR data. The present study demonstrated that the changes in T2 relaxation times of water protons affected by heating rate and raw meat quality are well related to the protein secondary structural changes as probed by FT-IR microspectroscopy.

  10. Fate of food-associated bacteria in pork as affected by marinade, temperature, and ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Knøchel, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of ultrasound, red wine, and yogurt marination on Brochotrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni on pork meat. Two different marinationand on pork meat. Two different marination procedures...... sensitivity of C. jejuni compared with the other bacteria was confirmed in an experiment with yogurt as a marinade. Ultrasound treatment in combination with red wine enhanced the antibacterial effect compared with ultrasound alone for L. monocytogenes, B. thermosphacta, and C. jejuni and resulted...

  11. Survey of pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses for ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Surveys have been carried out to estimate the levels of ochratoxin A in pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses.. A total of 286 samples were analysed The results show that compared with cereals and cereal products the contribution from the foods surveyed to the total intake of ochratoxin A by the......Surveys have been carried out to estimate the levels of ochratoxin A in pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses.. A total of 286 samples were analysed The results show that compared with cereals and cereal products the contribution from the foods surveyed to the total intake of ochratoxin...

  12. LCA of pork products & evaluation of alternative super-chilling techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Birkved, Morten

    after cooling technologies, which affect the products’ shelf life: The purpose is to identify the technology leading to least environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective; also to facilitate a benchmarking of these technologies relative to existing after-cooling approaches i.e. freezing.......This LCA study has two aims: 1) The environmental assessment of Danish pork products (Danish Landrace breed): The purpose is to put the pork production system into perspective and to identify the relative contribution of different life cycle stages; 2) The comparative assessment of alternative...

  13. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  14. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  15. Price stabilization for raw jute in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Varangis, Panos

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuating prices for raw jute have been viewed as contributing to economic problems in the jute subsector. Price fluctuations were thought to reduce the jute farmers'welfare and there has been concern about the costs of parastatals'stocking operations in attempts to stabilize jute prices and incomes. The authors examine these fluctuations and analyze policies that might reduce them. They find that price fluctuations for raw jute reduce farmers'welfare only slightly because farmers'activitie...

  16. The complete raw workflow guide how to get the most from your raw images in Adobe Camera Raw, Lightroom, Photoshop, and Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important technologies a photographer can master is shooting and working with raw images. However, figuring out the best way to work with raw files can be confusing and overwhelming. What's the advantage to working in raw? How do you manage, organize, and store raw files? What's the best way to process your files to meet your photographic needs? How do Photoshop, Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw work together? Is it possible to keep your photos in the raw format and still enhance them extensively? Philip Andrews answers these questions and more in his all-new essential raw workfl

  17. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Results Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research......Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB......, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three...

  18. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  19. IDENTIFIKASI DAGING BABI MENGGUNAKAN METODE PCR-RFLP GEN Cytochrome b DAN PCR PRIMER SPESIFIK GEN AMELOGENIN (Pork Identification Using PCR-RFLP of Cytochrome b Gene and Species Specific PCR of Amelogenin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuny Erwanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP and species specific PCR methods had been applied for identifying pork in mixture of meat. Pork sample in various levels (1, 3, 5 and 10% was prepared in mixture with beef, chicken and mutton. The primary CYTb1 and CYTb2 were designed in the mitochondrial cytochrome b b (cytochrome b gene and PCR successfully amplified fragments of 359 bp. To distinguish pig species existence, the amplified PCR products of mitochondrial DNA were cut by BseDI restriction enzyme. The result showed that pig mitochondrial DNA was cut into 131 and 228 bp fragments. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the amelogenin gene has been chosen for the specific identification of pork DNAs in mixture meat. The primers designed generated specific fragments of 353 and 312 bp length for pork. The specificity of the primary designed was tested on 4 animal species including pig, cattle, chicken and goat species. Analysis of experimental mixture meat demonstrated that 1% of raw pork tissues could be detected using PCR-RFLP with BseDI restriction enzyme but detection using species-specific PCR showed the cross reactivity to beef, chicken and mutton. The cytochrome b PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of pig species. PCR-RFLP is a potentially reliable technique for detection of the existence of pork in animal food product for Halal authentication. Keywords: Pork identification, cytochrome b, amelogenin, polymerase chain reaction   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengaplikasikan metode deteksi daging babi dalam campuan daging dengan sapi, kambing dan ayam melalui PCR-RFLP dan PCR dengan primer spesifik untuk babi. Level kontaminasi daging babi dibuat sebesar 1, 3, 5 dan 10% dari total daging dalam campuran. Metode PCR-RFLP menggunakan sepasang primer yaitu gen cytochrome b dari mitokondria yang

  20. Consumer Perception of Retail Pork Bacon Attributes Using Adaptive Choice-based Conjoint Analysis and Maximum Differential Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, K G; Hanson, D J; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2017-11-01

    Bacon is one of the most recognizable consumer pork products and is differentiated by appearance, flavor, thickness, and several possible product claims. The objective of this study was to explore the attributes of retail bacon that influence consumers to purchase and consume bacon. An Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was designed for attributes of raw American-style bacon. An ACBC survey (N = 1410 consumers) and Kano questioning were applied to determine the key attributes that influenced consumer purchase. Attributes included package size, brand, thickness, label claims, flavor, price, and images of the bacon package displaying fat:lean ratio. Maximum Difference Scaling (MaxDiff) was used to rank appeal of 20 different bacon images with variable fat:lean ration and slice shape. The most important attribute for bacon purchase was price followed by fat:lean appearance and then flavor. Three consumer clusters were identified with distinct preferences. For 2 clusters, price was not the primary attribute. Understanding preferences of distinct consumer clusters will enable manufacturers to target consumers and make more appealing bacon. Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) is a research technique that allows consumers to react to assembled products and identify product attributes that they prefer. Kano questions allow researchers to look at the individual aspects of a product and understand consumer sentiment and expectations towards those product qualities while Maximum Difference scaling allows consumers to directly rank single attributes of a product relative to one another. A combination of these 3 approaches can provide key understandings on consumer perception of retail bacon allowing companies to optimize and maximize their development and advertising resources. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with olive oil on the sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Utrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Six assays of low-fat venison salchichon were produced using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat added. The control contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other assays, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive sensory analysis and consumer testing. Descriptive sensory analysis revealed significant differences for most of the attributes studied. The replacement of 35% or more of pork meat by olive oil, prompted a decrease in odour intensity, spicy odour, hardness and an increase of fat mouthfeel, together with the olive oil perception. By contrast, the replacement of 25% of pork meat by olive oil yielded a salchichon not greatly different to the control. Consumers accepted all assays, but preferred those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil. From a sensory standpoint, therefore, it is recommended that the replacement of pork meat by olive oil in this product should not exceed 25%.

  2. Effect of gallic acid/chitosan coating on fresh pork quality in modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Lin, Daniel; Warner, Robyn Dorothy; Ha, Minh

    2018-09-15

    Fresh meat safety and quality is a major concern of consumers in the current food market. The objective of this research was to investigate a newly developed gallic acid/chitosan edible coating on the preservation of fresh pork quality in modified atmosphere package (MAP) stored at 4 °C. The pork loins were coated with 2% chitosan (CHI), 0.2% gallic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/0.2G), or 0.4% gallic acid in 2% chitosan (CHI/0.4G). Results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the chitosan coating was increased with the incorporation of gallic acid. The CHI/0.2G and CHI/0.4G pork loins also had lower lipid oxidation and myoglobin oxidation. However, the CHI/0.4G sample exhibited a pro-protein oxidation effect, suggesting an optimal concentration of gallic acid should be incorporated. This research provides a practical method in application of gallic acid/chitosan coatings on preservation of fresh pork to improve the safety and quality in MAP environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing Sustainable Production and Distribution Scenarios for the Beef and Pork Supply Chains in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Dondè

    2016-08-01

    The core improvements that can be extracted from the scenarios are: increased chain collaboration, information sharing in the chain, and governmental involvement in the Brazilian beef and pork supply chains. A major value of the paper lays in the three-phase methodology set-up. This paper will also contribute to the debate on sustainable improvements feasible in these Brazilian food chains.

  4. Analysis of pork adulteration in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, A; Sismindari; Erwanto, Y; Che Man, Yaakob B

    2011-05-01

    Meatball is one of the favorite foods in Indonesia. The adulteration of pork in beef meatball is frequently occurring. This study was aimed to develop a fast and non destructive technique for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) calibration. The spectral bands associated with pork fat (PF), beef fat (BF), and their mixtures in meatball formulation were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure PF and BF. For quantitative analysis, PLS regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1200-1000 cm(-1). The equation obtained for the relationship between actual PF value and FTIR predicted values in PLS calibration model was y = 0.999x + 0.004, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.999 and 0.442, respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples using laboratory made meatball samples containing the mixtures of BF and PF. Using 4 principal components, root mean square error of prediction is 0.742. The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball formulation for Halal verification purposes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of soy protein isolate on quality of light pork sausages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... The effect of soy protein isolate (SPI) on quality characteristics of light pork ... were darker and firmer and microbiologically safe after storage at 4-5°C for ..... products of defatted soy flour, corn starch and beef: Shelf-life,.

  6. Meat consumption patterns in Vietnam: effects of household characteristics on pork and poultry consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Van Phuong; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010 (VHLSS 2010). The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that the meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and geographic factors.

  7. 9 CFR 318.19 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the purposes of this section: (1) A product is that cured pork article which is contained within one... “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists §§ 950.46, and 928.08 (Chapter 39). 1 The “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists,” 15th...

  8. An Empirical Study on Governance Structure Choices in China's Pork Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, C.; Felipe, de J.; Briz, J.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    China´s pork chain is changing in several ways. Specialized and commercial productions are gaining importance although small scale (backyard) pig production still dominates production. Similarly, small slaughterhouses continue transactions with pig producers in spot market relationships, while big

  9. Biogenic amine content, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration of pork in tuna sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsien-Feng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Shih-Chih; Hong, Tang-Yao

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-five tuna sausage products were purchased from retail markets in Taiwan. The rates of occurrence of biogenic amines, histamine-forming bacteria, and adulteration by pork and poultry were determined. The average content of various biogenic amines in all tested samples was less than 2.0 mg/100 g (Makaira nigricans (blue marlin).

  10. Integrated information and logistics management, quality management and firm performance of pork processing industry in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to discuss the interactions amongst integrated information technology (IT), integrated logistics management, quality management practices and firm performance of pork processors in China. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual framework was developed by examining the

  11. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of persimmon peel supplementation on pork quality, palatability, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of persimmon peel (PPM supplementation on carcass performance, pork quality, eating quality, fatty acid composition, and cholesterol concentration of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle. Results No adverse effects of PPM supplementation were observed on carcass and meat quality characteristics among the treatment groups (P > 0.05, whereas pork loins from pigs fed a diet supplemented with 0.9 % persimmon peel (T3 showed more tender meat than did pork loins from pigs fed a control diet (P < 0.01, even though no significant difference was observed between the control and T1 group. The T3 group had higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids relative to saturated fatty acids (0.33 vs. 0.28, P < 0.05 and lower total cholesterol concentration (94.4 vs. 99.1 mg/g, P < 0.05 compared to the control group. Persimmon peel appeared to have beneficial effects on fatty acid composition and cholesterol concentration, probably leading to a hypocholesterolemic effect. Conclusions Animal diets fortified with persimmon peel represents an efficient and useful method for improving the nutritional quality of pork without impairing growth performance and eating quality properties.

  13. Effect of organic and conventional rearing system on the mineral content of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Donghua; Yang, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Dietary composition and rearing regime largely determine the trace elemental composition of pigs, and consequently their concentration in animal products. The present study evaluates thirteen macro- and trace element concentrations in pork from organic and conventional farms. Conventional pigs were given a commercial feed with added minerals; organic pigs were given a feed based on organic feedstuffs. The content of macro-elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and some trace elements (Ni, Fe, Zn and Sr) in organic and conventional meat samples showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Several trace element concentrations in organic pork were significantly higher (Ppork: Cr (808 and 500μg/kg in organic and conventional pork, respectively), Mn (695 and 473μg/kg) and Cu (1.80 and 1.49mg/kg). The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between samples from pigs reared in organic and conventional systems. Our results also indicate that authentication of organic pork can be realized by applying multivariate chemometric methods such as discriminant analysis to this multi-element data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of intrinsic search cues in the formation of consumer preferences and choice for pork chops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; De Smet, Stefaan; Vackier, Isabelle; Van Oeckel, Monique J; Warnants, Nathalie; Van Kenhove, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the role of drip, colour, marbling and fat cover as intrinsic search cues in the formation of pork chop preferences and individual determinants. Data are collected from a sample of 443 pork consumers in Belgium through using repeated selection of chops from randomised photobooks and questionnaires including socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural variables. Data analysis includes mixture regression analysis, bivariate descriptive statistics and the estimation of multivariate probit models. Consumers sampled in this study prefer pork chops without fat cover. Preference for fat cover is stronger among male, 35+ aged consumers with lower levels of awareness of the relation between food and health and who like pork for other reasons than taste and nutritional value (all p<0.05). Preference for colour is equally consistent within an individual, though fifty-fifty light-dark, with dark chops being more preferred by 35+ aged consumers (p<0.05). Preferences for marbling and drip are not consistent and not determined by joint socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural factors. Preferences for cue levels are not correlated, except a weak relation between preference for dark chops without drip (r=0.116). Preferences are apparently formed by deductions with the use of single cues as key information, mainly based on fat cover or colour, and random choice on marbling and drip.

  15. Oregano powder substitution and shelf life in pork chorizo using Mexican oregano essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) from Mexican oregano, Lippia berlandieri Schauer, as a substitute for oregano powder on pork chorizo physicochemical characteristics, texture, antioxidant capacity, aerobic bacteria colony counts, and sensory evaluation ...

  16. Effect of Oyster Shell Calcium Powder on the Quality of Restructured Pork Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oyster shell calcium powder (OSCP) as a substitute for phosphates in curing agent, on the quality of restructured pork ham. Restructured pork ham was processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (no additives), T2 (0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate), T3 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein), T4 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.15% OSCP), T5 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.3% OSCP), and T6 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.5% OSCP). Addition of OSCP significantly increased the ash content and pH of restructured pork ham (pham. Addition of OSCP had no effect on Hunter a and b surface color values of restructured pork ham, but did decrease the Hunter L surface color value (pham, compared with the addition of phosphates (pham.

  17. Influence of tumbling and phosphate on the yield, sensory and chemical characteristics of pork liver loaf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percel, P.J.; Parrett, N.A.; Plimpton, R.F.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Roon, P.S. van

    1982-01-01

    Yield, sensory and chemical properties of pork liver loaves manufactured using varying processing treatments (tumbling vs immersion) and phosphate levels (0 vs 6.4%) were studied. Tumbling significantly improved liver cure uptake, total cure and loaf cooked yield when compared to immersion as a

  18. Combined detection and strain typing of Yersinia enterocolitica directly from pork and poultry enrichments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Yersinia enterocolitica is responsible for an estimated 98,000 cases of foodborne illness per year in the U.S. causing both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Its prevalence in retail pork and poultry, believed to the primary sources of these infections, ranges widely from 0 to 6...

  19. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  20. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted. PMID:26949957

  1. Effects of dietary magnesium and duration of refrigerated storage on the quality of vacuum-packaged, boneless pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Davis, J R; Rakes, L K; Maxwell, C V; Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Quality data were initially collected on 78 pork loins from crossbred pigs fed diets containing 0, 1.25 or 2.5% magnesium mica (MM). Loins were then vacuum-packaged, and randomly assigned to either 4 or 8 weeks of storage at 2°C. Dietary MM had no (P > 0.05) effect on moisture loss/retention or subjective and objective color measurements. Purge volume increased (Pwater-holding capacity of pork loins during storage, the data indicated inclusion of MM in swine diets may retard onset of oxidative rancidity in vacuum-packaged pork loins.

  2. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Ann Tørngren, Mari; Christensen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7 days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7 days were not affected by an increase i......%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability....

  3. Characterization of Limestone as Raw Material to Hydrated Lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem Hwidi, Rajeb; Nuraiti Tengku Izhar, Tengku; Saad, Farah Naemah Mohd

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, limestone is essentially important for the economic growth as raw materials in the industry sector. Nevertheless, a little attention was paid to the physical, chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of the limestone using X-ray fluorescence (X-RF), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) respectively. Raw materials (limestone rocks) were collected from Bukit Keteri area, Chuping, Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia. Lab crusher and lab sieved were utilized to prepare five different size of ground limestone at (75 µm, 150 µm, 225 µm, 300, and 425 µm) respectively. It is found that the main chemical composition of bulk limestone was Calcium oxide (CaO) at 97.58 wt.% and trace amount of MnO, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 at 0.02%, 0.35%, and 0.396% respectively. XRD diffractograms showed characteristic peaks of calcite and quartz. Furthermore, main FTIR absorption bands at 1,419, 874.08 and 712.20 cm-1 indicated the presence of calcite. The micrographs showed clearly the difference of samples particle size. Furthermore, EDS peaks of Ca, O, and C elements confirmed the presence of CaCO3 in the samples.

  4. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  5. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  6. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pork farms and visiting veterinary students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Frana

    Full Text Available In the last decade livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA has become a public health concern in many parts of the world. Sequence type 398 (ST398 has been the most commonly reported type of LA-MRSA. While many studies have focused on long-term exposure experienced by swine workers, this study focuses on short-term exposures experienced by veterinary students conducting diagnostic investigations. The objectives were to assess the rate of MRSA acquisition and longevity of carriage in students exposed to pork farms and characterize the recovered MRSA isolates. Student nasal swabs were collected immediately before and after farm visits. Pig nasal swabs and environmental sponge samples were also collected. MRSA isolates were identified biochemically and molecularly including spa typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Thirty (30 veterinary students were enrolled and 40 pork farms were visited. MRSA was detected in 30% of the pork farms and in 22% of the students following an exposure to a MRSA-positive pork farm. All students found to be MRSA-positive initially following farm visit were negative for MRSA within 24 hours post visit. Most common spa types recovered were t002 (79%, t034 (16% and t548 (4%. Spa types found in pork farms closely matched those recovered from students with few exceptions. Resistance levels to antimicrobials varied, but resistance was most commonly seen for spectinomycin, tetracyclines and neomycin. Non-ST398 MRSA isolates were more likely to be resistant to florfenicol and neomycin as well as more likely to be multidrug resistant compared to ST398 MRSA isolates. These findings indicate that MRSA can be recovered from persons visiting contaminated farms. However, the duration of carriage was very brief and most likely represents contamination of nasal passages rather than biological colonization. The most common spa types found in this study were associated with ST5 and expands the range of

  8. Comparison of different criteria used to categorize technological quality of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Pereira Cazedey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pork may be classified into quality categories according to its color, texture and exudation, though no international consensus criterion has been reached yet. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to examine the relation between important meat quality traits, evaluating pork quality classification of a same data by different criteria proposed in the literature. In 60 pork loins (Longissimus thoracis muscle, initial pH (pH45min and R-value were evaluated after 45min post mortem between the 9th and 10th ribs, and ultimate pH (pH24h, objective color and water-holding capacity were evaluated 24h post mortem in two 2.54cm thick steaks cut between the 9th and 11th ribs to be classified into PSE (pale, soft and exudative, RSE (reddish-pink, soft and exudative, RFN (reddish-pink, firm and non-exudative or DFD (dark, firm and dry quality. Frequency distributions of quality categories differed (P<0.001 among criteria, which resulted in large variations: 3 to 68% PSE; 0 to 73% RSE; 5 to 68% RFN; 0 to 22% DFD; and 0 to 33% unclassified samples. A same sample may be classified into different quality categories according to the criterion utilized, which results in large variations in frequency distributions and also in quality attributes. Therefore, the classification of pork quality depends on the adopted criterion, which indicated the need for international standardization, so that pork quality can be determined efficiently and effectively.

  9. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  10. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  11. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  12. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  13. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  14. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for ground water contamination as compared to application of raw slurry.......The potential for transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a four week period......, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method although recovery rates were low (liquid slurry leached 73% and 90% more oocysts compared with columns with injected and surface applied raw slurry, respectively...

  15. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  16. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  17. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support...... for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork...... products that has enterococci concentrations above 5. log. CFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological limits and therefore, the perspective of this novel approach is that it can be used for definition of a risk-based microbiological...

  20. RAWS II: A MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS PROGRAM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum gives instructions for the use and operation of a revised version of RAWS, a multiple regression analysis program. The program...of preprocessed data, the directed retention of variable, listing of the matrix of the normal equations and its inverse, and the bypassing of the regression analysis to provide the input variable statistics only. (Author)

  1. Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ceramic tableware production in Nigeria. PSA Irabor. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2(1) 2002: 48-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Extraction of protoactinium from silicaceous raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1946-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in March 1946 and is about the Extraction of protoactinium from a silicaceous raw material. In this report the isolation of Pa on Er carrier is described and it includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  3. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  4. Detection of Clostridium difficile in Retail Ground Meat Products in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Clostridium difficile was present in uncooked retail ground beef and ground pork products sold in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Using an alcohol treatment protocol and inoculation of cultures on C difficile Moxalactam Norfloxacin (CDMN, toxigenic C difficile was found in 6.3% of 48 meat samples. The C difficile isolates belonged to different pulsotypes, all of which had been previously isolated from the stool of Manitoba patients with C difficile disease. Because cooking of meat will not eradicate C difficile spores, this raises a concern regarding potential foodborne transmissibility of this organism.

  5. Parsing and Quantification of Raw Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Data Using RawQuant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; Moggridge, Sophie; Chen, David D Y; Morin, Gregg B; Hughes, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Effective analysis of protein samples by mass spectrometry (MS) requires careful selection and optimization of a range of experimental parameters. As the output from the primary detection device, the "raw" MS data file can be used to gauge the success of a given sample analysis. However, the closed-source nature of the standard raw MS file can complicate effective parsing of the data contained within. To ease and increase the range of analyses possible, the RawQuant tool was developed to enable parsing of raw MS files derived from Thermo Orbitrap instruments to yield meta and scan data in an openly readable text format. RawQuant can be commanded to export user-friendly files containing MS 1 , MS 2 , and MS 3 metadata as well as matrices of quantification values based on isobaric tagging approaches. In this study, the utility of RawQuant is demonstrated in several scenarios: (1) reanalysis of shotgun proteomics data for the identification of the human proteome, (2) reanalysis of experiments utilizing isobaric tagging for whole-proteome quantification, and (3) analysis of a novel bacterial proteome and synthetic peptide mixture for assessing quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags. Together, these analyses successfully demonstrate RawQuant for the efficient parsing and quantification of data from raw Thermo Orbitrap MS files acquired in a range of common proteomics experiments. In addition, the individual analyses using RawQuant highlights parametric considerations in the different experimental sets and suggests targetable areas to improve depth of coverage in identification-focused studies and quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags.

  6. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated from retail cheese, ready-to-eat salads, ham, and raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, G; Calonico, C; Ducci, B; Magnanini, A; Lo Nostro, A

    2014-08-01

    Food specimens were analyzed in order to research Enterococcus spp.: 636 samples of raw meat (227 beef, 238 poultry, and 171 pork), 278 samples of cheese (110 fresh soft cheese and 168 mozzarella cheese), 214 samples of ready-to-eat salads, and 187 samples of ham. 312 strains of Enterococcus spp samples were isolated, then identified and submitted to susceptibility tests against 11 antimicrobial agents. The predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis in raw meat and Enterococcus faecium in retail products. Low percentages of microorganisms were resistant to vancomycin (3.53%), teicoplanin (2.24%), linezolid (0.32%), and amoxicillin in combination with clavulanic acid (0.32%). A high percentage of resistance was noted in E. faecalis at high level gentamicin (21.9%) and tetracycline (60.6%). In general, strains of E. faecalis were more resistant than E. faecium. Enterococci should be considered not only potential pathogens, but also a reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance which can be transferred to other microorganisms. Continuous monitoring of their incidence and emerging resistance is important in order to identify foods which potentially represent a real risk to the population, and to ensure effective treatment of human enterococcal infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cold-smoked pork products produced in Latvia and Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins,-A; Horman,-A; Lunden,-J; Korkeala,-H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 312 samples of sliced, vacuum packaged, cold-smoked pork from 15 meat processing plants in Latvia and Lithuania, obtained over a 15-month period from 2003 until 2004, were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of their shelf-life. Overall, 120 samples (38%) tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Despite the long storing period, the levels of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked pork products were low. Manufacturing processes were studied at seven meat processing ...

  8. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  9. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in uncooked ground meat products from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Scott R; Marsh, Jane W; Schlackman, Jessica L; Harrison, Lee H

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retail meat samples has varied widely. The food supply may be a source for C. difficile infections. A total of 102 ground meat and sausage samples from 3 grocers in Pittsburgh, PA, were cultured for C. difficile. Brand A pork sausages were resampled between May 2011 and January 2012. Two out of 102 (2.0%) meat products initially sampled were positive for C. difficile; both were pork sausage from brand A from the same processing facility (facility A). On subsequent sampling of brand A products, 10/19 samples from processing facility A and 1/10 samples from 3 other facilities were positive for C. difficile. The isolates recovered were inferred ribotype 078, comprising 6 genotypes. The prevalence of C. difficile in retail meat may not be as high as previously reported in North America. When contamination occurs, it may be related to events at processing facilities.

  10. Effect of pre-emulsified sesame oil on physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Li KANG

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical-chemical and rheological properties of pork batters as affected by replacing pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil were investigated. Replacement of pork back-fat with pre-emulsified sesame oil, improved L* value, moisture and protein content, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness, declined a* value, fat content and energy, but not affect cooking yield. When used pre-emulsified sesame oil to replace pork back-fat 50%, the sample had the highest L* value and texture. According to the results of dynamic rheological, replaced pork back-fat by pre-emulsified sesame oil increased the storage modulus (G' values at 80 °C, and formed firm gel. The result of Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR shown that the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil had higher water holding capacity than the control. Overall, the batters with pre-emulsified sesame oil enabled lowering of fat and energy contents, making the pork batter had better texture.

  11. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor

    2012-01-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  12. Vertical co-ordination in the Danish hog/pork industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christina; Hundahl, Lone; Strandskov, Jesper

    flexible workforce. There is also a pressure on the industry to adopt the latest technology to remain cost and product competitive. 7. In order to meet this pressure attention must be paid to increased product development, larger market flexibility and improved responsiveness. Optimisation of the full...... organised, and controlled and owned by the industry itself, namely the pig producers. 3. During the last five years, the Danish pork industry has changed, slaughtering is now concentrated in the four largest firms accounting for 95% of capacity. Processing (beyond primal cuts) is also concentrated...... in producers switching to another co-operative, for large producers the bonus payment represents a significant source of income. It is this factor that ensures the competiti of the individual pig abattoir co-operative. 6. The development in the Danish pork industry is characterised by changes in demand...

  13. Antihypertensive activity of peptides identified in the in vitro gastrointestinal digest of pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Elizabeth; Toldrá, Fidel; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Arihara, Keizo

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antihypertensive activity of three novel peptides identified in the in vitro digest of pork meat. These peptides were RPR, KAPVA and PTPVP and all of them showed significant antihypertensive activity after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats, RPR being the peptide with the greatest in vivo activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the in vivo antihypertensive action of the three peptides from nebulin (RPR) and titin (KAPVA and PTPVP), thus confirming their reported in vitro angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. These findings suggest that pork meat could constitute a source of bioactive constituents that could be utilized in functional foods or nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumer preferences for welfare pork - is the interest for tenderloin greater than for minced meat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Denmark has among the highest levels of organic consumption in the world when looking at the overall market shares. Nevertheless, the market shares for organic meat and other types of welfare friendly meat are low and animal welfare friendly production systems remain a niche. The main Danish animal...... but these products are not approved by Dyrenes Beskyttelse. Instead, medium level animal welfare pork is marketed under privately owned super market labels. Other countries seem to be successful in using a different strategy where national animal welfare associations approve medium as well as premium levels...... of animal welfare (Christensen et al., 2014; Heerwagen et al., 2014). The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether there is a potential for increasing the market shares in Denmark for pork associated with medium levels of animal welfare without compromising the markets shares for premium animal welfare...

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Launch-Arrival Space Study: A Pork Chop Plot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Powell, Richard; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    Launch-Arrival, or "pork chop", plot analysis can provide mission designers with valuable information and insight into a specific launch and arrival space selected for a mission. The study begins with the array of entry states for each pair of selected Earth launch and Mars arrival dates, and nominal entry, descent and landing trajectories are simulated for each pair. Parameters of interest, such as maximum heat rate, are plotted in launch-arrival space. The plots help to quickly identify launch and arrival regions that are not feasible under current constraints or technology and also provide information as to what technologies may need to be developed to reach a desired region. This paper provides a discussion of the development, application, and results of a pork chop plot analysis to the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This technique is easily applicable to other missions at Mars and other destinations.

  16. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef, lamb, pork, and turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Hampson, J.; Richardson, R.; Ward, K.; Thayer, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made of the loss of thiamin and riboflavin due to gamma irradiation of beef, lamb and pork longissimus dorsi, turkey breast and leg muscles. Thiamin losses averaged 11%/kiloGray (kGy) and riboflavin losses 2.5%/kGy above three kGy. The rate of loss of thiamin in beef was higher than that in lamb, pork and turkey leg, but not turkey breast, with losses of 16%/kGy in beef and 8%/kGy in lamb. The rate of thiamin loss was not related to sulfhydryl, protein, moisture, fat or water content, pH or reducing capacity by redox titration. Loss of riboflavin was not different among species. Any detriment from such slight losses would seem to be more than compensated by the advantage of controlling bacteriological contamination by irradiation processing

  17. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution

  18. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2002-03-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution.

  19. Comparison of water gel desserts from fish skin and pork gelatins using instrumental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Regenstein, Joe M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare water gel desserts from various gelatins using instrumental measurements. The puncture test and texture profile analysis (TPA) with compression were determined at 25% and 75% deformation; the melting properties were determined rheologically by monitoring the change of storage modulus (G') with increasing temperature. The measurements with 25% deformation were always nondestructive, while measurements with 75% deformation were mostly destructive. Desserts made from Alaska pollock gelatin (AG) or gelatin mixtures containing AG were more resistant to the destruction caused by the large deformation than tilapia gelatin and pork gelatins. In addition, the gel dessert made from AG melted at a lower temperature than those from tilapia skin gelatin and pork gelatins, while desserts made from gelatin mixtures reflected the melting properties of the separate gelatins.

  20. Effect of Oyster Shell Calcium Powder on the Quality of Restructured Pork Ham

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oyster shell calcium powder (OSCP) as a substitute for phosphates in curing agent, on the quality of restructured pork ham. Restructured pork ham was processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (no additives), T2 (0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate), T3 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein), T4 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.15% OSCP), T5 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.3% OSCP), and T6 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.5% OSCP). Addition of OSCP significant...

  1. Assessing the use of frozen pork meat in the manufacture of cooked ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Gomes Basso LOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in sensory acceptance. The hardness and chewiness parameters showed significant differences when compared to the control sample (ham made from chilled meat. Light microscopy of cooked ham samples showed that changes in the tissues were caused by freezing and thawing the meat. The effect of exudate was significant on the sodium content and compression force parameters, but this difference was not perceived in the sensory analysis, confirming that frozen pork meat can be used to produce cooked ham without loss of quality.

  2. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers...... consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens...... and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating...

  3. Enzyme immunoassay and proteomic characterization of troponin I as a marker of mammalian muscle compounds in raw meat and some meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Elena A; Kovalev, Leonid I; Ivanov, Alexei V; Kovaleva, Marina A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Shishkin, Sergey S; Lisitsyn, Andrey B; Chernukha, Irina M; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-07-01

    The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8 ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52 ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.40 3 ± 0.058 mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in slaughtered pigs and pork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bardasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the years 2015-2016, 83 faecal samples were collected at slaughter from pigs reared in farms located in Central- Northern Italy. During the years 2014-2016 a total of 562 pork products [465 not-ready-to-eat (NRTE and 97 ready-to-eat (RTE products] were collected from retail outlets, large retailers and processing plants. The samples were analysed according to ISO TS 13136:2012. Out of 83 swine faecal samples, 77 (92.8% resulted stx-positive by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 5 stx2+ and 1 stx1+ Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains were isolated. Among the 465 NRTE samples, 65 (14.0% resulted stx-positive by real time PCR and 7 stx2+ STEC strains were isolated. The stx2 gene was detected more frequently than the stx1 gene both in faecal samples (90.4 vs 8.4% and in NRTE pork products (13.3 vs 1.3%. All the RTE samples included in the analysis resulted stxnegative. Among the samples resulted positive for stx and eae genes, serogroup-associated genes were detected at high frequency: O26 resulted the most frequent in faecal samples (81.3% and O145 in pork products (88.1%. The O157 serogroup resulted positive in 83.3 and 78.1% of pork products and faecal samples, respectively. Despite the frequent detection by real time PCR of genes indicating the possible presence of STEC strains belonging to the six serogroups, the bacteriological step did not confirm the isolation of any such strains.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W, and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05. Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05. Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV than control sausages (p<0.05; however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05. Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05, but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05. Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05, but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  7. GC-MS analysis of off-odor volatiles from irradiated pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ruotai; Geng Shengrong; Zhang Jinmu; Chen Yuxia; Liu Yangmin; Wang Liping; Wang Hong; Xu Ying; Yao Side

    2007-01-01

    The main compounds of off-odor volatiles from irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the main compounds of off-odor volatiles were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, S-methyl thioacetate, and methanethiol. It was proved that the off-odor volatile came from irradiated S-containing amino acid and thiamin. (authors)

  8. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák; Károly Bodnár; Edit Mikóné Jónás; János Gundel; András Jávor

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was t...

  9. Sulfonated polystyrene magnetic nanobeads coupled with immunochromatographic strip for clenbuterol determination in pork muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kesheng; Guo, Liang; Xu, Wei; Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Guomao; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wan, Yiqun

    2014-11-01

    A magnetic solid-phase extraction method (MSPE) was developed to pre-concentrate and cleanup clenbuterol (CLE) from pork muscle. Novel sulfonated polystyrene magnetic nanobeads (spMNBs) were synthesized via a one-pot emulsion copolymerization method by using divinylbenzene, styrene, and sodium styrene sulfonate in the presence of oleic acid-modified and 10-undecylenic acid-modified magnetic ferrofluid. The resulting spMNBs exhibited high adsorption efficiency for CLE and for 10 other common beta-adrenergic agonists, namely, brombuterol, ractopamine, tulobuterol, bambuterol, cimbuterol, mabuterol, clorprenaline, penbutolol, salbutamol, and cimaterol. The adsorption behavior of the spMNBs for CLE was described by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.41 mg/g. Under the optimized parameters, the extraction of CLE from 0.5 g of pork muscle required 25mg of the spMNBs at a shortened adsorption time (0.5 min). The proposed MSPE was coupled with colloidal gold nanoparticle-based immunochromatographic assay (MSPE-AuNPIA) for the quantitative detection of CLE residue in pork muscle. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the pork muscle were 0.10 and 0.24 ng/g, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day assay recoveries at three CLE spiked concentrations ranged from 92.5% to 98.1%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.2% to 13.0%. The results of MSPE-AuNPIA were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The CLE values obtained with MSPE-AuNPIA agreed with those obtained with LC-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Productivity and Economic Effects of Antibiotics Used for Growth Promotion in U.S. Pork Production

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gay Y.; Algozin, Kenneth A.; McNamara, Paul E.; Bush, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Public health experts are concerned about the diminishing efficacy of antibiotics. Some have called for a ban on growth-promoting antibiotics in animal agriculture. This study identifies the contribution of growth-promoting antibiotics in the grower/finisher phase of U.S. pork production. With National Animal Health Monitoring System swine data, relationships are estimated between growth-promoting antibiotic use and productivity. Results indicate improvements in average daily gain (0.5%), fee...

  11. Assessing the use of frozen pork meat in the manufacture of cooked ham

    OpenAIRE

    LOS, Francine Gomes Basso; PRESTES, Rosa Cristina; GRANATO, Daniel; SIMÕES, Deise Rosana Silva; ROMAN, Silvane Souza; DEMIATE, Ivo Mottin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of slow (–18 °C) and fast freezing (liquid nitrogen) of pork meat, and the use of exudate released upon thawing, on the physicochemical, color, rheological, microbiological, histological, and sensory characteristics of cooked ham. The meat samples were frozen at –18 °C and thawed after 22 weeks for the production of cooked ham. No significant difference was observed regarding physicochemical, color and microbiological parameters or in senso...

  12. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  13. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  14. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-la...

  15. The Economic Impact of Government Policy on Market Prices of Low-Fat Pork in South Korea: A Quasi-Experimental Hedonic Price Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun No Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact of the government policy which aims to increase the consumption of low-fat pork cuts because of the concerns regarding asymmetric consumption between high-fat and low-fat pork cuts. Using hedonic price methods combined with quasi-experimental approaches we estimate the subsequent impact of food policy on the price of low-fat pork cuts using a time series of sales data. This study utilized an effective approach which has been widely employed for policy evaluation to produce plausible estimates of the economic values generated by the government policy. We find the existence of market segmentation and different impacts of the policy between markets. While the market price for high-fat pork cuts has remained stable, the price for low-fat pork cuts has slightly increased since the policy has been implemented. This paper illustrates that government’s policy can be a good strategy to maintain sustainability of the food industry by improving the balance in pork consumption and the management of stocks.

  16. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  17. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  18. Effect of incorporation of fermented bamboo shoot on physicochemical and microbial quality of pork pickle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavhan, D M; Hazarika, M; Brahma, M L; Hazarika, R A; Rahman, Z

    2015-02-01

    Replacement of commercial chemical preservative (Vinegar) by incorporating fermented bamboo shoot (FBS) products partially or completely and their effect on physicochemical, microbial and shelf life qualities on pork pickle products was studied. Different FBS products such as FBS extract, paste and powder were incorporated in the pork pickle products at the level of 50 to 100 % with or without vinegar and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Highest pH values and lowest titrable acidity was recorded in products with 50 and 100 % FBS powder. No significant differences were observed with respect to proximate composition i.e. percent moisture, protein, fat and ash contents among the products except the product with 100 % FBS powder which had significantly (p acid (TBA) values were found to be increasing as the storage periods were advancing. Except the product with 100 % FBS powder which could be stored for 30 days only, other products could be stored upto 90 days without any physicochemical and microbial problems. It can be concluded from this study that natural and organic FBS extract and paste can be used successfully replacing the conventional chemical preservative (Vinegar) for preparation of pork pickle products and preserved more than 90 days at room temperature. However, FBS powder can be used for preservation of the pickle products for a short period (30 days).

  19. Metabolic profiling of meat: assessment of pork hygiene and contamination with Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Cheung, William; Winder, Catherine L; Dunn, Warwick B; Goodacre, Royston

    2011-02-07

    Spoilage in meat is the result of the action of microorganisms and results in changes of meat and microbial metabolism. This process may include pathogenic food poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, and it is important that these are differentiated from the natural spoilage process caused by non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this study we investigated the application of metabolic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to assess the microbial contamination of pork. Metabolite profiles were generated from microorganisms, originating from the natural spoilage process and from the artificial contamination with S. typhimurium. In an initial experiment, we investigated changes in the metabolic profiles over a 72 hour time course at 25 °C and established time points indicative of the spoilage process. A further experiment was performed to provide in-depth analysis of the metabolites characteristic of contamination by S. typhimurium. We applied a three-way PARAllel FACtor analysis 2 (PARAFAC2) multivariate algorithm to model the metabolic profiles. In addition, two univariate statistical tests, two-sample Wilcoxon signed rank test and Friedman test, were employed to identify metabolites which showed significant difference between natural spoiled and S. typhimurium contaminated samples. Consistent results from the two independent experiments were obtained showing the discrimination of the metabolic profiles of the natural spoiled pork chops and those contaminated with S. typhimurium. The analysis identified 17 metabolites of significant interest (including various types of amino acid and fatty acid) in the discrimination of pork contaminated with the pathogenic microorganism.

  20. Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for the Visual Detection of Pork Adulteration in Meatball Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We visually identify pork adulteration in beef and chicken meatball preparations using 20 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs as colorimetric sensors. Meatball is a popular food in certain Asian and European countries. Verification of pork adulteration in meatball is necessary to meet the Halal and Kosher food standards. Twenty nm GNPs change color from pinkish-red to gray-purple, and their absorption peak at 525 nm is red-shifted by 30–50 nm in 3 mM phosphate buffer saline (PBS. Adsorption of single-stranded DNA protects the particles against salt-induced aggregation. Mixing and annealing of a 25-nucleotide (nt single-stranded (ss DNA probe with denatured DNA of different meatballs differentiated well between perfectly matched and mismatch hybridization at a critical annealing temperature. The probes become available in nonpork DNA containing vials due to mismatches and interact with GNPs to protect them from salt-induced aggregation. Whereas, all the pork containing vials, either in pure and mixed forms, consumed the probes totally by perfect hybridization and turned into grey, indicating aggregation. This is clearly reflected by a well-defined red-shift of the absorption peak and significantly increased absorbance in 550–800 nm regimes. This label-free low-cost assay should find applications in food analysis, genetic screening, and homology studies.

  1. Effect of replacing pork backfat with avocado oil on the quality of chicken sausages "Swiss type"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Moreno Vaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/27 - Accepted: 2015/03/27A kind of chicken sausage “Swiss type” was developed with avocado oil content to replace all fat from pork back fat in its formulation. Analysis of lipid profile for pork back fat reported: SFA 35.45 %; MUFA 41.95 %; PUFA 20.71 %. For avocado oil: SFA 18.66 %; MUFA 68.37 %; PUFA 12.19 % . Treatments used which corresponding to the percentages of avocado oil content as a substitute for pork back fat in their formulation were: T1 = 50 %, T2 = 75 %, T3 = 100 %. Sensory acceptability of treatments was performed. There were no statistically significant differences. Treatment T3 with highest score was chosen as the best treatment. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization was performed for T3 treatment and for a treatment which didn’t have in its formulation avocado oil, T0 treatment. T0. Protein was 13.23% in T0 and 12.56% in T3. Total fat, SFA and PUFA in T3 were reduced in 3.7%, 5.24% and 2.53% respectively. MUFA showed an increase of 3.51% in T3. Trans acids was 0% for both treatments. The results obtained were located within the acceptable range established in the NTE (INEN 1338:12.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the B vitamins of pork chops and chicken breasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Thayer, D.W.; Jenkins, R.K.; Phillips, J.G.; Ackerman, S.A.; Beecher, G.R.; Holden, J.M.; Morrow, F.D.; Quirbach, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the content of thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin, pyridoxine (B 6 ) and cobalamin (B 12 ) in pork chops, and thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in chicken breasts. Over the range of dose and temperature studied (0.49-6.65 kGy from -20 to 20 0 C) it was possible to derive a mathematical expression for predicting losses. A calculation was made of the effect of the loss of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin due to irradiation on overall loss of these vitamins in the American diet. Losses of riboflavin and niacin were of the order of a fraction of a per cent. The calculated loss at 1.0kGy of thiamine in cooked pork was only 1.5%. There were initial increases with radiation doses up to 2-4 kGy in measured concentrations of riboflavin and niacin in pork and chicken. Increases were highly significant, and of concern to the study of radiation effects and the chemical method of determination of these vitamins. (author)

  3. Characterization of spoilage bacteria in pork sausage by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silva Dias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005 increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.

  4. Effects of Edible Films Containing Procyanidin on the Preservation of Pork Meat during Chilled Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun Wook; Jeong, Jin Young; Seol, Kuk-Hwan; Seong, Pil-Nam; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities and pH values of pork loin wrapped in film containing procyanidins (0.1% and 0.3%) generally increased (p<0.05) with storage time. VBN and TBARS levels, and total bacterial and Escherichia coli (E. coli) counts, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the procyanidin groups. In particular, procyanidins strongly inhibited TBARS formation. Thus, our findings suggest that edible film impregnated with procyanidins inhibits lipid oxidation and microbial growth, thereby enhancing the quality and shelf life of pork meat.

  5. Monitoring of psychrotrophic microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of psychrotrophic microorganisms belongs to the microorganisms representing a risk for human health as well as a risk of milk and milk products spoilage. Some genus are considered to be significant producers of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. In this work, we analysed raw milk samples (n = 109 originated from 26 different suppliers from the area of North and Middle Moravia. The screening was performed from March 2007 to February 2008. The total bacterial counts (TBC ranged between 3.2 × 103 to 8.3 × 106 CFU/ml. The psychrotrophic bacterial counts (PBC ranged between 1.0 × 103 to 8.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Total of 48.62 % and 48.62 % of samples exceeded the hygienic limit in raw milk for TBC and PBC, respectively. The correlation between TBC and PBC was highly significant (r = 0.87.Significantly higher (P < 0.05 numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in summer months. The identification of isolates was carried out and all strains were sreened for ability to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The most commonly identified genus in raw milk was of the genus Pseudomonas. The ability to produce proteases or lipases was found at 76 % identified bacterial strains.

  6. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  7. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  8. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  9. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  10. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  11. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  12. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer in plant cleaning may be a means of controlling alkali-tolerant bacteria such as Aeromonas or Shewanella which can

  13. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    installation 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning of radwaste' consists mainly of two bituminization plants and Bohunice Conditioning Centre (BSC RAW). Bituminization plants with capacity of 120 l/hour each are determined for bituminization of concentrates from VVER type NPPs and from A1 NPP Bohunice which are put into 200 l drums. The first one has been in operation since 1994 and its modification for discontinuous bituminization of ion-exchange resins and sludge is under way. The second one the commissioning of which has been finished successfully is now under licensing process for operation. At the end of 2001 total amount of concentrates treated by bituminization reached 941,7 m3. BSC RAW is the basic installed facility for final radwaste conditioning is. Besides cementation the technologies of incineration, fragmentation, high-pressure compaction as well as evaporation are used for radwaste treatment and conditioning at BSC RAW. Due to a complexity of commissioning of individual technologies, BSC RAW commissioning was divided in two phases which were realised in 2000. At the beginning of 2001 UJD issued the permission for BSC RAW operation on the basis of assessment of commissioning report. 144 pieces of FRC containers have been filled in during BSC RAW operation in 2001. As much as 51 t of solid radwaste and 3,9 m3 of liquid radwaste were incinerated, 85,7 t of solid radwaste were compacted and 186 m3 of concentrates were treated by cementation. Two treatment facilities are operated by VUJE Trnava. The bituminization plant has been out of operation during 2001 and incinerator with additional cementation facility have been used only for experimental purposes. National near surface repository in Mochovce is determined for the disposal of low and intermediate level short-living radwaste in special FRC containers as additional engineering barrier of repository. The repository construction was finished in November 1992. 52 containers with radwaste were disposed of

  14. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  15. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  16. Raw materials for pellets; Rohstoffe fuer Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.

    2008-01-15

    In order to keep the pellet prices stable, producers look for new raw materials. Sawdust as a former basis also competes with the manufacturers of chip boards and paper. Three classes of quality are discussed by the pellet manufacturers: (a) the DINplus pellet as a premium segment for which high-quality sawdust are used; (b) a wood pellet from natural wood with varying quality for the utilization in larger plants with filters; (c) the inexpensive industrial wood pellet which deviates from the DINplus commodity regarding to the ingredients and form and could be fired in larger power stations.

  17. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  18. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available on their visual appearance. In particular, we present a method for an agent to recognise the required unseen raw material images and link them to corresponding novel object images. This capability provides an agent with an increased degree of resourcefulness... construction from component parts, and in doing so we provide a benchmark for future work to compare against within Minecraft and ShapeNet domains. II. BACKGROUND Our model is inspired by Siamese neural networks, a class of neural network that includes multiple...

  20. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  2. Impressions and purchasing intentions of Japanese consumers regarding pork produced by 'Ecofeed,' a trademark of food-waste or food co-product animal feed certified by the Japanese government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Aizaki, Hideo; Motoyama, Michiyo; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2011-02-01

    Impressions and purchasing intentions of Japanese consumers regarding pork produced by 'Ecofeed', a trademark of food-waste or co-product animal feeds certified by the Japanese government, were investigated by a questionnaire on the Internet. 'Ecofeed' did not elicit specific impressions as compared to domestic, imported, Kurobuta (in Japan), and specific pathogen-free (SPF) pork. Purchasing intent for 'Ecofeed' pork was the second lowest of the five pork products. Knowledge and purchasing experience regarding 'Ecofeed' pork was the lowest of the five pork products. Respondents were classified into four categories according to their impressions of 'Ecofeed' pork. The largest category of respondents did not have any specific impression of 'Ecofeed' pork and had little knowledge of pork farming. A category that had a positive impression for 'Ecofeed' pork had high knowledge of the pork farming system. In order to establish 'Ecofeed' pork in Japan, our results suggest that information disclosure and education about 'Ecofeed', its certification system, environmental benefits and the current self-efficiency ratio of animal feed, are needed. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Effect of bone source and storage on the role of mechanically deboned pork in rancidity development in a cooked and smoked sausage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockerman, H.W.; Houben, J.H.; Krol, B.; Plimpton, R.F.; Schad, M.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical and physical differences found in this study between mechanically deboned pork and hand deboned pork agree with the data reported in the literature except for fatty acid analyses which suggest little difference between these two types of tissue. The type of bone (ham versus vertebrae)

  4. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model

  5. Raw materials for reflector graphite (for reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, G.; Mindermann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing concept for the core components of German high temperature reactor (HTR) types of graphite was previously entirely directed to the use of German tar coke (St coke). As the plants for producing this material no longer complied technically with the current environmental protection requirements, one had to assume that they would soon be shut down. To prevent bottlenecks in the erection of future HTR plants, alternative cokes produced by modern processes by Japanese manufacturers were checked for their suitability for the manufacture of reactor graphite. This report describes the investigations carried out on these materials from the safe delayed coking process. The project work, apart from analysis of the main data of the candidate coke considered, included the processing of the raw materials into directly and secondarily extruded graphite rods on the laboratory scale, including characterisation. As the results show, the material data achieved with the previous raw material can be reproduced with Japanese St coke. The tar coke LPC-A from the Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd was decided on as the new standard coke for manufacturing reflector graphite. (orig.) With 15 tabs., 2 figs [de

  6. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from a Pork Processing Plant and Its Respective Meat Markets in Southern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A total of 78 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a pork processing plant and the respective meat markets in southern China were examined. This number includes 60 isolates from pork at markets, 5 from cooked pork products at markets, 10 from pork at a processing plant, and 3 from food......, ampicillin/sulbactam, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Two isolates were resistant to five antimicrobials. Twelve strains carried tet(M) and located on Tn916. PFGE analysis revealed genetic heterogeneity among individual serotypes. Two predominant PFGE...... types were found persistent from the processing plant to markets indicating that these two types of isolates were able to survive under environmental adverse conditions from the processing plant to markets, which need to be monitored. Compared to samples from the pork processing plant, the prevalence of...

  7. Changes in microflora and other characteristics of vacuum-packaged pork loins irradiated at 3.0 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebepe, S.; Molins, R.A.; Charoen, S.P.; Farrar, H. IV; Skowronski, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of 3.0-kGy irradiation on microflora and other attributes of fresh, vacuum-packaged pork loins were examined during storage (2-4 degrees C, 98 days) and mishandling (24-25 degrees C, 24 and 48 hr). Shelf life of pork chops from irradiated loins was determined at 5 degrees C. Irradiated loins kept at 2-4 degrees C tested negative for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus. Yersinia spp., was detected in pork chops held at 5 degrees C; this organism, C. perfringens and Aeromonas spp. were present in abused samples. In two irradiated samples Listeria monocytogenes was found. Irradiation reduced aerobic, anaerobic and Aeromonas spp. counts; lactobacilli were least affected. Chemical spoilage began after 91 days at 2-4 degrees C. With irradiation, TBA values were unaffected but Hunter a color values increased

  8. A long-lasting outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium U323 associated with several pork products, Denmark, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, K. G.; Sørensen, Gitte; Torpdahl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that control of foodborne disease outbreaks may be challenging even after establishing the source of infection. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium U323 infections occurred in Denmark from March to September 2010, involving 172 cases. Before the detection of human cases, severa...... ready-to-eat spreadable pork sausage (teewurst) as the source of a sub-outbreak (matched odds ratio 17, 95% confidence interval 2·1–130)....... positive isolates of the outbreak strain had been found in a particular pig slaughterhouse and thus early traceback, investigation and control measures were possible. Several batches of pork and pork products were recalled and the slaughterhouse was closed twice for disinfection. No single common food item...

  9. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two galactose-α-1,3-galactose carrying peptidases from pork kidney mediate anaphylactogenic responses in delayed meat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Christiane; Fischer, Jörg; Swiontek, Kyra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum IgE-antibodies directed at galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) are associated with a novel form of delayed anaphylaxis occuring upon consumption of red meat or innards. Pork kidney is known as the most potent trigger of this syndrome, but the culprit allergens have not yet been...... resistent to heat denaturation. Pork kidney extract, isolated ACE I and AP-N were able to activate patient basophils and elicit positive responses in skin prick tests. CONCLUSION: Two cell-membrane proteins carrying α-Gal epitopes were identified in pork kidney. For the first time, isolated meat proteins...... were shown to induce basophil activation in patients with delayed anaphylaxis to red meat providing further confirmation for the clinical relevance of these α-Gal-carrying proteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on content of nitrosamines in cooked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, I H; Kim, W J; Jo, C; Ahn, H J; Kim, J H; Byun, M W

    2003-06-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation in combination on nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR) levels in pork sausage was studied. Emulsion-type cooked pork sausage was manufactured and packaged in aerobic, CO2 (100%), N2 (100%), and CO2/N2 (25%/75%) environments, respectively, and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma irradiation. The nitrosamine contents were significantly reduced by irradiation, and the reduction of nitrosamines was more extensive with modified atmosphere packaging than with aerobic packaging. The correlation coefficient between irradiation dose and nitrosamine content indicated that irradiation can reduce the levels of nitrosamines. The combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging is effective in enhancing the chemical safety of sausage by reducing nitrosamines, if present, as well as enhancing the microbial safety of cooked pork sausage.

  12. SCCmec Type IX Element in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcusaureusspa Type t337 (CC9) Isolated from Pigs and Pork in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Cavaco, Lina M; Sirichote, Pantip

    2012-01-01

    blaZ, aac-aphD, vga(A), tetM, and a tet efflux marker, in all strains and additionally ermB and aadD, cat and fex(A) in the pork isolates. None of the isolates were found PVL-positive, but enterotoxins were identified in all isolates. To our knowledge, only a few descriptions of MRSA in livestock...... and food products in Thailand have been observed but this is the first observation of MRSA CC9 associated with SCCmec IX in pork. This study indicates a likely widespread distribution of MRSA in pig and pork in Thailand and further investigation on the prevalence and importance of livestock associated MRSA...

  13. Specific primer design of mitochondrial 12S rRNA for species identification in raw meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, M.; Puruhita; Barido, F. H.; Hertanto, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a molecular technique that widely used in agriculture area including species identification in animal-based products for halalness and food safety reasons. Amplification of DNA using PCR needs a primer pair (forward and reverse primers) to isolate specific DNA fragment in the genome. This objective of this study was to design specific primer from mitochondrial 12S rRNA region for species identification in raw beef, pork and chicken meat. Three published sequences, HQ184045, JN601075, and KT626857, were downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. Furthermore, those reference sequences were used to design specific primer for bovine, pig, and chicken species using primer3 v.0.4.0. A total of 15 primer pairs were picked up from primer3 software. Of these, an universal forward primer and three reverse primers which are specific for bovine, pig, and chicken species were selected to be optimized using multiplex-PCR technique. The selected primers were namely UNIF (5’-ACC GCG GTC ATA CGA TTA AC-3’), SPR (5’-AGT GCG TCG GCT ATT GTA GG-3’), BBR (5’-GAA TTG GCA AGG GTT GGT AA-3’), and AR (5’-CGG TAT GTA CGT GCC TCA GA-3’). In addition, the PCR products were visualized using 2% agarose gels under the UV light and sequenced to be aligned with reference sequences using Clustal Omega. The result showed that those primers were specifically amplified mitochondrial 12S rRNA regions from bovine, pig, and chicken using PCR. It was indicated by the existence of 155, 357, and 611 bp of DNA bands for bovine, pig, and chicken species, respectively. Moreover, sequence analysis revealed that our sequences were identically similar with reference sequences. It can be concluded that mitochondrial 12S rRNA may be used as a genetic marker for species identification in meat products.

  14. Prioritization of Managed Pork Supply Movements during a FMD Outbreak in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Gilbert R; Mohr, Alicia H; Snider, Tim P; Lindsay, Thomas A; Davies, Peter R; Goldsmith, Tim J; Sampedro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business. Therefore, it is critical to identify candidate movements for proactive risk assessments: those that are both most likely to contribute to disease spread and most necessary for business continuity. To do this, experts from production, harvest, retail, and allied pork industries assessed 30 common pork supply movements for risk of disease spread and industry criticality. The highest priority movements for conducting a risk assessment included the movement of weaned pigs originating from multiple sow farm sources to an off-site nursery or wean to finish facility, the movement of employees or commercial crews, the movement of vaccination crews, the movement of dedicated livestock hauling trucks, and the movement of commercial crews such as manure haulers and feed trucks onto, off, or between sites. These critical movements, along with several others identified in this study, will provide an initial guide for prioritization of risk management efforts and resources to be better prepared in the event of a FMD outbreak in the United States. By specifically and proactively targeting movements that experts agree are likely to spread the disease and are critical to the continuity of business operations, potentially catastrophic consequences in the event of an outbreak can be limited.

  15. The estimation of pork carcass primal cuts value based on backfat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Duziński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of pork carcass backfat thickness on the dissection efficiency of four primal cuts (ham, loin, shoulder, belly, including correlation coefficients. The research material consisted of 80 pork carcasses. Backfat thickness (mm was measured on cold half-carcasses using a vernier caliper at 6 points: at the first cervical vertebra (atlas, over shoulder at the thickest point, on the back, at the beginning, center, end of the gluteus medius muscle (CI, CII, CIII. On the basis of the average backfat thickness, measurements from 6 points were separated into two experimental groups: I (<25 mm; II (≥25 mm. Detailed dissection of the elements was performed to define mass (g: total, intermuscular fat, bones and lean meat. The significant effect of fat thickness on intermuscular fat content regardless of the cut was noted. Correlations between the average backfat thickness of 6 points and the total weight of the four main elements were calculated. In addition, the correlation coefficients were compared between the dissection elements and the average backfat thickness of 6 and 5 points. Higher backfat thickness determined the increase in the total mass of loin, shoulder and belly. A statistically proven correlation was shown between the average backfat thickness and the total mass of the analysed elements (r=0.293. When comparing the correlation coefficients of a different number of measurements a specific tendency was observed. Positive correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 5 points of backfat thickness and negative correlation coefficients were slightly higher for an average of 6 points. Statistical differences between groups were recorded at the same level for the same parameters (P≤0.001 and 0.01pork carcass primal cuts, with no adverse effects compared to

  16. The effects of electron beam irradiation on sterilization and preservation of chilled pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanhong; Mao Duobin; Zhao Dianbo; Zhang Xiaoyan; Li Quanshun; Yang Gongming

    2009-01-01

    S The effects of electron beam irradiation on the sterilization and preservation of chilled pork were studied. The aim of this investigation was to provide academic and technical basis for application of electron beam irradiation on meat industry. The response surface analysis was used with electron beam energy(X 1 ) and dose(X 2 ) as factors and colony form unit(Y) as responses. The results have been shown that the model of sterilization of chilled pork by electron beam irradiation can be expressed Y=3.78-0.24X 1 -0.13X 2 -0.16X 1 X 2 -0.18X 1 2 +0.15X 1 2 (R 2 =0.9755). It has been found there is a interaction between electron beam energy and absorbed doses, and the significance sequence of factors is absorbed dose>interaction> electron beam energy. When absorbed doses are in range from 3.23 kGy to 4.0 kGy and electron beam energy is in range from 2.3 MeV to 3.8 MeV, the colony form unit would drop 2 logarithm units. The shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 12 d than that of control samples when the samples are stored at 4 degree C. When the samples are stored at 7∼10 degree C, shelf life of samples treated with electron beam irradiation is longer by about 9 d than that of control samples. The results showed that electron beam irradiation has the effects of sterilization and preservation on chilled pork. This study has been confirmed that the application of electron beam irradiation is very useful for meat industry. (authors)

  17. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Prioritization of managed pork supply movements during a FMD outbreak in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Patterson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD outbreak in the U.S., local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business. Therefore, it is critical to identify candidate movements for proactive risk assessments: those that are both most likely to contribute to disease spread and most necessary for business continuity. To do this, experts from production, harvest, retail, and allied pork industries assessed 30 common pork supply movements for risk of disease spread and industry criticality. The highest priority movements for conducting a risk assessment included the movement of weaned pigs originating from multiple sow farm sources to an offsite nursery or wean to finish facility, the movement of employees or commercial crews, the movement of vaccination crews, the movement of dedicated livestock hauling trucks, and the movement of commercial crews such as manure haulers and feed trucks onto, off, or between sites. These critical movements, along with several others identified in this study, will provide an initial guide for prioritization of risk management efforts and resources to be better prepared in the event of a FMD outbreak in the United States. By specifically and proactively targeting movements that experts agree are likely to spread the disease and are critical to the continuity of business operations, potentially catastrophic consequences in the event of an outbreak can be limited.

  19. Lipid oxidation, color changes and volatiles production in irradiated pork sausage with different fat content and packaging during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Lee, J.I.; Ahn, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    Effects of irradiation on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production in pork sausages with different fat content and packaging were determined. Sausages (with 4.7, 10.5 and 15.8% fat content) were sliced and vacuum-packaged either in oxygen-permeable or impermeable bags, irradiated (0 or 4.5 kGy) and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Lipid oxidation, color and volatiles productions were analyzed at 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of cooked pork sausages increased with the increase of fat content regardless of storage, irradiation or packaging types. Irradiated samples had higher TBARS than nonirradiated at 0 day but the difference disappeared during storage in both packaging types. Lightness of sausages (Hunter L-value) increased with the increase of fat content and storage time but was not affected by irradiation. In aerobic packaging, irradiation reduced Hunter a-values of pork sausages at 0 day but irradiation effect on a-value disappeared during storage. In vacuum packaging, however, irradiated samples had higher Hunter a-values than nonirradiated samples. Irradiation increased 1-heptene and total volatiles, but the amount of 1-heptene was not associated well with TBARS values of pork sausages. In both irradiated and nonirradiated pork sausages, aerobic packaging produced more volatiles than vacuum packaging during storage. It was concluded that irradiation and fat content had significant effects on lipid oxidation, color and volatiles production of cooked pork sausages during storage but that oxygen availability had a stronger effect than irradiation and fat content

  20. Amylolysis of raw corn by Aspergillus niger for simultaneous ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I.Y.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The novelty of this approach was hydrolysis of the raw starch in ground corn to fermentable sugars that are simultaneously fermented to ethanol by yeast in a nonsterile environment. Thus, the conventional cooking step can be eliminated for energy conservation. A koji of Aspergillus niger grown on whole corn for 3 days was the crude enzyme source. A ratio of 0.2 g dry koji/g total solids was found sufficient. Optimum pH was 4.2. Ethanol concentration was 7.7% (w/w) in the aqueous phase with 92% raw starch conversion. Agitation increased rate. Sacharification was the rate-limiting step. The initial ethanol concentration preventing fermentation was estimated to be 8.3% by weight. (Refs. 96).

  1. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  2. Gamma radiation-induced structural changes in triglyceride molecules in pork fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.; Koman, V.

    1976-01-01

    In the structure of associated and individual triglyceride pork fat molecules, some changes take place under the effect of ionizing radiation. Due to the irradiation of the fat the amount of the di- and tri-unsaturated (UUU, UUS, USU) triglyceride molecules decreases. The occurrence of the unsatured fatty acids on sites 1,3 decreases and the percentage of the individual triglyceride molecules having on their extreme sites C-1,3 unsaturated fatty acids decreases in all combinations. It can be assumed that hydrogenation and pre-esterification occurs in the triglyceride molecules. (author)

  3. LOCAL PIG BREEDS AND PORK PRODUCTS IN CROATIA AND SLOVENIA – UNEXPLOITED TREASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rationale, the concept and key challenges of the H2020 project TREASURE dealing with local pig breeds is presented and discussed. The action addresses the phenotypic and genetic characterization, performance of local pig breeds in diverse production systems and their environmental impact, specific quality of their products and market potential. The goal is to build up the capacities to develop sustainable pork chains based on local pig breeds. A special emphasis is given to describe the workplan for Black Slavonian and Turopolje local pig breeds from Croatia and Slovenian Krškopolje pig.

  4. Pork quality with special emphasis on colour and its changes during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bocian; Hanna Jankowiak; Patrycja Reszka; Sandra Banaszak

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pork meat, including its colour after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the slaughter and its changes during storage. The meat was obtained from 52 crossbreed porkers F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace), gilts and hogs in equal amounts. The assessment of the quality of the meat was performed in 48 hours after slaughter on the samples of the longissimus lumborum muscle. The meat was analysed in respect to its acidity (pH45 and pH48h), technolog...

  5. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an ins...... on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint....

  6. Chemical analysis and full value of albumens of meat of pork

    OpenAIRE

    BIRTA G.O.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of meat has a genetic conditionality and changes depending on external factors. The pedigree differences of quality of pork are based on quantitative correlation the degree of forming of muscular and fatty fabric. Meat of pigs of greasy and meat breeds already on a 5-6 monthly age has a complex of chemical and фізико-біологічних properties which determine his maturity, and meat and bacon to 6-7 monthly, that is why the animals of different directions of the productivity in a the same ...

  7. Quality traits of pork semimembranosus and triceps brachii muscles sourced from the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Suárez, E J; Rubio-Lozano, M S; Toledo-López, V M; Torrescano-Urrutia, G R; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2016-12-01

    The study included fresh pork semimembranosus (SM, n=289) and triceps brachii (TB, n=283) muscles sourced from meat packers of Mexico and the USA. Samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat content, pH, shear force (WBSF), cook loss, water holding capacity (WHC), instrumental color, emulsion capacity (EC) and stability (ES), and consumer sensory ratings. SM from the USA had lower WBSF (P0.05) across countries. TB from Mexico had higher (Ppork exhibits better technological properties, while country of origin has less effect on consumer acceptability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Embedded Pork Bone Causing Esophageal Perforation and an Esophagus-Innominate Artery Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Berry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronically embedded foreign bodies can lead to perforations, mediastinitis, and abscess, amongst a host of other complications. A 20-year-old mentally challenged female presented with “something stuck in her throat,” severe dysphagia, and recurrent vomiting. Initial imaging was unremarkable; however, subsequent imaging and esophagogastroduodenoscopy two weeks later revealed an embedded pork bone. Surgery was performed to remove the bone and fix the subsequent esophageal perforation and esophagus-innominate artery fistula. This case helps reinforce the urgency in removing an ingested foreign body and the ramifications that may arise with chronically embedded foreign bodies.

  9. [Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 from inoculated fried pork meat and roasted chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Martínez, M L; Sánchez-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-Montaño, R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Lugo de la Fuente, G; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    1993-01-01

    The human gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni in some industrialized countries is higher than gastroenteritis produced by Salmonella and Shigella. This has induced the development of techniques to demonstrate the presence of the microorganism in different foods using some culture media combinations. There is not a method to isolate C. jejuni from roasted chicken and fried pork meat, which are popular foods in México. The sensitivity of two culture media combinations was compared: Rama broth (RB)-Rama agar (RA) and Preston broth (PB)-Skirrow agar (SA) to isolate C. jejuni from these foods. The RB-RA combination demonstrated to be the best one to isolate C. jejuni.

  10. Application of freezing and radiation technology on shelf-life of formed minced pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Kustudic, M.

    1994-01-01

    The microflora of frozen, minced, formed pork was investigated with the aim to estimate the shelf-life of this product. The isolated microflora from frozen meat was identified by classical and up-to-date methods. The API 50 CHB system was applied for the Bacillus strains, whereas API 20A and enzymatic quick method API RAPID ID 32A was used for the Clostridium strains. Biochemical capabilities reading-out and identifications were performed on ATB instruments on the computer charts. The flavourings (pepper) were pretreated by radiation technology in the preventive purposes

  11. The analysis of macro-environment for the pork meat industry from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Buzamat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the realization of this study we used PESTEc analysis of the external environment (politico-legal, economic, social and technological in order to highlight the opportunities which can lead to a higher efficiency of the economic activity or the threats represented by the potential impediments which could prevent the development of the economic activity of the studied company. The study was realized on a company which has as activity the raising of porcine, but due to confidentiality reasons we will not divulge its name. Keywords :industry, macro-environment,  meat, pork

  12. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains in the Pork Chain Supply in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Valeria; Vergara, José L; Bonilla, Ana M; Muñoz, Javier; Mallea, Alejandra; Vallejos, Diego; Quezada-Aguiluz, Mario; Campos, Jorge; Rojas-García, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    The detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other emerging strains in meat-producing animals and retail meat has increased the risk of contamination of food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characterize S. aureus strains isolated from the pork chain supply in Chile. A total of 487 samples were collected: 332 samples from pigs at farms and slaughterhouses (nasal, n = 155; skin, n = 177); 85 samples from carcasses at slaughterhouses; and 70 meat samples at supermarkets and retail stores. The isolation of S. aureus was carried out by selective enrichment and culture media. Biochemical testing (API ® Staph) and PCR (detection of the nuc and mecA genes) were used to confirm S. aureus and MRSA strains. The agglutination test was used to determine the protein PBP2'. Enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED) were determined by agglutination test and the se genes by PCR method. Oxacillin and cefoxitin susceptibility testing were carried out using the diffusion method. The overall prevalence of S. aureus in the pork meat supply was 33.9%. A higher prevalence was detected on carcasses (56.5%), in pigs sampled at farms (40.6%) than in pigs sampled at slaughterhouses (23.3%) and in nonpackaged retail meat (43.1%) than packaged retail meat (5.3%) (p ≤ 0.05). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between the prevalence in pigs (28.3%) and pork meat (32.9%) and between natural pig farming (33.3%) and conventional production (52.8%). The mecA gene and the protein PBP2' were not detected in S. aureus strains. Two S. aureus strains exhibited oxacillin and cefoxitin resistance, and one S. aureus strain was resistant to cefoxitin. One S. aureus strain isolated from a meat sample was positive for enterotoxin SEB. Although the mecA gene was not detected, oxacillin-resistant and seb-producing S. aureus strains were detected, which represent a risk in the pork chain supply.

  13. Simultaneous determination of aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs and PCTs in pork liver by gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barros, C [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez Pineiro, M E [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Simal Lozano, J [Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Area Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lage Yusty, M A [Inst. de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentarios, Lab. de Bromatologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    A multicomponent extraction/concentration procedure has been developed for the enrichment of PCBs, PCTs and aliphatic hydrocarbons (pristane, C{sub 18}, C{sub 19}, C{sub 20}, C{sub 22}, C{sub 24}, C{sub 28}, C{sub 32} and C{sub 36}) in pork liver. These components of the enriched extract were then simultaneously determined by gas chromatography. Mean recoveries ranged from 81.5% for pristane to 93% for PCBs; CV % (0.9-6.7) indicated the method to be both precise and reproducible. (orig.)

  14. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  15. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhana G Gorasia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The type IX secretion system (T9SS has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  16. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  17. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  18. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  19. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed.

  20. From Raw Data to Physics Results course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    It would be helpful for students to know: a) How measurements are made in physical detectors, for example how a tracking chamber "sees" a charged particle or how a calorimeter measures energy. b) That physics processes result in photons, leptons, etc., which we then want to detect and analyze. These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start with an example analysis to show the kinds of information needed. We then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. We discuss how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve. Th...