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Sample records for raw dairy manure

  1. Management and characteristics of recycled manure solids used for bedding in Midwest freestall dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Janni, K A

    2012-04-01

    Interest in using recycled manure solids (RMS) as a bedding material for dairy cows has grown in the US Midwest. Cost of common bedding materials has increased in recent years and availability has decreased. Information regarding the composition of RMS and its use as a bedding material for dairy cows in the Midwest is very limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize RMS as a bedding material, observe bedding management practices, document methods of obtaining RMS, and describe housing facilities. We visited 38 Midwest dairy operations bedding freestalls with RMS to collect data. Methods of obtaining RMS for bedding included separation of anaerobic digested manure, separation of raw manure, and separation of raw manure followed by mechanical drum-composting for 18 to 24 h. Average bedding moisture of unused RMS was 72.4% with a pH of 9.16. Unused samples contained (on a dry basis) 1.4% N, 44.9% C, 32.7C:N ratio, 0.44% P, 0.70% K, 76.5% neutral detergent fiber, 9.4% ash, 4.4% nonfiber carbohydrates, and 1.1% fat. Moisture was lowest for drum-composted solids before and after use as freestall bedding. After use in the stalls, digested solids had lower neutral detergent fiber content (70.5%) than drum-composted (75.0%) and separated raw (73.1%) solids. Total N content was greater in digested solids (2.0%) than in separated raw (1.7%) solids. Total bacterial populations in unused bedding were greatest in separated raw manure solids but were similar between digested and drum-composted manure solids. Drum-composted manure solids had no coliform bacteria before use as freestall bedding. After use as bedding, digested manure solids had lower total bacteria counts compared with drum-composted and separated raw manure solids, which had similar counts. Used bedding samples of digested solids contained fewer environmental streptococci than drum-composted and separated raw solids and had reduced Bacillus counts compared with separated raw solids. Coliform counts

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: Prediction and mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-01-01

    The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more......, and use of treatment technologies. Also, effects of treatment and handling on the properties of field-applied manure must be taken into account. Storage conditions and manure composition importantly define carbon and nitrogen transformations, and the resulting emissions of CH4 and N2O, as well as CO2...... application, manure and soil together define the equilibrium distribution of labile carbon and nitrogen between bulk soil and manure hotspots. This introduces heterogeneity with respect to potential for N2O emissions, which is not represented in existing prediction models. Manure treatment and management...

  3. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  4. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Ospina, A. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dao, Thanh H. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Van Kessel, J.A. [Animal Waste Pathogens Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Reeves, J.B. [Animal Manure and By-Products Laboratory, BARC East, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)]. E-mail: jreeves@anri.barc.usda.gov

    2005-05-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L{sup -1}, in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m{sup -1}). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP{sub s}) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP{sub s}) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP{sub s} = 0.471 x MRP{sub s} + 1102 (r{sup 2} = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r{sup 2} = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH {<=} 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) for the MRP{sub s} and RQFlex-DP{sub s} relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r{sup 2} = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r{sup 2} = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control.

  5. Evaluation of quick tests for phosphorus determination in dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ospina, A.; Dao, Thanh H.; Van Kessel, J.A.; Reeves, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrients in animal manure are valuable inputs in agronomic crop production. Rapid and timely information about manure nutrient content are needed to minimize the risks of phosphorus (P) over-application and losses of dissolved P (DP) in runoff from fields treated with manure. We evaluated the suitability of a commercial hand-held reflectometer, a hydrometer, and an electrical conductivity (EC) meter for determining DP and total P (TP) in dairy manures. Bulk samples (n = 107) collected from farms across CT, MD, NY, PA, and VA were highly variable in total solids (TS) concentration, ranging from 11 to 213 g L -1 , in suspensions' pH (6.3-9.2), and EC (6.2-53.3 dS m -1 ). Manure DP concentrations measured using the RQFlex reflectometer (RQFlex-DP s ) were related to molybdate-reactive P (MRP s ) concentrations as follows: RQFlex-DP s = 0.471 x MRP s + 1102 (r 2 = 0.29). Inclusion of pH and squared-pH terms improved the prediction of manure DP from RQFlex results (r 2 = 0.66). Excluding five outlier samples that had pH ≤ 6.9 the coefficient of determination (r 2 ) for the MRP s and RQFlex-DP s relationship was 0.83 for 95% of the samples. Manure TS were related to hydrometer specific gravity readings (r 2 = 0.53) that were in turn related to TP (r 2 = 0.34), but not to either RQFlex-DP or MRP. Relationships between suspensions' EC and DP or TP were non-significant. Therefore, the RQFlex method is the only viable option for on-site quick estimates of DP that can be made more robust when complemented with TS and pH measurements. The DP quick test can provide near real-time information on soluble manure nutrient content across a wide range of handling and storage conditions on dairy farms and quick estimates of potential soluble P losses in runoff following land applications of manure. - The dissolved phosphorous quick test can provide real-time information on soluble manure nutrient control

  6. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  7. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman A Arikan

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals because of the effects of these residues in the environment. Monensin is the most widely used ionophore coccidiostat in the U.S. The objective of this study was to determine the fate and effect of monensin during the anaerobic digestion of dairy manure. Duplicate plug flow field-scale digesters were operated using non-amended dairy manure and dairy manure amended with monensin to 1 and 10 mg/L for 56 days at 30°C at an organic loading rate of 1.4 kg VS/m3-d and 17-day hydraulic retention time. Results showed that monensin was reduced approximately 70% during anaerobic digestion. Methane production from digesters using manure amended with 1 mg/L monensin was comparable to that from digesters operated without added monensin. However, digesters using manure amended with 10 mg/L monensin yielded 75% less methane than digesters using manure without added monensin. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion is an effective treatment for reducing, but not eliminating, monensin in dairy manure. Monensin did not reduce methane production at concentrations expected in dairy manure at recommended dosage rates.

  8. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Mark A.; Burch, Tucker R

    2016-01-01

    Dairy manure, like the fecal excrement from any domesticated or wild animal, can contain pathogens capable of infecting humans and causing illness or even death. Pathogens in dairy manure can be broadly divided into categories of taxonomy or infectiousness. Dividing by taxonomy there are three pathogen groups in dairy manure: viruses (e.g., bovine rotavirus), bacteria (e.g., Salmonella species), and protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum). There are two categories of infectiousness for pathogens found in animals: those that are zoonotic and those that are not. A zoonotic pathogen is one that can infect both human and animal hosts. Some zoonotic pathogens found in dairy manure cause illness in both hosts (e.g., Salmonella) while other zoonotic pathogens, like Escherichia coli O157:H7, (enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)) cause illness only in humans. As a general rule, the gastrointestinal viruses found in dairy manure are not zoonotic. While there are exceptions (e.g., rare reports of bovine rotavirus infecting children), for the most part the viruses in dairy manure are not a human health concern. The primary concerns are the zoonotic bacteria and protozoa in dairy manure.

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadanaparthi, Sai Krishna Reddy

    Dairy and potato are two important agricultural commodities in Idaho. Both the dairy and potato processing industries produce a huge amount of waste which could cause environmental pollution. To minimize the impact of potential pollution associated with dairy manure (DM) and potato waste (PW), anaerobic co-digestion has been considered as one of the best treatment process. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste in terms of process stability, biogas generation, construction and operating costs, and potential revenue. For this purpose, I conducted 1) a literature review, 2) a lab study on anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure and potato waste at three different temperature ranges (ambient (20-25°C), mesophilic (35-37°C) and thermophilic (55-57°C) with five mixing ratios (DM:PW-100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60), and 3) a financial analysis for anaerobic digesters based on assumed different capital costs and the results from the lab co-digestion study. The literature review indicates that several types of organic waste were co-digested with DM. Dairy manure is a suitable base matter for the co-digestion process in terms of digestion process stability and methane (CH4) production (Chapter 2). The lab tests showed that co-digestion of DM with PW was better than digestion of DM alone in terms of biogas and CH4 productions (Chapter 3). The financial analysis reveals DM and PW can be used as substrate for full size anaerobic digesters to generate positive cash flow within a ten year time period. Based on this research, the following conclusions and recommendations were made: ▸ The ratio of DM:PW-80:20 is recommended at thermophilic temperatures and the ratio of DM:PW-90:10 was recommended at mesophilic temperatures for optimum biogas and CH4 productions. ▸ In cases of anaerobic digesters operated with electricity generation equipment (generators), low cost plug flow digesters (capital cost of 600/cow

  10. Impact of Anaerobic Digestion of Liquid Dairy Manure on Ammonia Volatilization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, K.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion (AD) on the mechanism of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure, in storage or treatment lagoon, prior to land application. Physical-chemical properties of liquid dairy manure, which may affect ammonia volatilization process, were determined before and after AD. The properties of interest included: particle size distribution (PSD), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), viscosity, pH, total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN), and ionic strength (IS). The overall mass transfer coefficient of ammonia (KoL) and the NH3 fraction of TAN (β) for the undigested (UD) and AD manures were then experimentally determined in a laboratory convective emission chamber (CEC) at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1 and fixed air temperature of 25 °C at liquid manure temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 °C. The PSD indicated non-normal left skewed distribution for both AD and UD manures particles, suggestive of heavier concentrations of particles towards the lower particle size range. The volume median diameters (VMD) for solids from UD and AD were not significantly different (p= 0.65), but the geometric standard deviations (GSD) were significantly different (p = 0.001), indicating slightly larger particles but more widely distributed solids in UD than AD manure. Results also indicated significantly higher pH, TAN, ionic strength (IS) and viscosity in AD manure. The KoL and β for AD manure determined under identical conditions (air temperature, liquid temperature, and airflow) were significantly higher (p > 0.05) than for UD manure. Overall, these findings suggest that AD of dairy manure significantly increased initial ammonia volatilization potential from liquid dairy manure; with the largest increase (~62%) emanating from increased ammonium dissociation. The initial flux of ammonia, during the experiment period, was ~84% more from AD than in UD dairy manure. Keywords. Process based models, mass transfer

  11. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha -1 for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha -1 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha -1 , respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha -1 , respectively). NO 3 - contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO 3 - loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg -1 silage) was significantly (Pleaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  13. Airborne pathogens from dairy manure aerial irrigation and the human health risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of liquid dairy manure by traveling gun or center pivot irrigation systems is becoming more common in Wisconsin because it offers several potential benefits: reduced road impacts from hauling, optimal timing for crop nutrient uptake, and reduced risks of manure runoff and groundwater con...

  14. Chemical P recovery from dairy manure using the Quick Wash process and use of low-P washed manure solids as soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large volumes of manure generated by intensive dairy production and their final land disposal is a significant environmental problem. Due to the imbalance of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) (4:1), emendation of soils with dairy manure entails a raise in available soil P levels beyond the crops' capa...

  15. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p rights reserved.

  16. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.; Chiu, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was investigated using an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor operated over a range of hydraulic retention time at various organic loading rates. Dairy manure provided nutrients and acted as a buffer to the cheese whey. Rates of production of methane from the mixture were between those of cheese whey and screened dairy manure and in agreement with calculated theoretical methane production rates. Methane production rate showed a linear relationship with the organic loading rate. The highest methane production rate was 3.74 liter methane litre/sup -1/ day/sup -1/. Reduction in the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 46.3% to 67.5%. Anaerobic digestion of such mixtures could be used as an initial waste treatment for cheese whey.

  17. Occurrence and transformation of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in dairy manure treated by advanced anaerobic digestion and conventional treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joshua S; Garner, Emily; Pruden, Amy; Aga, Diana S

    2018-05-01

    Manure treatment technologies are rapidly developing to minimize eutrophication of surrounding environments and potentially decrease the introduction of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) into the environment. While laboratory and pilot-scale manure treatment systems boast promising results, antibiotic and ARG removals in full-scale systems receiving continuous manure input have not been evaluated. The effect of treatment on ARGs is similarly lacking. This study examines the occurrence and transformation of sulfonamides, tetracyclines, tetracycline degradation products, and related ARGs throughout a full-scale advanced anaerobic digester (AAD) receiving continuous manure and antibiotic input. Manure samples were collected throughout the AAD system to evaluate baseline antibiotic and ARG input (raw manure), the effect of hygenization (post-pasteurized manure) and anaerobic digestion (post-digestion manure) on antibiotic and ARG levels. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the ARGs tet(O), tet(W), sul1 and sul2 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Significant reductions in the concentrations of chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and their degradation products were observed in manure liquids following treatment (p < 0.001), concomitant to significant increases in manure solids (p < 0.001). These results suggest sorption is the major removal route for tetracyclines during AAD. Significant decreases in the epimer-to-total residue ratios for chlortetracycline and tetracycline in manure solids further indicate degradation is desorption-limited. Moreover, sul1 and sul2 copies decreased significantly (p < 0.001) following AAD in the absence of sulfonamide antibiotics, while tetracyclines-resistant genes remained unchanged. A cross-sectional study of dairy farms utilizing natural aeration and liquid-solid separation treatments was additionally performed

  18. Dairy diet phosphorus and rainfall timing effects on runoff phosphorus from land-applied manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Laura P; Jokela, William E; Knapp, Joanne R

    2009-01-01

    Surface-applied dairy manure can increase P concentrations in runoff, which may contribute to eutrophication of lakes and streams. The amount of dietary P fed to dairy cows (Bos taurus) and the timing of a rain event after manure application may further affect runoff P losses. The objective of this study was to examine dietary P supplementation effects on manure and runoff P concentrations from rain events occurring at different time intervals after manure application. Manure from dairy cows fed an unsupplemented low P diet (LP; 3.6 g P kg(-1)) or a diet supplemented with either an inorganic (HIP; 4.4 g P kg(-1)) or an organic (HOP; 4.6 g P kg(-1)) source was hand-applied onto soil-packed pans at 56 wet Mg ha(-1). Thirty min of runoff was collected from simulated rain events (30 mm h(-1)) 2, 5, or 9 d after manure application. Total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from HIP and HOP diet manure from the 2-d rain were 46 and 31% greater than that of the LP diet. Runoff P concentrations from high P diets were numerically higher than that of the LP diet at 5 and 9 d after application, but differences were significant only for dissolved reactive P (DRP) at 5 d. Large decreases in runoff TP (89%) and DRP (65%) concentrations occurred with delay of rainfall from 2 d until 5 d. The proportion of TP as DRP increased as the time between manure application and runoff increased. Results showed that reducing dietary P and extending the time between manure application and a rain event can significantly reduce concentrations of TP and DRP in runoff.

  19. Centrifuge separation effect on bacterial indicator reduction in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zong; Carroll, Zachary S; Long, Sharon C; Roa-Espinosa, Aicardo; Runge, Troy

    2017-04-15

    Centrifugation is a commonly applied separation method for manure processing on large farms to separate solids and nutrients. Pathogen reduction is also an important consideration for managing manure. Appropriate treatment reduces risks from pathogen exposure when manure is used as soil amendments or the processed liquid stream is recycled to flush the barn. This study investigated the effects of centrifugation and polymer addition on bacterial indicator removal from the liquid fraction of manure slurries. Farm samples were taken from a manure centrifuge processing system. There were negligible changes of quantified pathogen indicator concentrations in the low-solids centrate compared to the influent slurry. To study if possible improvements could be made to the system, lab scale experiments were performed investigating a range of g-forces and flocculating polymer addition. The results demonstrated that polymer addition had a negligible effect on the indicator bacteria levels when centrifuged at high g forces. However, the higher g force centrifugation was capable of reducing bacterial indicator levels up to two-log 10 in the liquid stream of the manure, although at speeds higher than typical centrifuge operations currently used for manure processing applications. This study suggests manure centrifuge equipment could be redesigned to provide pathogen reduction to meet emerging issues, such as zoonotic pathogen control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling manure as cow bedding: potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Lech, Katharine. A.; Archer, Simon C.; Breen, James E.; Green, Martin J.; Ohnstad, Ian C.; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for a...

  1. Use and Environmental Occurrence of Antibiotics in Freestall Dairy Farms with Manured Forage Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collectio...

  2. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  3. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Influence of ash on the fiber composition of dried dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.B.; Van Kessel, J.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The ash content of dried dairy manures is a significant source of error in the determination of their fiber composition. - The objective of this work was to examine the role of ash in the compositional analysis of dried dairy manures. Ninety-nine dairy manures obtained from Connecticut, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia were dried at 60 deg. C, and ground to 20 mesh. Samples were analyzed for neutral and acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, total carbon, total nitrogen, and ash. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose were computed by difference. Results indicated that high ash contents (8-52% of dry matter) can dramatically and unpredictably alter various measures of fiber composition and are a significant source of error in the determination of manure composition and how it relates to mineralization or other compositional influenced factors. Also, while the ash content of the dried intact manure can easily be determined, it is difficult to estimate the ash contribution to the individual fiber determinations, especially if sequential assays are performed

  5. Characterizing the Performance of Gas-Permeable Membranes as an Ammonia Recovery Strategy from Anaerobically Digested Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, Melanie; VanderZaag, Andrew; Singh, Jessica; Burtt, Stephen; Crolla, Anna; Kinsley, Chris; MacDonald, J Douglas

    2017-10-07

    Capturing ammonia from anaerobically digested manure could simultaneously decrease the adverse effects of ammonia inhibition on biogas production, reduce reactive nitrogen (N) loss to the environment, and produce mineral N fertilizer as a by-product. In this study, gas permeable membranes (GPM) were used to capture ammonia from dairy manure and digestate by the diffusion of gaseous ammonia across the membrane where ammonia is captured by diluted acid, forming an aqueous ammonium salt. A lab-scale prototype using tubular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) GPM was used to (1) characterize the effect of total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration, temperature, and pH on the ammonia capture rate using GPM, and (2) to evaluate the performance of a GPM system in conditions similar to a mesophilic anaerobic digester. The GPM captured ammonia at a rate between 2.2 to 6.3% of gaseous ammonia in the donor solution per day. Capture rate was faster in anaerobic digestate than raw manure. The ammonia capture rate could be predicted using non-linear regression based on the factors of total ammonium nitrogen concentration, temperature, and pH. This use of membranes shows promise in reducing the deleterious impacts of ammonia on both the efficiency of biogas production and the release of reactive N to the environment.

  6. The fate and effect of monensin during anaerobic digestion of dairy manure under mesophilic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing concern about environmental impact of residual antibiotics and feed additives in the manure of treated animals. Monensin, a polyether ionophore coccidiostat, is the only feed additive permitted for use in the U.S. for lactating dairy cows. Previous research has shown that up to 5...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  8. Environmental and health impact by dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the potential environmental and health impact of dairy cattle livestock and manure management in the Czech Republic. We present a new approach for national assessments of the environmental impact of an agricultural sector. Emission estimates are combined with a

  9. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason

    2016-09-01

    Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  12. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-04-20

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents.

  13. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  14. Effects of dairy manure storage conditions on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 and listeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy manure is regularly applied to crop fields as a solid or liquid to improve the soil nutrient status. However, pathogens may survive during manure storage and enter the environment during application. In this study, three storage practices were evaluated to understand the survival patterns of E...

  15. Modelling agri-environmental contracting of Dutch dairy farms: the role of manure policies and lock-in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Polman, N.B.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of lock-in on the area contracted under an agri-environmental contract in Dutch dairy farming, using a mathematical programming model, and the interaction of these contracts with Dutch national manure policy. Stricter manure policies increase contract

  16. Dairy Manure as a Potential Feedstock for Cost-Effective Cellulosic Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic digestibility of undigested dairy manure to preliminarily assess its potential use as an inexpensive feedstock for cellulosic bioethanol production. The sulfite pretreatment was carried out in a factorial analysis using 163 to 197 °C for 3 to 37 min with 0.8% to 4.2% sulfuric acid combined with 2.6% to 9.4% sodium sulfite. These treatments were compared with other standard pretreatments of dilute acid, and hot and cold alkali pretreatments. This comparative study showed that the sulfite pretreatment, through its combined effects of hemicellulose and lignin removal and lignin sulfonation, is more effective than the diluted acid and alkali pretreatments to improve the enzymatic digestibility of dairy manure.

  17. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for spray irrigation of dairy manure based on an empirical fate and transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Stokdyk, Joel; Kieke, Burney A; Larson, Rebecca A; Firnstahl, Aaron; Rule, Ana M; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spray irrigation for land-applying livestock manure is increasing in the United States as farms become larger and economies of scale make manure irrigation affordable. Human health risks from exposure to zoonotic pathogens aerosolized during manure irrigation are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) estimate human health risks due to aerosolized zoonotic pathogens downwind of spray-irrigated dairy manure; and b) determine which factors (e.g., distance, weather conditions) have the greatest influence on risk estimates. METHODS: We sampled downwind air concentrations of manure-borne fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens during 21 full-scale dairy manure irri- gation events at three farms. We fit these data to hierarchical empirical models and used model outputs in a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to estimate risk [probability of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI)] for individuals exposed to spray-irrigated dairy manure containing Campylobacter jejuni, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), or Salmonella spp. RESULTS: Median risk estimates from Monte Carlo simulations ranged from 10−5 to 10−2 and decreased with distance from the source. Risk estimates for Salmonella or EHEC-related AGI were most sensitive to the assumed level of pathogen prevalence in dairy manure, while risk estimates for C. jejuni were not sensitive to any single variable. Airborne microbe concentrations were negatively associated with distance and positively associated with wind speed, both of which were retained in models as a significant predictor more often than relative humidity, solar irradiation, or temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Our model-based estimates suggest that reducing pathogen prevalence and concentration in source manure would reduce the risk of AGI from exposure to manure irrigation, and that increasing the distance from irrigated manure (i.e., setbacks) and limiting irrigation to times of low wind speed may also reduce risk.

  18. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noelle R. Noyes; Xiang Yang; Lyndsey M. Linke; Roberta J. Magnuson; Shaun R. Cook; Rahat Zaheer; Hua Yang; Dale R. Woerner; Ifigenia Geornaras; Jessica A. McArt; Sheryl P. Gow; Jaime Ruiz; Kenneth L. Jones; Christina A. Boucher; Tim A. McAllister

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly i...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from dairy manure management: a review of field-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Justine J; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-02-01

    Livestock manure management accounts for almost 10% of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture globally, and contributes an equal proportion to the US methane emission inventory. Current emissions inventories use emissions factors determined from small-scale laboratory experiments that have not been compared to field-scale measurements. We compiled published data on field-scale measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from working and research dairies and compared these to rates predicted by the IPCC Tier 2 modeling approach. Anaerobic lagoons were the largest source of methane (368 ± 193 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)), more than three times that from enteric fermentation (~120 kg CH4 hd(-1) yr(-1)). Corrals and solid manure piles were large sources of nitrous oxide (1.5 ± 0.8 and 1.1 ± 0.7 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1), respectively). Nitrous oxide emissions from anaerobic lagoons (0.9 ± 0.5 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) and barns (10 ± 6 kg N2O hd(-1) yr(-1)) were unexpectedly large. Modeled methane emissions underestimated field measurement means for most manure management practices. Modeled nitrous oxide emissions underestimated field measurement means for anaerobic lagoons and manure piles, but overestimated emissions from slurry storage. Revised emissions factors nearly doubled slurry CH4 emissions for Europe and increased N2O emissions from solid piles and lagoons in the United States by an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that current greenhouse gas emission factors generally underestimate emissions from dairy manure and highlight liquid manure systems as promising target areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  1. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E.; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Ray, Partha P.; Smitherman, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function. PMID:28356447

  2. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Solid-State Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure from a Sawdust-Bedded Pack Barn: Moisture Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bedded pack manure has long been considered an unsuitable feedstock for conventional anaerobic digestion systems due to its high solids content. However, solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD provides an opportunity to generate methane from such high-solids feedstocks. This study was conducted to determine the influence of moisture content on the digestion of bedded pack dairy manure using SS-AD. Mixtures of sawdust bedding and dairy manure were prepared with moisture contents (MCs of 70, 76, and 83% and digested at 37 °C for 85 days. The performance of digesters containing manure at 83% MC was 1.3 to 1.4-fold higher than that of digesters containing 70% MC manure in terms of volatile solids (VS reduction and biogas production. VS reduction rates were 55 to 75% and cumulative methane yield ranged from 64 to 90 NmL (gVS−1. These values are lower than those from SS-AD of fresh manure and this is likely due to the partial decomposition of biodegradable materials during the two to three-month period before the manure was removed from the barn. However, in terms of efficient management of farm odors and providing a renewable energy source for heating, SS-AD of bedded pack manure offers a potential alternative to the conventional composting systems currently in use.

  4. Perspectives for manure digestion in Dutch dairy cow and pig farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dooren, H.J.C.; Van Lent, A.J.H.

    2001-01-01

    At the Research Institute for Animal Husbandry (PV) a desk study has been conducted on the feasibility of anaerobic manure digestion for individual Dutch dairy and pig farms, based on data from the literature, from internet and from contacting experts in the Netherlands and abroad. PV carried out a preliminary study back in 1997, during which a model was developed for calculating the economic impact of manure digestion for various farm scenarios. In the latest study new information was incorporated into the model. The improved model can do calculations for pig farms and can calculate environmental impacts. The calculations assume the total energy from biogas produced by the digestion is used to generate electricity. The investment in the unit must be recouped from the savings made on purchasing electricity and natural gas, and by supplying electricity to the grid [nl

  5. Affect of dairy cow manure, urine, and slurry on NO, CO, and CH emissions from Pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C.; Varner, R. K.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is responsible for roughly 25% of total anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO) where they account for roughly 40 and 80 percent of anthropogenic emissions of their gas, respectively. Measuring and modeling of these gases has remained difficult however as management varies between farms and NO fluxes have been difficult to link to climate and site conditions. Most of these NO fluxes occur during soil freeze-thaw and wetting-drying cycles as well as fertilizer addition moments, all of which are difficult to measure and harder yet to model. Thus the NO flux remains poorly understood and may be underestimated in literature. This provides a problem in agriculture emissions as N use efficiency has been suggested as a proxy for farm scale emissions. On a farm scale these large fluxes of NO from soil "hot moments" can account for up to 60% of the total GHG emissions and thus it is essential to capture the full flux. At the University of New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station's (NHAES) organic dairy farm a manure fertilizer experiment was conducted. Manure, urine, and slurry from the UNH dairy farms were collected, analyzed, and applied to pasture plots in May 2012 in order to examine NO flux hot moments. Sites were measured at least bi-weekly with manual static flux chambers taken with soil temperature and moisture along with measurements for soil inorganic N, soil C:N, plant biomass and C:N, and soil pH. Gas samples were analyzed for CO, CH, and NO. Emissions were compared with other fluxes from the farm ecosystem including; corn silage, free stall bedding, composting and solid manure, and a manure slurry tank.

  6. The effect of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Annamaria; Gusmara, Claudia; Gardoni, Davide; Zaninelli, Mauro; Tambone, Fulvia; Sala, Vittorio; Guarino, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the influence of anaerobic digestion and storage on indicator microorganisms in swine and dairy excreta. Samples were collected every 90 days for 15 months at eight farms, four pig, and four dairy farms, four of them having a biogas plant. Moreover, to evaluate storage effects on samples, 20 l of manure and slurry taken at each farm (digested manure only in farms with a biogas plant) were stored in a controlled climatic chamber at 18 °C, for 6 months. The bacterial load and the chemical-physical characteristics of excreta were evaluated at each sampling time, stored slurry, and manure were sampled and analyzed every 2 months. A high variability of the concentration of bacteria in the different excreta types was observed during the experiment, mainly depending on the type and time of treatment. No sample revealed either the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or of Salmonella, usually linked to the temporary rearing of infected animals in facilities. Anaerobic digestion and storage affected in a significant way the reduction of indicator bacteria like lactobacilli, coliforms, and streptococci. Anaerobic digestion lowered coliforms in pig slurry (- 2.80 log, P manure (- 2.44 log, P < 0.001) and in pig slurry (- 1.43 log, P < 0.05), and lactobacilli in pig slurry (- 3.03 log, P < 0.05). Storage lowered coliforms and the other indicators counts, in particular in fresh wastes, while clostridia did not show a reduction in concentration.

  7. Runoff losses of sediment and phosphorus from no-till and cultivated soils receiving dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbree, David A; Duiker, Sjoerd W; Kleinman, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    Managing manure in no-till systems is a water quality concern because surface application of manure can enrich runoff with dissolved phosphorus (P), and incorporation by tillage increases particulate P loss. This study compared runoff from well-drained and somewhat poorly drained soils under corn (Zea mays, L.) production that had been in no-till for more than 10 yr. Dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure was broadcast into a fall planted cover crop before no-till corn planting or incorporated by chisel/disk tillage in the absence of a cover crop. Rainfall simulations (60 mm h(-1)) were performed after planting, mid-season, and post-harvest in 2007 and 2008. In both years and on both soils, no-till yielded significantly less sediment than did chisel/disking. Relative effects of tillage on runoff and P loss differed with soil. On the well-drained soil, runoff depths from no-till were much lower than with chisel/disking, producing significantly lower total P loads (22-50% less). On the somewhat poorly drained soil, there was little to no reduction in runoff depth with no-till, and total P loads were significantly greater than with chisel/disking (40-47% greater). Particulate P losses outweighed dissolved P losses as the major concern on the well-drained soil, whereas dissolved P from surface applied manure was more important on the somewhat poorly drained soil. This study confirms the benefit of no-till to erosion and total P runoff control on well-drained soils but highlights trade-offs in no-till management on somewhat poorly drained soils where the absence of manure incorporation can exacerbate total P losses.

  8. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The Addition of Hatchery Liquid Waste to Dairy Manure Improves Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WRT Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the optimal inclusion level of liquid egg hatchery waste for the anaerobic co-digestion of dairy cattle manure. A completely randomized experimental was applied, with seven treatments (liquid hatchery waste to cattle manure ratios of0: 100, 5:95, 10:90, 15:85, 20:80, 25:75 and 30:70, with five replicates (batch digester model each. The evaluated variables were disappearance of total solids (TS, volatile solids (VS, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and specific production of biogas and of methane. Maximum TS and VS disappearance of 41.3% and 49.6%, were obtained at 15.5% and 16.0% liquid hatchery waste inclusion levels. The addition of 22.3% liquid hatchery considerably reduced NDF substrate content (53.2%. Maximum specific biogas production was obtained with 17% liquid hatchery waste, with the addition of 181.7 and 229.5 L kg-1TS and VS, respectively. The highest methane production, at 120.1 and 151.8 L CH4 kg-1TS and VS, was obtained with the inclusion of 17.5 and 18.0% liquid hatchery waste, respectively. The addition of liquid hatchery waste atratios of up to 15.5%in co-digestion with cattle manure reduced solid and fiber levels in the effluent, and improved biogas and methane production.

  10. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  11. Use and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in freestall dairy farms with manured forage fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A; Loftin, Keith A; Meyer, Michael T; Harter, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels.

  12. Use and environmental occurrence of pharmaceuticals in freestall dairy farms with manured forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoko; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Harter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Environmental releases of antibiotics from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are of increasing regulatory concern. This study investigates the use and occurrence of antibiotics in dairy CAFOs and their potential transport into first-encountered groundwater. On two dairies we conducted four seasonal sampling campaigns, each across 13 animal production and waste management systems and associated environmental pathways: application to animals, excretion to surfaces, manure collection systems, soils, and shallow groundwater. Concentrations of antibiotics were determined using on line solid phase extraction (OLSPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) for water samples, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) LC/MS/MS with ESI for solid samples. A variety of antibiotics were applied at both farms leading to antibiotics excretion of several hundred grams per farm per day. Sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and their epimers/isomers, and lincomycin were most frequently detected. Yet, despite decades of use, antibiotic occurrence appeared constrained to within farm boundaries. The most frequent antibiotic detections were associated with lagoons, hospital pens, and calf hutches. When detected below ground, tetracyclines were mainly found in soils, whereas sulfonamides were found in shallow groundwater reflecting key differences in their physicochemical properties. In manure lagoons, 10 compounds were detected including tetracyclines and trimethoprim. Of these 10, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethazine, and lincomycin were found in shallow groundwater directly downgradient from the lagoons. Antibiotics were sporadically detected in field surface samples on fields with manure applications, but not in underlying sandy soils. Sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine were detected in shallow groundwater near field flood irrigation gates, but at highly attenuated levels.

  13. Influence of composted dairy manure and perennial forage on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions during transition into organic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted dairy manure (CDM) is among the management practices used in transitioning from a conventional to an organic agricultural system. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the impact of several organic nitrogen (N) sources on: (i) soil organic C (SOC) and soil total N (STN) content; (ii...

  14. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  15. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entry, James A. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)]. E-mail: jentry@nwisrl.ars.usda.gov; Leytem, April B. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States); Verwey, Sheryl [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects.

  16. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, James A.; Leytem, April B.; Verwey, Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects

  17. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  18. Anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of a mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The integrated anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment system consisted of an anaerobic rotating biological reactor and an aerobic sequencing batch reactor. Three sequencing batch reactors were used in the aerobic process. A mixture of cheese whey and dairy manure was successfully digested in an anaerobic rotating biological contactor which served as a first step in the waste treatment process. The methane production rate, which is dependent on the organic loading rate, ranged between 1.43 and 3.74 litres methane per litre reactor per day. As the organic loading rate increased, total methane production also increased. In the anaerobic digestion step, over 46% of chemical oxygen demand was removed. The potential pollutants were further destroyed by the aerobic treatment. More than 93% of the remaining chemical oxygen demand was removed in the sequencing batch reactors operated at 22/sup 0/C. The treatment efficiency was lower for the aerobic reactor operated at a lower temperature (10/sup 0/C). (author).

  19. Proteomic profiling of an undefined microbial consortium cultured in fermented dairy manure: Methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-03-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA; bioplastics) from waste or surplus feedstocks using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) is a growing field within mixed culture biotechnology. This study aimed to optimize a 2DE workflow to investigate the proteome dynamics of an MMC synthesizing PHA from fermented dairy manure. To mitigate the challenges posed to effective 2DE by this complex sample matrix, the bacterial biomass was purified using Accudenz gradient centrifugation (AGC) before protein extraction. The optimized 2DE method yielded high-quality gels suitable for quantitative comparative analysis and subsequent protein identification by LC-MS/MS. The optimized 2DE method could be adapted to other proteomic investigations involving MMC in complex organic or environmental matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  1. Recycling manure as cow bedding: Potential benefits and risks for UK dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Katharine A; Archer, Simon C; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J; Ohnstad, Ian C; Tuer, Sally; Bradley, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    Material obtained from physical separation of slurry (recycled manure solids; RMS) has been used as bedding for dairy cows in dry climates in the US since the 1970s. Relatively recently, the technical ability to produce drier material has led to adoption of the practice in Europe under different climatic conditions. This review collates the evidence available on benefits and risks of using RMS bedding on dairy farms, with a European context in mind. There was less evidence than expected for anecdotal claims of improved cow comfort. Among animal health risks, only udder health has received appreciable attention. There are some circumstantial reports of difficulties of maintaining udder health on RMS, but no large scale or long term studies of effects on clinical and subclinical mastitis have been published. Existing reports do not give consistent evidence of inevitable problems, nor is there any information on clinical implications for other diseases. The scientific basis for guidelines on management of RMS bedding is limited. Decisions on optimum treatment and management may present conflicts between controls of different groups of organisms. There is no information on the influence that such 'recycling' of manure may have on pathogen virulence. The possibility of influence on genetic material conveying antimicrobial resistance is a concern, but little understood. Should UK or other non-US farmers adopt RMS, they are advised to do so with caution, apply the required strategies for risk mitigation, maintain strict hygiene of bed management and milking practices and closely monitor the effects on herd health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of garbage, screened swine and dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Tang, Yue-Qin; Matsui, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Kida, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Methane fermentation characteristics of garbage, swine manure (SM), dairy cattle manure (DCM) and mixtures of these wastes were studied. SM and DCM showed much lower volatile total solid (VTS) digestion efficiencies and methane yield than those of garbage. VTS digestion efficiency of SM was significantly increased when it was co-digested with garbage (Garbage: SM=1:1). Co-digestion of garbage, SM and DCM with respect to the relative quantity of each waste discharged in the Kikuchi (1: 16: 27) and Aso (1: 19: 12) areas indicated that co-digestion with garbage would improve the digestion characteristic of SM and DCM as far as the ratio of DCM in the wastes was maintained below a certain level. When the mixed waste (Garbage: SM: DCM=1:19:12) was treated using a thermophilic UAF reactor, methanogens responsible for the methane production were Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina species. Bacterial species in the phylum Firmicutes were dominant bacteria responsible for the digestion of these wastes. As the percentage of garbage in the mixed wastes used in this study was low (2-3%) and the digestion efficiency of DCM was obviously improved, the co-digestion of SM and DCM with limited garbage was a prospective method to treat the livestock waste effectively and was an attractive alternative technology for the construction of a sustainable environment and society in stock raising area.

  3. N2O fluxes in soils of contrasting textures fertilized with liquid and solid dairy cattle manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, P.; Angers, D.A.; Chantigny, M.H.; Gagnon, B.; Bertrand, N.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from loamy and clay soils fertilized with liquid or solid dairy cattle manures and synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers were measured in this study in order to determine if the use of manure for silage maize production increased N 2 O emissions when compared with the application of N-based fertilizers. Manures and ammonium nitrate were applied on the soil surface and sampled. Silage corn was then planted over a period of 2 years between 2002 and 2003. Soil-surface fluxes of N 2 O were measured using non-flow through, non-steady-state chambers. Measurements were taken weekly over the study period, and all air samples were analyzed using gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture levels were also recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analyses were used to examine the effects of manure type on soil N 2 O concentrations; soil-surface N 2 O fluxes; soil mineral N content; soil temperature; and soil water content. Results of the study showed that between 60 and 90 per cent of N 2 O emissions occurred during the first 40 days of fertilizer application. The fertilization of the silage corn crop with dairy cattle manure resulted in N 2 O emissions greater than, or equal to, soils amended with synthetic N. Maize yields were also lower in the manured fields. No difference in N 2 O emissions was observed between the liquid and the solid manures. It was concluded that the main source of N 2 0 was nitrification in the loamy soils, and denitrification in clay soils. 41 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  5. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  6. Reactor performance and energy analysis of solid state anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with corn stover and tomato residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Xu, Fuqing; Li, Yu; Lu, Jiaxin; Li, Shuyan; Shah, Ajay; Zhang, Xuehua; Zhang, Hongyu; Gong, Xiaoyan; Li, Guoxue

    2018-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion is commonly believed to be benefical for biogas production. However, additional of co-substrates may require additional energy inputs and thus affect the overall energy efficiency of the system. In this study, reactor performance and energy analysis of solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of tomato residues with dairy manure and corn stover were investigated. Different fractions of tomato residues (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100%, based on volatile solid weight (VS)) were co-digested with dairy manure and corn stover at 15% total solids. Energy analysis based on experimental data was conducted for three scenarios: SS-AD of 100% dairy manure, SS-AD of binary mixture (60% dairy manure and 40% corn stover, VS based), and SS-AD of ternary mixture (36% dairy manure, 24% corn stover, and 40% tomato residues, VS based). For each scenario, the energy requirements for individual process components, including feedstock collection and transportation, feedstock pretreatment, biogas plant operation, digestate processing and handling, and the energy production were examined. Results showed that the addition of 20 and 40% tomato residues increased methane yield compared to that of the dairy manure and corn stover mixture, indicating that the co-digestion could balance nutrients and improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion. The energy required for heating substrates had the dominant effect on the total energy consumption. The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction (57.0%), methane yield (379.1 L/kg VS feed ), and net energy production were achieved with the mixture of 24% corn stover, 36% dairy manure, and 40% tomato residues. Thus, the extra energy input for adding tomato residues for co-digestion could be compensated by the increase of methane yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Listeria species in raw milk and traditional dairy products in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shamloo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk and traditional non-pasteurized dairy products in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 292 samples of raw milk and traditional dairy were examined for the presence of Listeria spp. using a two-step selective enrichment recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. L. monocytogenes strains were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results: Of 292 samples, 21 (7.14% and 4 (1.47% were positive for Listeria spp. and pathogenic L. monocytogenes, respectively. The prevalence of Listeria spp. in raw milk, ice cream, cream, and freni were 5.91 (5.49%, 12.63 (19.04%, 3.27 (11.11% and 1.25 (4%, respectively. Listeria was not detected from yogurt, butter, Kashk, and cheese. Listeria innocua at 16.21 (5.44% was the most prevalent species isolated, followed by L. monocytogenes at 4.21 (19% and L. seeligeri at 1.21 (4.7%. All strains of L. monocytogenes identified by biochemical tests were also confirmed by PCR. Conclusion: The study shows the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw milk and traditional dairy products sold in the market. Consumption of raw milk with mild heat treatment or its usage in traditional dishes could pose serious health problems due to lack of appropriate control measures. The lack of knowledge on the risks of listeriosis transmission indicates the need for implementation of a food safety education program. In addition, the Iranian food safety authorities should urgently set up an effective standard to screen all susceptible food products for the presence of Listeria.

  8. Chemical composition of leachate of dairy manure mixed with fluidized bed combustion residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrashidi, M.A.; Baligar, V.C.; Korcak, R.F.; Persaud, N.; Ritchey, K.D. [USDA-ARS-ASWCRL, Beaver, WV (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the hypothesis that using Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) residue to stabilize a dairy feedlot surface (DFS) could enhance element attenuation and minimize the environmental impact on water quality. The laboratory leaching experiment included FBC, dairy manure (DM), and DM/FBC treatments. The leaching process consisted of 10 weekly additions of distilled water, each of 460 mL. Using FBC with DM decreased the concentration of most elements (e.g., P. N, K, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, As and Se) in the leachate. A decrease ranging from 5.6 to 100% was obtained. The presence of high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is believed to enhance element attenuation by FBC minerals (e.g., Fe-, and Al-oxides). Several mechanisms involved in this process are proposed: (1) formation of insoluble metal-organic complexes; (2) sorption of soluble organic and inorganic species on mineral surfaces; and (3) precipitation of soluble inorganic species. These mechanisms are discussed in relation to each of the measured elements. On the other hand, using FBC with DM appeared to increase the concentration of B (235%), S (47.3%), and Mg (36.5%) in the leachate. Reactions of DM with FBC minerals to form soluble organic complexes were suggested to explain B and S increases. The increase in leached Mg could be attributed to the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The results provide evidence that using FBC to stabilize DFS has the advantage of immobilizing a large portion of most elements present in DM leachate. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Chemical composition of leachate of dairy manure mixed with fluidized bed combustion residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrashidi, M.A.; Baligar, V.C.; Korcak, R.F.; Persaud, N.; Ritchey, K.D.

    1999-08-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the hypothesis that using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residue to stabilize a dairy feedlot surface (DFS) could enhance element attenuation and minimize the environmental impact on water quality. The laboratory leaching experiment included FBC, dairy manure (DM), and DM/FBC treatments. The leaching process consisted of 10 weekly additions of distilled water, each of 460 mL. Using FBC with DM decreased the concentration of most elements (e.g., P, N, K, Ca, Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, As, and Se) in the leachate. A decrease ranging from 5.6 to 100% was obtained. The presence of high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is believed to enhance element attenuation by FBC minerals. Several mechanisms involved in this process are proposed: (1) formation of insoluble metal-organic complexes; (2) sorption of soluble organic and inorganic species on mineral surfaces; and (3) precipitation of soluble inorganic species. These mechanisms are discussed in relation to each of the measured elements. On the other hand, using FBC with DM appeared to increase the concentration of B, S, and Mg in the leachate. Reactions of DOM with FBC minerals to form soluble organic complexes were suggested to explain B and S increases. The increase in leached Mg could be attributed to the presence of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Their results provide evidence that using FBC to stabilize DFS has the advantage of immobilizing a large portion of most elements present in DM leachate.

  10. Enhancing biomethane production from flush dairy manure with Turkey processing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogejo, J.A.; Li, L. [Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the quantity and quality of biogas produced by co-digesting flushed dairy manure (FDM) and turkey processing wastewater (TPW). An attached growth digester with working volume of 15 L and a 3 L head space was operated at a 5 d hydraulic retention time using five feed mixes containing 100, 67, 50, 33, and 0% FDM by volume. The biogas yield ranged from 0.072 to 0.8 m{sup 3}[gVS{sup -1}] and the methane content (quality) of the gas ranging from 56% to 70%. Both the quantity and quality of the biogas increased as the proportion of TPW in the feed increased. An energy balance for the digester based on a dairy farm with 150 animals, showed that augmenting FDM with TPW at 1:1 and 1:2 ratios, feeds C and D, respectively, produced biogas with net positive energy to all year round. The gas produced was enough to run a 50 kW generator to produce electricity for about 5.5 and 9 h for the 1:1 and 1:2 feed mixes. However, the economics were not favorable if the benefits of the digester are based only on the value electricity to be produced. Either, other possible revenues such as carbon credit, renewable energy credits, green tags for electricity, putting a value to the environmental benefits of AD should be considered or subsidies from grants or other incentives programs to make the system economically viable. (author)

  11. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors and the influence of space velocity and biomass concentration on methane production for liquid dairy manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, James M.; Safferman, Steven I.

    2014-01-01

    Two pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) and a control completely mixed digester (CMD) were constructed to evaluate the influence of space velocity and biomass concentration on methane production for sand separated dairy manure. A negative impact on methane production resulted with operating the AnMBR system at 972 μHz–2960 μHz but no impact was found when operating at 69 μHz and 312 μHz. Operating at 69 μHz–350 μHz is realistic for a field installation. Despite the higher biomass concentration, the methane production of the AnMBRs was nearly equal to the CMD. An AnMBR with 69 μHz was operated equivalent to a CMD by returning all permeate to the digester tank and removing excess biomass directly from the reactor tank resulting in a hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to the solids retention time (SRT). When using sand separated dairy manure and an HRT (and equal SRT) of 12 d, both systems produced methane at an equal rate, suggesting that the pump/membrane system did not influence methane production. The most likely reason was mass transfer limitations of hydrolytic enzymes. Based on methane production and volatile fatty acids analysis, it appears the fermentable substrate available for degradation was similar. The AnMBR proved to have benefit as part of an integrated nutrient management system that produced water that is virtually free of particulate nutrients, especially phosphorus. This enables the irrigation of the water to crops that need nitrogen and the efficient movement of phosphorus, as a solid, to needed locations. - Highlights: • Manure AnMBRs with a high space velocity inhibit methane production. • Manure AnMBRs with a low space velocity perform similar to conventional digesters. • Decoupled HRT and SRT in manure AnMBRs do not increase methane production. • Ultrafiltration membranes effectively partitioned manure nutrients from the liquid. • Manure does not foul ultrafiltration membranes and require mild

  12. Agriculture, trade and the environment: Linkages in the dairy sector - a comparative study of the cost impact of manure management regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in manure control regulations on the competitiveness of dairy cattle producers, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might influence free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat narrowly as the regulations that concern the storage, disposal and application of manure because nutrient overload is commonly viewed as the key environmental issue of the livestock industry. We identify and c...

  13. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, Ryan A., E-mail: rblauste@ufl.edu [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hill, Robert L. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Micallef, Shirley A. [Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A. [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h{sup −1} of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff

  14. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  15. Analysing trade-offs between milk, feed and manure production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Sabrina; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The abolition of milk quota fuels environmental concerns in the Netherlands. A microeconomic model is developed to analyse the technical relations between milk, roughage and manure production. Production functions for milk, feed and roughage are estimated based on milk quota and manure constraints.

  16. Influence of raw milk quality on processed dairy products: How do raw milk quality test results relate to product quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Steven C; Martin, Nicole H; Barbano, David M; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the influence of raw milk quality on the quality of processed dairy products and offers a perspective on the merits of investing in quality. Dairy farmers are frequently offered monetary premium incentives to provide high-quality milk to processors. These incentives are most often based on raw milk somatic cell and bacteria count levels well below the regulatory public health-based limits. Justification for these incentive payments can be based on improved processed product quality and manufacturing efficiencies that provide the processor with a return on their investment for high-quality raw milk. In some cases, this return on investment is difficult to measure. Raw milks with high levels of somatic cells and bacteria are associated with increased enzyme activity that can result in product defects. Use of raw milk with somatic cell counts >100,000cells/mL has been shown to reduce cheese yields, and higher levels, generally >400,000 cells/mL, have been associated with textural and flavor defects in cheese and other products. Although most research indicates that fairly high total bacteria counts (>1,000,000 cfu/mL) in raw milk are needed to cause defects in most processed dairy products, receiving high-quality milk from the farm allows some flexibility for handling raw milk, which can increase efficiencies and reduce the risk of raw milk reaching bacterial levels of concern. Monitoring total bacterial numbers in regard to raw milk quality is imperative, but determining levels of specific types of bacteria present has gained increasing importance. For example, spores of certain spore-forming bacteria present in raw milk at very low levels (e.g., products to levels that result in defects. With the exception of meeting product specifications often required for milk powders, testing for specific spore-forming groups is currently not used in quality incentive programs in the United States but is used in other countries (e.g., the

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Component optimization of dairy manure vermicompost, straw, and peat in seedling compressed substrates using simplex-centroid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longyuan; Cao, Hongliang; Yuan, Qiaoxia; Luoa, Shuai; Liu, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Vermicomposting is a promising method to disposal dairy manures, and the dairy manure vermicompost (DMV) to replace expensive peat is of high value in the application of seedling compressed substrates. In this research, three main components: DMV, straw, and peat, are conducted in the compressed substrates, and the effect of individual components and the corresponding optimal ratio for the seedling production are significant. To address these issues, the simplex-centroid experimental mixture design is employed, and the cucumber seedling experiment is conducted to evaluate the compressed substrates. Results demonstrated that the mechanical strength and physicochemical properties of compressed substrates for cucumber seedling can be well satisfied with suitable mixture ratio of the components. Moreover, DMV, straw, and peat) could be determined at 0.5917:0.1608:0.2475 when the weight coefficients of the three parameters (shoot length, root dry weight, and aboveground dry weight) were 1:1:1. For different purpose, the optimum ratio can be little changed on the basis of different weight coefficients. Compressed substrate is lump and has certain mechanical strength, produced by application of mechanical pressure to the seedling substrates. It will not harm seedlings when bedding out the seedlings, since the compressed substrate and seedling are bedded out together. However, there is no one using the vermicompost and agricultural waste components of compressed substrate for vegetable seedling production before. Thus, it is important to understand the effect of individual components to seedling production, and to determine the optimal ratio of components.

  19. Changes in biochemical and microbiological parameters during the period of rapid composting of dairy manure with rice chaff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Hongsheng; Xu, Dabing; Tang, Zhu; Yu, Guanghui; Xu, Zhihui; Shen, Qirong

    2011-10-01

    Various parameters were measured during the period of composting of dairy manure and rice chaff in different ratios (dairy manure/rice chaff=V/V, pile 1: 75/25; pile 2: 80/20; pile 3: 85/15) to evaluate their suitability as indicators for the composting process. The temperature in pile 1 increased rapidly and remained above 60 °C for 30 days, while the temperature in pile 3 increased slowly relative to the other two piles. Furthermore, the degradation of organic substrates, as indicated by the reduction of C/N ratio, was rapid in pile 1 (below 20% 28 days after beginning of the composting). The major fluctuations of various water-soluble fractions in all piles were observed during the first 3 weeks, and the results in general showed that the highest microbial populations and enzymatic activities also appeared in this phase. Various parameters indicated that the rapid composting method was a feasible one for treating agricultural wastes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  1. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  2. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  3. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  4. Agriculture, trade and the environment: Linkages in the dairy sector - a comparative study of the cost impact of manure management regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possible effects of differences in manure control regulations on the competitiveness of dairy cattle producers, and hence to what extent environmental regulations might influence free trade in this market. We understand environmental regulations somewhat narrowly...

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics and methanogen communities in swine and dairy manure storage tanks: spatio-temporal variations and impact on methanogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maialen; Gagnon, Nathalie; Topp, Edward; Masse, Lucie; Massé, Daniel I; Talbot, Guylaine

    2013-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions represent a major environmental problem associated with the management of manure from the livestock industry. Methane is the primary GHG emitted during manure outdoor storage. In this paper, the variability of two swine and two dairy manure storage tanks was surveyed, in terms of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The impact of the inter-tank and spatio-temporal variations of these parameters on the methanogenic activity of manure was ascertained. A Partial Least Square regression was carried out, which demonstrated that physico-chemical as well as microbiological parameters had a major influence on the methanogenic activity. Among the 19 parameters included in the regression, the concentrations of VFAs had the strongest negative influence on the methane emission rate of manure, resulting from their well-known inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of two amplicons in archaeal fingerprints was found to positively influence the methanogenic activity, suggesting that Methanoculleus spp. and possibly Methanosarcina spp. are major contributors to methanogenesis in storage tanks. This work gave insights into the mechanisms, which drive methanogenesis in swine and dairy manure storage tanks. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Roelcke, Marco [Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH 4 and N 2 O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH 4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO 2 -eq of CH 4 and N 2 O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH 4 emissions dominated the CO 2 -eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH 4 emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH 4 and N 2 O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO 2 -eq emissions but tended to grow

  8. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  9. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  10. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-08-01

    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of mixing on biogas production during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of screened dairy manure in a Pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, Carlos; Tejero, Inaki [Department of Sciences and Techniques of Water and Environment, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rico, Jose Luis; Munoz, Noelia; Gomez, Beatriz [Department of Chemical Engineering and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The effect of mixing on biogas production of a 1.5-m{sup 3} pilot continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) processing screened dairy manure was evaluated. Mixing was carried out by recirculation of reactor content with a mono pump. The experiment was conducted at a controlled temperature of 37{+-}1 C and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 and 10 days. The effect of continuous and intermittent operation of the recirculation pump on biogas production was studied. At 10 days of HRT, the results showed a minimal influence of recirculation rate on biogas production and that continuous recirculation did not improve reactor performance. At 20 days of HRT, the recirculation rate did not affect reactor performance. Combination of low solid content in feed animal slurry and long HRTs results in minimal mixing requirements for anaerobic digestion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Farm-scale thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure with a biodiesel byproduct in cold regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamanohiarisoamanana, Fetra J.; Yamashiro, Takaki; Ihara, Ikko; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Nishida, Takehiro; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-digestion of dairy manure and crude glycerin was conducted using a 60 m"3 reactor. • The highest methane yield was 0.323 m"3/kgVS obtained at 4.2% (v/v) of crude glycerin. • The optimum organic loading rate for crude glycerol was 1.32 kgVS_C_G/m"3 d. • Reactor energy self-sufficiency was observed with net energy output of 25 kW h/d. - Abstract: Conversion of organic wastes into applicable energy sources is the best way to improve organic waste management. In this study, the performance of thermophilic co-digestion of dairy manure (DM) and crude glycerol (CG) in a 60-m"3 farm-scale biogas digester located in a cold region was investigated during the winter. Compared to the anaerobic digestion of DM alone, the methane production increased by approximately twofold during co-digestion of DM and CG. The highest methane yield was 0.323 m"3/kgVS obtained at 4.2% (v/v) of CG. Despite the increase in methane production with organic loading rate, the methane yield of CG reduced remarkably at 2.64 kgVS_C_G/m"3 d, while the highest was at 1.32 kgVS_C_G/m"3 d. During the co-digestion, a net energy at an average of 25 kWh/d was obtained for farm operation, whereas a supply of kerosene and electricity from national grid were required for the digester and farm operations during anaerobic digestion of DM. During winter, the improvement of biogas yield through the addition of CG enabled the sustainability of a farm-scale biogas production system and reduced its environmental impact.

  13. Nutrients and sediment in frozen-ground runoff from no-till fields receiving liquid-dairy and solid-beef manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiskey, Matthew J.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Frame, Dennis R.; Madison, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrients and sediment in surface runoff from frozen agricultural fields were monitored within three small (16.0 ha [39.5 ac] or less), adjacent basins at a no-till farm in southwest Wisconsin during four winters from 2003 to 2004 through 2006 to 2007. Runoff depths and flow-weighted constituent concentrations were compared to determine the impacts of surface-applied liquid-dairy or solid-beef manure to frozen and/or snow-covered ground. Despite varying the manure type and the rate and timing of applications, runoff depths were not significantly different among basins within each winter period. Sediment losses were low (generally less than 22 kg ha−1 [20 lb ac−1] in any year) and any statistical differences in sediment concentrations among basins were not related to the presence or absence of manure or the amount of runoff. Concentrations and losses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were significantly increased in basins that had either manure type applied less than one week preceding runoff. These increases occurred despite relatively low application rates. Lower concentrations and losses were measured in basins that had manure applied in fall and early winter and an extended period of time (months) had elapsed before the first runoff event. The highest mean, flow-weighted concentrations of total nitrogen (31.8 mg L−1) and total phosphorus (10.9 mg L−1) occurred in winter 2003 to 2004, when liquid-dairy manure was applied less than one week before runoff. On average, dissolved phosphorus accounted for over 80% of all phosphorus measured in runoff during frozen-ground periods. The data collected as part of this study add to the limited information on the quantity and quality of frozen-ground runoff at field edges, and the results highlight the importance of manure management decisions during frozen-ground periods to minimize nutrients lost in surface runoff.

  14. Nitrates directive requires limited inputs of manure and mineral fertilizer in dairy farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Aarts, H.F.M.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Velthof, G.L.; Reijs, J.W.; Fraters, B.

    2009-01-01

    Properly managed manures have a high fertilizer value and are thus a valuable source of nutrients in forage production systems. An efficient utilization of these nutrients, however, is limited by the crops demand for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Moreover, environmental goals implied by the EU

  15. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  16. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet, 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10 and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30. Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C sequencing batch reactors (SBRs fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM, volatile solids (VS, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  17. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2014-03-05

    The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L(-1)·day(-1) during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows' daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH₄ production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH₄ production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  18. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  19. Assessment of Raw Cow Milk Quality in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Pemba Island Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gwandu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality depends on the physicochemical characteristics, hygienic standards, and nutritional quality; however, animal husbandry practices, unhygienic harvesting and processing, may affect its quality. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2010 and July 2011 to assess the hygiene of cow milk production environment, raw cow milk physicochemical characteristics, and microbial quality and estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial residues using standard methods in Pemba Island. A total of 98 raw cow milk samples from selected smallholder dairy farms were analyzed, and the judgement on the quality used the East African Standards. Generally, the milk production chain was done under the unhygienic condition, and dirty plastic containers were used for collection and storage of milk under room temperature. Some milk samples had abnormal colour (2.1%, abnormal smell (7.1%, and pH below normal (35.7%, clotted on alcohol test (9.2%, and had the specific gravity below normal (13.3%. All the milk samples had mineral contents within the recommended range. Milk samples with butterfat below normal were 29.6%, while 14.3% had total solids below recommended values. The mean total viable count (TVC of milk container surfaces was 9.7±10.5 log CFU/100 cm2, while total coliform count (TCC was 7.8±8.5 log CFU/100 cm2. Up to 55.1% of milk had TVC beyond the recommended levels. The milk mean TVC was 11.02±11.6 log CFU/ml and TCC was 6.7±7.3 log CFU/ml. Up to 26.5% of milk samples had the TCC beyond levels. Results on physicochemical characteristics and nutritional analysis show that the raw cow milk in Pemba Island is of inferior quality. Microbiological results of this study imply heavy contaminations of milk. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 83% of the samples and most of them were from Wete District. Unhygienic milk production chain accelerates microbial contaminations, and antimicrobial residues in milk are a big

  20. Association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in freestall dairy herds using recycled manure solids for bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husfeldt, A W; Endres, M I

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between stall surface and some animal welfare measurements in upper Midwest US dairy operations using recycled manure solids as bedding material. The study included 34 dairy operations with herd sizes ranging from 130 to 3,700 lactating cows. Forty-five percent of the herds had mattresses and 55% had deep-bedded stalls. Farms were visited once between July and October 2009. At the time of visit, at least 50% of the cows in each lactating pen were scored for locomotion, hygiene, and hock lesions. On-farm herd records were collected for the entire year and used to investigate mortality, culling, milk production, and mastitis incidence. Stall surface was associated with lameness and hock lesion prevalence. Lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 3 on a 1 to 5 scale) was lower in deep-bedded freestalls (14.4%) than freestalls with mattresses (19.8%). Severe lameness prevalence (locomotion score ≥ 4) was also lower for cows housed in deep-bedded freestalls (3.6%) than for cows housed in freestalls with mattresses (5.9%). In addition, the prevalence of hock lesions (hock lesion scores ≥ 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, with 1=no lesion, 2=hair loss or mild lesion, and 3=swelling or severe lesion) and severe hock lesions (hock lesion score=3) was lower in herds with deep-bedded freestalls (49.4%; 6.4%) than in herds with mattresses (67.3%; 13.2%). Herd turnover rates were not associated with stall surface; however, the percentage of removals due to voluntary (low milk production, disposition, and dairy) and involuntary (death, illness, injury, and reproductive) reasons was different between deep-bedded and mattress-based freestalls. Voluntary removals averaged 16% of all herd removals in deep-bedded herds, whereas in mattress herds, these removals were 8%. Other welfare measurements such as cow hygiene, mortality rate, mastitis incidence, and milk production were not associated with stall surface

  1. Molecular screening of bovine raw milk for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC on dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Vendramin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milkborne transmission of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of STEC in bovine raw milk. To identify E. coli (ATCC 25922 contamination, the gene uspA was used, and PCR sensitivity and specificity were accessed by testing diluted samples ranging from 2 to 2.0 × 10(6 CFU/mL. To detect STEC, the stx1 and stx2 genes were selected as targets. After reaction standardization, the multiplex assay was tested in raw milk collected from 101 cows on dairy farms. PCR assay for E. coli detection had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 79% (P<0.0001, with a lower detection limit of 2 CFU/mL. Multiplex PCR assay had 100% sensitivity for E. coli positive raw milk samples, and 31.1% were contaminated with STEC, 28.3% of stx2, and 1.9% of stx1. The multiplex PCR assay described in the present study can be employed to identify and screen E. coli harboring stx1 and stx2 genes in raw milk on dairy farms and in industries.

  2. Important vectors for Listeria monocytogenes transmission at farm dairies manufacturing fresh sheep and goat cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Melzner, Daniela; Schmalwieser, Alois; Zangana, Abdoulla; Winter, Petra; Wagner, Martin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transmission routs of Listeria spp. in dairy farms manufacturing fresh cheese made from ovine and caprine raw milk and to evaluate the impact of Listeria monocytogenes mastitis on raw milk contamination. Overall, 5,799 samples, including 835 environmental samples, 230 milk and milk product samples, and 4,734 aseptic half-udder foremilk samples were collected from 53 dairy farms in the dairy intensive area of Lower Austria. Farms were selected for the study because raw milk was processed to cheese that was sold directly to consumers. A total of 153 samples were positive for Listeria spp., yielding an overall prevalence of 2.6%; L. monocytogenes was found in 0.9% of the samples. Bulk tank milk, cheese, and half-udder samples were negative for Listeria spp. Because none of the sheep and goats tested positive from udder samples, L. monocytogenes mastitis was excluded as a significant source of raw milk contamination. L. monocytogenes was detected at 30.2% of all inspected farms. Swab samples from working boots and fecal samples had a significantly higher overall prevalence (P < 0.001) of L. monocytogenes (15.7 and 13.0%, respectively) than did swab samples from the milk processing environment (7.9%). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the animal and in the milk processing environment and the silage feeding practices. Isolation of L. monocytogenes was three to seven times more likely from farms where silage was fed to animals throughout the year than from farms where silage was not fed to the animals.

  3. Methane production and characteristics of the microbial community in the co-digestion of spent mushroom substrate with dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaosha; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Shiyu; Sun, Fanrong; Hou, Zhanshan; Hu, Qingxiu; Zhai, Limei; Cui, Zongjun; Zou, Yajie

    2018-02-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a potential biomass material generated during mushroom cultivation. In this study, the methane yield and microbial community resulting from co-digestion of SMS and dairy manure (DM) at different mixing ratios (0:4, 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3), were evaluated. Co-digestion analysis showed that the methane yield from the mixtures was 6%-61% higher than the yield from SMS or DM alone, indicating a synergistic effect of co-digestion of SMS with DM. For the SMS of F.velutipes (SFv) and P.erygii var. tuoliensis (SPt), co-digestion of DM/SMS at a ratio of 1:1 was optimal, but for the SMS of P. eryngi (SPe), co-digestion of DM/SMS at a ratio of 3:1 was ideal. The pH at all co-digestion ratios was in the range of 6.8-8.0, indicating that adding DM could increase the systemic buffering capacity. Methanosaetaceae was shown to be the predominant methanogens present during the co-digestion of DM/SMS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the toxicity of food processing wastes as co-digestion substrates with dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    Studies have shown that including food waste as a co-digestion substrate in the anaerobic digestion of livestock manure can increase energy production. However, the type and inclusion rate of food waste used for co-digestion need to be carefully considered in order to prevent adverse conditions in the digestion environment. This study determined the effect of increasing the concentration (2%, 5%, 15% and 30%, by volume) of four food-processing wastes (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) on methane production. Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests were conducted to determine the concentration at which each food waste became toxic to the digestion environment. Decreases in methane production were observed at concentrations above 5% for all four food waste substrates, with up to 99% decreases in methane production at 30% food processing wastes (by volume). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

  6. Enriched-air fluidized bed gasification using bench and pilot scale reactors of dairy manure with sand bedding based on response surface methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Enriched-air gasification was performed in fluidized bed reactors using the processed dairy manure which was mixed with sand bedding. The effects of temperature, modified equivalence ratio (ER_m), and oxygen concentration on the gas products were investigated based on the statistical models using a bench-scale reactor in order to obtain empirical correlations. Then, the empirical equations were applied to compare the produced gases from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The empirical and actual H_2 and CH_4 compositions were within a 10% error, while the sum of produced CO and CO_2 gases showed similar composition within 3% error. The most influential factors for the syngas heating value were temperature followed by the oxygen concentration and ER (equivalence ratio). The composition of H_2 (2.1–11.5%) and CO (5.9–20.3%) rose with an increase in temperature and oxygen concentration. The variation of CO_2 (16.8–31.6%) was mainly affected by the degree of oxygen concentration in the gasifying agent. The ranges of the LHV (lower heating value), carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were discussed. An economic review showed favorable indications for on-site dairy manure gasification process for electric power based on the depreciable payback period and the power production costs. - Highlights: • Sand mixed dairy manure obtained directly from a dairy farm was processed and used. • Response surface methodology was used to investigate the enriched-air gasification. • Syngas results from bench and pilot scale gasifiers were compared and reviewed. • A highest LVH of 8 MJ/Nm"3 was obtained from the enriched-air gasification. • The power production costs were determined to be $0.053/kWh

  7. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  8. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control.

  9. Community proteomics provides functional insight into polyhydroxyalkanoate production by a mixed microbial culture cultivated on fermented dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Guho, Nicholas M; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bio-based, biodegradable polyesters that can be produced from organic-rich waste streams using mixed microbial cultures (MMCs). To maximize PHA production, MMCs are enriched for bacteria with a high polymer storage capacity through the application of aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which consequently induces a feast-famine metabolic response. Though the feast-famine response is generally understood empirically at a macro-level, the molecular level is less refined. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial community composition and proteome profile of an enriched MMC cultivated on fermented dairy manure. The enriched MMC exhibited a feast-famine response and was capable of producing up to 40 % (wt. basis) PHA in a fed-batch reactor. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a microbial community dominated by Meganema, a known PHA-producing genus not often observed in high abundance in enrichment SBRs. The application of the proteomic methods two-dimensional electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS revealed PHA synthesis, energy generation, and protein synthesis prominently occurring during the feast phase, corroborating bulk solution variable observations and theoretical expectations. During the famine phase, nutrient transport, acyl-CoA metabolism, additional energy generation, and housekeeping functions were more pronounced, informing previously under-determined MMC functionality under famine conditions. During fed-batch PHA production, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and PHA granule-bound phasin proteins were in increased abundance relative to the SBR, supporting the higher PHA content observed. Collectively, the results provide unique microbial community structural and functional insight into feast-famine PHA production from waste feedstocks using MMCs.

  10. Effect of Modified Pre-Milking Sanitizing Approaches on Raw Milk Quality Obtained from the Dairy Farmers of Tawau Area, Sabah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Kheng Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the raw milk hygiene and quality among the small holder dairy farmers in Tawau area. A total of 216 samples were collected from the respective dairy farmers and milk collecting centre located at Mile 15, Tawau. Preliminary results indicated that the quality of the raw milks obtained at farm level contained were inferior with high bacteria load (> than 107 CFU/ml. The total coliform (2.9-3.8 CFU/mL and Staphylococcus count (2.3-3.6 CFU/mL were relatively high in certain samples. However, none of the food borne pathogens was found. Trace back study revealed that the causes of contamination were attributed by poor hygienic handling among the dairy farmers and insufficient for immediate chilling of raw milk. A significant reduction in bacteria load was observed if the raw milk chilled immediately at farm. The implementation of modified pre-milking sanitizing practices improved the microbiology quality of the raw milks obtained from respective dairy farms. Future study will focus more on the effect of prolong storage towards the microbiological quality of raw milk.

  11. Prevalence and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Cultured From Raw Milk Taken From Dairy Cows With Mastitis in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of dairy herds and subsequent contamination of raw milk by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, especially those expressing a multi-drug resistance (MDR, biofilm and toxins producing ability, remains an important issue for both the dairy producer and public health. In this study, we investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genetic diversity of S. aureus in raw milk taken from 2 dairy farms in Beijing, China. Ninety (46.2%, 90/195 samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistant to penicillin (PEN (31.3%, ciprofloxacin (18.8% and enrofloxacin (15.6% were the most often observed. Isolates cultured from farm B showed significantly higher resistance to penicillin (73.9%, ciprofloxacin (34.8%, enrofloxacin (34.8%, tilmicosin (17.4%, and erythromycin (17.4% than those from farm A (p < 0.05. Totally, 94.8% S. aureus harbored at least one virulence gene and the pvl (93.8%, sec (65.6%, and sea (60.4% genes were the most frequently detected. The pvl and sec genes were more often detected in isolates from farm A (97.3% and 84.9% respectively than those from farm B (p < 0.05. Of all 77 staphylococcus enterotoxin (SE-positive isolates, more than 90% could produce enterotoxins and 70.1% could produce two types. Biofilm related genes (icaA/D, clf/B, can, and fnbA were detected in all96 isolates. All 96 isolates could produce biofilm with 8.3, 70.8, and 18.8% of the isolates demonstrating weak, moderate and strong biofilm formation, respectively. A total of 5 STs, 7 spa types (1 novel spa type t17182, 3agr types (no agrII, and 14 SmaI-pulso-types were found in this study. PFGE cluster II-CC1-ST1-t127-agr III was the most prevalent clone (56.3%. Isolates of agr III (PFGE Cluster I/II-CC1-ST1-t127/2279 had higher detection of virulence genes than those of agr I and agr IV. TheMSSA-ST398-t1456-agr I clone expressed the greatest MDRbut with no virulence genes and weakly biofilm formation. Our finding indicated a relatively

  12. Combined borax and tannin treatment of stored dairy manure to reduce bacterial populations and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of organic residues in stored livestock manure is associated with the production of odors and emissions. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one such emission that can reach hazardous levels during manure storage and handling, posing a risk to both farmers and livestock. New te...

  13. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  14. Optimizing feeding composition and carbon-nitrogen ratios for improved methane yield during anaerobic co-digestion of dairy, chicken manure and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojiao; Yang, Gaihe; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the possibilities of improving methane yield from anaerobic digestion of multi-component substrates, using a mixture of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and wheat straw (WS), based on optimized feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Co-digestion of DM, CM and WS performed better in methane potential than individual digestion. A larger synergetic effect in co-digestion of DM, CM and WS was found than in mixtures of single manures with WS. As the C/N ratio increased, methane potential initially increased and then declined. C/N ratios of 25:1 and 30:1 had better digestion performance with stable pH and low concentrations of total ammonium nitrogen and free NH(3). Maximum methane potential was achieved with DM/CM of 40.3:59.7 and a C/N ratio of 27.2:1 after optimization using response surface methodology. The results suggested that better performance of anaerobic co-digestion can be fulfilled by optimizing feeding composition and the C/N ratio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Brucella contamination in raw milk in Kerman dairy farms by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. In endemic developing countries, dairy products produced from untreated milk are a potential threat to public health. The aim of this study was to detect brucellae in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman (Iran. Methods: Forthy and eight Bulk Tank Milk (BTM  were collected from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cow. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp from 48 BTM samples in this area.. Conclusions: The detection of Brucella DNA in milk for human consumption, especially the highly pathogenic species B. melitensis, is of obvious concern. The shedding of Brucella spp. in milk poses an increasing threat to consumers in Iran. Consumption of dairy products produced from non-pasteurized milk by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an unacceptable risk to public health.

  16. Bacteriological study of raw and unexpired pasteurized cow's milk collected at the dairy farms and super markets in Sari city in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    VAHEDI, M.; NASROLAHEI, M.; SHARIF, M.; MIRABI, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction. The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial contamination of raw and pasteurized milk in Sari Township, Iran, 2011. Methods. In this investigation, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from the super markets in the city and 100 raw milk samples from 4 dairy farms from suburb areas and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and List...

  17. Denitrifiers in the surface zone are primarily responsible for the nitrous oxide emission of dairy manure compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Koki, E-mail: k_maeda@affrc.go.jp [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Toyoda, Sakae [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hanajima, Dai [Dairy Research Division, National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, National Agricultural and Food Research Organization, 1 Hitsujigaoka, Sapporo 062-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) productions of each compost zones were compared. ► The pile surface emitted significant fluxes of N{sub 2}O. ► The isotopic signature of N{sub 2}O from surface and NO{sub 2}{sup −} amended core were different. ► The denitrifying gene abundance was significantly higher in pile surface than the pile core. -- Abstract: During the dairy manure composting process, significant nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions occur just after the pile turnings. To understand the characteristics of this N{sub 2}O emission, samples were taken from the compost surface and core independently, and the N{sub 2}O production was monitored in laboratory incubation experiments. Equal amounts of surface and core samples were mixed to simulate the turning, and the {sup 15}N isotope ratios within the molecules of produced N{sub 2}O were analyzed by isotopomer analysis. The results showed that the surface samples emitted significant levels of N{sub 2}O, and these emissions were correlated with NO{sub x}{sup −}-N accumulation. Moreover, the surface samples and surface-core mixed samples incubated at 30 °C produced N{sub 2}O with a low site preference (SP) value (−0.9 to 7.0‰) that was close to bacteria denitrification (0‰), indicating that denitrifiers in the surface samples are responsible for this N{sub 2}O production. On the other hand, N{sub 2}O produced by NO{sub 2}{sup −}-amended core samples and surface samples incubated at 60 °C showed unrecognized isotopic signatures (SP = 11.4–20.3‰). From these results, it was revealed that the N{sub 2}O production occurring just after the turnings was mainly derived from bacterial denitrification (including nitrifier denitrification) of NO{sub x}{sup −}-N under mesophilic conditions, and surface denitrifying bacteria appeared to be the main contributor to this process.

  18. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial diversity in raw milk and traditional fermented dairy products (Hurood cheese and Jueke) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M L; Hou, H M; Teng, X X; Zhu, Y L; Hao, H S; Zhang, G L

    2017-03-08

    Hurood cheese (HC) and Jueke (Jk) are 2 traditional fermented dairy products produced from raw milk (RM) in the Inner Mongolia region of China. They have a long history of production and consumption. The microbial compositions of RM, HC, and Jk vary greatly, and are influenced by their geographical origins and unique processing methods. In this study, 2 batches of RM, HC, and Jk samples were collected (April and August 2015) from the Zhenglan Banner, a region located in the southern part of Inner Mongolian belonging to the Xilingol league prefecture. The bacterial and fungal diversities of the samples were determined by 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis, respectively. A total of 112 bacterial and 30 fungal sequences were identified, with Firmicutes and Ascomycota being the predominant phyla for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Lactococcus and Lactobacillus were identified as the main bacterial genera, whereas Kluyveromyces was the predominant fungus identified in the 3 dairy products. Different bacterial and fungal compositions were observed in RM, HC, and Jk samples collected at different times. These results suggested that time of production may be an important factor influencing the microbial diversity present in RM, HC, and Jk.

  1. Non-Conformitity in raw material: Quality problems and environmental impacts in a dairy processor in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ruelis Fabbro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been discussed by researchers and practitioners along recent years. Relations between quality and environmental issues have been treated, since quality problems interfere on environmental impacts. In dairy system, according to a report on dairy cleaner production by FIESP (2008, processors are concerned especially with rational use of water, energy saving techniques and equipment, use of less toxic raw materials, recycling, water and effluent treatment. Some studies have highlighted the importance of agriculture (milk producers when it comes to environmental problems along the chain, giving less relevance to dairy processing, packaging, consume phase and waste management. Thus, milk reception control in dairy companies is an important stage for environmental management. Considering the importance of coordination among agents, the aim of this paper was to analyze processor conduct concerning raw material non-conformity, linking quality and environmental issues. This qualitative research was accomplished through a study in a dairy plant in Paraná, which processes200,000 liters of milk per day and sells products nationally. The company works with 1,500 milk suppliers on average. Legal requirements are followed along the process, and ISO 1400 implementation in the company is in progress. According to interviews with quality supervisor and industrial manager, one of the most important critical point is milk reception, and a number of non-conformities are controlled. The presence of antibiotics is the most relevant of them, since it results in material rejection. Other problems, such as acidity and cryoscopy, are less critical, since it is possible to direct input to co-products. Interviewees informed that a low amount of milk is contaminated with antibiotics (about 1% of total input. Concerning antibiotic contamination, intensive training and constant visits have been developed with producers, especially to inform them

  2. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  3. A comparative study of composting the solid fraction of dairy manure with or without bulking material: Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Chun; Wang, Shi-Peng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Deng, Yu; Kida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The present study compared the development of various physicochemical properties and the composition of microbial communities involved in the composting process in the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) with a sawdust-regulated SFDM (RDM). The changes in several primary physicochemical properties were similar in the two composting processes, and both resulted in mature end-products within 48days. The bacterial communities in both composting processes primarily comprised Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes were predominant in the thermophilic phase, whereas Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Nitrospirae were more abundant in the final mature phase. Furthermore, the succession of bacteria in both groups proceeded in a similar pattern, suggesting that the effects of the bulking material on bacterial dynamics were minor. These results demonstrate the feasibility of composting using only the SFDM, reflected by the evolution of physicochemical properties and the microbial communities involved in the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  5. Iodine in raw and pasteurized milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of potassium iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, M A

    2011-02-01

    Relation between iodine (I) intake by lactating Holstein cows and iodine concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were investigated. Four treatment groups with eight cows assigned to each treatment were fed a basal diet containing 0.534 mg I/kg alone or supplemented with potassium iodide at 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg in 7-week period. Iodine concentrations in raw milk increased with each increase in dietary I from 162.2 ng/ml for basal diet to 534.5, 559.8 and 607.5 ng/ml when 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg was fed as potassium iodide (P HTST) pasteurization process reduced I concentration. The mean iodine content found in the milk prior to heating processing was 466.0 ± 205.0 ng/ml, whereas for the processed milk this level was 349.5 ± 172.8 ng/ml. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg/kg diet DM) resulted in significant increases in iodine concentrations in milk, although the effect of heating in HTST pasteurization process on iodine concentration was not negligible.

  6. Effects of somatic cell count in subclinical mastitis on raw milk quality in dairy farms of Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Hossieni nejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an infectious disease that is spread in livestock and can cause cattle mortality. Generally a cow with mastitis has a 15 per cent decrease in milk production. In addition, losses from changes in some components of milk should also be considered. Any change in milk properties can be severe hazard for milk producers, dairy factories and consumers. In this study, the effect of somatic cell count on row milk quality of cows affected by subclinical mastitis was studied. For this purpose 240 milk samples were collected from dairy farms with subclinical mastitis (traditional and industrial of Khuzestan province in 2014 and their somatic cell count, protein and lipid contact and acidity determined. The mean±SD for somatic cells, acidity, protein and fat were 3.20×105±1.37×105 SCC/ml, 14.50±0.62 D°, 3.12±0.06% and 3.23±0.14% respectively. After statistical analysis, reverse correlation were found between somatic cell count with milk fat and protein. However, direct correlation was observed between range of milk fat and protein (p>0.01. Furthermore the results indicated that the range of acidity in spring and winter, protein and fat in winter and somatic cell in summer and autumn were more than the other seasons. According to statistical analysis, protein percent of milk samples in industrial farms were higher than traditional farms although the range of somatic cells was higher for traditional milk samples ‏p>0.05 According to the result, it seems that the somatic cell count of milk influences raw milk fat and protein content and acidity.

  7. Effect of humates in diet of dairy cows on the raw milk main components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Potůčková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplemental humic substances (HS on the main milk components was investigated. A total of 10 dairy cows (Czech pied cattle, crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Ayrshire and crossbred Czech pied cattle ´ Red Holstein were tested. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups, control (C and experimental (E. Animals fed the same feed mixture and group E was additionally supplemented with HS (200 mg.kg-1 of product Humafit prepared from the Sakhalin Leonardite. The experimental period took 3 months. Cows were milked twice a day. The milk composition (lactose, fat, crude protein, pure protein and casein of every cow was monitored on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84 of the experiment. Pure protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, other components were analysed using an infrared analyserMilkoScan FT 120. It was found that the crude protein, pure protein and casein content in milk of group E significantly (p <0.05 increased from the 56th day of the experimental period. Differences of the protein fraction contents in group C and of the dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactose and fat content in both groups were non-significant (p <0.05.Higher protein and especially casein content in milk could be very important for the cheesemaking as it could increase the cheese yield. Normal 0 21 false false false CS X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Liquid Whey Protein Concentrates Produced by Ultrafiltration as Primary Raw Materials for Thermal Dairy Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Henriques

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the gelation properties of liquid whey protein concentrates (LWPC produced by ultrafiltration (UF as raw material for thermally induced gels intended for food applications. LWPC thermal gelation was performed using different types of LWPC (non-defatted, defatted and diafiltered of different protein mass fractions and pH. Most of the produced gels showed viscoelastic behaviour. Non-defatted LWPC gave stronger heat-induced gels with a more cohesive microstructure, a higher water holding capacity and also higher elastic modulus (G’ and viscous modulus (G’’. Gel properties were not improved in products with lower content of non-protein compounds. As expected, the increase in protein mass fraction positively influences protein interactions. However, the pH is responsible for the equilibrium between attraction and repulsion forces in the gel components that influence gel hardness and water holding capacity.

  9. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  10. Characterization of tet(Y)-carrying LowGC plasmids exogenously captured from cow manure at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Husník, Filip; Chroňáková, Alica; Heuer, H.; Smalla, K.; Elhottová, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 6 (2016), č. článku fiw075. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cattle manure * LowGC plasmids * tetracycline resistance * tet(Y) * Acinetobacter * horizontal gene transfer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  11. Effects of sugarcane juice addition on the population dynamics of Escherichia coli and the presence of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli during the anaerobic codigestion of dairy cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Maria Pilotto Branco

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of sugarcane juice on the population dynamics of Escherichia coli and the presence of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC during the anaerobic codigestion of dairy cattle manure. For the overall analyses at the end of a hydraulic retention time of 90 days, ten two-liter batch-type biodigesters were divided into two treatment groups: biodigester containing manure and water (MW and the biodigester containing manure, water and sugarcane juice (MSC. For monitoring the population dynamics and presence of microorganisms, pH, and volatile acidity, tests were carried out every ten days, on 36 smaller-scale batch biodigesters made of one-liter plastic bottles (18 for each treatment. The reductions in E. coli population over time were significant in the MW (60 days and MSC (20 days biodigesters. Inactivation of STEC occurred in a shorter period (40 days in MW and <10 days in MSC. Significant differences were obtained between the two treatments, with the pH values being lower, the concentrations of volatile acids (VA being higher, and the inactivation of E. coli and STEC being faster in the biodigester with sugarcane juice added. The amount of sugarcane juice applied (7% suggests its suitability for the sanitization of dairy cattle manure for use as a biofertilizer, given the high reduction in the E. coli population and inactivation of STEC.

  12. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  13. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  14. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  15. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a Farm-Scale Biogas Plant Supplied with Manure from Paratuberculosis-Affected Dairy Cattle▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, I.; Pribylova, R.; Kralova, A.; Pavlik, I.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, products from all steps of anaerobic digestion at a farm-scale biogas plant supplied with manure from paratuberculosis-affected dairy cattle were examined and quantified for the presence of the causal agent of paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, using culture and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were detected using culture in fermentors for up to 2 months; the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (101 cells/g) was demonstrated in all anaerobic fermentors and digestate 16 months after initiation of work at a biogas plant, using IS900 qPCR. F57 qPCR was able to detect M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA (102 cells/g) at up to 12 months. According to these results, a fermentation process that extended beyond 2 months removed all viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells and therefore rendered its product M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis free. However, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA was found during all the examined periods (more than 1 year), which could be explained by either residual DNA being released from dead cells or by the presence of viable cells whose amount was under the limit of cultivability. As the latter hypothesis cannot be excluded, the safety of the final products of digestion used for fertilization or animal bedding cannot be defined, and further investigation is necessary to confirm or refute this risk. PMID:21398476

  16. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušimová Eva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG, nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA, hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1, fat (4.21 g.100g-1, protein (3.14 g.100g-1 and calcium (4.82 g.l-1 in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529. In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB. Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01 and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01 were observed. ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001, which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed

  17. Optimisation and inhibition of anaerobic digestion of livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutaryo, S.

    2012-11-15

    The optimisation process during this PhD study focused on mixed enzyme (ME) addition, thermal pre-treatment and co-digestion of raw manure with solid fractions of acidified manure, while for inhibition processes, ammonia and sulphide inhibition were studied. ME addition increased methane yield of both dairy cow manure (DCM) and solid fractions of DCM (by 4.44% and 4.15% respectively, compared to the control) when ME was added to manure and incubated prior to anaerobic digestion (AD). However, no positive effect was found when ME was added to manure and fed immediately to either mesophilic (35 deg. C) or thermophilic (50 deg. C) digesters. Low-temperature pre-treatment (65 deg. C to 80 deg. C for 20 h) followed by batch assays increased the methane yield of pig manure in the range from 9.5% to 26.4% at 11 d incubation. These treatments also increased the methane yield of solid-fractions pig manure in the range from 6.1% to 25.3% at 11 d of the digestion test. However, at 90 d the increase in methane yield of pig manure was only significant at the 65 deg. C treatment, thus low-temperature thermal pre-treatment increased the rate of gas production, but did not increase the ultimate yield (B{sub o}). High-temperature pre-treatment (100 deg. C to 225 deg. C for 15 min.) increased the methane yield of DCM by 13% and 21% for treatments at 175 deg. C and 200 deg. C, respectively, at 27 d of batch assays. For pig manure, methane yield was increased by 29% following 200 deg. C treatment and 27 d of a batch digestion test. No positive effect was found of high-temperature pre-treatment on the methane yield of chicken manure. At the end of the experiment (90 d), high-temperature thermal pre-treatment was significantly increasing the B{sub 0} of pig manure and DCM. Acidification of animal manure using sulphuric acid is a well-known technology to reduce ammonia emission of animal manure. AD of acidified manure showed sulphide inhibition and consequently methane production was 45

  18. Report on the design and operation of a full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppinger, E.; Brautigam, J.; Lenart, J.; Baylon, D.

    1979-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester on the Monroe State Dairy Farm was operated and monitored for 24 months with funding provided by the United States Department of Energy, Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch. During the period of operation, operating parameters were varied and the impact of those changes is described. Operational experiences and system component performance are discussed. Internal digester mixing equipment was found to be unnecessary, and data supporting this conclusion are given. An influent/effluent heat exchanger was installed and tested, and results of the tests are included. Recommendations for digester design and operation are presented. Biological stability was monitored, and test results are given. Gas production rates and system net energy are analyzed. The economics of anaerobic digestion are evaluated based on various financing options, design scales, and expected benefits. Under many circumstances digesters are feasible today, and a means of analysis is given.

  19. Bacteriological study of raw and unexpired pasteurized cow's milk collected at the dairy farms and super markets in Sari city in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, M; Nasrolahei, M; Sharif, M; Mirabi, A M

    2013-06-01

    The quality of milk is influenced by different bacteria present in milk. This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial contamination of raw and pasteurized milk in Sari Township, Iran, 2011. In this investigation, 100 pasteurized milk samples were collected randomly from the super markets in the city and 100 raw milk samples from 4 dairy farms from suburb areas and evaluated for the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes by culture methods and biochemical tests. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Chi2 test and described in percentage. In the raw milk, contamination with E. coli, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus was observed in 42 (42%), 36 (36%) and 22 (22%) of samples respectively, and the same for the pasteurized milk samples was 9 (9%), 2 (2%) and 2 (2%), respectively. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in any sample. Presence of E. coli in the milk could be due to contamination with waste water and fecal materials. Considering the contamination of raw and pasteurized milk with E. coli and coliforms, sanitary practice during collecting and transporting, particularly in the summer season is recommended.

  20. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  1. Relative Contribution of nirK- and nirS- Bacterial Denitrifiers as Well as Fungal Denitrifiers to Nitrous Oxide Production from Dairy Manure Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Philippot, Laurent; Hattori, Shohei; Nakajima, Keiichi; Ito, Yumi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-12-19

    The relative contribution of fungi, bacteria, and nirS and nirK denirifiers to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission with unknown isotopic signature from dairy manure compost was examined by selective inhibition techniques. Chloramphenicol (CHP), cycloheximide (CYH), and diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used to suppress the activity of bacteria, fungi, and nirK-possessing denitrifiers, respectively. Produced N 2 O were surveyed to isotopocule analysis, and its 15 N site preference (SP) and δ 18 O values were compared. Bacteria, fungi, nirS, and nirK gene abundances were compared by qPCR. The results showed that N 2 O production was strongly inhibited by CHP addition in surface pile samples (82.2%) as well as in nitrite-amended core samples (98.4%), while CYH addition did not inhibit the N 2 O production. N 2 O with unknown isotopic signature (SP = 15.3-16.2‰), accompanied by δ 18 O (19.0-26.8‰) values which were close to bacterial denitrification, was also suppressed by CHP and DDTC addition (95.3%) indicating that nirK denitrifiers were responsible for this N 2 O production despite being less abundant than nirS denitrifiers. Altogether, our results suggest that bacteria are important for N 2 O production with different SP values both from compost surface and pile core. However, further work is required to decipher whether N 2 O with unknown isotopic signature is mostly due to nirK denitrifiers that are taxonomically different from the SP-characterized strains and therefore have different SP values rather than also being interwoven with the contribution of the NO-detoxifying pathway and/or of co-denitrification.

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ANIMAL MANURES ON SOIL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    tons/ha and 13.4 tons/ha of poultry, goat and dairy cow manure will suffice the requirement of. 40 kg N/ha and 20 ..... supplementation with inorganic P sources. Rate. Manure ... organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science.

  3. Impact of Manure Fertilization on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Frequency of Detection of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Topp, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and ...

  4. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  5. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis by mixed microbial consortia cultured on fermented dairy manure: Effect of aeration on process rates/yields and the associated microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Erik R; Watson, Benjamin S; Brinkman, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers that can substitute for petroleum-based plastics in a variety of applications. One avenue to commercial PHA production involves coupling waste-based synthesis with the use of mixed microbial consortia (MMC). In this regard, production requires maximizing the enrichment of a MMC capable of feast-famine PHA synthesis, with the metabolic response induced through imposition of aerobic-dynamic feeding (ADF) conditions. However, the concept of PHA production in complex matrices remains unrefined; process operational improvements are needed, along with an enhanced understanding of the MMC. Research presented herein investigated the effect of aeration on feast-famine PHA synthesis, with four independent aeration state systems studied; MMC were fed volatile fatty acid (VFA)-rich fermented dairy manure. Regardless of the aeration state, all MMC exhibited a feast-famine response based on observed carbon cycling. Moreover, there was no statistical difference in PHA synthesis rates, with q PHA ranging from 0.10 to 0.19 CmmolPHA gVSS -1 min -1 ; VFA uptake rates exhibited similar statistical indifferences. PHA production assessments on the enriched MMC resulted in maximum intracellular concentrations ranging from 22.5 to 90.7% (mgPHA mgVSS -1 ); at maximum concentration, the mean hydroxyvalerate mol content was 73 ± 0.6%. While a typical feast-famine dissolved oxygen (DO) pattern was observed at maximum aeration, less resolution was observed at decreasing aeration rates, suggesting that DO may not be an optimal process monitoring parameter. At lower aeration states, nitrogen cycling patterns, supported by molecular investigations targeting AOBs and NOBs, indicate that NO 2 and NO 3 sustained feast-famine PHA synthesis. Next-generation sequencing analysis of the respective MMC revealed numerous and diverse genera exhibiting the potential to achieve PHA synthesis, suggesting functional redundancy embedded in the diverse

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Listeria Species from Raw Milk and Dairy Products from Çanakkale Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Şanlıbaba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria species, specifically Listeria monocytogenes, in raw milk, pasteurized milk, white cheese, and homemade cheese. A total of 200 food samples were collected and analyzed to examine the presence of Listeria spp. The EN ISO 11290-1 method was used for isolation of Listeria. API Listeria test kit was used for biochemically characterization. Listeria spp. were isolated in 25 of the 200 samples (12.5%. The largest number of Listeria spp. was detected in homemade cheese (24%, followed by raw milk (18%, and white cheese (8%. Listeria spp. were not isolated from the pasteurized milk. The most common species isolated were Listeria innocua (5.5%; the remaining Listeria isolates were Listeria ivanovi (3.5%, Listeria welshimeri (3%, and Listeria monocytogenes (0.5%. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in only raw milk.

  7. Reference life cycle assessment scenarios for manure management in the Baltic Sea Regions - An assessment covering six animal production, five BSR countries, and four manure types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    the manure is applied, specific legislations governing the manure management practices, etc.). Further, it presents a reference manure composition for each of these reference systems, including key parameters such as dry matter, nitrogen (inorganic and total), phosphorus, carbon and volatile solids content......One major pre-condition for assessing a manure management technique in a whole system or LCA-approach is to define a reference system against which this technique can be assessed. This report thus presents and details the establishment of such reference systems, comprising eight different manure...... types (fattening pig slurry, dairy cow slurry, hens manure, bulls deep litter, fattening pig solid manure, dairy cow solid manure, horse manure & broilers manure) and five Baltic Sea Regions (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Poland), for a total of 15 reference systems. It presents, for each...

  8. Correlation between mastitis occurrence and the count of microorganisms in bulk raw milk of bovine dairy herds in four selective culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Luís I M; Minagawa, Clarice Y; Telles, Evelise O; Garbuglio, Márcio A; Amaku, Marcos; Melville, Priscilla A; Dias, Ricardo A; Sakata, Sonia T; Benites, Nilson R

    2010-02-01

    Milk is the normal secretion of the mammary gland, practically free of colostrum and obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy animals. Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the mammary gland and it may cause alterations in the milk. The present work aimed to verify whether it is possible, by means of the counts of microorganism in the bulk raw milk in four selective culture media, to establish a correlation with the occurrence of mastitis and therefore, to monitor this disease in bovine dairy herds. The following selective culture media were used: KF Streptococcus Agar, Edwards Agar, Baird-Parker Agar, Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated in order to compare the occurrence of mastitis (percentage) in each herd with respective selective culture media counts of microorganisms in bulk raw milk. Thirty-six possibilities were analysed (Tamis and CMT-positive rates were compared with the log-transformed count in four selective culture media) and there was a negative correlation between Tamis 3 and the Baird-Parker Agar plate count. The total results of microbiological tests showed that there were three correlations of the counts in selective culture media. Fifty-two possibilities were analysed and there was a negative correlation between no-bacterial-growth mastitis rates and log10 of KF Streptoccocus Agar plate count and there were two positive correlations between coagulase-positive staphylococci and log10 of Baird-Parker Agar plate count and Blood Agar plus potassium tellurite plate count.

  9. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  10. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  11. Effect of composting and soil type on dissipation of veterinary antibiotics in land-applied manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoqi; Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Pruden, Amy; Xia, Kang

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fate of commonly used veterinary antibiotics in their naturally excreted form when manure-based amendments are applied to soil. Beef cattle were administered sulfamethazine, tylosin, and chlortetracycline and dairy cows were treated with pirlimycin. The resulting manure was composted for 42 d under static or turned conditions and applied at agronomic N rates to sandy, silt, and silty clay loam soils and compared with amendment with corresponding raw manures in sacrificial microcosms over a 120-day period. Antibiotic dissipation in the raw manure-amended soils followed bi-phasic first order kinetics. The first phase half-lives for sulfamethazine, tylosin, chlortetracycline, and pirlimycin ranged from 6.0 to 18, 2.7 to 3.7, 23 to 25, and 5.5-8.2 d, respectively. During the second phase, dissipation of sulfamethazine was negligible, while the half-lives for tylosin, chlortetracycline, and pirlimycin ranged from 41 to 44, 75 to 144, and 87-142 d, respectively. By contrast, antibiotic dissipation in the compost-amended soils followed single-phase first order kinetics with negligible dissipation of sulfamethazine and half-lives of tylosin and chlortetracycline ranging from 15 to 16 and 49-104 d, respectively. Pirlimycin was below the detection limit in the compost-amended soils. After incubating 120 d, antibiotics in compost-amended soils (up to 3.1 μg kg -1 ) were significantly lower than in manure-amended soils (up to 19 μg kg -1 , p soil type on the dissipation. Risk assessment suggested that composting can reduce antibiotic resistance selection potential in manure-amended soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  13. Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hygienic quality by determining the presence of predominant pathogenic microbial contaminants (contagious or environmental and indiscriminate heavy metals contained in unpasteurized milk samples collected from cattle specie of cow. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected in October, 2014 from different regions of District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and cultured on the selective media plates according to the manufacturer instructions to observe pathogenic microbial flora and confirm it with relevant biochemical tests to specify bacterial specie. Results: Milk samples analyzed on MacConkey and nutrient agar media were found contaminated mostly with coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly, result of the heavy metals analysis performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame photometry showed that raw milk contains heavy metals residues of lead and cadmium contents at higher levels while copper, zinc and chromium were observed lower than permissible limits whereas manganese within specified recommended values. Conclusions: Microbial contamination of milk and toxic metals is mainly accredited to the scrupulous unhygienic measures during processing of milk exhibiting a wide array of hazardous impacts on human health.

  14. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  15. Parâmetros de dimensionamento para biodigestores batelada operados com dejetos de vacas leiteiras com e sem uso de inóculo Parameters to design batch digesters running with dairy cow manure with and without inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de A. N Xavier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a adição de inóculo na biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de vacas leiteiras reciclados em biodigestores bateladas pela quantidade de biogás produzida, pela redução dos sólidos voláteis e pelos potenciais de produção de biogás para obtenção de parâmetros de dimensionamento. Foram utilizados 12 biodigestores bateladas de campo de 60 L, cujos substratos continham dejetos de vacas leiteiras, água e quatro adições de inóculo (0; 20; 30 e 40% v/v. Adotaram-se tempos médios de retenção hidráulica de 75 e 150 dias para os tratamentos contendo inóculo e sem inóculo, respectivamente, nos períodos intermediário, chuvoso e seco do ano. Maiores produções de biogás ocorreram com maiores temperaturas médias do ar. Maiores potenciais de produção de biogás foram obtidas com uso de 40% de inóculo, de 0,07 m³ de biogás por kg de dejetos, com a utilização rápida do biogás, a partir de quatro dias. Tempos de retenção hidráulica de 45 dias podem ser adotados, o que reduz o volume do biodigestor e custos de implantação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the inoculum addition on the anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle manure recycled in batch digesters by biogas yield, volatile solids reduction and biogas potential production to obtain design parameters. Twelve field batch digesters (60 L each filled with dairy catlle manure, water and four different inoculum additions (0, 20, 30 and 40%, v/v were used. Average times of hydraulic retention of 75 and 150 days were adopted for treatments with and without inoculum, respectively, during three periods of the year (intermediary, rainy and dry. The greatest daily biogas yields occurred in higher room temperatures (rainy period. Higher biogas potential production was obtained by using 40% of inoculum, 0.07 m³ kg-1 manure, with rapid use of biogas from the four days. Times of hydraulic retention of 45 days may be adopted, which reduces the volume of the

  16. Environmental concerns about animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Lenis, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of swine production has changed dramatically in the last four decades. Raw materials for swine feeds are often grown in regions other than where swine production takes place. Swine manure is mostly spread in the neighborhood of the facilities, which may lead to soil accumulation of

  17. An integrated bio-process for production of functional biomolecules utilizing raw and by-products from dairy and sugarcane industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2018-04-21

    The study investigated an integrated bioprocessing of raw and by-products from sugarcane and dairy industries for production of non-digestible prebiotic and functional ingredients. The low-priced feedstock, whey, molasses, table sugar, jaggery, etc., were subjected to transglucosylation reactions catalyzed by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508. HPLC analysis approximated production of about 11-14 g L -1 trisaccharide i.e. 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose (4-galactosyl-kojibiose) from the feedstock prepared from table sugar, jaggery, cane molasses and liquid whey, containing about 30 g L -1 sucrose and lactose each. The trisaccharide was hydrolysed into the prebiotic disaccharide, kojibiose, by employing recombinant β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli. The enzyme β-galactosidase achieved about 90% conversion of 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose into kojibiose. The D-fructose generated by catalytic reactions of dextransucrase was targeted for catalytic transformation into rare sugar, D-allulose (or D-psicose), by treating the samples with Smt3-D-psicose 3-epimerase. The catalytic reactions resulted in the conversion of ~ 25% D-fructose to D-allulose. These bioactive compounds are known to exert a plethora of benefits to human health, and therefore, are preferred ingredients for making functional foods.

  18. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  19. Impact of manure fertilization on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and frequency of detection of antibiotic resistance genes in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Topp, Edward

    2013-09-01

    Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and soil samples were evaluated for viable antibiotic-resistant bacteria by plate count on Chromocult medium supplemented with antibiotics at clinical breakpoint concentrations. DNA was extracted from soil and vegetables and evaluated by PCR for the presence of 46 gene targets associated with plasmid incompatibility groups, integrons, or antibiotic resistance genes. Soil receiving manure was enriched in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and various antibiotic resistance determinants. There was no coherent corresponding increase in the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria enumerated from any vegetable grown in manure-fertilized soil. Numerous antibiotic resistance determinants were detected in DNA extracted from vegetables grown in unmanured soil. A smaller number of determinants were additionally detected on vegetables grown only in manured and not in unmanured soil. Overall, consumption of raw vegetables represents a route of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants naturally present in soil. However, the detection of some determinants on vegetables grown only in freshly manured soil reinforces the advisability of pretreating manure through composting or other stabilization processes or mandating offset times between manuring and harvesting vegetables for human consumption.

  20. Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components fed to dairy cows in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crops and livestock transform a general range of 20% to 50% of applied N into product N. Most applied N not transformed into agricultural products is lost to the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify soil N input (fertilizer N, biologically fixed-N) incorporation into dairy cow di...

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biogas production on dairy farms: A Croatia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bilandžija

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the differences in the production and composition of biogas as well as the quality of digested residue from anaerobic digestion of the raw materials generated by dairy farms in Croatia, investigations were undertaken in the biogas laboratory facility of the Faculty of Agriculture. The investigated raw materials were: dairy manure, corn silage, haylage and equal-measure mix (1/3 of all raw materials. For each substrate, three runs of experiments were performed with the same overall hydraulic retention time (40 days and temperature of digestion (35 °C in mesophilic conditions. The investigations found that the most efficient production of biogas was from corn silage. As for biogas composition, it was acceptable in all investigated samples both in energy and environmental terms. Digested residues, which are mildly alkaline, have low dry matter content. About 70 % of dry matter content is organic. On the basis of N:P:K analysis and the analysis of biogenic elements values and heavy metal values, it can be concluded that digested residues of all input raw materials can be used in agricultural production.

  3. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  4. BIOGAS PRODUCTION IN DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS, USING BATCH DIGESTERS WITH AND WITHOUT SOLIDS SEPARATION IN THE SUBSTRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Isis Dos; Toneli, Juliana T. C. L.; Sagula, Alex L.; Lucas Junior, Jorge de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research aimed to evaluate the biogas production during the anaerobic biodigestion process of dairy cattle manure, with and without solids separation. Sixteen biodigesters of the batch type were used, each one with 2L of capacity, supplied with manure in four different conditions: (1) pure manure, after washing the floors of the free stall system; (2) manure after the solids separator; (3) manure after the solids separator and sand decanter and (4) manure with the solid retained...

  5. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    was 22.5 kg/day on MS− and MS+ which was significantly higher than the 20.7 kg/day on GS−. Yield of energy corrected milk (ECM) was 2.8 and 2.5 kg higher on MS+ compared with GS− and MS−, respectively. Enteric CH4 emissions related to dry matter intake or gross energy intake were highest for GS......−. Supplementation of crushed rapeseed did not affect enteric CH4 emissions. Ultimate biogas yield and yield of CH4 in the digester were higher for MS+ and MS− than for GS−. Storage emissions from slurry increased with increasing storage temperature. The average total CH4 per kg ECM for the three treatments (mean......±standard deviation) was 25.3±2.5, 26.8±3.3 and 29.0±4.2 L CH4/kg ECM if manure was stored at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C, respectively. When the slurry was digested in a laboratory scale biogas plant, the lowest total CH4 emissions per kg ECM were observed for MS+ (20.5 L CH4/ECM) and the highest for GS− (24.3 L CH4/ECM...

  6. Tracing heavy metals in 'swine manure - maggot - chicken' production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanqiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Qizhi; Zhu, Fen

    2017-08-21

    With the development of large-scale livestock farming, manure pollution has drawn much attention. Conversion by insects is a rapid and cost-effective new method for manure management. Swine manure conversion with maggots (Musca domestica larvae) has developed, and the harvested maggots are often used as animal feed. However, the flow of heavy metals from manure to downstream processes cannot be ignored, and therefore, heavy metal content was measured in untreated raw manure, maggot-treated manure, harvested maggots and maggot-eating chickens (chest muscle and liver) to evaluate potential heavy metal risks. The levels of zinc, copper, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead had significant differences between untreated raw manure and maggot-treated manure. The concentrations of all detected heavy metals, except for cadmium and selenium, in maggots met the limits established by the feed or feed additive standards of many countries. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals decreased with the increase of the maggot instar, indicating that heavy metals were discharged from the bodies of maggots with the growth of maggots. Also, the contents of overall heavy metals in chickens fed harvested maggots met the standards for food. In conclusion, regarding heavy metals, it is eco-safe to use maggots in manure management.

  7. Water Quality Impacts of Cover Crop/Manure Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, James Donald

    1997-01-01

    Crop production, soil system, water quality, and economic impacts of four corn silage production systems were compared through a field study including 16 plots (4 replications of each treatment). Systems included a rye cover crop and application of liquid dairy manure in the spring and fall. The four management systems were: 1) traditional, 2) double- crop, 3) roll-down, and 4) undercut. In the fourth system, manure was applied below the soil surface during the ...

  8. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental consequences of using grass (from both unused and cultivated boreal grasslands) as a co-substrate to dairy cow manure for biogas production. Environmental impact categories assessed were global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment...... (distinguishing between N and P). Scenarios studied were: traditional management of dairy cow manure, monodigestion of manure, manure co-digestion with reed canary grass and manure co-digestion with residual grass from semi-natural grasslands. The latter scenario showed the best environmental performance...... for the global warming category, for other categories it did not show clear benefits. Using reed canary grass specially produced for biogas purpose resulted in a climate change impact just as big as the reference manure management, mainly as a result of indirect land use changes. Increased impacts also occurred...

  9. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  10. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  11. Triticale for dairy forage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale forages have become increasingly important components of dairy-cropping systems. In part, this trend has occurred in response to environmental pressures, specifically a desire to capture N and other nutrients from land-applied manure, and/or to improve stewardship of the land by providing ...

  12. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet...

  13. Biogas production from low temperature lagoon digesters treating livestock manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safley, L.M. Jr.; Westerman, P.W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Laboratory anaerobic digesters were fed dairy and swine manure at the rates of 0.1 and 0.2 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3}-day over the temperature range of 10--23{degrees}C. The digesters were operated successfully with little indication of instability.

  14. Evaluation of biogas production potential by dry anaerobic digestion of switchgrass--animal manure mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Smith, M C; Kondrad, S L; White, J W

    2010-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological method used to convert organic wastes into a stable product for land application with reduced environmental impacts. The biogas produced can be used as an alternative renewable energy source. Dry anaerobic digestion [>15% total solid (TS)] has an advantage over wet digestion (anaerobic digestion of animal manure-switchgrass mixture was evaluated under dry (15% TS) and thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C). Three different mixtures of animal manure (swine, poultry, and dairy) and switchgrass were digested using batch-operated 1-L reactors. The swine manure test units showed 52.9% volatile solids (VS) removal during the 62-day trial, while dairy and poultry manure test units showed 9.3% and 20.2%, respectively. Over the 62 day digestion, the swine manure test units yielded the highest amount of methane 0.337 L CH4/g VS, while the dairy and poultry manure test units showed very poor methane yield 0.028 L CH4/g VS and 0.002 L CH4/g VS, respectively. Although dairy and poultry manure performed poorly, they may still have high potential as biomass for dry anaerobic digestion if appropriate designs are developed to prevent significant volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and pH drop.

  15. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ruminant and Donkey Raw Milk Samples and Traditional Dairy Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Momtaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to detect the virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, in animal milk and dairy products in Iran. After E. coli dentification with culture method, PCR assay were developed for detection of pathogenic genes, serotypes and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli. Results showed that out of 719 samples, 102 (14.18% were confirmed to be positive for E. coli and out of 102 positive samples, 17.64% were O26 and 13.72% were O157 and 1.96% were O91 and 1.96% were O145 serotypes. Totally, the prevalence of stx1 and papA genes were the highest while the prevalence of sfaS and fyuA were the lowest in the positive samples. PCR results showed that tetA, tetB were the highest (64.70% and aac(3-IV were the lowest (27.45% antibiotic resistant genes in E. coli positive samples. Our study indicated that the isolated E. coli trains in these regions had a highest antibiotic resistance to tetracycline (58.82% and the lowest to nitrofurantoin (3.92%. tetA gene and E. coli O157 serotype had highest and aac(3-IV gene, and E. coli O145 serotype had a lowest frequency rates of antibiotics resistance genes, in the region.

  17. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was done in the Upper Tiffin River Watershed, in southeastern Michigan, to determine the influence of liquid dairy manure effluent (LDME) management practices on the quality of agricultural subsurface-drain water. Samples from subsurface drains were analyzed for nutrients, fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, antibiotics, chemicals typically detected in wastewater, and the occurrence of genes indicating the presence of shiga-toxin-producing E. coli, or of bovine-specific Bacteroidetes bacteria. Samples were collected from November 2, 2006, to March 20, 2007, from eight subsurface drains under field plots that received no LDME and no tillage (controls) or received 4,000 or 8,000 gallons per acre (gal/acre) of LDME and either no tillage or two different types of tillage. The two types of tillage tested were (1) ground-driven, rotary, subsurface cultivation and (2) rolling-tine aeration. Samples were collected before LDME application and at 4 hours, and 1, 2, 6, 7, and 14 days post-application. Nutrient concentrations were high in subsurface-drain water throughout the field-trial period and could not be attributed to the field-trial LDME application. Of the 59 drain-water samples, including those collected before LDME application and control samples for each date, 56 had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecoregion VI recommended surface-water criterion for total phosphorus, and all samples had concentrations greater than the recommended total nitrogen criterion. Nitrate + nitrite nitrogen concentration exceeded 20 milligrams per liter for every sample and contributed most to the total nitrogen concentrations. Substantial increases in drain-water concentrations of organic and ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were found for all treatments, including controls, at 14 days post-application after 0.84 inch of rainfall over 2 days. E. coli concentrations exceeded the USEPA recreational

  18. Dairy farm production strategy and nitrogen surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Carsten Hvelplund

    1996-01-01

    Via public legislation minimum standards for the utilization of manure have been introduced as an obligatory part of fertilization planning. And many Danish livestock farmers have improved the utilization of manure during the last five to ten years. There is, however, still not consensus concerning the question of whether the results are sufficient to reduce the loss of nitrogen to ground water and the Danish marine environment to acceptable levels. In an analysis of 30 dairy farms Halberg...

  19. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  20. Potentials of the separation of cow manure. Utilization of solid materials as an alternative fermentation substrate in biogas conversion plants; Potentiale der Rinderguelleseparation. Nutzung der Feststoffe als alternatives Gaersubstrat in Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Rhena; Hothan, Andreas; Theuvsen, Ludwig; Broll, Gabriele; Brauckmann, Hans-Joerg; Bronsema, Hauke [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. fuer Agraroekonomie und Rurale Entwicklung, Betriebswirtschaftslehre des Agribusiness

    2013-10-01

    The increasing regional concentration of dairy farming requires alternatives for the use of the accruing slurry to defuse the nutrient problem. One possibility is to separate the manure and use the solid fraction for an energetic use in biogas plants in nutrient undersupplied regions. First practical tests on dairy slurry separation have shown that separators are able to achieve a performance 1.3 to 16.6 tons of mass flow per hour. The nutrients are disproportionately deposited in the solid fraction. Furthermore, the solid fractions show a methane building potential that is double as high as the raw slurry methane yield. An energetic use of the solid fraction allows the reduction of other substrates. Thus, it is possible to decrease the land requirements and the costs for other substrates. (orig.)

  1. Fate of viable but non-culturable Listeria monocytogenes in pig manure microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eDesneux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The fate of two strains of L. monocytogenes and their ability to become viable but non-culturable (VBNC was investigated in microcosms containing piggery effluents (two raw manures and two biologically treated manures stored for two months at 8°C and 20°C. Levels of L. monocytogenes were estimated using the culture method, qPCR, and propidium monoazide treatment combined with qPCR (qPCRPMA. The chemical composition and the microbial community structure of the manures were also analysed. The strains showed similar decline rates and persisted up to 63 days. At day zero, the percentage of VBNC cells among viable cells was higher in raw manures (81.5-94.8% than in treated manures (67.8-79.2%. The changes in their proportion over time depended on the temperature and on the type of effluent: the biggest increase was observed in treated manures at 20°C and the smallest increase in raw manures at 8°C. The chemical parameters had no influence on the behaviour of the strains, but decrease of the persistence of viable cells was associated with an increase in the microbial richness of the manures. This study demonstrated that storing manure altered the culturability of L. monocytogenes, which rapidly entered the VBNC state, and underlines the importance of including VBNC cells when estimating the persistence of the pathogens in farm effluents.

  2. 7 CFR 58.519 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Material § 58.519 Dairy products. (a) Raw skim milk. All raw skim milk obtained from a secondary source... above. Skim milk after being pasteurized and separated shall be cooled to 45 °F. or lower unless the... used, shall be prepared from raw milk or skim milk that meets the same quality requirements outlined...

  3. Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rene; Villca, Saul; Liden, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The 'Altiplano') was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35 deg. C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 2 4-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11 - bar C was between 6.4 and 33.6lCH 4 kg -1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35 deg. C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.3lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 11 deg. C and between 35.6 and 84.1lCH 4 kg -1 VS at 35 deg. C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid-higher than has been previously reported for most manures-and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content

  4. How can dairies maximize their profits and properly remunerate their dairy farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cedric Möller Meneghini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current pricing process of raw milk in Brazil discourages producers from improving milk composition, which affects both yield and quality of dairy products. Furthermore, small and medium-sized dairies face great difficulties when it comes to planning production. Thus, a linear programming model was developed to price the raw milk and determine the optimal mix (combination of quantities of dairy products that maximizes total contribution margin (TCM under daily scenarios of high (January and low (July raw milk supplies (summer and winter, respectively by comparing optimal solutions with actual results. The TCM of optimal and actual mixes were higher in January due to the greater availability of raw material. Packaging was a limiting factor in the production of cheese in optimal mixes. The relationship between unit contribution margin (UCM and the required amount of raw materials per product unit and resource availability is crucial to defining the mix of dairy products and TCM of the dairy. Casein and raw milk volume showed shadow prices. Under both scenarios, the calculated prices of raw milk were higher than the prices charged by the dairy and were higher in January. The proposed model remunerates the producers based on the quantity and quality of raw milk. The dairy can maximize its TCM by better planning its mix of products with the use of linear programming.

  5. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  6. Economics of poultry manure utilization in land quality improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid growth of Nigerian's poultry has made it more advantageous in terms of providing the essential raw material for soil fertility enhancement than other livestock. This paper evaluates the benefits of poultry manure use among integrated poultry-maize farmers in Ekiti and Osun States of Nigeria for improved land ...

  7. Short communication: Environmental mastitis pathogen counts in freestalls bedded with composted and fresh recycled manure solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K J; Hogan, J S

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of environmental mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids bedding with those in fresh recycled manure solids. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with composted recycled manure solids. The second row of 9 freestalls included mattresses and was bedded weekly with fresh recycled manure solids. The back one-third of stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 to 50 mm of bedding. Samples were taken from the back one-third of 4 stalls for both treatments on d 0, 1, 2, and 6 of each week. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were switched between rows, making the total duration 6 wk. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts were approximately 0.5 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in the composted recycled manure solids on d 0 compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Klebsiella species, coliform, and Streptococcus species counts were at least 1.0 log10 cfu/g of dry matter lower in composted compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0. Only gram-negative bacterial counts on d 1 were reduced in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids. Differences were not observed between treatments in gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, or Streptococcus species counts on d 2 and 6. Ash content was higher in composted recycled manure solids compared with fresh recycled manure solids on d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Despite the increase in ash after composting, bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in composted recycled manure solids were comparable with those in fresh recycled manure when used as freestall bedding. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  9. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Zaganas, Ioannis D.

    2014-01-01

    zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatised to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study which has been conducted under...... the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatised inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L−1, the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatised inoculum...... was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L−1, due to low methane production (only 39%) compared to the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatised inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible “synergistic effect” which led to a more efficient AD of poultry...

  10. Life Cycle Assessments of Manure Management Techniques for the Baltic Sea Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Baky, A; Cano-Bernal, J

    The report summarizes the key results of the consequential life cycle assessments (LCAs) carried out for a variety of manure management techniques over the Baltic Sea Regions (BSR). For all manure management technologies assessed, the environmental impacts (in terms of potential to global warming......, acidification of aquatic & terrestrial systems as well as phosphorus and nitrogen enrichment) are evaluated along the whole “manure management chain”, quantified and compared to the applying reference manure management system. The LCA results presented in this report cover 4 main manure types (dairy cow slurry....... Assessed separation technologies include concentration technologies, state-of-the-art decanter centrifuge and source-separation technologies. The energy production technologies addressed consist of thermal gasification, incineration and anaerobic digestion (for which a myriad of carbon co...

  11. Raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . Although science and technology studies (STS) makes a strong case for associating relationality with certainty, the article argues that a particular form of data, ‘raw data’, complicates this association. It further argues that scientific data is not simply composed out of relations, but is a relation......This article takes scientific ‘raw data’ as its ethnographic object in order to investigate the co-implication of nature and culture in scientific knowledge practices. The article traces out some of the activities that are involved in producing numerical climate data from the Brazilian Amazon...... itself. The article ends with a brief reflection on the possible repercussions of shifting from thinking of science as producing multiple natures and cultures to thinking of it as producing the potential for relations....

  12. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation of Quality of Cows' Raw Milk: A Case of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha Towns of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Keywords: Bacterial load Ethiopia Horro Guduru Peri-Urban Dairying Raw milk ...

  13. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van, H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm, technologies such as a low ammonia emission barn floor, enclosed manure storage, manure injection into the soil, and intraseeding of a grass cover crop on corn land were used to reduce nitrogen loss an...

  14. Manure application and ammonia volatilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: manure application, ammonia volatilization, environmental conditions, application technique, incorporation technique, draught force, work organization, costs Livestock manure applied on farmland is an important source of ammonia (NH3) volatilization, and NH3 is a major atmospheric

  15. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  16. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  17. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days’ incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. - Highlights: • Application of poultry, swine, and cattle manure with or without tylosin increased the level of soil ARGs. • Poultry and swine manures had stronger selection pressure

  18. Innovations in the dairy chain: bio-economic analysis of novel breeding opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeter, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the dairy sector to move from producing bulk dairy commodities towards producing specialized dairy products aimed at niche markets. Dairy farmers consider shifting from commodity milk to raw milk with specialized composition to meet consumer or

  19. Methane emissions during storage of different treatments from cattle manure in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajun Wang; Chiqing Duan; Yaqin Ji; Yichao Sun

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on methane emissions from animal manure have revealed that animal manure is a major source of methane emissions to the atmosphere that can have negative consequences for people,animals and environment.In general,the release of methane can be influenced by the type of feed taken by animals,temperature,manure characteristics and so on.This study aimed at quantifying and comparing methane release from dairy manure with different piling treatments.Four treatments were designed including manure piling height 30,45,60 cm and adding 6 cm manure every day until the piling height was 60 cm.Static chamber method and gas chromatography were adopted to measure the methane emissions from April to June in 2009.Methane emission rates of all four manure treatments were low in the first week and then increased sharply until reaching the peak values.Subsequently,all the methane emission rates decreased and fluctuated within the steady range till the end of the experiment.Wilcoxon nonparametric tests analysis indicated that methane emission rate was greatly influenced by manure piling height and manner.There were no significant relationships between methane emission rates and the temperatures of ambience and heap.However,regression analysis showed that the quadratic equations were found between emission rates of all treatments and the gas temperature in the barrels.

  20. Inoculum and zeolite synergistic effect on anaerobic digestion of poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotidis, Ioannis A; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Zaganas, Ioannis D; Kotsopoulos, Thomas A; Martzopoulos, Gerasimos G

    2014-01-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate due to its high content of proteins and amino acids. Ammonia is the major inhibitor of anaerobic digestion (AD) process, affecting biogas production and causing great economic losses to the biogas plants. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite dosages on the mesophilic AD of poultry manure inoculated with a non-acclimatized to ammonia inoculum (dairy manure) was investigated. Additionally, a comparative analysis was performed between the data extracted from this study and the results of a previous study, which has been conducted under the same experimental conditions but with the use of ammonia acclimatized inoculum (swine manure). At 5 and 10 g zeolite L(-1), the methane yield of poultry manure was 43.4% and 80.3% higher compared with the experimental set without zeolite addition. However, the ammonia non-acclimatized inoculum was not efficient in digesting poultry manure even in the presence of 10 g zeolite L(-1), due to low methane production (only 39%) compared with the maximum theoretical yield. Finally, ammonia acclimatized inoculum and zeolite have demonstrated a possible 'synergistic effect', which led to a more efficient AD of poultry manure. The results of this study could potentially been used by the biogas plant operators to efficiently digest poultry manure.

  1. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    . No inhibition was observed for the digested fibers at the loadings tested while raw fibers exhibited slight inhibition only at very high loadings. Main conclusions: In the present study, AAS was successfully applied as a pretreatment method to increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. Batch anaerobic......Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment...... of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods...

  2. 2004 Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Manure Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manure management in livestock makes a significant contribution towards greenhouse gas emissions in the Agriculture; Forestry and Other Land Use category in South Africa. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions are prevalent in contrasting manure management systems; promoting anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. In this paper; both Tier 1 and modified Tier 2 approaches of the IPCC guidelines are utilized to estimate the emissions from South African livestock manure management. Activity data (animal population, animal weights, manure management systems, etc. were sourced from various resources for estimation of both emissions factors and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide. The results show relatively high methane emissions factors from manure management for mature female dairy cattle (40.98 kg/year/animal, sows (25.23 kg/year/animal and boars (25.23 kg/year/animal. Hence, contributions for pig farming and dairy cattle are the highest at 54.50 Gg and 32.01 Gg respectively, with total emissions of 134.97 Gg (3104 Gg CO2 Equivalent. Total nitrous oxide emissions are estimated at 7.10 Gg (2272 Gg CO2 Equivalent and the three main contributors are commercial beef cattle; poultry and small-scale beef farming at 1.80 Gg; 1.72 Gg and 1.69 Gg respectively. Mitigation options from manure management must be taken with care due to divergent conducive requirements of methane and nitrous oxide emissions requirements.

  3. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  4. Nutritional and environmental effects on ammonia emissions from dairy cattle housing: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) excreted in urine by dairy cows can be potentially transformed to ammonia (NH3) and emitted to the atmosphere. Dairy production contributes to NH3 emission, which can create human respiratory problems and odor issues, reduces manure quality, and is an indirect source of nitrous oxide (N...

  5. The impact of biogas production on the circularity of nitrogen flows around a dairy farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farms require a significant amount of nitrogen to enter the production system via cattle fodder, which in intensive farming can be traced back to artificial fertilizers. As a by-product of dairy farms, cattle manure contains undigested nitrogen that allows the farmers to reuse it for their

  6. Non-Dairy Probiotic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soyuçok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic products available in the markets today, are usually in the form of fermented milk products. Dairy consumption have been limited by lactose intolerance and the cholesterol content in dairy products. Besides, traditions and economic reasons that limit the use of dairy fermented products in some developing countries promote the idea of using of alternative raw materials as vehicles for the probiotic agents. For these reasons meat products, cereals, legumes, fruits and vegetables may be potential substrates, where the healthy probiotic bacteria will make their mark, amongst consumers. To develop of these products is a key research priority for food design and a challenge for both industry and science sectors. In this study, information’s were given about non-dairy probiotic foods and highlighting the researches done in this field.

  7. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  8. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-01

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only provides pollution prevention but also can convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion (AD) of livestock manures is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the AD animal manures. U.S. livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: slurry, plug-flow, complete-mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Case studies of operating digesters, with project and maintenance histories and the operators ''lessons learned,'' are included as reality checks. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some AD projects fail, are provided. The role of farm management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at farms willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. More than two decades of research has provided much information about how manure can be converted to an energy source; however, the American farmer has

  9. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  10. The effect of soil management on the persistence of E. coli and Listeria spp. in manure- amended soils in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes can contaminate leafy greens through inappropriately managed raw manure applied to soils. Current FDA guidance includes calling for additional scientific data to determine the appropriate interval between application of man...

  11. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  12. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... of manure is aerobic, which produces carbon dioxide (CO2), part of which is absorbed .... (2013) estimated the methane emission factor for dairy cattle on a TMR to be 76.4 kg ... Capper, J.L., Cady, R.A. & Bauman, D.E., 2009.

  13. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der, H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and Kibichoi, Kenya (intensive). Three baseline scenarios represent present-day cattle management; five improved scenarios use the same dairy breeds but have improved nutrition, using younger grass, mor...

  14. Legume Logic & Green Manuring

    OpenAIRE

    Basavanagowda Nagabhushana, Nandeesh

    2014-01-01

    Brown plant hopper showed me the way into organic farming. In 2001, I started my practice with logic of legumes just to cut down the 45 percent expenses of my paddy on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Later as I realized each and every plant carries it’s own nutrients, medicinal values and characters. Plants like millets, oil seeds, spices, di-cots, monocots and weeds all being used as a green manure. For all my agriculture problems and crop demands, I look for the answers only thro...

  15. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  16. Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Revelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

  17. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Reynnells, Russell

    2016-08-01

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs-raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)-and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  18. Reconstitution of dewatered food processing residuals with manure to increase energy production from anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, David M.; Wu-Haan, Wei; Safferman, Steven I.

    2012-01-01

    Solid residuals generated from dewatering food processing wastewater contain organic carbon that can potentially be reclaimed for energy through anaerobic digestion. This results in the diversion of waste from a landfill and uses it for a beneficial purpose. Dewatering the waste concentrates the carbon, reducing transportation costs to a farm digester where it can be blended with manure to increase biogas yield. Polymers are often used in the dewatering of the food waste but little is known regarding their impact on biogas production. Four 2 dm 3 working volume, semi-continuous reactors, were used at a mesophilic temperature and a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. Reactors were fed daily with a blended feedstock containing a food processing sludge waste (FPSW)/manure ratio of 2.2:1 (by weight) as this produced the optimized carbon to nitrogen ratio. Results demonstrated that reconstitution of dewatered FPSW with dairy manure produced approximately 2 times more methane than animal manure alone for the same volume. However, only approximately 30% of volatile solids (VS) were consumed indicating energy potential still remained. Further, the efficiency of the conversion of VS to methane for the blended FPSW/manure was substantially less than for manure only. However, the overall result is an increase in energy production for a given tank volume, which can decrease life cycle costs. Because all FPSW is unique and the determination of dewatering additives is customized based on laboratory testing and field adjustment, generalizations are difficult and specific testing is required. -- Highlights: ► Energy production in anaerobic digestion can increase by co-blending food waste. ► Energy for transporting food waste to blend with manure is less when dewatered. ► Dewatered food waste in manure produced twice as much methane than manure. ► Efficiency of carbon to methane was low because of ammonium bicarbonate production. ► Carbon destruction was 30%, more

  19. Overview analysis of bioenergy from livestock manure management in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China); Lin, Che-I [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the livestock manure are becoming significant energy and environmental issues in Taiwan. However, the waste management (i.e., anaerobic digestion) can produce the biogas associated with its composition mostly consisting of methane (CH{sub 4}), which is now considered as a renewable energy with emphasis on electricity generation and other energy uses. The objective of this paper was to present an overview analysis of biogas-to-bioenergy in Taiwan, which included five elements: current status of biogas sources and their energy utilizations, potential of biogas (methane) generation from livestock manure management, governmental regulations and policies for promoting biogas, benefits of GHGs (i.e., methane) emission reduction, and research and development status of utilizing livestock manure for biofuel production. In the study, using the livestock population data surveyed by the Council of Agriculture (Taiwan) and the emission factors recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the potential of methane generation from livestock manure management in Taiwan during the period of 1995-2007 has been estimated to range from 36 to 56 Gg year{sup -1}, indicating that the biogas (methane) from swine and dairy cattle is abundant. Based on the characteristics of swine manure, the maximum potential of methane generation could reach to around 400 Gg year{sup -1}. With a practical basis of the total swine population (around 4300 thousand heads) from the farm scale of over 1000 heads, a preliminary analysis showed the following benefits: methane reduction of 21.5 Gg year{sup -1}, electricity generation of 7.2 x 10{sup 7} kW-h year{sup -1}, equivalent electricity charge saving of 7.2 x 0{sup 6} US$ year{sup -1}, and equivalent carbon dioxide mitigation of 500 Gg year{sup -1}. (author)

  20. Effluent Gas Flux Characterization During Pyrolysis of Chicken Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. C.; Ryals, R.; Miller, D. J.; Mullen, C. A.; Pan, D.; Zondlo, M. A.; Boateng, A. A.; Hastings, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a viable option for the production of agricultural resources from diverted organic waste streams and renewable bioenergy. This high temperature thermochemical process yields material with beneficial reuses, including bio-oil and biochar. Gaseous forms of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are also emitted during pyrolysis. The effluent mass emission rates from pyrolysis are not well characterized, thus limiting proper evaluation of the environmental benefits or costs of pyrolysis products. We present the first comprehensive suite of C and N mass emission rate measurements of a biomass pyrolysis process using chicken manure as feedstock to produce biochar and bio-oil. Two chicken manure fast pyrolysis experiments were conducted at controlled temperature ranges of 450 - 485 °C and 550 - 585 °C. Mass emission rates of N2O, NO, CO, CO2, CH4 and NH3 were measured using trace gas analyzers. Based on the system mass balance, 23-25% of the total mass of the manure feedstock was emitted as gas, while 52-55% and 23% were converted to bio-oil and biochar, respectively. CO2 and NH3 were the dominant gaseous species by mass, accounting for 58 - 65% of total C mass emitted and 99% of total reactive N mass emitted, respectively. Our gas flux measurements suggest that 1.4 to 2.7 g NH3 -N would be produced from the pyrolysis of one kg of manure. Conservatively scaling up these NH3 pyrolysis emissions in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, where an estimated 8.64 billion kg of poultry manure is applied to agricultural soils every year, as much as 1.2 x 107 kg of NH3 could be emitted into the atmosphere annually, increasing the potential impact of atmospheric N deposition without a mechanism to capture the gas exhaust during pyrolysis. However, this is considerably less than the potential emissions from NH3 volatilization of raw chicken manure applications, which can be 20-60% of total N applied, and amount to 3.4 x 107 - 1.0 x 108 kg NH3-N yr-1. Pyrolysis has the potential to

  1. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  2. Microbial community dynamics and biogas production from manure fractions in sludge bed anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgård, A S R; Bergland, W H; Bakke, R; Vadstein, O; Østgaard, K; Bakke, I

    2015-12-01

    To elucidate how granular sludge inoculum and particle-rich organic loading affect the structure of the microbial communities and process performance in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. We investigated four reactors run on dairy manure filtrate and four on pig manure supernatant for three months achieving similar methane yields. The reactors fed with less particle rich pig manure stabilized faster and had highest capacity. Microbial community dynamics analysed by a PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach showed that influent was a major determinant for the composition of the reactor communities. Comparisons of pre- and non-adapted inoculum in the reactors run on pig manure supernatant showed that the community structure of the nonadapted inoculum adapted in approximately two months. Microbiota variance partitioning analysis revealed that running time, organic loading rate and inoculum together explained 26 and 31% of the variance in bacterial and archaeal communities respectively. The microbial communities of UASBs adapted to the reactor conditions in treatment of particle rich manure fractions, obtaining high capacity, especially on pig manure supernatant. These findings provide relevant insight into the microbial community dynamics in startup and operation of sludge bed reactors for methane production from slurry fractions, a major potential source of biogas. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens......PCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid...

  4. Canada's first on-farm cow-powered dairy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-07-15

    Bakerview EcoDairy in British Columbia, Canada, has invented a new technology which converts cow manure into clean renewable energy. It has already been connected to B.C.'s electricity grid. In addition, this project also produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions, less odour from manure and smaller amounts of manure than run-off into local water supplies. Apart from generating clean electricity, this technology can also create heat, fertilizer and cow bedding for the farm. For example, the byproduct - biogas - can be used to create electricity using a generator. All of these sustainable initiatives make Bakerview EcoDairy the first on-farm, cow-powered dairy and show its creativity, innovation and leadership in sustainability.

  5. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, respectively, compared to 52 g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation. (author)

  6. Integrating livestock manure with a corn-soybean bioenergy cropping system improves short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelen, K.D.; Fronning, B.E.; Kravchenko, A.; Min, D.H.; Robertson, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon cycling and the global warming potential (GWP) of bioenergy cropping systems with complete biomass removal are of agronomic and environmental concern. Corn growers who plan to remove corn stover as a feedstock for the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry will benefit from carbon amendments such as manure and compost, to replace carbon removed with the corn stover. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of beef cattle feedlot manure and composted dairy manure on short-term carbon sequestration rates and net global warming potential (GWP) in a corn-soybean rotation with complete corn-stover removal. Field experiments consisting of a corn-soybean rotation with whole-plant corn harvest, were conducted near East Lansing, MI over a three-year period beginning in 2002. Compost and manure amendments raised soil carbon (C) at a level sufficient to overcome the C debt associated with manure production, manure collection and storage, land application, and post-application field emissions. The net GWP in carbon dioxide equivalents for the manure and compost amended cropping systems was -934 and -784 g m -2 y -1 , respectively, compared to 52 g m -2 y -1 for the non-manure amended synthetic fertilizer check. This work further substantiates the environmental benefits associated with renewable fuels and demonstrates that with proper management, the integration of livestock manures in biofuel cropping systems can enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) remediation.

  7. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main

  9. Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-05

    Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products.  Created: 3/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/5/2012.

  10. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  11. The influence on biogas production of three slurry-handling systems in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Coppolecchia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling systems can influence the production of biogas and methane from dairy farm manures. A comparative work performed in three different Italian dairy farms showed how the most common techniques (scraper, slatted floor, flushing can change the characteristics of collected manure. Scraper appears to be the most neutral choice, as it does not significantly affect the original characteristics of manure. Slatted floor produces a manure that has a lower methane potential in comparison with scraper, due to: a lower content of volatile solids caused by the biodegradation occurring in the deep pit, and a lower specific biogas production caused by the change in the characteristics of organic matter. Flushing can produce three different fluxes: diluted flushed manure, solid separated manure and liquid separated manure. The diluted fraction appears to be unsuitable for conventional anaerobic digestion in completely stirred reactors (CSTR, since its content of organic matter is too low to be worthwhile. The liquid separated fraction could represent an interesting material, as it appears to accumulate the most biodegradable organic fraction, but not as primary substrate in CSTR as the organic matter concentration is too low. Finally, the solid-liquid separation process tends to accumulate inert matter in the solid separated fraction and, therefore, its specific methane production is low.

  12. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  13. Patented installations for the production of methane and natural manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milquet, F

    1951-12-01

    Current processes are reviewed and a new technique is described which maintains economically a constant temperature of 40/sup 0/C in the tanks by complete isolation in winter as in summer and periodic reheating of the mass. The tanks were buried underground and had double metal walls with low density cellular concrete between them. The covers were of thick cork, permanently fixed, and coated with an impermeable substance. Reheating was necessary only once during the fermentation, whereas with tanks above ground it had to be carried out more often and more vigorously. Straw was the raw material and the products were highly profitable quantities of methane and artificial manure.

  14. The fate of crop nutrients during digestion of swine manure in psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, D I; Croteau, F; Masse, L

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to measure the levels of manure nutrients retained in psychrophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (PASBRs) digesting swine manure, and to determine the distribution of nutrients in the sludge and supernatant zones of settled bioreactor effluent. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total solids (TS) concentration and the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of manure by 71.4% and 79.9%, respectively. The nitrogen, potassium, and sodium fed with the manure to the PASBRs were recovered in the effluent. The bioreactors retained on average 25.5% of the P, 8.7% of the Ca, 41.5% of the Cu, 18.4% of the Zn, and 67.7% of the S fed to the PASBRs. The natural settling of bioreactor effluent allowed further nutrient separation. The supernatant fraction, which represented 71.4% of effluent volume, contained 61.8% of the total N, 67.1% of the NH4-N, and 73.3% of the Na. The settled sludge fraction, which represented 28.6% of the volume, contained 57.6% of the solids, 62.3% of the P, 71.6% of the Ca, 89.6% of the Mg, 76.1% of the Al, 90.0% of the Cu, 74.2% of the Zn, and 52.2% of the S. The N/P ratio was increased from 3.9 in the raw manure to 5.2 in the bioreactor effluent and 9.2 in the supernatant fraction of the settled effluent. The PASBR technology will then substantially decrease the manure management costs of swine operations producing excess phosphorus, by reducing the volume of manure to export outside the farm. The separation of nutrients will also allow land spreading strategies that increase the agronomic value of manure by matching more closely the crop nutrient requirements.

  15. Comparison of anaerobic digestion characteristics and kinetics of four livestock manures with different substrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Liu, Ronghou; Sun, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestions of pig manure (PM), dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and rabbit manure (RM) at initial volatile solid loading (VSL) of 8 g VS/L, 16 g VS/L, 32 g VS/L, 64 g VS/L were investigated under mesophilic conditions. The maximum methane yields of 410, 270, 377 and 323 mL CH4/g VSadded for PM, DM, CM and RM were all obtained at initial VSL of 8 g VS/L, respectively. The improvement of substrate concentration to 64 g VS/L not only decreased the methane yield and biodegradability both by 22.4%, 37.3%, 49.1% and 34.6% for PM, DM, CM and RM respectively, but also reduced the methane content in final biogas production. The Cone model (R(2): 0.9910-0.9974) showed a better fit to the experiment data and the calculated parameters indicated that anaerobic digestion of manures at higher loading has longer lag phase and lower hydrolysis rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  17. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  18. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN DAIRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  19. Contrasting effects of biochar versus manure on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in an Aridisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzobair, Khalid A; Stromberger, Mary E; Ippolito, James A; Lentz, Rodrick D

    2016-01-01

    Biochar can increase microbial activity, alter microbial community structure, and increase soil fertility in arid and semi-arid soils, but at relatively high rates that may be impractical for large-scale field studies. This contrasts with organic amendments such as manure, which can be abundant and inexpensive if locally available, and thus can be applied to fields at greater rates than biochar. In a field study comparing biochar and manure, a fast pyrolysis hardwood biochar (22.4 Mg ha(-1)), dairy manure (42 Mg ha(-1) dry wt), a combination of biochar and manure at the aforementioned rates, or no amendment (control) was applied to an Aridisol (n=3) in fall 2008. Plots were annually cropped to corn (Zea maize L.). Surface soils (0-30 cm) were sampled directly under corn plants in late June 2009 and early August 2012, and assayed for microbial community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles and six extracellular enzyme activities involved in soil C, N, and P cycling. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization was assayed in corn roots in 2012. Biochar had no effect on microbial biomass, community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, or AM fungi root colonization of corn. In the short-term, manure amendment increased microbial biomass, altered microbial community structure, and significantly reduced the relative concentration of the AM fungal biomass in soil. Manure also reduced the percent root colonization of corn by AM fungi in the longer-term. Thus, biochar and manure had contrasting short-term effects on soil microbial communities, perhaps because of the relatively low application rate of biochar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying the Impact of Seasonal and Short-term Manure Application Decisions on Phosphorus Loss in Surface Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Peter A; Good, Laura W; Jokela, William E; Karthikeyan, K G; Arriaga, Francisco J; Stock, Melanie

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) management is a research and policy issue due to P loss from fields and water quality degradation. Better information is needed on the risk of P loss from dairy manure applied in winter or when runoff is imminent. We used the SurPhos computer model and 108 site-years of weather and runoff data to assess the impact of these two practices on dissolved P loss. Model results showed that winter manure application can increase P loss by 2.5 to 3.6 times compared with non-winter applications, with the amount increasing as the average runoff from a field increases. Increased P loss is true for manure applied any time from late November through early March, with a maximum P loss from application in late January and early February. Shifting manure application to fields with less runoff can reduce P loss by 3.4 to 7.5 times. Delaying manure application when runoff is imminent can reduce P loss any time of the year, and sometimes quite significantly, but the number of times that application delays will reduce P loss is limited to only 3 to 9% of possible spreading days, and average P loss may be reduced by only 15% for winter-applied manure and 6% for non-winter-applied manure. Overall, long-term strategies of shifting manure applications to low runoff seasons and fields can potentially reduce dissolved P loss in runoff much more compared with near-term, tactical application decisions of avoiding manure application when runoff is imminent. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae: impact of intracellular algal products recovery on co-digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astals, S; Musenze, R S; Bai, X; Tannock, S; Tait, S; Pratt, S; Jensen, P D

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and algae (Scenedesmus sp.) with and without extraction of intracellular algal co-products, with views towards the development of a biorefinery concept for lipid, protein and/or biogas production. Protein and/or lipids were extracted from Scenedesmus sp. using free nitrous acid pre-treatments and solvent-based Soxhlet extraction, respectively. Processing increased algae methane yield between 29% and 37% compared to raw algae (VS basis), but reduced the amount of algae available for digestion. Co-digestion experiments showed a synergy between pig manure and raw algae that increased raw algae methane yield from 0.163 to 0.245 m(3) CH4 kg(-1)VS. No such synergy was observed when algal residues were co-digested with pig manure. Finally, experimental results were used to develop a high-level concept for an integrated biorefinery processing pig manure and onsite cultivated algae, evaluating methane production and co-product recovery per mass of pig manure entering the refinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, may (2015), s. 536 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance spread * animal manure * cattle intestinal microflora * chlortetracycline * dairy cattle * dairy farm * heavy metals * tetracycline resistance genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  3. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  4. Survey to determine why people drink raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis extract a large financial and personal toll on society. Pharmaceutical or dietary calcium intake is needed to increase bone mineral density to prevent fragility fractures. Although dairy products are a good source of calcium, patients who are unable to digest lactose tend to avoid them and are put at a greater risk for fracture than the general population. Anecdotal reports suggest that lactose maldigesters, when consuming raw milk, have a dramatic reduction in symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. The mechanism of the reported reduction in symptoms, if true, is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to survey raw milk drinkers to ascertain their health-related motivations for consuming raw milk, especially as they relate to lactose maldigestion. An online survey regarding raw milk was completed by 153 of 1527 members of a raw milk-buying community. The primary reason the respondents cited for drinking raw milk was that they believed it was more healthful; 30% reported some gastrointestinal discomfort when drinking pasteurized milk, yet almost all (99%) reported consuming raw milk without discomfort. Despite the reports of gastrointestinal discomfort, only 5% of respondents had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant by a medical professional, and only 1% had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant via the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. The primary motivation for drinking raw milk is its perceived health value, not its digestibility. Although raw milk appears to be more easily digested than pasteurized milk in our survey sample, the mechanism of digestibility remains unknown.

  5. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Kleinman, P J A; Dell, C J; Veith, T L; Beegle, D B

    2011-01-01

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. The model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, and phosphorus (P) runoff losses similar to those measured over 4 yr of field trials. Each application method was simulated over 25 yr of weather on three Pennsylvania farms. On a swine and cow-calf beef operation under grass production, shallow disk injection increased profit by $340 yr(-1) while reducing ammonia nitrogen and soluble P losses by 48 and 70%, respectively. On a corn (Zea mays L.)-and-grass-based grazing dairy farm, shallow disk injection reduced ammonia loss by 21% and soluble P loss by 76% with little impact on farm profit. Incorporation by tillage and band application with aeration provided less environmental benefit with a net decrease in farm profit. On a large corn-and-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-based dairy farm where manure nutrients were available in excess of crop needs, incorporation methods were not economically beneficial, but they provided environmental benefits with relatively low annual net costs ($13 to $18 cow). In all farming systems, shallow disk injection provided the greatest environmental benefit at the least cost or greatest profit for the producer. With these results, producers are better informed when selecting manure application equipment.

  6. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  7. Environmental Sustainability and Economic Benefits of Dairy Farm Biogas Energy Production: A Case Study in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating demand to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels has been driving widespread attention to renewable fuels, such as biogas. In fact, in the last decade numerous policy guidelines and laws regarding energy, the environment and agriculture have been issued to encourage the use of animal sewage as a raw material for the production of biogas. The production of energy from biogas in a dairy farm can provide a good opportunity for sustainable rural development, augmenting the farm’s income from traditional sources and helping to reduce the overall environmental impact of the energy sector. This paper investigates the trade-off between the environmental and economic benefits of an agro-energy farm in the Umbria region of Italy that employs livestock sewage and manure, dedicated energy crops (corn and triticale silage and olive waste. The environmental analysis was performed using the LCA methodology, while the economic investigation was carried out by reconstructing the economic balance of the agro-energetic supply chain based on the budgets of each activity performed. The LCA results show, on the one hand, the predominant weight of producing dedicated crops compared to all other processes in the supply chain and, on the other hand, a significant reduction in environmental impact compared to that caused by energy production from fossil fuels. Economic analysis revealed that the results depend significantly on what rate per kWh the government incentives guarantee to agricultural producers of renewable energy.

  8. Sustainable Treatment and Reuse of Diluted Pig Manure Streams in Russia: From Laboratory Trials to Full-Scale Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Arkhipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Kovalev, A.; Nozhevnikova, A.; Klapwijk, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained during the laboratory and pilot development of integrated biologic and physicochemical treatment and reuse of diluted pig manure streams. The application of a straw filter was an effective means to separate the solid and liquid fractions of raw wastewater

  9. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  11. Dynamics of E.coli virulence factors in dairy cow herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Dairy farms are known reservoirs of entero-pathogenic E. coli (EPEC). EPEC, or the virulence factors associated with pathogenicity, have been detected in manure, milk, and the farm environment. However, it is unclear which farm compartments are reservoirs contributing to EPEC persistence...

  12. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  13. Nutritional and environmental effects on ammonia emissions from dairy cattle housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bougouin, Adeline; Leytem, April; Dijkstra, Jan; Dungan, Robert S.; Kebreab, Ermias

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen excreted in dairy manure can be potentially transformed and emitted as NH3, which can create livestock and human respiratory problems and be an indirect source of N2O. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate environmental factors influencing

  14. Bodems voor vrijloopstallen = Bedding materials in loose housing systems for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Galama, P.J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sand, Compost and 'toemaak' (a mixture of reed, dredge and manure) had been used as bedding material for loose housing systems on three dairy research farms of Wageningen UR Livestock Research. Gaseous emissions, animal behavior and health and food safety aspects were measured and reported together

  15. Epidemiology of 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cattle have been identified as a reservoir for 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli. We previously identified 3GC-resistant E. coli from manure composite samples of calves and cows in a survey of 80 farms in Pennsylvania. Resistant strains were most frequently isolated...

  16. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and

  17. Antibiotic losses from unprotected manure stockpiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Holly A S; Gupta, Satish C

    2008-01-01

    Manure management is a major concern in livestock production systems. Although historically the primary concerns have been nutrients and pathogens, manure is also a source of emerging contaminants, such as antibiotics, to the environment. There is a growing concern that antibiotics in manure are reaching surface and ground waters and contributing to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. One such pathway is through leaching and runoff from manure stockpiles. In this study, we quantified chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin losses in runoff from beef manure stockpiles during two separate but consecutive experiments representing different weather conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation amount and form). Concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were positively correlated with initial concentrations of antibiotics in manure. The highest concentrations of chlortetracycline, monensin, and tylosin in runoff were 210, 3175, and 2544 microg L(-1), respectively. Relative antibiotic losses were primarily a function of water losses. In the experiment that had higher runoff water losses, antibiotic losses ranged from 1.2 to 1.8% of total extractable antibiotics in manure. In the experiment with lower runoff water losses, antibiotic losses varied from 0.2 to 0.6% of the total extractable antibiotics in manure. Manure analysis over time suggests that in situ degradation is an important mechanism for antibiotic losses. Degradation losses during manure stockpiling may exceed cumulative losses from runoff events. Storing manure in protected (i.e., covered) facilities could reduce the risk of aquatic contamination associated with manure stockpiling and other outdoor manure management practices.

  18. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms.

  19. Towards an inventory of methane emissions from manure management that is responsive to changes on Canadian farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderZaag, A C; Evans, L; Vergé, X P C; Desjardins, R L; MacDonald, J D

    2013-01-01

    Methane emissions from manure management represent an important mitigation opportunity, yet emission quantification methods remain crude and do not contain adequate detail to capture changes in agricultural practices that may influence emissions. Using the Canadian emission inventory methodology as an example, this letter explores three key aspects for improving emission quantification: (i) obtaining emission measurements to improve and validate emission model estimates, (ii) obtaining more useful activity data, and (iii) developing a methane emission model that uses the available farm management activity data. In Canada, national surveys to collect manure management data have been inconsistent and not designed to provide quantitative data. Thus, the inventory has not been able to accurately capture changes in management systems even between manure stored as solid versus liquid. To address this, we re-analyzed four farm management surveys from the past decade and quantified the significant change in manure management which can be linked to the annual agricultural survey to create a continuous time series. In the dairy industry of one province, for example, the percentage of manure stored as liquid increased by 300% between 1991 and 2006, which greatly affects the methane emission estimates. Methane emissions are greatest from liquid manure, but vary by an order of magnitude depending on how the liquid manure is managed. Even if more complete activity data are collected on manure storage systems, default Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidance does not adequately capture the impacts of management decisions to reflect variation among farms and regions in inventory calculations. We propose a model that stays within the IPCC framework but would be more responsive to farm management by generating a matrix of methane conversion factors (MCFs) that account for key factors known to affect methane emissions: temperature, retention time and inoculum. This

  20. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from production of compost bedding on a dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingham, M A; VanderZaag, A C; Burtt, S; Baldé, H; Ngwabie, N M; Smith, W; Hakami, A; Wagner-Riddle, C; Bittman, S; MacDonald, D

    2017-12-01

    Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and ammonia (NH 3 ) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding. Active composting had low emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 with most carbon being emitted as CO 2 -C and most N emitted as NH 3 -N. Compost storage had higher CH 4 and N 2 O emissions than the active phase, while NH 3 was emitted at a lower rate, and CO 2 was similar. Overall, combining both the active composting and storage phases, the mean total emissions were 3.9×10 -2 gCH 4 kg -1 raw manure (RM), 11.3gCO 2 kg -1 RM, 2.5×10 -4 g N 2 O kg -1 RM, and 0.13g NH 3 kg -1 RM. Emissions with solid-separation and composting were compared to calculated emissions for a traditional (unseparated) liquid manure storage tank. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CH 4 +N 2 O) from solid separation, composting, compost storage, and separated liquid storage were reduced substantially on a CO 2 -equivalent basis compared to traditional liquid storage. Solid-liquid separation and well-managed composting could mitigate overall greenhouse gas emissions; however, an environmental trade off was that NH 3 was emitted at higher rates from the continuously turned composter than reported values for traditional storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential release of manure-borne bioactive phosphorus forms to runoff and leachate under simulated rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, R A; Dao, Thanh H; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R

    2017-05-01

    Limited information exists on the unhindered release of bioactive phosphorus (P) from a manure layer to model the partitioning and transport of component P forms before they reach an underlying soil. Rain simulations were conducted to quantify effects of intensity (30, 60, and 90 mm h -1 ) on P release from an application of 60 Mg ha -1 of dairy manure. Runoff contained water-extractable- (WEP), exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P (TBIOP), in contrast to the operationally defined "dissolved-reactive P" form. The released P concentrations and flow-weighed mass loads were described by the log-normal probability density function. At a reference condition of 30 mm h -1 and maintaining the surface at a 5% incline, runoff was minimal, and WEP accounted for 20.9% of leached total P (TP) concentrations, with an additional 25-30% as exchangeable and enzyme-labile bioactive P over the 1-h simulation. On a 20% incline, increased intensity accelerated occurrence of concentration max and shifted the skewed P concentration distribution more to the left. Differences in trends of WEP, TBIOP, or net enzyme-labile P (PHP o ) cumulative mass released per unit mass of manure between intensities were attributable to the higher frequency of raindrops striking the manure layer, thus increasing detachment and load of colloidal PHP o of the water phases. Thus, detailed knowledge of manure physical characteristics, bioactive P distribution in relation to rain intensity, and attainment of steady-state of water fluxes were critical factors in improved prediction of partitioning and movement of manure-borne P under rainfall. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Global asessment of manure management policies and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teenstra, E.D.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Aktasaeng, N.; Amatayaku, W.; Ndambi, A.; Pelster, D.; Germer, L.; Jenet, A.; Opio, C.; Andeweg, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure

  3. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  4. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  5. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...

  6. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy

  7. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  8. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  9. Chemical characterization of manure in relation to manure quality as a contribution to a reduced nitrogen emission to the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:manure composition, ammonia volatilization, free ions, Donnan Membrane Technique, manure additives, dietary changes, nitrogen dynamics,grasslandsoils.More insight in manure composition, ammonia (NH 3 )

  10. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  11. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Size and Distribution of Research Benefits in the Australian Dairy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Esther; Tarrant, Katherine A.; Ho, Christie K.M.; Malcolm, Bill; Griffith, Garry R.

    2012-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement model of the Australian dairy industry is being developed for estimating the net benefits from dairy research undertaken by DPI Victoria. In this initial version, the dairy industry is represented by a system of aggregate demand and supply relationships for two input sectors, raw milk and milk processing inputs, and three output sectors, export and domestic manufactured milk and domestic fluid milk. Quantities and prices are calibrated in terms of milk equivalents....

  14. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw

  15. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L S; Kolesnikov, A I [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  16. Energy audit at Russian dairies. Energy guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draborg, S. [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Vanloese (Denmark); Sheina, L.S.; Kolesnikov, A.I. [RDIEE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The project encompassed following activities: Elaboration of a description of the Russian dairy sector including a mapping of the entire sector in respect of production capacity, actual production, products, production technologies and energy consumption; Energy audits at twelve selected dairies with different typical productions; Elaboration of an `Energy Audit Guidance` which describes how to perform energy audits in dairies and where to expect energy saving possibilities. The energy savings possibilities are often due to the same kind of problems, e.g. low production, inefficient equipment or manually control of the process equipment. The main problems that Russian dairies faces can be divided into the following categories: Old and inefficient technological equipment which is operated at low capacity with very low energy efficiency; Lack of knowledge about new energy efficient technologies; Financial problems which causes low interest and few possibilities for using funds for investment in energy efficient equipment; Energy savings do not lead to personal gains for the persons in the dairy management or other employees which causes low interest in energy savings. At some dairies it seemd to be a problem for the management to adapt to the new and very different conditions for enterprises in Russian today, where sales, production, production capacity and raw milk available are interconnected. With respect to energy matters it was often a wish to replace existing oversized equipment with new equipment of the same size no matter that it is unlikely that the production will increase considerable in the future. The project has discovered that there is a need for demonstrating energy saving measures by implementation because it was in many ways hard for the dairy management`s to believe that, the energy consumption could be reduced dramatically without affecting the production or the processes. Furthermore, the project has discovered a need for transferring to the

  17. Environmental occurrence and shallow ground water detection of the antibiotic monensin from dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N.; Harter, T.H.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals used in animal feeding operations have been detected in various environmental settings. There is a growing concern about the impact on terrestrial and aquatic organisms and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Pharmaceutical use in milking cows is relatively limited compared with other livestock operations, except for the ionophore monensin, which is given to lactating cows as a feed. By weight, monensin can be the most significant antibiotic used in a dairy farm. This study investigates the potential of monensin to move from dairy operations into the surrounding ground water. Using two dairy farms in California as study sites, we twice collected samples along the environmental pathway-from flush lanes, lagoon waters, and shallow ground water beneath the dairies and beneath its associated manured fields. Monensin concentrations were determined using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization. Monensin was detected in all of the flush lane and lagoon water samples. Theoretical maximum concentration estimated from the actual dosing rate and the theoretical excretion rate assuming no attenuation was one order of magnitude greater than observed concentrations, suggesting significant attenuation in the manure collection and storage system. Monensin was also detected, at levels ranging from 0.04 to 0.39 microg L(-1), in some of the ground water samples underneath the production area of the dairy but not from the adjacent manured fields. Concentrations in ground water immediately downgradient of the lagoons were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentrations detected in lagoons, suggesting attenuation in the subsurface. The data suggest the possibility of monensin transport into shallow (2-5 m) alluvial ground water from dairy management units, including manure storage lagoons and freestalls occupied by heifers, lactating cows, and dry cows.

  18. Pig Manure Contamination Marker Selection Based on the Influence of Biological Treatment on the Dominant Fecal Microbial Groups▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination. PMID:19525269

  19. Pig manure contamination marker selection based on the influence of biological treatment on the dominant fecal microbial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Pourcher, Anne-Marie

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a microbial marker for pig manure contamination. We quantified the persistence of four dominant bacterial groups from the pig intestinal tract throughout manure handling at 10 livestock operations (including aerobic digestion) by using molecular typing. The partial 16S rRNA genes of Bacteroides-Prevotella, Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus (BSL), and Bifidobacterium group isolates were amplified and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. The most dominant bacterial populations were identified by cloning and sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Bifidobacterium spp. and, to a lesser extent, members of the BSL group, were less affected by the aerobic treatment than either Eubacterium-Clostridiaceae or Bacteroides-Prevotella. Two Bifidobacterium species found in raw manure were still present in manure during land application, suggesting that they can survive outside the pig intestinal tract and also survive aerobic treatment. The 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of one species, Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum, was sequenced, and a specific pair of primers was designed for its detection in the environment. With this nested PCR assay, this potential marker was not detected in samples from 30 bovine, 30 poultry, and 28 human fecal samples or in 15 urban wastewater effluents. As it was detected in runoff waters after spreading of pig manure, we propose this marker as a suitable microbial indicator of pig manure contamination.

  20. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    of B. cereus sensu lato isolated from cattle grazing soils and dairy products in Ghana. A total of 114 samples made up of 25 soil collected from cattle grazing farm land, 30 raw milk, 28 nunu (yoghurt-like product) and 31 woagashie (West African soft cheese). Ninety-six B. cereus sensu lato isolates......%), oxacillin (92%), penicillin (100%), amoxicillin (100%), and cefepime (100%) but susceptible to other antibiotics tested. Conclusions: Bacillus cereus s. l. is prevalent in soil, raw milk and dairy products in Ghana. However, loads are at levels considered to be safe for consumption. Various enterotoxin...

  1. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  2. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  3. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  4. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  5. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  6. Towards improving the manure management chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and

  7. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  8. Methane production from stable manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, M

    1955-04-01

    A brief description of the methane-bacteria is given, their classification, biochemistry, and ecology, and a table of gas production expected from a dozen waste materials. Descriptions of three fermentation systems are given. The Ducellier-Isman, Massaux consists of 2 or 3 tanks of 6 to 14 m/sup 3/ capacity which daily produces 5 to 17 m/sup 3/ gas. Rotted manure is placed in the tanks, covered with water and liquid manure, and allowed to ferment for 3 months. The older tanks are unmixed, but the newest have provision for breaking the scum layer. Gas production virtually ceases during the winter, much manual labor is involved, and high losses of organic matter are caused by use of already rotted manure. The Darmstadt system, developed by Reinhold and similar to the systems of Harnisch and Mueller, consists of a 15 m/sup 3/ covered pit into which farm wastes and household wastes are fed through piping. The tank is heated and stirred, solids making their way from one end of the tank to the outlet in a matter of weeks, from which they are shoveled and stacked. Gas production is 0.3 to 0.5 m/sup 3/ gas/m/sup 3/ tank daily. A good deal of manual labor is involved, and losses of nutrients occur after the solids are extracted from the tank and piled. A fully mechanized Schmidt-Egersgluess system, the Biological Humus Gasworks (Bihugas), consists of heated (30/sup 0/ to 35/sup 0/), mixed tanks, gas compressor, gas storage tank, and effluent storage tank. Three m/sup 3/ tank capacity are required per head of cattle and gas production is 2 to 2.5 m/sup 3//livestock unit/day. Straw is stored to be ready for use as fermentation feedstock when the cattle are in the fields. The length of digestion in the process is 18 to 20 days.

  9. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  10. Management of microbial contamination in storm runoff from California coastal dairy pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Lennox, Michael S; Pereira, Maria D G; Miller, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Tate, Kenneth W

    2010-01-01

    A survey of storm runoff fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from working farm and ranch pastures is presented in conjunction with a survey of FCB in manure management systems (MMS). The cross-sectional survey of pasture runoff was conducted on 34 pastures on five different dairies over 2 yr under varying conditions of precipitation, slope, manure management, and use of conservation practices such as vegetative filter strips. The MMS cross-sectional survey consisted of samples collected during 1 yr on nine different dairies from six loafing barns, nine primary lagoons, 12 secondary lagoons, and six irrigation sample points. Pasture runoff samples were additionally analyzed for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, whereby detectable concentrations occurred sporadically at higher FCB concentrations resulting in poor correlations with FCB. Prevalence of both parasites was lower relative to high-use areas studied simultaneously on these same farms. Application of manure to pastures more than 2 wk in advance of storm-associated runoff was related to a > or =80% reduction in FCB concentration and load compared to applications within 2 wk before a runoff event. For every 10 m of buffer length, a 24% reduction in FCB concentration was documented. A one-half (75%), one (90%), and two (99%) log10 reduction in manure FCB concentration was observed for manure holding times in MMS of approximately 20, 66, and 133 d, respectively. These results suggest that there are several management and conservation practices for working farms that may result in reduced FCB fluxes from agricultural operations.

  11. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  12. Applied and environmental chemistry of animal manure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure consists of predominantly urine and feces, but also may contain bedding materials, dropped feed, scurf and other farming wastes. The estimated amount of manure produced in 12 major livestock producing countries is 9 x109 Mg of manure annually. Manures are rich in plant nutrients. Howev...

  13. Short communication: Bacterial counts in recycled manure solids bedding replaced daily or deep packed in freestalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorter, D E; Kester, H J; Hogan, J S

    2014-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare bacterial counts of mastitis pathogens in deep-packed manure solids bedding with those in manure solids bedding replaced daily from mattresses. Eighteen Holstein cows were housed in 1 pen with 18 stalls. One row of 9 stalls was equipped with mattresses topped with bedding. The back one-third of these stalls toward the alleyway was covered in 25 mm of recycled manure solids, which was removed daily for the next 6 d and replaced with bedding from the brisket board and lunge space areas of stalls. The second row of 9 stalls was bedded for 3 wk with 100 to 150 mm of deep-pack recycled manure bedding from which only fecal matter was removed daily. After 3 wk, bedding treatments were changed between rows in a switchback design. Mean total gram-negative bacterial counts did not differ between treatments throughout the experiment. Coliform and Klebsiella spp. bacterial counts were lower in daily replaced bedding compared with deep pack across the experiment and on each of d 0, 1, 2, and 6. Streptococcal counts were reduced in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 0 and greater in daily replacement stalls compared with deep-pack stalls on d 1, 2, and 6. Daily replacement of recycled manure bedding from the back one-third of the stalls appeared to be an effective approach to reducing exposure to coliforms, specifically Klebsiella, but not streptococci. However, bacterial counts in bedding from both treatments were elevated throughout the trial and resulted in considerable risk for exposure to teats and development of intramammary infections. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  16. Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X Y; Zhao, S G; Zheng, N; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Liu, H M; McKillip, J; Wang, J Q

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of raw milk with bacterial pathogens is potentially hazardous to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total bacteria count (TBC) and presence of pathogens in raw milk in Northern China along with the associated herd management practices. A total of 160 raw milk samples were collected from 80 dairy herds in Northern China. All raw milk samples were analyzed for TBC and pathogens by culturing. The results showed that the number of raw milk samples with TBC milk samples were Staphylococcus aureus positive, 72 (45.00%) were Escherichia coli positive, 2 (1.25%) were Salmonella positive, 2 (1.25%) were Listeria monocytogenes positive, and 3 (1.88%) were Campylobacter positive. The prevalence of S. aureus was influenced by season, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and use of a Dairy Herd Improvement program. The TBC was influenced by season and milk frequency. The correlation between TBC and prevalence of S. aureus or E. coli is significant. The effect size statistical analysis showed that season and herd (but not Dairy Herd Improvement, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and area) were the most important factors affecting TBC in raw milk. In conclusion, the presence of bacteria in raw milk was associated with season and herd management practices, and further comprehensive study will be powerful for effectively characterizing various factors affecting milk microbial quality in bulk tanks in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ogejo, Jactone Arogo

    2009-01-01

    Manure storage is part of the manure management system of a facility or property where animals and/or poultry are raised. Manure should be considered a resource not a waste to be discarded. Manure contains valuable organic matter and nutrients that can be used as a fertilizer and/or to produce energy. If not managed properly, manure will accumulate very quickly and pose the potential for polluting the environment from odors and contamination of surface water and ground water.

  18. Assessment of dairy wastewater treatment and its potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution of dairy wastewater treated in a septic tank and its potential for biogas production was investigated. Performance of the existing treatment system was assessed through characterization of both raw and treated effluents. From the analysis parameters likeChemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical ...

  19. Persistence of pathogens in liquid pig manure processed in manure tanks and biodigesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Betancur H.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the persistence of virus, bacteria, mold, yeast and parasites in liquid pig manure, processed in biodigesters and manure tanks in the central-western part of Colombia. Materials and methods. A directed observational study analyzed descriptively was carried out in three pig farms located where the manure tanks were assembled and its biodigesters were used. A sampling of liquid pig manure was taken to assess the presence of 26 pathogens at the beginning of the study and another one at the end of the process in manure tanks and biodigesters. For the manure tank, a 250 liters tank was filled with fresh pig manure and was analyzed after three days of storage. The biodigesters were of continuous flow and its effluents were analyzed, according to the specific hydraulic retention times. The diagnostic techniques were those recommended specifically for each microorganism and were carried out in certified labs by the Colombian Animal Health authority. Results. Of the 26 pathogens that were investigated, 15 appeared in the fresh pig manure used in pig manure tanks and 12 in the one used in biodigestors. In manure tanks, Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2, mold, yeast, Salmonella spp., Balantidium coli and Strongylids did not persist. In biodigesters, PCV2, yeast, Strongylids, B. coli and Strongyloides spp., did not persist. Conclusions. In both manure tanks and biodigesters, a variation could be seen in pathogen persistency, indicating that they act as transformation systems of pig manure for the removal of the latter, as long as the storage times are increased if the efficiency wants to be improved.

  20. Brucella contamination in raw milk by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. Brucella organisms, which are small aerobic, facultative intracellular coccobacilli, localize in the reproductive organs of host animals, causing abortions and sterility. They are shed in large numbers in the animal’s urine, milk, placental fluid, and other fluids. Dairy product from raw milk are a potential threat to public health in endemic developing countries. The gold standard for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation of Brucella species. However, isolation Brucella species is time consuming and needed to level 3 biocontainment facilities and highly skilled technical personnel to handle samples and live bacteria for eventual identification. Handling Brucella species increase risk of laboratory infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with high sensitivity and specifity overcomed to these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to detect Brucella species in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman province, Iran by PCR technique. Methods: Forty and eight bulk tank milk (BTM were collected from October 2015 to March 2016 from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cows. DNA of milk samples extracted by lysis buffer and proteinase K method. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA targeting IS 711. Positive samples must be showed 317 bp amplified, corresponding to the expected size of the IS 711 genome region in all Brucella species. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp. from 48 BTM samples in this area. Conclusion: The results indicate that brucellosis by Brucella species is endemic in the Kerman province dairy farms. Consumption of raw milk dairy products by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an high risk to public health. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of

  1. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    .g. reduced GHG emissions and better manure handling practices, which limits pollution of nitrogen to recipients. Suggestions are provided of how to retrofit the stables to facilitate manure collection, storage and transport to the biogas plant. Which type of biogas plant to implement, financial issues......By means of a case study conducted within a milk dairy cooperative in Tambon Ban Kor, a district in Khon Kaen Province, this paper analyze opportunities for implementing a biogas development ‘hub’ in Thailand for achieving bio-economic and environmental benefits within a local rural community...... cooperative, etc. The biogas plant substitutes the use of fossil fuels, and surplus electricity can be exported to the power grid and provide extra income. Local crop farmers and ago-industries could benefit economically from sale of biomass residues to the energy plant. The environment will benefit from e...

  2. Demiwater uit mest = Demineralised water from manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the commercialization of permeate water from manure treatment using reversed osmosis treatment. The goal is to use the permeate as a resource in the production of demineralized water.

  3. Factors affecting consumers' preferences for and purchasing decisions regarding pasteurized and raw milk specialty cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, A; Durham, C; Meunier-Goddik, L

    2011-10-01

    Eight hundred ninety consumers at a local food festival were surveyed about their specialty cheese purchasing behavior and asked to taste and rate, through nonforced choice preference, 1 of 4 cheese pairs (Cheddar and Gouda) made from pasteurized and raw milks. The purpose of the survey was to examine consumers' responses to information on the safety of raw milk cheeses. The associated consumer test provided information about specialty cheese consumers' preferences and purchasing behavior. Half of the consumers tested were provided with cheese pairs that were identified as being made from unpasteurized and pasteurized milk. The other half evaluated samples that were identified only with random 3-digit codes. Overall, more consumers preferred the raw milk cheeses than the pasteurized milk cheeses. A larger portion of consumers indicated preferences for the raw milk cheese when the cheeses were labeled and thus they knew which samples were made from raw milk. Most of the consumers tested considered the raw milk cheeses to be less safe or did not know if raw milk cheeses were less safe. After being informed that the raw milk cheeses were produced by a process approved by the FDA (i.e., 60-d ripening), most consumers with concerns stated that they believed raw milk cheeses to be safe. When marketing cheese made from raw milk, producers should inform consumers that raw milk cheese is produced by an FDA-approved process. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  5. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  6. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  7. Overview of manure treatment in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyon, L

    2017-03-01

    Manure treatment becomes a focal issue in relation to current EU and national policies on environmental, climate and renewable energy matters. The objective of this desk study was to collect all available data on the treatment of manure from cattle, pig and poultry farms for an overview of manure treatment in France. Specific surveys in 2008 showed that 12% of pig farms, 11% of poultry farms and 7.5% of cattle farms was concerned by manure treatment. Taken together, the treatment of pig, poultry and cattle manure accounted for 13.6milliontons corresponding to 11.3% of the total annual tonnage (120milliontons). The main processes, mostly applied on the farm, were composting (8.5milliontons), aerobic treatment (2.9milliontons of pig slurry) and anaerobic digestion (1milliontons). Other manure treatments, including physical-chemical treatment, were less frequent (0.4million of m 3 ). Treated manure was mainly used to fertilize the soil and crops on the farm concerned. Manure treatment can thus be considered to be underused in France. However, anaerobic digestion is expected to expand to reach the European target of 20% of energy from renewable sources. Nevertheless, this expansion will depend on overcoming the constraint requiring registration or normalization of the use of the digestate as fertilizer. Thus, to avoid penalizing farmers, the further development or creation of collective processing platforms is recommended, combined with an N recovery process that will enable the production of organic amendments and fertilizers in an easy marketable form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  9. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  10. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  11. Multilocus Sequence Typing And Antibiotic Resistance Of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated From The Brazilian Dairy Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Karen Kiesbye; Chaul, Luiza; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of food poisoning due to enterotoxin production. This is particularly an issue in the dairy industry, where S. aureus can contaminate the product e.g. from raw milk or the handlers. In Brazil, soft cheese is mainly produced in small dairy plants where good ...

  12. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut......’s adolescence without hypostatizing distinctions between inside and outside, or between culture and its raw or primitive origins, while nevertheless not conflating the dissolution of boundaries and hierarchies with a possible end to territoriality and control, nor promoting a resignation of thought...

  13. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  14. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  15. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Omran; Stallones, Lorann; Abbaspour, Asghar; Marioryad, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks). Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4) were associated with the following tasks: (1) manure disposal, (2) filling feed bags, and (3) pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3). The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  16. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0....

  17. Monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw cow milk in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gasperetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin- producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9% were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of manure and mixture of manure with lipids: biogas reactor performance and microbial community analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield and a hi......Anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and a mixture of cattle manure with glycerol trioleate (GTO) was studied in lab-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) operated at 37degreesC. The reactor. codigesting manure and lipids exhibited a significantly higher specific methane yield...

  19. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters in the pyrolysis conversion of biomass and manure to biochars using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiliang; Chen, Baoliang

    2013-10-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of the conversion of two companion pair materials, i.e., rice straw vs dairy manure, and rice bran vs chicken manure, to biochars were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The overall changes of activation energy (Ea) were well described by the Flynn-Wall method. The Ea values increased steeply from about 120 to 180 kJ/mol at the mass conversion (α) at 0.2-0.4, followed by a relatively steady change at 0.40.65. The higher contents of minerals in manures resulted in the larger Ea. The individual conversion of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in the feedstocks was identified and their thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS°) were calculated. The yields of biochars calculated from TG curve were compared with the determined yields of biochars using muffle pyrolysis. Along with Fourier transform infrared spectra data, the distinct decompositions of biomasses and manures were evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon Emissions, Renewable Electricity, and Profits: Comparing Policies to Promote Anaerobic Digesters on Dairies

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; Sneeringer, Stacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters can provide renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from manure management. Government policies that encourage digester adoption by livestock operations include construction cost-share grants, renewable electricity subsidies, and carbon pricing (offset) programs. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies is not well understood. For the U.S. dairy sector, we compare predicted digester adoption rates, carbon emission reductions, renewable elect...

  1. A comparison of free-stall barns used by modernized Wisconsin dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, J; Palmer, R W; Jackson-Smith, D B

    2001-02-01

    A primary objective of the Wisconsin Dairy Modernization Survey was to compare features of free-stall barns available to dairy producers. This study used data from a large random sample of expanding dairy farms to determine whether the theoretical benefits of particular free-stall configurations bear out under on-farm conditions. Comparisons were made among herds using free-stall barns as their primary housing for new versus remodeled facilities, barn design, bedding used, feed-delivery design, manure removal strategies, animal restraint, maternity areas, overcrowding, and cooling methods. Producers who made the transition from tie-stall housing to free-stall housing were satisfied with this decision. New free-stall barns provided a more desirable environment for the herds than remodeled free-stall barns, although initial investments were higher. When new free-stall barns were compared, herds with four-row barns had higher production, lower somatic cell count, and higher stocking rates than herds with six-row barns. Respondents were more satisfied with four- and six-row barns than with two- and three-row barns. Respondents felt sand provided some advantages for cow comfort, while satisfaction with bedding cost and manure handling was higher with mattresses. Dairy Herd Improvement data showed no difference in milk production or somatic cell count for producers who chose sand or mattress-based free stalls. Respondents were more satisfied with the use of drive-through feeding than other feed-delivery designs. Most producers chose to use tractor scrapers to remove manure; however, producers who used automated systems were more satisfied with manure management. Few differences were observed when comparing self-locking head gates to palpation rails. Overcrowding did not have any adverse affect on production or user satisfaction with feed intake or cow comfort. Using supplemental cooling appeared to facilitate higher production.

  2. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  3. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  4. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of refrigeration on bacterial communities within raw and pasteurized buffalo milk was studied using high-throughput sequencing. High quality samples of raw buffalo milk were obtained from five dairy farms in the Guangxi province of China. A sample of each milk was pasteurized, and both r...

  5. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  6. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard.

  7. Biochar and manure affect calcareous soil and corn silage nutrient concentrations and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R D; Ippolito, J A

    2012-01-01

    Carbon-rich biochar derived from the pyrolysis of biomass can sequester atmospheric CO, mitigate climate change, and potentially increase crop productivity. However, research is needed to confirm the suitability and sustainability of biochar application to different soils. To an irrigated calcareous soil, we applied stockpiled dairy manure (42 Mg ha dry wt) and hardwood-derived biochar (22.4 Mg ha), singly and in combination with manure, along with a control, yielding four treatments. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when needed (based on preseason soil test N and crop requirements) in all plots and years, with N mineralized from added manure included in this determination. Available soil nutrients (NH-N; NO-N; Olsen P; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-extractable K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe), total C (TC), total N (TN), total organic C (TOC), and pH were evaluated annually, and silage corn nutrient concentration, yield, and uptake were measured over two growing seasons. Biochar treatment resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in available soil Mn and a 1.4-fold increase in TC and TOC, whereas manure produced a 1.2- to 1.7-fold increase in available nutrients (except Fe), compared with controls. In 2009 biochar increased corn silage B concentration but produced no yield increase; in 2010 biochar decreased corn silage TN (33%), S (7%) concentrations, and yield (36%) relative to controls. Manure produced a 1.3-fold increase in corn silage Cu, Mn, S, Mg, K, and TN concentrations and yield compared with the control in 2010. The combined biochar-manure effects were not synergistic except in the case of available soil Mn. In these calcareous soils, biochar did not alter pH or availability of P and cations, as is typically observed for acidic soils. If the second year results are representative, they suggest that biochar applications to calcareous soils may lead to reduced N availability, requiring additional soil N inputs to maintain yield targets. Copyright © by the

  8. Manure gas, a new national resource of heat and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creplet, L E

    1951-11-01

    Installations for the production of combustible gases from farmyard manure are described and the chemistry of the fermentation is outlined. It is claimed that the fertilizing value of the manure is increased by the process.

  9. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  10. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  11. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. PMID:22253982

  12. Peptidomics for dairy foods characterization - a method development study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Nanna Stengaard; Hammershøj, Marianne; Sørensen, John

    During storage of long shelf life dairy products undesired changes can appear in the products. One major change in liquid UHT products and re-dissolved dairy product powders is an increase in viscosity, creation of “fluffy” material or “clouds” caused by aggregation of material including proteins...... of proteins and/or proteolysis from heat stable proteases – either native bovine proteases or from psychrotropic bacteria in the raw milk, or in combination. The project therefore aims at analyzing and outlining the formation of aggregates by proteomic characterizations combined with peptidomic profiles...

  13. Recovery of amino acids and phosphorus from manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background & Objectives: The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto a cropland excessively....

  14. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  16. Green manure and inorganic fertiliser as management strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To alleviate the problem of Striga and soil fertility, green-manure applications could be an alternative strategy. Ths study was conducted to (a) evaluate the potential of green manure against Striga, and (b) determine the potential of inducing Striga suicidal germination by selected green manures. For the first part of the study, ...

  17. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  18. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  19. Evaluation of Poultry Manure Application Rates on the Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total carotenoid content was not significantly affected by poultry manure application. The phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents were significantly affected by poultry manure application. Water and oil absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of poultry manure while the bulk density was not ...

  20. Factors influencing adoption of manure separation technology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Kruseman, G.; Lakner, D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure separation technologies are essential for sustainable livestock operations in areas with high livestock density as these technologies result in better utilization of manure and reduced environmental impact. Technologies for manure separation have been well researched and are ready for use.

  1. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  3. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  5. Sustainable biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil by using CaO catalysts prepared from chicken manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcined chicken manure was successfully used as catalyst for biodiesel production. • Ca compound in chicken manure was converted into active CaO by calcination. • Chicken manure-derived catalysts show high activity towards transesterification. • Biodiesel fuels can be produced by using waste cooking oils. - Abstract: The low cost and efficient CaO catalysts have been successfully prepared from chicken manure by a simple calcination, in this present work. Chicken manure contains significant content of calcium compounds that can easily be converted into the active calcium oxide catalyst after calcination at 850 °C under air. The Hammett indicator test showed that the obtained CaO catalyst has the basic strength in a range of 15 < H- < 18.4, revealing that the basicity of the obtained catalyst is mainly ascribed to the strong basic properties of metal–O groups. The obtained CaO catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for biodiesel production from transesterification of waste cooking oil and methanol. Up to 90% FAME yield was obtained at optimum reaction condition (i.e. 7.5 wt% of catalyst, 15:1 of methanol:oil molar ratio and 65 °C). The experimental kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-first order model and the activation energy was found to be 78.8 kJ mol"−"1. Moreover, fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were determined according to the European standard and found to be within the specifications. The uses of chicken manure as a catalyst source and waste cooking oil as a raw material for biodiesel production not only offers the environmentally friendly and cost-effective way to recycle those wastes, but also help to lower the biodiesel production cost to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum-based diesel.

  6. Poultry manure. Agronomic use or energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinchera, A.; Perri, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    By the year 2010, Italy could see the construction of three incinerators that use poultry manure as source of energy. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of such a choice are considered in their environmental and economical aspects, taking into account the agronomic qualities of poultry manure. The analyses suggests that the agricultural sector should be the one to recover the biomass. It should be used above all as a fertiliser, either directly or after proper treatments improving its agronomic characteristics. Conversely, the energy sector should be in charge of dismissing the eventual surplus through incineration [it

  7. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Trends in culture-independent methods for assessing dairy food quality and safety: emerging metagenomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Marie

    2012-12-01

    Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ''The manure now is here.'' Only the cows get grass and maize while the Novatech farm biogas plant gets the manure; ''Die Guelle ist ja da.'' Gras und Mais bekommen nur die Kuehe, die Novatech-Hofbiogasanlage nur Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    Actually biogas was out of the question for the dairy farmer Marco Friedrich farming about 200 acres of land. But then, the EEG 2012 (Energy Economy Law) came with the new category 'Manure - Farm - Biogas plant', enabling 25 Cents per kilowatt hour of electricity fed into the grid. In cooperation with the plant manufacturer Novatech GmbH (Wolpertshausen, Federal Republic of Germany), a biogas plant was built, which is described in detail in the contribution under consideration.

  9. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  10. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2014-01-01

    fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production......Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...

  11. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  12. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  13. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  14. Measuring the Effects of Generic Dairy Advertising in a Multi-Market Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph V. Balagtas; Sounghun Kim

    2007-01-01

    We develop a multi-market equilibrium displacement model that allows demand linkages across downstream product markets, and supply linkages through the common use of a raw commodity as the key input. Applying the model to the dairy sector, we find that the effectiveness of producer-funded advertising depends on the demand relationships across dairy product markets (cross-price and cross-advertising elasticities) as well as the reallocation of milk toward the advertised market. We show that th...

  15. Livestock production and manure management on animal farms in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S.G.; Bui, H.H.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

      The Vietnamese and Asian livestock production is increasing these years. In consequence large amounts of manure are produced, which may be a hazard to the environment because the traditional technology and the management practise of manure is not adapted to specialised livestock production.......  Further, there is little knowledge about the plant nutrient value of animal manure, and about technologies for environmentally-friendly manure management. This lack of knowledge enhances the risk of polluting the environment by inappropriate use of livestock manure and is also a potential risk...... for transferring pathogens between livestock and from livestock to humans (zoonoses). The objective of this article is to describe manure management at livestock farms in Vietnam. The focus is on presenting the most typical farming concepts, manure management on these farms, environmental and hygienic risks...

  16. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  17. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  18. Methane. [biosynthesis from manure or analogous substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducellier, G L.R.; Isman, M A

    1949-04-19

    CH/sub 4/ is produced by the fermentation of manure or analogous substances in a vat having a dome covering the vat, the lower edge of the dome being immersed in a liquid seal, and the dome being arranged to rise vertically in order to hold the CH/sub 4/ produced.

  19. MINERALS AND NITROGEN IN POULTRY MANURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groot variasies in minerale - en stikstofinhoud is waargenec'.m binne sowel as tussen bronne van mis. ... to investigate the concentralion of c@per and zinc in manure fronr broilers fed ... method was used in the determination of calcium, mag-.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  1. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  2. Comparison of sampling methods for animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, P.J.L.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Hoeksma, P.

    1997-01-01

    Currently available and recently developed sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total phosphorus and nitrogen content of samples. Sampling methods were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during loading from

  3. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF ANIMAL...

  4. Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in raw milk produced in different regions of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Seon; Hur, Yoo Kyung; Kim, Eun Ji; Ahn, Young-Tae; Kim, Jong Geun; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Huh, Chul Sung

    2017-11-01

    The control of psychrotrophic bacteria causing milk spoilage and illness due to toxic compounds is an important issue in the dairy industry. In South Korea, Gangwon-do province is one of the coldest terrains in which eighty percent of the area is mountainous regions, and mainly plays an important role in the agriculture and dairy industries. The purposes of this study were to analyze the indigenous microbiota of raw milk in Gangwon-do and accurately investigate a putative microbial group causing deterioration in milk quality. We collected raw milk from the bulk tank of 18 dairy farms in the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang regions of Gangwon-do. Milk components were analyzed and the number of viable bacteria was confirmed. The V3 and V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and sequenced on an Illumina Miseq platform. Sequences were then assigned to operational taxonomic units, followed by the selection of representative sequences using the QIIME software package. The milk samples from Pyeongchang were higher in fat, protein, lactose, total solid, and solid non-fat, and bacterial cell counts were observed only for the Hoengseong samples. The phylum Proteobacteria was detected most frequently in both the Hoengseong and Pyeongchang samples, followed by the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Notably, Corynebacterium, Pediococcus, Macrococcus, and Acinetobacter were significantly different from two regions. Although the predominant phylum in raw milk is same, the abundances of major genera in milk samples were different between Hoengseong and Pyeongchang. We assumed that these differences are caused by regional dissimilar farming environments such as soil, forage, and dairy farming equipment so that the quality of milk raw milk from Pyeongchang is higher than that of Hoengseong. These results could provide the crucial information for identifying the microbiota in raw milk of South Korea.

  5. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  6. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.

  7. A case of bovine raw milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunt Karen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During routine sampling of bulk raw milk on a dairy farm, the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes was found to be a contaminant, at numbers L. monocytogenes, indicating a possible case of excretion of the L. monocytogenes directly into the milk. Milk samples were collected from the individual cows and analysed, resulting in the identification of L. monocytogenes excretion (at 280 cfu/ml from one of the 4 mammary quarters of one dairy cow out of 180. When the infected cow was isolated from the herd, no L. monocytogenes was detected from the remaining herd. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern of the strain from the individual cow was indistinguishable from that originally isolated from the bulk milk. The infected cow did not show any clinical signs of disease, nor did the appearance of the milk have any physical abnormalities. Antibiotic treatment of the infected mammary quarter was found to be ineffective. This study shows that there can be risks associated with direct contamination of raw milk with L. monocytogenes.

  8. Texturized dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, Charles I; Phillips, John G; Tunick, Michael H; Qi, Phoebi X; Cooke, Peter H

    2010-03-01

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear, and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey protein concentrate (WPC), and whey protein isolate (WPI) were modified using a twin-screw extruder at melt temperatures of 50, 75, and 100 degrees C, and moistures ranging from 20 to 70 wt%. Viscoelasticity and solubility measurements showed that extrusion temperature was a more significant (P extruded dairy protein ranged from rigid (2500 N) to soft (2.7 N). Extruding at or above 75 degrees C resulted in increased peak force for WPC (138 to 2500 N) and WPI (2.7 to 147.1 N). NDM was marginally texturized; the presence of lactose interfered with its texturization. WPI products extruded at 50 degrees C were not texturized; their solubility values ranged from 71.8% to 92.6%. A wide possibility exists for creating new foods with texturized dairy proteins due to the extensive range of states achievable. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, WPI, or WPC, or NDM were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion temperature conditions were adjusted to 50, 75, or 100 degrees C, sufficient to change the structure of the dairy proteins, but not destroy them. Extrusion modified the structures of these dairy proteins for ease of use in starchy foods to boost nutrient levels. Dairy proteins can be used to boost the protein content in puffed snacks made from corn meal, but unmodified, they bind water and form doughy pastes with starch. To minimize the water binding property of dairy proteins, whey protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, or nonfat dried milk were modified by extrusion processing. Extrusion

  9. Different approaches to assess the environmental performance of a cow manure biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrellas, Marta; Burgos, Laura; Tey, Laura; Noguerol, Joan; Riau, Victor; Palatsi, Jordi; Antón, Assumpció; Flotats, Xavier; Bonmatí, August

    2018-03-01

    In intensive livestock production areas, farmers must apply manure management systems to comply with governmental regulations. Biogas plants, as a source of renewable energy, have the potential to reduce environmental impacts comparing with other manure management practices. Nevertheless, manure processing at biogas plants also incurs in non-desired gas emissions that should be considered. At present, available emission calculation methods cover partially emissions produced at a biogas plant, with the subsequent difficulty in the preparation of life cycle inventories. The objective of this study is to characterise gaseous emissions: ammonia (NH3-N), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2Oindirect, and N2Odirect) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) from the anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure by using different approaches for preparing gaseous emission inventories, and to compare the different methodologies used. The chosen scenario for the study is a biogas plant located next to a dairy farm in the North of Catalonia, Spain. Emissions were calculated by two methods: field measurements and estimation, following international guidelines. International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines were adapted to estimate emissions for the specific situation according to Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 approaches. Total air emissions at the biogas plant were calculated from the emissions produced at the three main manure storage facilities on the plant: influent storage, liquid fraction storage, and the solid fraction storage of the digestate. Results showed that most of the emissions were produced in the liquid fraction storage. Comparing measured emissions with estimated emissions, NH3, CH4, N2Oindirect and H2S total emission results were in the same order of magnitude for both methodologies, while, N2Odirect total measured emissions were one order of magnitude higher than the estimates. A Monte Carlo analysis was carried out to examine the uncertainties of emissions determined from

  10. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  11. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  12. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system .... Gas chromatograph. (Perkin Elmer, Auto system XL), equipped with thermal conductivity ..... Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses. Bioresour. Tech.

  13. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  14. Determination of Heavy Metals in Raw Milk Produced in Tangshan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Aijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the content of heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury in raw milk of Tangshan. Samples were obtained directly from dairy farms in Tangshan City. A total of 55 raw milk samples were collected in 2012, a total of 150 raw milk samples and 150 in 2013 and 2014 respectively. All the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method-based on China National Standard. In general, heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury of raw milk in Tangshan were relatively safe for people’s health because none of those heavy metals (Arsenic, Lead, Chromium and Mercury contents exceeded the Maximum Limit set by China.

  15. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  16. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  17. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by adopting anaerobic digestion technology on dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The impact of anaerobic digestion (AD) technology on mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management on typical dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland was compared. Firstly, the total annual GHG emissions from the farms were calculated using IPCC guidelines for a similar slurry type manure management system. Secondly, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to estimate methane (CH{sub 4}) potentials and process parameters for semi-continuous digestion of manures. Finally, the obtained experimental data were used to evaluate the potential renewable energy production and subsequently, the possible GHG emissions that could be avoided through adoption of AD technology on the studied farms. Results showed that enteric fermentation (CH{sub 4}) and manure management (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) accounted for 231.3, 32.3 and 18.3 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1} on dairy, sow and pig farms, respectively. With the existing farm data and experimental methane yields, an estimated renewable energy of 115.2, 36.3 and 79.5 MWh of heat yr{sup -1} and 62.8, 21.8 and 47.7 MWh of electricity yr{sup -1} could be generated in a CHP plant on these farms respectively. The total GHG emissions that could be offset on the studied dairy cow, sow and pig farms were 177, 87.7 and 125.6 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1}, respectively. The impact of AD technology on mitigating GHG emissions was mainly through replaced fossil fuel consumption followed by reduced emissions due to reduced fertilizer use and production, and from manure management. (author)

  18. Raw Materials Market of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of raw materials is becoming an important concern for the Chinese economy as it continues to grow. This deficit is amended with imports, which – in their own turn – are limited by the high level of global prices. The build-up issue of raw materials imports is going to solve by the measures of monetary policy (RMB’s revaluation against the USD. Analysis of China’s market of raw materials reveals that the largest increase in the physical volume of imports is concentrated in crude oil, LNG, iron ore and coal. As for Russia, its supplies and share in total Chinese imports of raw materials tend to increase. Author employs regression equations based on international statistics data to show that RMB’s revaluation, ceteris paribus, increases physical volumes of raw materials imports. However, the main factor of coal and LNG imports growth is energy consumption by Chinese heavy industry; imports of oil products – producers’ prices; meanwhile imports of steel products tend to decrease with the growth of steel exports. RMB’s revaluation increases physical volumes of imports of low value added raw materials from Russia (coal, crude oil, iron ore

  19. Ammonia losses and nitrogen partitioning at a southern High Plains open lot dairy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W.; Cole, N. Andy; Hagevoort, G. Robert; Casey, Kenneth D.; Auvermann, Brent W.

    2015-06-01

    Animal agriculture is a significant source of ammonia (NH3). Cattle excrete most ingested nitrogen (N); most urinary N is converted to NH3, volatilized and lost to the atmosphere. Open lot dairies on the southern High Plains are a growing industry and face environmental challenges as well as reporting requirements for NH3 emissions. We quantified NH3 emissions from the open lot and wastewater lagoons of a commercial New Mexico dairy during a nine-day summer campaign. The 3500-cow dairy consisted of open lot, manure-surfaced corrals (22.5 ha area). Lactating cows comprised 80% of the herd. A flush system using recycled wastewater intermittently removed manure from feeding alleys to three lagoons (1.8 ha area). Open path lasers measured atmospheric NH3 concentration, sonic anemometers characterized turbulence, and inverse dispersion analysis was used to quantify emissions. Ammonia fluxes (15-min) averaged 56 and 37 μg m-2 s-1 at the open lot and lagoons, respectively. Ammonia emission rate averaged 1061 kg d-1 at the open lot and 59 kg d-1 at the lagoons; 95% of NH3 was emitted from the open lot. The per capita emission rate of NH3 was 304 g cow-1 d-1 from the open lot (41% of N intake) and 17 g cow-1 d-1 from lagoons (2% of N intake). Daily N input at the dairy was 2139 kg d-1, with 43, 36, 19 and 2% of the N partitioned to NH3 emission, manure/lagoons, milk, and cows, respectively.

  20. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COOLING SYSTEMS ON LYING TIME OF DAIRY COWS IN CUBICLES WITH SEPARATED MANURE SOLIDS BEDDING VPLYV ROZDIELNYCH SYSTÉMOV OCHLADZOVANIA NA DOBU LEŢANIA DOJNÍC USTAJNENÝCH V LEŢISKOVÝCH BOXOCH PODSTIELANÝCH SEPAROVANÝM KALOM HNOJOVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana LENDELOVÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of lying time and other behaviour manifestations of dairy cows during usage of different cooling systems of animals. Alternative hypothesis was presumption, that the lying time of cows in lying cubicles with applied two different cooling systems are indifferent. The sprinkling system was used to animal cooling in group S in summer time. In group SV was disposable sprinkling system and diagonally rotated ventilators. Activities and the rest of animals were evaluated in 10 minute intervals using a camera system for 24 hours. Data obtained was tested by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison test for detecting of significant differences in the behaviors between groups of cows. There was found positive effect of animal enhanced cooling using sprinkling system with increased air movement by ventilators. It reflected in significant prolongation of whole lying time and shortening of time, when animals were standing. It resulted from final values of investigated behaviour manifestations of dairy cattle within 24 hour period that animals in group SV with sprinklers and ventilators lay in stalls longer than in group S with sprinklers, but without ventilators (10.76 h*d-1*cow-1 vs. 7.71 h*d-1*cow-1, P<0.001. The total time spent by lying in stalls and in alley represented in group SV 11.31 h*d-1*cow-1, and in group S 10.22 h*d-1*cow-1. Animals, from group S without ventilators, which were less cooled, were significantly more lying down in alleys (2.52 h*d-1*cow-1 vs. 0.56 h*d-1*cow-1, P<0.001.Cieľom štúdie bolo skúmanie zmeny dĺţky leţania a ďalších prejavov správania dojníc pri pouţití rôznych spôsobov ochladzovania zvierat. Alternatívnou hypotézou bol predpoklad, ţe doba leţania dojníc v leţiskách s dvomi rozdielnymi spôsobmi ochladzovania nie je rovnaká. V letnom období bol k ochladzovaniu v skupine S vyuţívaný sprchový systém, v skupine SV

  1. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  2. Impacts of paper sludge and manure on soil and biomass production of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, Amos K.; Volk, Timothy A.; Hafner, Sasha; Leopold, Donald J.; Schirmer, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Land application of organic wastes to short rotation woody crops (SRWC) can reduce the environmental impacts associated with waste disposal and enhance the productivity of biomass production systems. Understanding the potential impacts of organic amendments however, requires the examination of changes in soil characteristics and plant productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of paper sludge and dairy manure on biomass production of shrub willow (Salix dasyclados SV1) and to determine the impacts of these amendments on soil chemical properties. Treatments included urea, dairy manure and paper sludge separately and in combination, and a control. These materials were applied in the summer of 2005 to two fields of SV1 at different stages of growth: An old field with one year old shoots on a 10 year old root system and a young field which was beginning regrowth after being coppiced at the end of its first growing season. Foliar nutrient concentrations and soil chemical properties were analyzed at the end of the second growing season after treatment application to determine plant response to the fertilization regimes and to determine the effects of fertilization on soil characteristics. Fertilization did not increase biomass production in either field. However, application of the N-poor paper sludge did not reduce yield either. In general, fertilization did not influence soil or foliar chemistry, although there were some exceptions. The lack of response observed in this study is probably related to the nutrient status of the site or losses of applied nutrients. -- Highlights: → The fertilization treatments did not have any significant effect biomass production. → Application of paper sludge did not reduce willow biomass yield in both fields. → Foliar N concentration of willow crops in this study is in the range considered for optimal growth. → The limited response of foliar nutrients to fertilization indicates that the site was not limited by

  3. Hydrolytic potential of a psychrotrophic Pseudomonas isolated from refrigerated raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula F. Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of extracellular hydrolases by a psychrotrophic bacterium isolated from refrigerated raw milk, and identified as a Pseudomonas sp. belonging to the Pseudomonas jenssenii group, was studied. This bacterium produced proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes in all media investigated (skim milk, cheese whey, casein broth, and tryptone soy broth. High levels of α-glucosidase were produced in skim milk broth. Hydrolytic enzymes detected in skim milk broth are of particular concern, indicating that these enzymes could be produced by Pseudomonas sp. during the cold storage of raw milk, contributing to the spoilage problem in milk and dairy products.

  4. Carbon Balance in an Irrigated Corn Field after Inorganic Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, R. D.; Lehrsch, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC and IC (POC, PIC) concentrations in irrigation inflow, runoff, and percolation waters (6-7 irrigations/y); C inputs from soil amendments and crop biomass; harvested C; and gaseous C emissions from field plots cropped to silage corn (Zea mays L.) in southern Idaho. Annual treatments included: (M) 13 (y 1) and 34 Mg/ha (y 2) stockpiled dairy manure; (F) 78 (yr 1) and 195 kg N/ha (y 2) inorganic N fertilizer; or (NA) no amendment--control. The mean annual total C input into M plots averaged 16.1 Mg/ha, 1.4-times greater than that for NA (11.5 Mg/ha) or F (11.1 Mg/ha), while total C outputs for the three treatments were similar, averaging 11.8 Mg/ha. Thus, the manure plots ended each growing season with an average net gain of 3.8 Mg C/ha (a positive net C flux), while the control (-0.5 Mg C/ha) and fertilizer (-0.4 Mg C/ha) treatments finished the season with a net C loss. Atmospheric CO2 incorporated into the crop biomass contributed 96% of the mean annual C input to NA and F plots but only 68% to M plots. We conclude that nutrient amendments substantially influence the short-term carbon balance of our furrow-irrigated system. Amendments had both direct and indirect influences on individual C components, such as the losses of DIC and POC in runoff and DOC in percolation water, producing temporally complex outcomes which may depend on environmental conditions external to the field.

  5. Livestock farmer perceptions of successful collaborative arrangements for manure exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu; Langer, Vibeke; Frederiksen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    to underground water, self-governing manure exchanges have been widely organised among farms in local communities. This allows large livestock farms to achieve the required balance between manure production and the agricultural production area although the importer rarely pays the full nutrient value...... for the manure received. Despite the potential for improved efficiency of manure use, few studies have examined livestock farmers’ perceptions of coordinated arrangements with recipient farms and factors in successful arrangements. A total of 644 manure exporters were asked about factors they consider important...... in identifying and selecting a new partner for manure export, including factors regarding the potential partner and the function of the partnership. They evaluated a total of 18 statements relating to possible perceptions. The results revealed that exporters appreciated especially four qualities: (1) timely...

  6. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  7. Methane productivity and nutrient recovery from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.

    2003-07-01

    The efficient recovery of energy and improvements in the handling of nutrients from manure have attracted increased research focus during recent decades. Anaerobic digestion is a key process in any strategy for the recovery of energy, while slurry separation is an important component in an improved nutrient-handling strategy. This thesis is divided into two parts: the first deals mainly with nutrient recovery strategies and the second examines biological degradation processes, including controlled anaerobic digestion. (au)

  8. Short communication: Dairy bedding type affects survival of Prototheca in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, N; Bonaiuto, H E; Lichtenwalner, A B

    2013-01-01

    Protothecae are algal pathogens, capable of causing bovine mastitis, that are unresponsive to treatment; they are believed to have an environmental reservoir. The role of bedding management in control of protothecal mastitis has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of either environmental or mastitis-associated Prototheca genotypes in dairy bedding materials that are commonly used in Maine. Prototheca zopfii genotypes 1 and 2 (gt1 and gt2) were inoculated into sterile broth only (control ), kiln-dried spruce shavings, "green" hemlock sawdust, sand, or processed manure-pack beddings with broth, and incubated for 2 d. Fifty microliters of each isolate was then cultured onto plates and the resulting colonies counted at 24 and 48 h postinoculation. Shavings were associated with significantly less total Prototheca growth than other bedding types. Growth of P. zopfii gt1 was significantly higher than that of gt2 in the manure-pack bedding material. Spruce shavings, compared with manure, sand, or sawdust, may be a good bedding type to prevent growth of Prototheca. Based on these in vitro findings, bedding type may affect Prototheca infection of cattle in vivo. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (±0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (±910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 deg. C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m 3 day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H 2 O 2 and Fe 2+ dosages, and the ratio of H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ . Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe 2+ /L and 200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe 2+ /L and 1200 mg H 2 O 2 /L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit

  10. Improvement of COD and color removal from UASB treated poultry manure wastewater using Fenton's oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Sakar, Suleyman

    2008-03-01

    The applicability of Fenton's oxidation as an advanced treatment for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was investigated. The raw poultry manure wastewater, having a pH of 7.30 (+/-0.2) and a total COD of 12,100 (+/-910) mg/L was first treated in a 15.7 L of pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 72 days at mesophilic conditions (32+/-2 degrees C) in a temperature-controlled environment with three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15.7, 12 and 8.0 days, and with organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.650 and 1.783 kg COD/(m3day). Under 8.0 days of HRT, the UASB process showed a remarkable performance on total COD removal with a treatment efficiency of 90.7% at the day of 63. The anaerobically treated poultry manure wastewater was further treated by Fenton's oxidation process using Fe2+ and H2O2 solutions. Batch tests were conducted on the UASB effluent samples to determine the optimum operating conditions including initial pH, effects of H2O2 and Fe2+ dosages, and the ratio of H2O2/Fe2+. Preliminary tests conducted with the dosages of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L showed that optimal initial pH was 3.0 for both COD and color removal from the UASB effluent. On the basis of preliminary test results, effects of increasing dosages of Fe2+ and H2O2 were investigated. Under the condition of 400 mg Fe2+/L and 200 mg H2O2/L, removal efficiencies of residual COD and color were 88.7% and 80.9%, respectively. Under the subsequent condition of 100 mg Fe2+/L and 1200 mg H2O2/L, 95% of residual COD and 95.7% of residual color were removed from the UASB effluent. Results of this experimental study obviously indicated that nearly 99.3% of COD of raw poultry manure wastewater could be effectively removed by a UASB process followed by Fenton's oxidation technology used as a post-treatment unit.

  11. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  12. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  13. Continuous anaerobic digestion of swine manure: ADM1-based modelling and effect of addition of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, E.; Antonopoulou, G.; Lyberatos, G.

    2016-01-01

    pretreated manure fibers was performed in CSTR-type digesters, fed with swine manure and/or a mixtureof swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers (at a total solids based ratio of 0.52 manure per0.48 fibers). Two different simulations were performed. In the first place, the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers presents challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) has been tested as a simple method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane yield of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS...... (ADM1) was fitted to a manure-fed, CSTR-type digester and validated by simulating the performance of a second reactor digesting manure. It was shown that disintegration and hydrolysis of the solid matter of manure was such a slow process that the organic particulate matter did not significantly...

  14. Nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in China: Lessons learned from historical changes and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Bai, Zhaohai; Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart; Wu, Zhiguo; Ma, Lin

    2017-11-15

    The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems. At herd level, the N use efficiency (NUE; conversion of N inputs to products) doubled from 7 to 15%, and the P use efficiency (PUE) increased from 10 to 17%, primarily resulting from increased milk yield per cow. In contrast, at the system level, NUE showed a small increase (from 10 to 15%, associated with reduced gaseous losses) while PUE decreased from 46 to 30% due to a large increase in manure discharges. This is attributed to decoupling of feed and dairy production, as the proportion of manure N and P recycled to cropland decreased by 52% and 54%, respectively. Despite this, the average total N loss decreased from 63 to 48gkg -1 milk, and the average GHG emissions from 1.7 to 1.1kgCO 2 equivalentkg -1 milk associated with increased per-cow productivity. However, average P loss increased from 1.4 to 2.8gPkg -1 milk due to higher discharge rate to wastewater and landfill in collective and industrialized systems. Anyhow, average N and P losses exceeded levels in developed countries. There were large regional variations in nutrient use efficiency, nutrient losses and GHG emissions in China, largely determined by the dairy production structure. Average N losses and GHG emissions per unit of milk showed a negative correlation with production intensification based on the proportion of

  15. Transformations of manure during the course of an experiment on the production of gas from manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenet, M; Ducet, G

    1948-01-01

    A concrete vat was filled with a mixture of horse and cow manure and liquid manure and fermented for 106 days at 28--30/sup 0/C. A daily average of 524 liters gas/tonne was produced, the gas consisting of equal parts CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/, with H/sub 2/ varying from almost none to 25%. It was determined that the gas was produced by the destruction of cellulose and pentosans with little contribution from the lignins and humic acids.

  16. Simulating grazing practices in a complete livestock system model: estimating soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions in grazed versus un-grazed agroecosystems using the Manure-DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. E.; Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In livestock agroecosystems, the combined contributions of enteric fermentation, manure management, and livestock grazing and/or feed production play an important role in agroecosystem carbon (C) storage and GHG losses, with complete livestock system models acting as important tools to evaluate the full impacts of these complex systems. The Manure-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is one such example, simulating impacts on C and nitrogen cycling, estimating methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ammonium dynamics in fields, manure storage, and enteric emissions. This allows the evaluation of differences in GHG and soil C impacts between conventional and organic dairy production systems, which differ in their use of grazed pasture versus confined feeding operations. However, Manure-DNDC has received limited testing in representing variations in grazed pasture management (i.e. intensive rotational grazing versus standard grazing practices). Using a set of forage biomass, soil C, and GHG emissions data collected at four sites across New England, we parameterized and validated Manure-DNDC estimations of GHG emissions and soil C in grazed versus un-grazed systems. Soil observations from these sites showed little effect from grazing practices, but larger soil carbon differences between farms. This may be due to spatial variation in SOC, making it difficult to measure and model, or due to controls of edaphic properties that make management moot. However, to further address these questions, model development will be needed to improve Manure-DNDC simulation of rotational grazing, as high stocking density grazing over short periods resulted in forage not re-growing sufficiently within the model. Furthermore, model simulations did not account for variation in interactions between livestock and soil given variability in field microclimates, perhaps requiring simulations that divide a single field into multiple paddocks to move towards more accurate evaluation of

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.

    2012-11-01

    powder and whey based products (excluding emissions from LUC). The large variation in the product group 'milk powder and whey based products' is a consequence of the allocation model for raw milk, where lactose is assumed to have no value and protein is valued at 1.4 times that of fat. Products with a high lactose content then result in a low CF, while products with a high protein content get a high CF. Hence, the choice of method for co-product handling is fundamental for the CF of dairy products. In addition, it is critical to define the functional unit - more specifically, to account for nutritional values or to differentiate between what is 'produced' and what is actually 'consumed', as there can be differences in product losses at consumer level between different products. Finally, small improvements at farm level can result in relatively large reductions in the CF of dairy products (compared to other life cycle stages), since emissions before farm gate are the largest source of the GHG. The large emissions related to raw milk from the farm also emphasizes the importance of reducing product losses throughout the entire value chain - from cow to consumer. (Author)

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A M

    2012-11-01

    powder and whey based products (excluding emissions from LUC). The large variation in the product group 'milk powder and whey based products' is a consequence of the allocation model for raw milk, where lactose is assumed to have no value and protein is valued at 1.4 times that of fat. Products with a high lactose content then result in a low CF, while products with a high protein content get a high CF. Hence, the choice of method for co-product handling is fundamental for the CF of dairy products. In addition, it is critical to define the functional unit - more specifically, to account for nutritional values or to differentiate between what is 'produced' and what is actually 'consumed', as there can be differences in product losses at consumer level between different products. Finally, small improvements at farm level can result in relatively large reductions in the CF of dairy products (compared to other life cycle stages), since emissions before farm gate are the largest source of the GHG. The large emissions related to raw milk from the farm also emphasizes the importance of reducing product losses throughout the entire value chain - from cow to consumer. (Author)

  19. The role of non-CO2 mitigation within the dairy sector in pursuing climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, K.; Forest, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigation of non-CO2 climate forcing agents must complement the mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to achieve long-term temperature and climate policy goals. By using multi-gas mitigation strategies, society can limit the rate of temperature change on decadal timescales and reduce the cost of implementing policies that only consider CO2 mitigation. The largest share of global non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to agriculture, with activities related to dairy production contributing the most in this sector. Approximately 4% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is released from the dairy sub-sector, primarily through enteric fermentation, feed production, and manure management. Dairy farmers can significantly reduce their emissions by implementing better management practices. This study assesses the potential mitigation of projected climate change if greenhouse gases associated with the dairy sector were reduced. To compare the performance of several mitigation measures under future climate change, we employ a fully coupled earth system model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM). The model includes an interactive carbon-cycle capable of addressing important feedbacks between the climate and terrestrial biosphere. Mitigation scenarios are developed using estimated emission reductions of implemented management practices studied by the USDA-funded Sustainable Dairy Project (Dairy-CAP). We examine pathways to reach the US dairy industry's voluntary goal of reducing dairy emissions 25% by 2020. We illustrate the importance of ongoing mitigation efforts in the agricultural industry to reduce non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions towards established climate goals.

  20. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  1. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  2. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne

    2010-01-01

    High dairy intakes have been associated with lower rates of obesity in observational studies, but mechanisms to explain the association are lacking. A high intake of dairy protein reduces spontaneous food intake and may be one important mechanism, but more specific effects of dairy calcium seem t...

  3. A comprehensive dairy valorization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaszewska, A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Kampman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a

  4. The impact of collaborative strategies on disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe dairy supply chains in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are on the increase globally with accompanying devastating effects on dairy supply chains. The devastating effects, caused by disasters on economies in various countries such as United States of America, Japan, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique and Zimbabwe call for urgent sustainable mitigating measures in disaster risk reduction. These countries have experienced notable natural and man-made disasters in the past. The disasters negatively impacted the economies of both developed and developing countries, causing misery to people as hunger and poverty drastically increased. Zimbabwe’s dairy industry was not spared from these devastating effects as it was vulnerable to disasters such as droughts and cyclones. Disasters adversely affected supply chains in the country as evidenced by the closure of some dairy firms between the years 2000 and 2014. This article is set against the backdrop of declining output across all agricultural sectors in Zimbabwe, evident particularly in the dairy farming sector which has witnessed inadequate supply of raw milk and dairy products by local producers. The article assesses the impact of dairy organisations’ partnerships with government departments and non-governmental organisations in reducing disaster risks on the dairy supply chain cost efficiency. It also aims to show how partnerships can reduce disaster risks and weighs the benefits of reduced supply chain costs in improving the affordability of milk and milk products to the general public. The study employs a mixed-methods approach comprising structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 92 respondents out of a randomly sampled population of 122 participants from dairy farming clusters across the country, with an 85% response rate. Key informants in the form of 18 dairy officers were purposively sampled for interviews throughout the dairy farming regions. The research findings will help government in the formulation of public policies for the

  5. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  6. Topical papers on raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the papers of this working group, the availability of uranium and the long-term supply situation for this raw material are discussed. A problem closely connected with uranium supply are the commercial contracts and their particularities. The points of view of the reporting countries of Great Britain, South Africa, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, and Korea are made clear

  7. Ammonia and greenhouse gases losses from mechanically turned cattle manure windrows: A regional composting network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Haritz; Viguria, Maialen; López, Diana M; Merino, Pilar

    2017-12-01

    An on-farm composting network operates in the Basque Country (northern Spain), in which solid manure produced in livestock farms (mostly dairy and beef cattle) is composted through windrow turning. This network aims to produce a valuable resource (compost) for the farmers whereas the volume of the solid manure was reduced at farm level The objective of the study was to assess the gaseous losses (NH 3 and GHG) from 6 on-farm composting windrows (either deep litter systems or solid fraction after slurry separation) after turning operations. Monitored turning events occurred 1 to 4 months after establishing the heaps on the field. Ammonia and greenhouse gas (GHG) losses were estimated by the open and close chamber techniques, respectively. Results showed overall low emission rates related to the long degradation period of the windrows. Maximum NH 3 release was at 2.0 mg m -2 d -1 after the second/third turning events. Baseline N 2 O losses were below 50 mg m -2 d -1 , with maximum rates close to 500 mg m -2 d -1 some days after turning works. Methane emissions were mostly below 100 mg m -2 d -1 , while CO 2 losses were lower than 25 g m -2 d -1 . Carbon dioxide peaks (≈250 g m -2 d -1 ) were reached after the second/third turnings. Overall, gaseous N and C losses accounted for 0.1 and 1% of the initial N and C content of the windrows, respectively. The present study concluded that two/three turning operations in aged solid manure-derived compost windrows do not have significant effects on NH 3 and GHG losses. The magnitude of the gaseous losses from on-farm composting systems is dependent on the manure management practices at farm level (e.g. moment of windrow stacking). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  9. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ethan; Wang, Qingbin; Li, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  10. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  11. Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of organic manure and crop rotation system on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology ... (FYM); V2 = 2.5 t/h fresh sesbania green manure (FSB) V3 = 5 t/ha FYM; and V4 = 5 t/ha FYM +2.5 ...

  12. An assessment of the adoption of compost manure by smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compost manure seems to be a viable option to be promoted. This study was designed to assess the adoption of compost manure making and utilization by smallholder farmers. The study was conducted through a combination of individual interviews and observation of 150 smallholder farmers as well as through focus ...

  13. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  14. Agronomic potential of mineral concentrate from processed manure as fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Hoeksma, P.; Schröder, J.J.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Geel, van W.C.A.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Holshof, G.; Klop, G.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of manure intends to increase the use efficiency of nutrients. A concentrated solution of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) (‘mineral concentrate’) is one of the possible products resulting from manure processing. A study is carried out in the Netherlands to determine the agronomic and

  15. effect of farmyard manure on senescence, nitrogen and protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    treatment (manurex2) at the ratio of 5:1 soil to manure and the control (no manure added). Plastic pots of ... seasons, senescence started earlier rainy season than in dry season. On the other hand ... These changes, visible to the naked eye are.

  16. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  17. Effect of animal manures on selected soil chemical properties (1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of animal manures on selected soil properties were studied in the laboratory. Manures of Rabbit (RBM), Swine (SWM), Poultry (POM), Goat, (GTM) and Cow (COM) were added at 10, 20, 30 and 40 t/ha to an acidic Ultisol. The amended soils were incubated at 70% water holding capacity for 3 weeks.

  18. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkuyten, J.C.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms ''certification of the links within the chain''. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is ''certification''. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from ''waste'', is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  19. SWINE MANURE SOLIDS SEPARATION AND THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION TO HEAVY OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation of solids from liquid swine manure and subsequent thermo-chemical conversion (TCC of the solids fraction into oil is one way of reducing the waste strength and odor emission. Such processing also provides a potential means of producing renewable energy from animal wastes. Gravity settling and mechanical separation techniques, by means of a centrifuge and belt press, were used to remove the solids from liquid swine manure. The solid fractions from the above separation processes were used as the feedstock for the TCC process for oil production. Experiments were conducted in a batch reactor with a steady temperature 305 oC, and the corresponding pressure was 10.34 Mpa. Gravity settling was demonstrated to be capable of increasing the total solids content of manure from 1% to 9%. Both of the mechanical separation systems were able to produce solids with dry matter around 18% for manure, with 1% to 2% initial total solids. A significant amount of volatile solid (75.7% was also obtained from the liquid fraction using the belt press process. The oil yields of shallow pit manure solids and deep pit manure solids with belt press separation were 28.72% and 29.8% of the total volatile solids, respectively. There was no visible oil product obtained from the deep pit manure solids with centrifuge separation. It is believed that it is the volatile solid content and the other components in the manure chemical composition which mainly deter-mine the oil production.

  20. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  1. Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different seeding methods on green manure biomass, soil properties and rice yield in rice-based cropping systems. ... The effects of treatments on rice yield and its components were also investigated. ... Based on the results, BBRH and PTS are good practices for production of green manure in paddy soil. Chemical ...

  2. Effect of animal manures on soil properties, growth, nutrients status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative field study was carried out at two sites in Akure, Southwest Nigeria to determine effect of different animal manures on soil physical and chemical properties and performance of tomato (Lycopersicm esculentus Mill). Analysis of cattle (CM), goat (GM), pig (PG) and poultry (PM) manures showed that N, K, Ca ...

  3. Treatment and trade or organic manures in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkuyten, J C.A.M. [European Manure Association, EMA, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The manure market is dominated by both low prices and low quality. This current market does not favour the sustainable use of manures, nor does it favour innovation. First step in improving both manure quality and manure utilisation is optimizing the manure supply chain. A powerful instrument for this optimizing forms `certification of the links within the chain`. The successful marketing of the derivates requires technological and organisational innovation. A powerful instrument in successful marketing is `certification`. Through certification of the supply chain, as well as certification of the products, upgrading of the products is possible, leading to economical viable investments in waste treatment. Product certification leads furthermore to the possibility of positioning the products. A positive positioning of the products, differentiating it from `waste`, is essential for the desired investments by market parties. In this paper new ideas and developments on the Dutch manure market are presented. A new technology (v. Aspert plant), including the marketing concept as the derivates produced are presented. A profile on a manure brokerage organisation (MBO) and, on last year founded, European Manure association (EMA) are added. (au)

  4. Apparatus for the ammonium recovery from liquid animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Timmerman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen present in animal manure can be a limiting factor when considering manure application rates onto arable land. EU-regulations triggered the development of a new ammonia exchange apparatus for the recovery of ammonia. The described apparatus has a liquid to liquid ammonia mass transfer

  5. Manure gas for use on the large-scale farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraud, L

    1954-10-01

    A brief description is given of German installations for producing gas and fertilizer from farmyard manure by fermentation. The fertilizer is a semi-liquid sludge and has given better results with grass-land and potatoes than ordinary farmyard manure + balancing NPK has given.

  6. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ... cation rate at spreading time instead of waiting two or three weeks to receive the results ... Operation mechanism of metal-oxide gas sensors. The sensors used in this study were ...

  7. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional

  8. Effect of dairy wastewater on changes in COD fractions in technical-scale SBR type reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk-Sokołowska, Joanna; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Mielcarek, Artur

    2017-04-01

    The annual global production of milk is approximately 630,000 million litres and the volume of generated dairy wastewater accounts for 3.2 m 3 ·m -3 product. Dairy wastewater is characterized by a high load of chemical oxygen demand (COD). In many wastewater plants dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater are co-treated. The effect of dairy wastewater contribution on COD fraction changes in municipal sewage which has been treated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in three wastewater treatment plants in north-east Poland is presented. In these plants the real contribution of dairy wastewater was 10, 13 and 17%. In raw wastewater, S S fraction (readily biodegradable dissolved organic matter) was dominant and ranged from 38.3 to 62.6%. In the effluent, S S fraction was not noted, which is indicative of consumption by microorganisms. The presence of dairy wastewater in municipal sewage does not cause changes in the content of the X I fraction (insoluble fractions of non-biodegradable organic matter). SBR effluents were dominated by non-biodegradable dissolved organic matter S I , which from 57.7 to 61.7%. In raw wastewater S I ranged from 1.0 to 4.6%. X s fraction (slowly biodegradable non-soluble organic matter) in raw wastewater ranged from 24.6 to 45.5% while in treated wastewater it ranged from 28.6 to 30.8%. In the control object (fourth wastewater plant) which does not process dairy wastewater, the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction in inflow was 28.7, 2.4, 51.7 and 17.2% respectively. In the effluent the S S , S I , X s and X I fraction was below 0.1, 33.6, 50.0 and 16.4% respectively.

  9. A biotechnological process for treatment and recycling poultry wastes manure as a feed ingredient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Jalil, M.H. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco). Biology Dept.; Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Faid, M. [Hassan II Inst. of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat-Instituts (Morocco); Elyachioui, M. [Faculty of Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2001-07-01

    Poultry wastes manure was diluted by adding the same amount of water 50-50 (w/v). They were then mixed with 10% molasses. The mixture was inoculated with a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidolactici, and incubated at 30{sup o}C for 10 days. Changes in nutritional quality and biochemical properties (pH, total nitrogen, total volatile nitrogen, non protein nitrogen, carbohydrates and ash) were determined for the raw and the transformed product. In parallel, microbiological analyses, including standard plant count, enterobacteria and enterococci, were performed. Results indicated that the product obtained from the wastes fermentation showed low counts of enterobacteria and enterococci. Chemical determinations showed a net decrease of the pH to around 4.0 and the growth curve of the lactic acid bacteria showed the success of the acidification process. The total nitrogen was conserved in the product and the total volatile nitrogen was totally eliminated. The product was used for substituting some protein sources in a conventional formula used in laying feeding of three lots. Two formulae containing, respectively, 20% and 40% of the product was compared to the control (0%). The food consumption and laying performances were monitored for 30 days. The nutritional test indicted that the incorporation of the poultry manure silage of up to 40% gave laying performances similar to those obtained with the conventional formula. These results show that it is possible to transform poultry manure by controlled fermentation and that the product has an added value as a feed ingredient. (Author)

  10. Elimination of macrolides, tiamulin, and salinomycin during manure storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüsener, M P; von Arb, M A; Bester, K

    2006-07-01

    The extensive use of veterinary drugs in livestock farming increases the risk that these compounds end up in the environment when manure is used as fertilizer. This study focuses on the fate of antibiotics in liquid manure tanks before the liquid manure is spread on fields. A 180-day degradation experiment of four commonly used antibiotics erythromycin, roxithromycin, salinomycin, and tiamulin in liquid manure was performed. The resulting half-lives during manure storage were calculated as follows: 41 days for erythromycin, 130 days for roxithromycin, and 6 days for salinomycin. A first-order degradation rate was calculated for these three antibiotics. The concentration of tiamulin remained unchanged during the entire experiment. No degradation of tiamulin was detected even after 180 days.

  11. Nitrous Oxide Emissions after Application of Manure-Derived Fertiliseres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun

    of N2O emission between different manure-derived fertilisers were observed. The application of fresh or composted manure solids had much higher N2O emissions than that of charred manure solids which contained low available C and N contents. The immature compost with a high content of dissolved organic...... different levels of C availability. The turnover and availability of N was modified by addition of nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) or mineral N. Soil O2 dynamics was monitored with high spatiotemporal resolution to elucidate the related mechanism regulating N2O emissions. Significant differences...... warming. This PhD project therefore investigated N2O emissions from soil after application of manure-derived fertilisers with varying spatial distribution, and evaluated the influences of available C, N and O2 on N2O emissions. Fresh, composted and charred manure solids were applied in soil to provide...

  12. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  13. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  14. Agriculture Organic Matter and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Undo ubtedly organic matter content of soils is one of theim portant factor for high quality and abundant crop production. In addition to improve the physical properties ofsoil, organic matter contributest ocrop production viabeing energy source formicro-organisms in soiland contained plantnutrients. Fiftypercent of theagri cultures oil contains 1-2 % organicmatter in Turkey.In addition to being a sourceof organic matter, organic poultry manurefertilizer isricherthan other organic fertilizerse specially nitrogen content. It is possible to eliminate poultry manure based salt stress and disease factors with composting process in proper conditions.

  15. Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke

    2017-04-01

    The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies

  16. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  17. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáčová Anetta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

  18. Strategic Planing to Develop Good Dairy Farming Practices in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Batu City, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Indarwati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Some of the objectives to be achieved in this research is to describe the attack profile of subclinical mastitis on Etawah Crossbreed Goats (ECG in some smallholder farms, to identify risk factors that contribute to subclinical mastitis attacks and to compile a strategic plan to develop Good Dairy Farming Parctices (GDFP in Batu. The data were gathered by interviewing smallholder farmer and direct observation in the three farms goats in Batu (Bumiaji, Pesanggrahan, Temas  and Beji village. California Mastitis Test (CMT is used to detect subclinical mastitis on 51 ECG lactation belonging to farmer. Risk factors Identification of subclinical mastitis conducted by Spearman correlation analysis. All of smallholder compared with GDFP concept using gap analysis. Meanwhile, the strategic development plan of GDFP in Batu was done by the Root Caused analysis. The results showed that 100% subclinical mastitis attacks occurred on three dairy goats farms in Batu City  with the level 31-80% percentage of attacks. This subclinical mastitis attacks positively correlated with milk production (p <0.01. The risk factors of subclinical mastitis partly because of the environment (p<0.01, milking procedure (p <0.01 and health management (p <0.01 were not right. The strategic plan to develop GDFP in Batu City are Increase knowledge and awareness of farmers about how to implement good dairy farming practices on Etawah Crossbreed farm, particularly in the benefits of clean environmental, handling and using goat manure, the benefits of sanitation and disinfection of udder, the effect of milking frequency on udder health and the urgency of separation between healthy and sick goats. Keywords:  Good dairy farming practices, risk factors, subclinical mastitis

  19. [Impact of Thermal Treatment on Biogas Production by Anaerobic Digestion of High-solid-content Swine Manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-ying; Wu, Jing; Wang, Shi-feng; Cao, Zhi-ping; Wang, Kai-jun; Zuo, Jian-e

    2015-08-01

    Livestock manure is a kind of waste with high organic content and sanitation risk. In order to investigate the impact of thermal treatment on the anaerobic digestion of high-solid-content swine manure, 70 degrees C thermal treatment was conducted to treat raw manure (solid content 27.6%) without any dilution. The results indicated that thermal treatment could reduce the organic matters and improve the performance of anaerobic digestion. When the thermal treatment time was 1d, 2d, 3d, 4d, the VS removal rates were 15.1%, 15.5%, 17.8% and 20.0%, respectively. The methane production rates (CH4/VSadd) were 284.4, 296.3, 309.2 and 264.4 mL x g(-1), which was enhanced by 49.7%, 55.9%, 62.7% and 39.2%, respectively. The highest methane production rate occurred when the thermal treatment time was 3d. The thermal treatment had an efficient impact on promoting the performance of methane production rate with a suitable energy consumption. On the other hand, thermal treatment could act as pasteurization. This showed that thermal treatment would be of great practical importance.

  20. Effects of thermal treatment on high solid anaerobic digestion of swine manure: Enhancement assessment and kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Hu, Yu-Ying; Wang, Shi-Feng; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Huai-Zhi; Fu, Xin-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jun; Zuo, Jian-E

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a process for generating biogas, can be applied to the treatment of organic wastes. Owing to its smaller footprint, lower energy consumption, and less digestate, high solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) has attracted increasing attention. However, its biogas production is poor. In order to improve biogas production and decrease energy consumption, an improved thermal treatment process was proposed. Raw swine manure (>20% solid content) without any dilution was thermally treated at 70±1°C for different retention times, and then its effect on HSAD was investigated via batch AD experiments at 8.9% solid content. Results showed that the main organic components of swine manure hydrolyzed significantly during the thermal treatment, and HSAD's methane production rate was improved by up to 39.5%. Analysis using two kinetic models confirmed that the treatment could increase biodegradable organics (especially the readily biodegradable organics) in swine manure rather than upgrading its hydrolysis rate. It is worth noting that the superimposed first-order kinetics model was firstly applied in AD, and was a good tool to reveal the AD kinetics mechanism of substrates with complex components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy consumption modeling during dairy sewage pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in a dairy WWTP located in north-eastern Poland with the average flow of 546 m3d-1 and PE 11500 in 2016. Energy consumption was measured with the help of Lumel 3-phase network parameter transducers installed within the plant. The modeling was conducted based on the quantity and quality of raw sewage, after its screening, averaging and dissolved air flotation. The following parameters were determined: BOD5, COD. N-total and P-total. During the research period. 15 measurement series were carried out. Pollution loads removed in primary treatment varied from 167.0 to 803.5 kgO2d-1 and 1205.9 to 10032 kgO2d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. The energy consumption share during dairy pretreatment in relation to the total energy consumption was in the range from 13.8 to 28.5% with the mean value of 18.7% during the research period. Energy consumption indicators relating to removed pollution loads for primary treatment were established with the mean values of 0.74 and 0.83 kWhkg-1d-1 for BOD5 and COD respectively. An attempt was made to determine the influence of raw sewage characteristics and pretreatment efficiency on energy consumption of the object. A model of energy consumption during pretreatment was estimated according to the experimental data obtained in the research period. It was modeled using the linear regression model and principal component analysis.

  2. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tengfang, E-mail: ttxu@lbl.go [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. - Research highlights: {yields} The specific energy consumption exhibited large variations across dairy products, plants, and countries. {yields} National energy intensity indicators also exhibited significant variations. {yields} There is a large global potential for energy savings and carbon reduction in dairy processing plants. {yields} The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry.

  3. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  4. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  5. Evaluation of Four Farm-scale Systems for the Treatment of Liquid Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Verdoes, N.

    2005-01-01

    In some regions in the Netherlands, high pig concentrations and limited availability of arable land have led to a surplus of manure which results in high off-farm manure disposal costs. The aim of manure treatment is to lower manure transport costs by reducing the volume and to improve market

  6. Low-disturbance manure application methods in a corn silage-rye cover crop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which increases erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while still mainta...

  7. Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C; Goulart, R S; Albertini, T Z; Feigl, B J; Cerri, C E P; Vasconcelos, J T; Bernoux, M; Lanna, D P D; Cerri, C C

    2013-04-01

    No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil. To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished 831,450 animals in 2010. The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to 135 d. Corn was the primary source of grain used in the feedlot diets (76% of surveyed animals) with concentrate inclusion levels ranging from 81 to 90% (38% of surveyed animals). The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands. Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Manure was composted for only 20% of the animals in the survey and was treated in anaerobic digesters for only 1% of the animals. Manure from 59% of the cattle surveyed was used as fertilizer, providing a cost savings over the use of synthetic fertilizers. Overall, chemical analysis of the manure before application to fields was conducted for the manure of 56% of the surveyed animals, but the exact quantity applied (per hectare) was unknown for 48%. Feedlots representing 48% of the surveyed animals noted similar or greater crop and pasture yields when using manure, rather than synthetic fertilizers. In addition, 32% mentioned an increase in soil organic matter. Feedlots representing 88% of the surveyed cattle indicated that information concerning management practices that improve manure use efficiency is lacking. Feedlots representing 93% of the animals in the survey reported having basic information regarding the generation of energy and fertilizer with anaerobic digesters. However

  8. Supply Chain Management as a Driving Force for Generating Competitive Advantage for Dairy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Poleshkina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to uncover the reserves to generate competitive advantages for the participants of the market of perishables in the case of the dairy sector due to the formation of effective supply chains, as this category of goods is the most demanding in terms of periods and conditions of transportation and terms of preservation. The research technique is based on the concepts of value chains and supply chain management. In order to optimize the distribution of functions between the participants of the dairy chain a process-based approach has been applied. The research has revealed the main reasons for high aggregate costs and the places of their formation at each stage of the dairy supply chain. The article proposes the mechanisms to address three main problems arising from the process of building relations between the participants of the dairy supply chain in Russia. These problems are associated with a disproportionate margin distribution between the participants of the chain, with non-compliance of the quality of raw milk with the requirements for the production of specific types of dairy products, and with distrust of the supply chain participants, which increases transaction costs and forces to create reserve supplies which reduce the competitiveness of the whole dairy supply chain in general. In order to improve the competitiveness of all participants in the dairy chain, the article presents several mechanisms for solving these problems. The first is margin distribution based on the costs incurred by each participant of the dairy chain. The second is the use of a mathematical model to determine the assortment of goods of a dairy enterprise on the basis of the incoming volume and quality of raw milk according to the seasonal factor and the demand for dairy products. The third is the feasibility of refusal from the formation of reserve supplies by all participants of the dairy chain, which will not only minimize aggregate costs, but also

  9. Reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from global dairy processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Flapper, Joris [International Energy Studies Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Centre for Energy and Environmental Studies, University of Groningen, IVEM, Nijenborgh 4, 9747, AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Global butter, concentrated milk, and milk powder products use approximately 15% of annual raw milk production. Similar to cheese and fluid milk, dairy processing of these products can be energy intensive. In this paper, we analyzed production and energy data compiled through extensive literature reviews on butter, concentrated milk, milk and whey powder processing across various countries and plants. Magnitudes of national final and primary specific energy consumption (SEC) exhibited large variations across dairy products; in addition, the final SEC of individual plants and products exhibited significant variations within a country and between countries. Furthermore, we quantified national energy intensity indicators (EIIs) accounting for dairy product mixes and technological advancement. The significant variations of SEC and EII values indicate a high degree of likelihood that there is significant potential for energy savings in the global dairy processing industry. Based upon the study samples, we estimate potential energy savings for dairy processing industry in selected countries, and estimates annual reduction of 9-14 million metric-ton carbon-equivalent could be achieved if measures are implemented to lower SEC values by 50-80% in half of global dairy plants. The paper calls for publication of more energy data from the dairy processing industry. (author)

  10. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  11. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  12. [Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskaya, G A

    2014-01-01

    The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance--RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 25-35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 10-19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca-by 25-35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations.

  13. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be avoiding dairy products because of lactose intolerance. Or you might have other reasons. But dairy ... the major reasons people avoid dairy products is lactose intolerance. Lactose is a natural sugar found in milk ...

  14. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  15. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretrea...

  16. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  17. Anaerobic digestion of manure - consequences for plant production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Pommeresche, Reidun; Johansen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming systems are today dependent upon fossil energy. Another challenge are soil nutrient concentrations, which may be depleted with time even in animal husbandry systems (Løes & Øgaard 2001). Anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal manure may produce biogas to replace fossil fuels, and reduce...... methane (CH4) emissions during manure storage. Co-digestion of substrates rich in energy increases the economic viability of the biogas plant, and off-farm substrates such as fish silage or household waste may add nutrients to the farming system. AD may also ease manure handling, while reducing the amount...

  18. Nutrients and heavy metal distribution in thermally treated pig manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Stoholm, Peder

    2008-01-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations...... that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (

  19. ANIMAL MANURE – REDUCED QUALITY BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion may reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, but we know little about its impact on soil fertility. Reduced concentrations of easily degradable C in the manure may imply less food for the soil fauna and microflora. A field experiment to study its effect on crop yields and soil...... caused the death of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms shortly after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. So far, we have observed only small differences in the effects of digested and undigested manure...

  20. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Major source of fuel in rural areas is still fire wood, cowdung and crop residues. Cowdung and crop residues can be effectively used as manure too. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure can solve the twin problems. The paper deals with various kinds of organic wastes used as fuel, manure and for both, other organic wastes as alternate and supplemental feedstocks, impact of their bioconversion on rural energy and environment, dry fermentation technology, manurial value of the biogas slurry, etc. Important constraints in popularizing the biogas programme have been mentioned and their remedial measures have also been suggested. (author). 32 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Dairy cow nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tame, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  2. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  3. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  4. The contribution of sectoral climate change mitigation options to national targets: a quantitative assessment of dairy production in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Patric; Herold, Martin; Rufino, Mariana C.

    2018-03-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture has become a critical target in national climate change policies. More than 80% of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) refer to the reduction of agricultural emissions, including livestock, in their nationally determined contribution (NDC) to mitigate climate change. The livestock sector in Kenya contributes largely to the gross domestic product and to GHG emissions from the land use sector. The government has recently pledged in its NDC to curb total GHG emissions by 30% by 2030. Quantifying and linking the mitigation potential of farm practices to national targets is required to support realistically the implementation of NDCs. Improvements in feed and manure management represent promising mitigation options for dairy production. This study aimed (i) to assess mitigation and food production benefits of feed and manure management scenarios, including land use changes covering Kenya’s entire dairy production region and (ii) to analyse the contribution of these practices to national targets on milk production and mitigation, and their biophysical feasibility given the availability of arable land. The results indicate that improving forage quality by increasing the use of Napier grass and supplementing dairy concentrates supports Kenya’s NDC target, reduces emission intensities by 26%-31%, partially achieves the national milk productivity target for 2030 by 38%-41%, and shows high feasibility given the availability of arable land. Covering manure heaps may reduce emissions from manure management by 68%. In contrast, including maize silage in cattle diets would not reduce emission intensities due to the risk of ten-fold higher emissions from the conversion of land required to grow additional maize. The shortage of arable land may render the implementation of these improved feed practices largely infeasible. This assessment provides the first quantitative estimates of the potential of feed

  5. Ultimate methane yield from beef cattle manure: effect of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A G; Varel, V H; Chen, Y R

    1981-10-01

    The effects of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age on the ultimate methane yield (Bo, litre CH4/g volatile solids fed (VSf)) were investigated using 4-litre batch fermenters. The average Bo for fermenters maintained at 30-60 degrees Celcius (at 5 degrees Celcius intervals) was 0.328 litre CH4/g VSf. The Bo at 65 degrees Celcius averaged 0.118 litre CH4g VSf, but this low yield was attributed to unstable fermentation rather than decreased substrate availability at that temperature. These results agreed well with Bo values estimated from daily-fed fermenters. Chlortetracycline and monensin did not affect Bo; however, monensin did delay the start of active fermentation in batch fermenters. The average Bo of manure from cattle fed 91.5, 40 and 7% corn silage were 0.173, 0.232 and 0.290 litre CH4/g VSf, respectively. The average Bo for 6-8 week old manure from a dirt feedlot was 0.210 litre CH4/g VSf. (Refs. 14).

  6. Pre-digestion to enhance volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration as a carbon source for denitrification in treatment of liquid swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah Xiao; Chen, Lide; Zhu, Jun; Walquist, McKenzie; Christian, David

    2018-04-30

    Insufficient denitrification in biological treatment is often a result of the lack of a carbon source. In this study, use of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) generated via pre-digestion as a carbon source to improve denitrification in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment of liquid swine manure was investigated. The pre-digestion of swine manure was realized by storing the manure in a sealed container in room temperature and samples were taken periodically from the container to determine the VFA levels. The results showed that after 14 days of pre-digestion, the VFA level in the digested liquid was increased by 200%. A polynomial relationship for the VFA level in the digested manure with the digestion time was observed with a correlation coefficient being 0.9748. Two identical SBRs were built and operated on 8-h cycles in parallel, with one fed with pre-digested and the other raw swine manure. There were five phases included in each cycle, i.e., anaerobic (90 min), anoxic (150 min), anoxic/anaerobic (90 min), anoxic/aerobic (120 min), and settle/decant (30 min), and the feeding was split to 600 mL/200 mL and performed at the beginning of and 240 min into the cycle. The SBR fed on pre-digested swine manure achieved successful denitrification with only 0.35 mg/L nitrate left in the effluent, compared to 15.9 mg/L found in the effluent of the other SBR. Nitrite was not detected in the effluent from both SBRs. The results also indicated that there was no negative impact of feeding SBRs with the pre-digested liquid swine manure for treatment on the removal of other constituents such as total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD). Therefore, anaerobic digestion as a pretreatment can be an effective way to condition liquid swine manure for SBR treatment to achieve sufficient nitrate removal.

  7. Closed substance cycle and substance cycling management: Compilation and evaluation of data for the assessment of priority organic contaminants in secondary raw-material fertilisers (slightly polluted sewage sludge from rural areas and compost) and organic farm fertilisers (liquid manure and slurry) for a risk assessment; Kreislaufwirtschaft - Stoffstrommanagement: Ermittlung und Auswertung von Daten zur Beurteilung prioritaerer organischer Schadstoffe in Abfallduengern (niedrig belastete Klaerschlaemme aus laendlichen Regionen und Kompost) sowie in organischen Wirtschaftsduengern (Guelle und Jauche) fuer eine Risikobewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, A.; Klein, M.

    2003-07-31

    In the scope of the presently discussed closed substance cycle management and the resulting substance cycling management the agricultural use of animal wastes, sewage sludges and composts as fertilisers and soil improvers, respectively, plays an important role. The aim of the present project was the scientific preparation of deliberations aiming to find out which concentrations of selected contaminants occurring in secondary raw-material fertilisers (sewage sludge and compost) and farm fertilisers can still be tolerated, which do not have harmful effects on the environment. Information on the occurrence in sewage sludges and soils and their effects on soil organisms were compiled and evaluated for the following substances: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), tributyltin (TBT), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEPH) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition, respective data were searched for polyacrylamide (PAM), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic musk compounds. The impact of composts by organic contaminants was described giving examples for diethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyls. Concerning the farm fertiliser slurry, information about organic pollutants stemming from cleaning agents or disinfectants, NP, LAS and quartenary ammonium compounds were collected. LAS, NP, TBT and DEHP were detected in most of the sewage sludge samples. DBP occurred less frequently and in lower concentrations than DEHP. Single exceedings of the respective limit-values of the 3{sup rd} Draft of the EU-Sewage Sludge Directive (LAS, NP, DEHP) or other expert groups (BaP) were observed. In compliance with the respective regulations, there seems to be no risk potential for terrestrial organisms. To derive reliable environmental standards for TBT, there is a need for more data. In compost, content of organic contaminants is generally dependent on impurities. Compost made of &apos

  8. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h and 16 to 22h, respectively

  9. Impact of Organic Loading Rate on Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Solid Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori M. Cata Saady

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the feed total solids to anaerobic digester improves the process economics and decreases the volume of liquid effluent from current wet anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to develop a novel psychrophilic (20 °C anaerobic digestion technology of undiluted cow feces (total solids of 11%–16%. Two sets of duplicate laboratory-scale sequence batch bioreactors have been operated at organic loading rates (OLR of 6.0 to 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD kg−1 inoculum day−1 (d−1 during 210 days. The results demonstrated that the process is feasible at treatment cycle length (TCL of 21 days; however, the quality of cow feces rather than the OLR had a direct influence on the specific methane yield (SMY. The SMY ranged between 124.5 ± 1.4 and 227.9 ± 4.8 normalized liter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS fed d−1. Substrate-to-inoculum mass ratio (SIR was 0.63 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.09, and 1.06 ± 0.07 at OLR of 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 g TCOD kg−1 inoculum d−1, respectively. No volatile fatty acids (VFAs accumulation has been observed which indicated that hydrolysis was the rate limiting step and VFAs have been consumed immediately. Bioreactors performance consistency in terms of the level of SMYs, VFAs concentrations at end of the TCL, pH stability and volatile solids reduction indicates a stable and reproducible process during the entire operation.

  10. Proteolysis during ripening of Manchego cheese made from raw or pasteurized ewes' milk. Seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaya, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen; Nuñez, Manuel; Fernández-García, Estrella

    2005-08-01

    Changes in nitrogen compounds during ripening of 40 batches of Manchego cheese made from raw milk (24 batches) or pasteurized milk (16 batches) at five different dairies throughout the year were investigated. After ripening for six months, degradation of p-kappa- and beta-caseins was more intense in raw milk cheese and degradation of alpha(s2)-casein in pasteurized milk cheese. Milk pasteurization had no significant effect on breakdown of alpha(s1)-casein. Hydrophobic peptide content did not differ between raw and pasteurized milk cheese, whereas hydrophilic peptide content was higher in raw milk cheese. There were no significant differences between seasons for residual caseins, but hydrophobic peptides were at a higher level in cheese made in autumn and winter and hydrophilic peptides in cheese made in winter and spring. Raw milk cheese had a higher content of total free amino acids and of most individual free amino acids than pasteurized milk cheese. The relative percentages of the individual free amino acids were significantly different for raw milk and pasteurized milk cheeses. The relative percentages of Lys and lie increased, while those of Val, Leu and Phe decreased during ripening. There were also seasonal variations within the relative percentages of free amino acids. In raw milk cheeses, Asp and Cys were relatively more abundant in those made in autumn, Glu and Arg in cheeses made in winter, and Lys and Ile in cheeses made in spring and summer. Biogenic amines were detected only in raw milk cheese, with the highest levels of histamine, tryptamine and tyramine in cheeses made in spring, winter and spring, respectively.

  11. Environmental assessment of untreated manure use, manure digestion and codigestion with silage maize : Deliverable for the 'EU-AGRO-BIOGAS' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Corre, W.J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the environmental impact of untreated manure use, manure digestion, and co-digestion with silage maize for energy production. The life cycle assessment methodology was used. Environmental indicators included were, global warming potential, energy use, eutrophication,

  12. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w....../w reagent concentrations in ammonia. It was shown that the optimal duration among the ones tested was the three days for both reagent concentrations....

  13. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1996-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  14. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H W; Hoberg, H; Hirsch, U [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  15. CONVERSION OF ORGANIC MANURE INTO BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Brdarić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biogas with anaerobic degradation from organic waste is one of the pledge alternative energetic solutions, especially from organic manure made from animal farming and other residuals of agricultural production. According to 2005 livestock manufacture data daily quantity of animal excrements in Croatia, based on LSU number, is 784 015.26 m3. The aim of this paper is to determine the possibility of production of biogas from the most common types of domestic animals in Croatia. Anaerobic fermentation period of 40 days in mesophilic conditions produced from 1 kg of beef, 31 litres of biogas slurry and from pig slurry 14.83 litres of biogas. From our study it follows that the Republic of Croatia (based on the number of UG could produce 426,995,250.00 Nm3 biogas annually. Exploitation of biogas can decrease import of the referred energents, especially electric energy.

  16. Optimization of biogas production from manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Boe, Kanokwan; Buendia, Inmaculada M.

    -scale studies showed that serial digestion with 77/23% volume distribution produced 1.9-6.1% more biogas compared to that obtained during one-step CSTR operation. However, temperature was found to have a strong influence on the methane production and process performance of the second reactor of a serial CSTR......The main objective of the project was to improve biogas production from manures. This objective was addressed by investigating 1) the effect of different reactor configurations, 2) operational procedures, aiming to selectively retain/return degradable material in the reactor and 3) different...... process at 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 50/50 or 30/70% volume distribution could produce 11-17.8% more biogas compared to single CSTR process under similar operating conditions. The increased biogas production was mainly from the second reactor of the serial process, which accounted for 16-18% of the total...

  17. DairyWise, a whole-farm dairy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, R L M; de Haan, M H A; Hemmer, J G A; van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A; de Boer, J A; Evers, A G; Holshof, G; van Middelkoop, J C; Zom, R L G

    2007-11-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model, and the supply of homegrown feeds, as generated by the crop models for grassland and corn silage. The output of the FeedSupply model was used as input for several technical, environmental, and economic submodels. The submodels simulated a range of farm aspects such as nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, nitrate leaching, ammonia emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and a financial farm budget. The final output was a farm plan describing all material and nutrient flows and the consequences on the environment and economy. Evaluation of DairyWise was performed with 2 data sets consisting of 29 dairy farms. The evaluation showed that DairyWise was able to simulate gross margin, concentrate intake, nitrogen surplus, nitrate concentration in ground water, and crop yields. The variance accounted for ranged from 37 to 84%, and the mean differences between modeled and observed values varied between -5 to +3% per set of farms. We conclude that DairyWise is a powerful tool for integrated scenario development and evaluation for scientists, policy makers, extension workers, teachers and farmers.

  18. Comparison on batch anaerobic digestion of five different livestock manures and prediction of biochemical methane potential (BMP) using different statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Chen, Lide

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of literature reporting the methane potential of several livestock manures under the same anaerobic digestion conditions (same inoculum, temperature, time, and size of the digester). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported biochemical methane potential (BMP) predicting models developed and evaluated by solely using at least five different livestock manure tests results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the BMP of five different livestock manures (dairy manure (DM), horse manure (HM), goat manure (GM), chicken manure (CM) and swine manure (SM)) and to predict the BMP using different statistical models. Nutrients of the digested different manures were also monitored. The BMP tests were conducted under mesophilic temperatures with a manure loading factor of 3.5g volatile solids (VS)/L and a feed to inoculum ratio (F/I) of 0.5. Single variable and multiple variable regression models were developed using manure total carbohydrate (TC), crude protein (CP), total fat (TF), lignin (LIG) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), and measured BMP data. Three different kinetic models (first order kinetic model, modified Gompertz model and Chen and Hashimoto model) were evaluated for BMP predictions. The BMPs of DM, HM, GM, CM and SM were measured to be 204, 155, 159, 259, and 323mL/g VS, respectively and the VS removals were calculated to be 58.6%, 52.9%, 46.4%, 81.4%, 81.4%, respectively. The technical digestion time (T80-90, time required to produce 80-90% of total biogas production) for DM, HM, GM, CM and SM was calculated to be in the ranges of 19-28, 27-37, 31-44, 13-18, 12-17days, respectively. The effluents from the HM showed the lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations. The effluents from the CM digesters showed highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and digested SM showed highest potassium concentration. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the model using the variable of LIG showed the best (R(2

  19. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  20. Location-Allocation model for food industrial using fuzzy criteria: A case study of dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiyari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A good facility layout plays an important role on increasing the profitability of a production unit. A good location needs to meet different criteria such as the distance between the plants and the places to reach raw materials, customers, etc. In this paper, we proposed a multi criteria decision making problem to locate a suitable dairy plant. We assume that all factors influencing the plant involves uncertainty and proposed fuzzy numbers to handle the uncertainty associated with all input parameters. We apply the method for a real-world case study of dairy production unit and analyze the results of our proposed model.

  1. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [Resource Development Associates, Marietta, GA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  2. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of Quality Protein Maize in ... worldwide on over 159.5 million hectares in the year. 2010. ...... Fertilizer company of Nigeria, NAFCON, Port. Harcourt.

  3. The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of farmyard manure and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilisers on micronutrient density (iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and potassium) and seed yields of solanium villosum (black nightshade) and cleome gynandra (cat whiskers) on uetric nitisol.

  4. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2Department of Crop Production, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. ... of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment ..... roselle as an industrial crop in Nigeria.

  5. Methane and organic fertilizers from wood waste and manure fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashkevich, I F; Karelina, G N

    1961-01-01

    Fermentation of sawdust of foliate trees by mesophyllic microflora is feasible, producing CH/sub 4/; the yield of gas is 500 cu m/ton, which surpasses that from manure and other agricultural wastes. Preliminary acid hydrolysis is unnecessary. At 5% organic matter, sawdust fermentation proceeds normally and with good yield, but 10% initial concentration of organic matter results in poor performance. Fermentation of common manure, that of sawdust and manure, or that of sawdust alone yields essentially the same gases. Fir sawdust does not ferment, but it does not stop manure or ash sawdust from fermenting if mixed with these. Fermented sawdust behaves like a fertilizer; it is beneficial to plants and crops. Nonfermented sawdust does not. Lupine N content is increased by both fermented and nonfermented sawdusts.

  6. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  7. Semi-Quantitative Method for Streptococci Magnetic Detection in Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Duarte

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and the most frequent reason for the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle; thus, control measures to detect and prevent mastitis are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive method to magnetically detect Streptococcus agalactiae (a Group B streptococci and Streptococcus uberis in raw milk samples. Mastitic milk samples were collected aseptically from 44 cows with subclinical mastitis, from 11 Portuguese dairy farms. Forty-six quarter milk samples were selected based on bacterial identification by conventional microbiology. All samples were submitted to PCR analysis. In parallel, these milk samples were mixed with a solution combining specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles, to be analyzed using a lab-on-a-chip magnetoresistive cytometer, with microfluidic sample handling. This paper describes a point of care methodology used for detection of bacteria, including analysis of false positive/negative results. This immunological recognition was able to detect bacterial presence in samples spiked above 100 cfu/mL, independently of antibody and targeted bacteria used in this work. Using PCR as a reference, this method correctly identified 73% of positive samples for streptococci species with an anti-S. agalactiae antibody, and 41% of positive samples for an anti-GB streptococci antibody.

  8. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  10. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKyselkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks, likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W, tet(Q and tet(M in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W representing a ‘core TC-resistome’ of the farm, and tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes.

  11. Methane emissions from a dairy feedlot during the fall and winter seasons in Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hebau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000 (China); Yuan Huijun; Ma Wenqi [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071000 (China); Liu Xuejun [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Desjardins, R.L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch, Ottawa, K1A 0C6 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Accurately determining methane emission factors of dairy herd in China is imperative because of China's large population of dairy cattle. An inverse dispersion technique in conjunction with open-path lasers was used to quantify methane emissions from a dairy feedlot during the fall and winter seasons in 2009-2010. The methane emissions had a significant diurnal pattern during both periods with three emission peaks corresponding to the feeding schedule. A 10% greater emission rate in the fall season was obtained most likely by the higher methane emission from manure during that period. An annual methane emission rate of 109 {+-} 6.7 kg CH{sub 4} yr{sup -1} characterized with a methane emission intensity of 32.3 {+-} 1.59 L CH{sub 4} L{sup -1} of milk and a methane conversion factor (Y{sub m}) of 7.3 {+-} 0.38% for mature cattle was obtained, indicating the high methane emission intensity and low milk productivity in Northern China. - Highlights: > CH{sub 4} emission from the feedlot in China was associated with clear diurnal pattern. > Methane conversion factor for mature cows in this feedlot was about 7.3%. > This feedlot was characterized with relatively high methane emission intensity. - High methane emission intensity and low milk productivity of Chinese dairy production are indicated.

  12. Biochar can be used to recapture essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improve soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available waste biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20 to 43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 t of ammonium-N and 920-4600 t of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of waste biomass.

  13. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  14. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Andini, S.; Nazly, H.; Suwirma, S.; Danius, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x10 5 up to 1.7x10 7 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x10 6 up to 1.4x10 8 per g, 1.0x10 4 up to 1.2x10 6 per g, 4.0x10 5 up to 2.2x10 7 per g, 1.8x10 3 per g, and 1.0x10 2 up to 5.4x10 3 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  15. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intolerant. But worse than this discomfort are the dangers of raw milk, which can harbor a host ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  16. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  17. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  18. Dairy cluster design for Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J.; Lee, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch and Myanmar governments, a project team consisting of researchers from Wageningen University & Research centre and experts from dairy processor Royal FrieslandCampina, feed company Royal De Heus and AgriWorks consultancy have developed a design for a dairy cluster in

  19. ADM1-based modeling of anaerobic digestion of swine manure fibers pretreated with aqueous ammonia soaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    fibers. In the present study, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of AAS pretreated manure fibers was tested in CSTR-type digesters fed with swine manure and/or a mixture of swine manure and AAS pretreated manure fibers. The Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 (ADM1) was used for the prediction of the effect......Anaerobic digestion of manure fibers present challenges due to their low biodegradability. Aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal has been tested as a simple and cheap method to disrupt the lignocellulose and increase the methane potential and the biogas productivity of manure...... that the AAS had on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion of manure. Kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting of the model to data from manure fed digesters. The model was able to satisfactorily simulate the behaviour of digesters fed with manure. However, the model predictions were poorer...

  20. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.