Sample records for raw cotton fiber

  1. Natural fire-defense of raw white and brown cotton fibers evidenced by suppressed unzipping depolymerization

    Pre-cleaned (scoured or scoured/bleached), cotton-based materials, whose utilization has greatly been enhanced in support of environmental sustainability, burn rapidly, causing a difficulty in controlling the spread of fire. This high burning rate is primarily associated with the unzipping depolymer...


    Michael Ioelovich


    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  3. Cloning GhSCFP Gene and Its Function in Cotton Fiber Development

    HOU Lei; YANG Xia; LIU Hao; LI Jia-bao; PEI Yan


    @@ As a major raw material for the textile industry and the most important fiber crop in the world,cotton is of great significance in Chinese economy.The development of cotton fiber can be divided into initiation,elongation,secondary wall synthesis,and maturation stages.The initiation and elongation stages of fiber,which determine the number of fibers on each seed and the final length of fiber,directly affect the yield and quality of cotton fiber.

  4. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter


    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  5. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo


    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, Tday/Tnight) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, Tnight had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means Tn could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  6. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    LIU Jin-yuan


    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  7. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    刘若华; 李汝勤


    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  8. Xyloglucan breakdown during cotton fiber development.

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki


    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fibers elongated almost linearly up to about 20 days post anthesis. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in fiber cell walls decreased gradually during the elongation stage. When enzymatically active (native) cell wall preparations of fibers were autolyzed, the molecular mass of xyloglucans decreased. The decrease was most prominent in wall preparations obtained from the rapidly elongating fibers. The xyloglucan-degrading activity was recovered from the fiber cell walls with 3 mol/L NaCl, and the activity was high at the stages in which fibers elongated vigorously. These results suggest the possible involvement of xyloglucan metabolism in the regulation of cotton fiber elongation.

  9. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality



    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  10. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina


    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  11. Transcriptome and biochemical analyses revealed a detailed proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber.

    Yue-Hua Xiao

    Full Text Available Brown cotton fiber is the major raw material for colored cotton industry. Previous studies have showed that the brown pigments in cotton fiber belong to proanthocyanidins (PAs. To clarify the details of PA biosynthesis pathway in brown cotton fiber, gene expression profiles in developing brown and white fibers were compared via digital gene expression profiling and qRT-PCR. Compared to white cotton fiber, all steps from phenylalanine to PA monomers (flavan-3-ols were significantly up-regulated in brown fiber. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses showed that most of free flavan-3-ols in brown fiber were in 2, 3-trans form (gallocatechin and catechin, and the main units of polymeric PAs were trihydroxylated on B ring. Consistent with monomeric composition, the transcript levels of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase in cotton fiber were much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively. Taken together, our data revealed a detailed PA biosynthesis pathway wholly activated in brown cotton fiber, and demonstrated that flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase represented the primary flow of PA biosynthesis in cotton fiber.

  12. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Md. Mizanur Rahman


    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  13. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation


    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.

  14. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin


    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  15. Regional Distribution of Cotton Fiber Quality in China


    The fiber quality status is very important for super quality cotton production and diverse requirements of textile industry in China.In this study,the quality of cotton fiber samples which are collected from 13 major cotton production provinces between 2001 to 2005 were analyzed.Eight quality traits

  16. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  17. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber



    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  18. Developing Accurate Spatial Maps of Cotton Fiber Quality Parameters

    Awareness of the importance of cotton fiber quality (Gossypium, L. sps.) has increased as advances in spinning technology require better quality cotton fiber. Recent advances in geospatial information sciences allow an improved ability to study the extent and causes of spatial variability in fiber p...

  19. Tracking cotton fiber quality throughout a stipper harvester: Part II

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality and higher foreign matter content than picker ...

  20. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  1. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Genes Differentially Expressed between Pima and Upland Cotton Fibers%比马棉和陆地棉纤维差异表达基因的分离、鉴定及特征分析

    Zheng-dao WU; Khairy M. SOLIMAN; Allan ZIPF; Sukumar SAHA


    @@ The demand for high strength fiber in raw cotton has increased because of the widespread use of high speed spinning technology in the yarn and textile industry. Improvement of cotton fiber quality through conventional breeding is limited due to the complexity of fiber quality genetics. Therefore, the primary goal of this project was to identify and characterize genes related to cotton fiber quality.

  2. Transcriptome Profiling and Analysis during Cotton Fiber Cell Development

    ZHU Yu-xian


    @@ In this project,we aim to elucidate the molecular mechanism controlling initiation and elongation of tetraploid Gossypium hirsutum fiber cells by setting up a high throughput custom-designed cDNA microarray and a systematic gene expression profiling during cotton fiber development.We first constructed a microarray consisting of more than 28,000 cotton UniESTs that we obtained by deep-sequencing of several cotton ovule cDNA libraries.

  3. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  4. GhDET2,a Steroid 5alpha-reductase,Plays an Important Role in Cotton Fiber Cell Initiation and Elongation

    LUO Ming; XIAO Yue-hua; LI Xian-bi; LI De-mou; HOU Lei; HU Ming-yu; PEI Yan


    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers,one of the most important natural raw materials for the textile industry,are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules.Among the longest plant cells ever characterized,cotton fiber is an ideal system for studying plant cell elongation.Brassinosteroids (BRs),a class of steroidal phytohormone,play an important role in plant cell division and elongation.

  5. The immature fiber mutant phenotype of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is linked to a 22-bp frame-shift deletion in a mitochondria targeted pentatricopeptide repeat gene

    Cotton seed trichomes are the globally most important source of natural fibers. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im) gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process...

  6. Molecular landscape of cotton fiber in early elongation

    Cotton fibers are the dominant source of natural fibers used in the textile industry and contribute significantly to the world economy. Adverse environmental conditions negatively affect fiber characteristics, especially when the fibers are in the elongation phase of development. Improvement in the...

  7. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan


    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  8. Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton



    @@ Cotton is the worlds leading natural fiber crop,and it is the cornerstone of textile industries worldwide.The cotton industry is confronted with problems in cost of production and requirements for high quality in the product.It is an industry in which marketing is based on measurable quality factors and where technological changes are being implemented rapidly and constantly.So the breeders have to constantly breed cotton varieties to suit the requirements of the textile industry.

  9. Xinjiang: Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers

    Zheng Yan


    @@ On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.

  10. Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Luis Cabrales


    Full Text Available Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development.

  11. Genomes for jeans: cotton genomics for engineering superior fiber.

    Mansoor, Shahid; Paterson, Andrew H


    Twenty years ago, scientists predicted that better understanding of fiber development would lead to novel ways to engineer superior cotton fiber. Advances in genetic resources, DNA markers, DNA sequence information, and gene expression data have indeed provided new insights into fiber initiation, elongation and maturation. Many exciting applications of this knowledge offer the potential to select better cotton genotypes more effectively in mainstream breeding programs or engineer genotypes with improved agronomic and/or quality traits. Here, we discuss recent progress in understanding genes involved in fiber development, and their regulation and manipulation to engineer improved fibers. Better understanding of quantitative trait loci/gene interactions that influence fiber quality and yield may help to tailor superior cotton genotypes to diverse environments.

  12. Natural Dyeing and UV Protection of Raw and Bleached/Mercerised Cotton

    Čuk Nina


    Full Text Available Dyeing with natural dyes extracted from curcuma, green tea, avocado seed, pomegranate peel and horse chestnut bark was studied to evaluate the dyeability and ultraviolet (UV blocking properties of raw and bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics. 20 g/l of powdered plant material was extracted in distilled water and used as a dyeing bath. No mordants were used to obtain ecologically friendly finishing. The colour of samples was measured on a refl ectance spectrophotometer, while UV-blocking properties were analysed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that dyeing increased UV protection factor (UPF to all samples, however much higher UPF values were measured for the dyed raw cotton samples. The highest UPF values were obtained on both cotton fabrics dyed with pomegranate peel and green tea extracts, giving them excellent protective properties (UPF 50+. The lowest UPF values were obtained by dyeing cotton with avocado seed extract and curcumin. Dyeing with selected dyes is not stable to washing, so the UV-blocking properties worsen after repetitive washing. However, raw cotton samples retain their very good Uvblocking properties, while bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics do not provide even satisfactory UV-blocking properties. No correlation between CIE L*a*b*, K/S and UPF values were found.

  13. RNA-seq analysis of short fiber mutants Ligon-lintless-1 (Li1) and – 2 (Li2) revealed important role of aquaporins in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber elongation

    Cotton fiber is the most prevalent natural raw material used in the textile industry. The length of the fiber is one of the most important characteristics and affects spinning efficiency and the quality of the resulting yarn. The identification of the genes that control fiber elongation is importa...

  14. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber

    XIAO Yue-hua; LUO Ming; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; YIN Meng-hui; DONG Jing


    @@ With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber was controlled by 6 loci (Lc1-6) in cotton.


    Elisabete Frollini


    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers obtained from the textile industry (lyocell were investigated as a potential reinforcement for thermoset phenolic matrices, to improve their mechanical properties. Textile cotton fibers were also considered. The fibers were characterized in terms of their chemical composition and analyzed using TGA, SEM, and X-ray. The thermoset (non-reinforced and composites (phenolic matrices reinforced with randomly dispersed fibers were characterized using TG, DSC, SEM, DMTA, the Izod impact strength test, and water absorption capacity analysis. The composites that were reinforced with lyocell fibers exhibited impact strengths of nearly 240 Jm-1, whereas those reinforced with cotton fibers exhibited impact strengths of up to 773 Jm-1. In addition to the aspect ratio, the higher crystallinity of cotton fibers compared to lyocell likely plays a role in the impact strength of the composite reinforced by the fibers. The SEM images showed that the porosity of the textile fibers allowed good bulk diffusion of the phenolic resin, which, in turn, led to both good adhesion of fiber to matrix and fewer microvoids at the interface.

  17. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if...

  18. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Altaf Hussain Rajper


    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  19. Spunlaced Cotton and Cotton Blend Cosmetic Pads and Bed Sheets: Study of Fiber Entanglement

    U. Muenstermann


    Full Text Available Nonwoven webs containing five different blends of bleached cotton with Lyocell rayon, bicomponent core/sheath polyester/polyethylene, or cotton comber noil were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by spunlacing (hydroentanglement. We optically acquired fiber bundle size measurements to learn about the pre-needling process, the hydroentangling process and the influence of fiber blend composition on fiber entanglement. Fiber entanglement measurements were compared to basis weight uniformity measurements. One of the bed sheet developments utilized a combination of bonding technologies (spunlacing and thermal bonding that used low energy. Results from this work indicate that spunlacing produced high quality cosmetic pads and economical short-life bed sheeting.

  20. Expression Profile Analysis of Genes Involved in Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis Pathway in Cotton Fiber Development

    LUO Ming; XIAO Zhong-yi; TAN Kun-ling; HU Ming-yu; LIAO Peng


    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and one of the mainstays of the economy in the world.Cotton fibers,as the main product of cotton plants,are unicellular,linear structures derived from the epidermis of the ovule.Cotton fiber development consists of four discrete yet overlapping developmental stages: initiation,elongation,secondary wall deposition,and maturation.

  1. Biochemical Pathways That Are Important for Cotton Fiber Cell Elongation

    ZHU YU-xian


    @@ The regulatory mechanism that controls the sustained cotton fiber cell elongation is gradually being elucidated by coupling genome-wide transcriptome profiling with systematic biochemical and physiological studies.Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA),H2O2,and several types of plant hormones including ethylene,gibberellin,and brassinolide have been reported to be involved in this process.Here we first identified by proteomic analysis a cotton cytosolic APX1 (GhAPX1) that was specifically accumulated during cotton fiber elongation.GhAPX1 expression was up-regulated in response to cellular H2O2 and ethylene,and it was involved in modulating the stead-state level of H2O2.

  2. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in developing cotton fibers

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules in diverse physiological processes. Previously, we discovered superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in extracellular protein preparations from fiber-bearing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seeds. We sho...

  3. Xinjiang:Cotton Stalk Fiber Will Bring Profits to Farmers


    On April 19,2007,Seminar on the Development and Application of Xinjiang Cotton Stalk Fiber,hosted by the Economic Operations Bureau of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC),successfully opened in Xinjiang Hotel of Beijing.The Seminar was attended by inspector Zhang

  4. Chemical, compositional and structural characterisation of cotton fibers

    Cotton, one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world, is a well-traded agricultural commodity primarily for textile fiber purpose. It is a type of natural cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues), and its growth or development is considered to include at least four overlapping bu...

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Fiber Elongating Process in Cotton

    LIU Jin-yuan; YANG Yi-wei; BIAN Shao-min


    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was performed to explore the mechanism of cell elongation in developing cotton fibers.The temporal changes of global proteomes at five representative development stages (5~25 days post-anthesis [DPA]) were examined using 2-D electrophoresis.

  6. Transcriptional Analysis of the Relationship of Proanthocyanidins Biosynthesis to the Brown Pigmentation in Cotton Fiber


    With increased concern to environment and health in the modern society,naturally colored cotton becomes more and more attractive to textile industry and cotton production.Brown is the most common fiber color in naturally colored cottons.Traditional genetic analyses revealed that brown fiber

  7. Improvement of Fiber Quality by Distant Hybridization in the Green Cotton

    FENG Ke-yun


    @@ In order to improve fiber quality of green cotton,a wide hybrid was used between a green fiber cotton and Sea Island cotton.The results show that the hybrid F1 plants were stable,but F2 plants had large variation.By self-pollinating for advancing generations,we found that the lint percent and fiber length of green fiber cotton were both improved,but micronaire value and fiber color were difficult to increase.The fiber pigment and micronaire value are controlled by linked genes.

  8. Wettability and sizing property improvement of raw cotton yarns treated with He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Sun Shiyuan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Textiles and Clothing Engineering, Dezhou University, Shandong 253023 (China); Sun Jie; Yao Lan [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qiu Yiping, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, China, College of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)


    Raw cotton fiber is water repellent due to the existence of the water repellent cuticle layer. This study is designed to systematically investigate how He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) treatments influence the wettability and the sizing property of cotton yarns. Water absorption time and adhesion of the sizing agent to the cotton roving are used to evaluate the improvement of wettability and sizing property of the yarn respectively. The water absorption time decreases with the increase of the treatment time and the oxygen flow rate, and the decrease of the jet to substrate distance (JTSD). An optimal water absorption time of 0.8 s is obtained with a treatment time of 20 s, JTSD of 1 mm and O{sub 2} flow rate of 0.2 L/min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the etching effect increases with the decrease of the JTSD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) presents increased oxygen contents after the plasma treatments. An increase of O-C=O bonds while a decrease of C-OH/C-O-C bonds are observed when the JTSD is set at 2 mm. However, a remarkable increase of both C-OH/C-O-C and O-C=O bonds are achieved when the JTSD is 1 mm. The roving impregnation test results show a nearly doubled adhesion of sizing and a slightly improved breaking elongation, indicating that the plasma treatment does effectively enhance the bonding strength between the fiber and the sizing.

  9. Gene cloning and molecular breeding to improve fiber qualities in cotton


    Cotton fiber is one of known natural resources comprising the highest purity cellulose. It plays an important role worldwide in the textile industry. With the acceleration of spinning speeds and the improvement of the people's living level, the demand of improving cotton fiber qualities is getting stronger and stronger. So, making clear the developmental model of fiber cell and elucidating systematically the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber development and regulation will produce a great significance to make full use of cotton gene resources, raise cotton yield and improve fiber quality, and even develop man-made fiber. In the paper, the status of the gene cloning and the molecular breeding to improve cotton fiber quality were reviewed, the importance and potential of gene cloning related with cotton fiber quality were put forward and the proposal and prospect on fiber quality improvement were made. Using national resources available and through the creative exploration in corresponding research, some international leading patents in genes or markers linked with cotton fiber development having Chinese own intellectual property should be licensed quickly. And they can be used to improve cotton fiber quality in cotton breeding practice.

  10. Improvements of Fiber Yield and Fiber Fineness by Expressing the iaaM Gene in Cotton Seed Coat

    PEI Yan; ZHENG Xue-lian; ZHANG Mi; ZENG Qi-wei; HOU Lei


    @@ Cotton,the most important natural fiber crop in the world,is a mainstay in China's economy.However,for over two decades,cotton yields both in China and U.S.have been at a plateau.One reason for this plateau is the limitation of current cotton germplasm.Cotton fibers are single cells resulting from elongated cells of the ovule epidermis.IAA regulates both plant growth and differentiation,and it has important roles in cotton fiber development.

  11. Comparative evolutionary and developmental dynamics of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber transcriptome.

    Mi-Jeong Yoo


    Full Text Available The single-celled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber provides an excellent model to investigate how human selection affects phenotypic evolution. To gain insight into the evolutionary genomics of cotton domestication, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of developing cotton fibers using RNA-Seq. Analysis of single-celled fiber transcriptomes from four wild and five domesticated accessions from two developmental time points revealed that at least one-third and likely one-half of the genes in the genome are expressed at any one stage during cotton fiber development. Among these, ~5,000 genes are differentially expressed during primary and secondary cell wall synthesis between wild and domesticated cottons, with a biased distribution among chromosomes. Transcriptome data implicate a number of biological processes affected by human selection, and suggest that the domestication process has prolonged the duration of fiber elongation in modern cultivated forms. Functional analysis suggested that wild cottons allocate greater resources to stress response pathways, while domestication led to reprogrammed resource allocation toward increased fiber growth, possibly through modulating stress-response networks. This first global transcriptomic analysis using multiple accessions of wild and domesticated cottons is an important step toward a more comprehensive systems perspective on cotton fiber evolution. The understanding that human selection over the past 5,000+ years has dramatically re-wired the cotton fiber transcriptome sets the stage for a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture underlying cotton fiber synthesis and phenotypic evolution.

  12. Evaluation on Ideal Test Sites and Regional Characteristics of Cotton Fiber Quality in Jiangsu Province

    Jian LI; Naiyin XU


    Objective] The aim of this study was to explore the dominant fiber quality traits of test sites in cotton regional trials , by analyzing the regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in Jiangsu province, in order to provide the theory background for cotton fiber quality improvement. [Method] The dominant fiber quality traits of test locations were analyzed with eight main fiber quality indexes of hybrid cotton regional trials during 2009-2013 in Jiangsu province by use of the "ideal test site"view of GGE biplot. [Result] The test locations with the best integrative fiber quality were proved to be Yanliang, and fol owed by Dongxin and Guanyun; The better test locations in terms of the major fiber quality indexes, including fiber strength, fiber Length and micronaire value, were Guanyun, Xinyang and Yanliang; To sum up, the best test location with balanced fiber quality was Yanliang. The test locations with specialties in fiber quality index were listed as bel ow: Dafeng, Xinghua and Dongtai performance better in fiber length; Qidong, Liuhe and Yanhai locations were of bet-ter fiber length uniformity; Sheyang and Dongxin were better in micronaire value;while Sheyang along was better in fiber elongation and reflectance. Moreover, the correlation between fiber yel owness and other traits was significant (P<0.01). [Con-clusion] The regional characteristic of cotton fiber quality index in Jiangsu province was obvious and fiber yel owness was worthy an indicator trait to assist the compre-hensive improvement of cotton fiber quality.

  13. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton

    Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environment...

  14. Developing fiber specific promoter-reporter transgenic lines to study the effect of abiotic stresses on fiber development in cotton.

    Junping Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important cash crops in US agricultural industry. Environmental stresses, such as drought, high temperature and combination of both, not only reduce the overall growth of cotton plants, but also greatly decrease cotton lint yield and fiber quality. The impact of environmental stresses on fiber development is poorly understood due to technical difficulties associated with the study of developing fiber tissues and lack of genetic materials to study fiber development. To address this important question and provide the need for scientific community, we have generated transgenic cotton lines harboring cotton fiber specific promoter (CFSP-reporter constructs from six cotton fiber specific genes (Expansin, E6, Rac13, CelA1, LTP, and Fb late, representing genes that are expressed at different stages of fiber development. Individual CFSP::GUS or CFSP::GFP construct was introduced into Coker 312 via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Transgenic cotton lines were evaluated phenotypically and screened for the presence of selectable marker, reporter gene expression, and insertion numbers. Quantitative analysis showed that the patterns of GUS reporter gene activity during fiber development in transgenic cotton lines were similar to those of the native genes. Greenhouse drought and heat stress study showed a correlation between the decrease in promoter activities and decrease in fiber length, increase in micronaire and changes in other fiber quality traits in transgenic lines grown under stressed condition. These newly developed materials provide new molecular tools for studying the effects of abiotic stresses on fiber development and may be used in study of cotton fiber development genes and eventually in the genetic manipulation of fiber quality.

  15. [Spatial distribution characteristics of China cotton fiber quality and climatic factors based on GIS].

    Xiong, Zong-Wei; Gu, Sheng-Hao; Mao, Li-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhou, Zhi-Guo


    By using geographical information system (GIS), the cotton fiber quality data from 2005 to 2011 and the daily meteorological data from 1981 to 2010 at 82 sites (counties and cities) in China major cotton production regions were collected and treated with spatial interpolation. The spatial information system of cotton fiber quality in China major cotton production regions was established based on GIS, and the spatial distribution characteristics of the cotton fiber quality and their relationships with the local climatic factors were analyzed. In the northwest region (especially Xinjiang) of China, due to the abundant sunlight, low precipitation, and low relative humidity, the cotton fiber length, micronaire, and grade ranked the first. In the Yangtze River region and Yellow River region, the specific strength of cotton fiber was higher, and in the Yangtze River region, the cotton fiber length and specific strength were higher, while the micronaire and grade were lower than those in the Yellow River region. The cotton fiber quality was closely related to the climate factors such as temperature, sunlight, rainfall, and humidity.

  16. Observation of fiber ultrastructure of Ligon lintless mutant in upland cotton during fiber elongation

    CHENG Chaohua; WANG Xuede; NI Xiyuan


    Lintless mutant is a super-short fiber mutant in upland cotton only 4-8 mm in fiber length and also named Ligon cotton controlled by one dominant gene Li1. Fiber ultrastructure of the mutant (Li1) and its wild type (li1) in situ and in vitro was observed under an electron microscope to understand its cytological characteristics during the fiber cell elongation. The results showed that the mutant fiber in situ had thinner cytoplasm, more small vacuoles, less mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticula, and there were more starch granules which were free or packed in the amyloplast beside the cell wall than that of wild type. It was indicated that scarcity of functional organelles and disability of transformation from starch to sugar might be associated with the fact that the mutant fiber cell was aborted too early to elongate into normal length. Mutant ovule in some media containing GA3 could produce a kind of huge callus that grew faster than normal ovules. The callus was covered with many white, loose, and semitransparent fiber-like cells that apt to get off from ovule. These fiber-like cells were multicellular fibers generated by cell division and had black dots just like pigment glands in the stem and leaf of cotton. There were lots of micro-tubes beside cytoplasm membrane of the multicellular fiber, which were thought to be primary preparation for second wall deposition of multicellular fiber. It was indicated that GA3 might induce the expression of gene(s) that kept inactive in the field condition and then stimulate the original fiber cell in vitro to undergo division again.

  17. Measurement comparison of cotton fiber micronaire and its components by portable near infrared spectroscopy instruments

    Micronaire is a key cotton fiber classing and quality assessment property, and changes in fiber micronaire can impact downstream fiber processing and dye consistency in the textile manufacturing industry. Micronaire is a function of two fiber components—fiber maturity and fineness. Historically, m...

  18. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  19. Development of secondary cell wall in cotton fibers as examined with Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy

    Our presentation will focus on continuing efforts to examine secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers using infrared Spectroscopy. Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-...

  20. In vitro inhibition of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton

    Shu-na YUAN; Waqas MALIK; Shui-jin HUA; Noreen BIBI; Xue-de WANG


    Colored cotton has naturally pigmented fibers.The mechanism of pigmentation in cotton fiber is not well documented.This experiment was conducted to study the effects cf respiratory chain inhibitors,i.e.,rotenone and thiourea,on pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.After 1 d post-anthesis,ovaries were harvested and developing ovules were cultured on the liquid medium containing different concentrations of rotenone and thiourea for 30 d.The results demonstrate that both respiratory inhibitors reduced fiber length and ovule development under ovule culture conditions,and the inhibition efficiency of rotenone was much higher than that of thiourea.Rotenone and thiourea also showed significant effects on fiber pigment (color) development in colored cotton.In green cotton fiber,rotenone advanced fiber pigment development by 7 d at 200 μmol/L,while thiourea inhibited fiber pigmentation at all treatment levels (400,600,800,1000,and 2000 μmol/L).Both respiratory inhibitors,however,had no significant effects on pigmentation of brown cotton fibers.The activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) decreased significantly with increasing levels of both respiratory inhibitors.It is suggested that both respiratory inhibitors have important roles in deciphering the mechanism of pigmentation and fiber development in colored cotton.

  1. The Immature Fiber Mutant Phenotype of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Is Linked to a 22-bp Frame-Shift Deletion in a Mitochondria Targeted Pentatricopeptide Repeat Gene

    Gregory N. Thyssen


    Full Text Available Cotton seed trichomes are the most important source of natural fibers globally. The major fiber thickness properties influence the price of the raw material, and the quality of the finished product. The recessive immature fiber (im gene reduces the degree of fiber cell wall thickening by a process that was previously shown to involve mitochondrial function in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum. Here, we present the fine genetic mapping of the im locus, gene expression analysis of annotated proteins near the locus, and association analysis of the linked markers. Mapping-by-sequencing identified a 22-bp deletion in a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR gene that is completely linked to the immature fiber phenotype in 2837 F2 plants, and is absent from all 163 cultivated varieties tested, although other closely linked marker polymorphisms are prevalent in the diversity panel. This frame-shift mutation results in a transcript with two long open reading frames: one containing the N-terminal transit peptide that targets mitochondria, the other containing only the RNA-binding PPR domains, suggesting that a functional PPR protein cannot be targeted to mitochondria in the im mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that PPR gene Gh_A03G0489 is involved in the cotton fiber wall thickening process, and is a promising candidate gene at the im locus. Our findings expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate cotton fiber fineness and maturity, and may facilitate the development of cotton varieties with superior fiber attributes.

  2. Identification of cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci using intraspecific crosses derived from two near-isogenic lines differing in fiber bundle strength.

    Cotton fiber properties are very important to the yarn quality. Modern high-speed textile operations around the world require long, strong and fine cotton fibers. The objective of this research was to identify stable fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could be used in cotton breeding through m...

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Cotton Fiber Development and Protein Extraction Method Comparison in Late Stage Fibers

    Hana Mujahid


    Full Text Available The distinct stages of cotton fiber development and maturation serve as a single-celled model for studying the molecular mechanisms of plant cell elongation, cell wall development and cellulose biosynthesis. However, this model system of plant cell development is compromised for proteomic studies due to a lack of an efficient protein extraction method during the later stages of fiber development, because of a recalcitrant cell wall and the presence of abundant phenolic compounds. Here, we compared the quality and quantities of proteins extracted from 25 dpa (days post anthesis fiber with multiple protein extraction methods and present a comprehensive quantitative proteomic study of fiber development from 10 dpa to 25 dpa. Comparative analysis using a label-free quantification method revealed 287 differentially-expressed proteins in the 10 dpa to 25 dpa fiber developmental period. Proteins involved in cell wall metabolism and regulation, cytoskeleton development and carbohydrate metabolism among other functional categories in four fiber developmental stages were identified. Our studies provide protocols for protein extraction from maturing fiber tissues for mass spectrometry analysis and expand knowledge of the proteomic profile of cotton fiber development.

  4. Comparative fiber property and transcriptome analyses reveal key genes potentially related to high fiber strength in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) line MD52ne

    Background: Individual fiber strength is an important quality attribute that greatly influences the strength of the yarn spun from cotton fibers. Fiber strength is usually measured from bundles of fibers due to the difficulty of reliably measuring strength from individual cotton fibers. However, bun...

  5. cDNA-AFLP-based genetical genomics in cotton fibers.

    Claverie, Michel; Souquet, Marlène; Jean, Janine; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Lepitre, Vincent; Pré, Martial; Jacobs, John; Llewellyn, Danny; Lacape, Jean-Marc


    Genetical genomics, or genetic analysis applied to gene expression data, has not been widely used in plants. We used quantitative cDNA-AFLP to monitor the variation in the expression level of cotton fiber transcripts among a population of inter-specific Gossypium hirsutum × G. barbadense recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Two key fiber developmental stages, elongation (10 days post anthesis, dpa), and secondary cell wall thickening (22 dpa), were studied. Normalized intensity ratios of 3,263 and 1,201 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) segregating over 88 RILs were analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for the 10 and 22 dpa fibers, respectively. Two-thirds of all TDFs mapped between 1 and 6 eQTLs (LOD > 3.5). Chromosome 21 had a higher density of eQTLs than other chromosomes in both data sets and, within chromosomes, hotspots of presumably trans-acting eQTLs were identified. The eQTL hotspots were compared to the location of phenotypic QTLs for fiber characteristics among the RILs, and several cases of co-localization were detected. Quantitative RT-PCR for 15 sequenced TDFs showed that 3 TDFs had at least one eQTL at a similar location to those identified by cDNA-AFLP, while 3 other TDFs mapped an eQTL at a similar location but with opposite additive effect. In conclusion, cDNA-AFLP proved to be a cost-effective and highly transferable platform for genome-wide and population-wide gene expression profiling. Because TDFs are anonymous, further validation and interpretation (in silico analysis, qPCR gene profiling) of the eQTL and eQTL hotspots will be facilitated by the increasing availability of cDNA and genomic sequence resources in cotton.

  6. Copper Alginate-Cotton Cellulose (CACC Fibers with Excellent Antibacterial Properties

    Navin Chand, Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The present work describes synthesis of copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC composite fibers and detailed investigation of antimicrobial action against the model bacteria E.coli. The CACC fibers were prepared by immersing cotton fibers in aqueous solution of sodium alginate, followed by ionic crosslinking of alginate chains within the cotton cellulose fibers with Cu(II ions to yield CACC composite fibers. The resulting CACC fibers were investigated for their biocidal action against E.coli, by using zone inhibition and colonies counting method. Finally, CACC fibers were reduced with sodium borohydride to yield copper nanoparticles- loaded composite fibers and investigated for biocidal action. It was found that CACC fibers possessed both, the fair mechanical strength and antibacterial action. The extent of biocidal action was found to depend upon the amount of Cu(II loaded and concentration of alginate into cotton- cellulose fibers. The fibers showed higher Cu(II release in physiological fluid as compared to distilled water. Copper alginate-cotton cellulose (CACC fibers show fair mechanical strength and release copper ions in the presence of physiological fluid and protein solution. These fibers have great potential to be used as dressing materials.

  7. Functional Genomic Studies of Cotton Fiber Development%棉花纤维发育功能基因组学研究

    Xiao-ya CHEN; Zhi-ping LIN; Tian-zhen ZHANG; Yong-qing ZHU; Jia-wei WANG; Chun-hong LI; Ke-xiang XU; Jin-ying GOU; Shui WANG; Jun-wei JIA


    @@ Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes derived from the epidermis of cotton ovules. Analysis of transcripts in developing fiber cells may provide valuable information to understand mechanisms regulation fiber initiation and growth, as well as to cotton breeding. We have made an array of more than 5000 clones isolated from a cotton ovule ( and the fiber ) cDNA library.

  8. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    Ruan, Yong-Ling


    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Boosting Seed Development as a New Strategy to Increase Cotton Fiber Yield and Quality

    Yong-Ling Ruan


    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers,which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis.Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation,elongation and cellulose synthesis.However,manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality.On the other hand,evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development.Therefore,I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality.

  10. Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality.

    Zhang, Mi; Zheng, Xuelian; Song, Shuiqing; Zeng, Qiwei; Hou, Lei; Li, Demou; Zhao, Juan; Wei, Yuan; Li, Xianbi; Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yuehua; Luo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jinfa; Xiang, Chengbin; Pei, Yan


    The capacity of conventional breeding to simultaneously improve the yield and quality of cotton fiber is limited. The accumulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in cotton fiber initials prompted us to investigate the effects of genetically engineering increased IAA levels in the ovule epidermis. Targeted expression of the IAA biosynthetic gene iaaM, driven by the promoter of the petunia MADS box gene Floral Binding protein 7 (FBP7), increased IAA levels in the epidermis of cotton ovules at the fiber initiation stage. This substantially increased the number of lint fibers, an effect that was confirmed in a 4-year field trial. The lint percentage of the transgenic cotton, an important component of fiber yield, was consistently higher in our transgenic plants than in nontransgenic controls, resulting in a >15% increase in lint yield. Fiber fineness was also notably improved.

  11. Spontaneous, uncomplicated dissolution of a large cotton fiber in the laser in situ keratomileusis interface

    Gaurav Prakash


    Full Text Available In this article, we report the spontaneous dissolution of a long cotton thread in the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK flap interface. In this observational case report, sequential follow-up of a post-LASIK eye with a long cotton fiber noticed in the LASIK interface was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, with no evidence of infection, uveitis, or any other complications. The cotton thread underwent spontaneous dissolution. Conservative management of a cotton fiber, not causing any symptoms and noticed after the immediate postoperative follow-up period is over, seems to be a possible alternative to flap relift and intervention.

  12. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  13. Mechanical interlocking of cotton fibers on slightly textured surfaces of metallic cylinders

    Zhang, Youqiang; Tian, Yu; Meng, Yonggang


    Mechanical interlocking is widely applied in industry and general lives of human beings. In this work, we realized the control of locking or sliding states of cotton fibers on the metal surfaces with slightly different textures through traditional machining. Three types of sliding states, i.e., locking, one-way sliding, and two-way sliding have been achieved. It is found that the locking or sliding of the cotton fibers on the metallic cylinder depends on the friction coefficient and the ratio of cotton fiber diameter, 2r, to the height of the rough peaks, h, of metal surfaces. When the critical ratio h/r exceeds 1, the cotton fibers could tightly attach to the metallic surface through mechanical interlocking. This work provided a convenient and universal method for the control of interlocking or sliding of fiber-based materials on textured surfaces.

  14. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton cultivars with colored fibers

    Francisco S. Fernandes


    Full Text Available We describe the vertical and horizontal distribution of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover within a cotton plant in two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus cultivars (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí with colored fiber over the time. Measurements of aphid population dynamics and distribution in the cotton plants were recorded in intervals of seven days. The number of apterous or alate aphids and their specific locations were recorded, using as a reference point the location of nodes on the mainstem of the plant and also those on the leaves present on branches and fruit structures. The number of apterous aphids found on the cultivar BRS Safira (56,515 aphids was greater than that found on BRS Rubí (50,537 aphids. There was no significant difference between the number of alate aphids found on the cultivars BRS Safira (365 aphids/plant and BRS Rubí (477 aphids/plant. There were interactions between cotton cultivar and plant age, between plant region and plant age, and between cultivar and plant region for apterous aphids. The results of this study are of great importance in improving control strategies for A. gossypii in the naturally-colored cotton cultivars BRS Safira and BRS Rubí.Nós descrevemos a distribuição vertical e horizontal do pulgão do algodoeiro Aphis gossypii Glover dentro da planta de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus, em dois cultivares com fibras coloridas (BRS Safira and BRS Rubí ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. Medidas de dinâmicas de populações e distribuição de A. gossypii nas plantas de algodão foram registradas em intervalos de sete dias. O número de afídeos ápteros ou alados e suas localizações específicas foram registrados, usando-se como ponto de referência a localização do nó no caule principal da planta e também aqueles presentes nas folhas de ramos e estruturas frutíferas. O número de afídeos ápteros encontrados na cultivar BRS Safira (56.515 afídeos foi maior do que o encontrado na BRS Rub

  15. The Effect of Calcium on Early Fiber Elongation in Cotton Ovule Culture

    Cotton fibers are single-cell trichomes that initiate on the ovule epidermis. Fiber initials accumulate calcium and membranes, including ER. Multiple calcium sensors, and small GTPase proteins that may act in calcium signaling pathways and/or primary cell wall biosynthesis were present in fiber init...

  16. Use of FTIR spectroscopy technique in the determination of cotton fiber maturity and crystallinity

    Cotton fiber consists of natural cellulose I component and its end-use qualities depend on the amount of cellulose deposited during the growth. The term fiber maturity has been used to describe the degree of cellulosic development or the secondary cell wall thickening of fibers. Useful information a...

  17. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production

    Manoon Jitjaicham


    Full Text Available The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers.

  18. MicroRNA expression profiles during cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) fiber early development

    Wang, Min; Sun, Runrun; Li, Chao; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong


    The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) during cotton fiber development remains unclear. Here, a total of 54 miRNAs belonging to 39 families were selected to characterize miRNA regulatory mechanism in eight different fiber development stages in upland cotton cv BM-1. Among 54 miRNAs, 18 miRNAs were involved in cotton fiber initiation and eight miRNAs were related to fiber elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Additionally, 3,576 protein-coding genes were candidate target genes of these miRNAs, which are potentially involved in cotton fiber development. We also investigated the regulatory network of miRNAs and corresponding targets in fiber initiation and elongation, and secondary wall formation. Our Gene Ontology-based term classification and KEGG-based pathway enrichment analyses showed that the miRNA targets covered 220 biological processes, 67 molecular functions, 45 cellular components, and 10 KEGG pathways. Three of ten KEGG pathways were involved in lignan synthesis, cell elongation, and fatty acid biosynthesis, all of which have important roles in fiber development. Overall, our study shows the potential regulatory roles of miRNAs in cotton fiber development and the importance of miRNAs in regulating different cell types. This is helpful to design miRNA-based biotechnology for improving fiber quality and yield. PMID:28327647

  19. Effect of Cotton Fibers and Their Trash Characteristics on the Performance of Spinning Preparatory Processes

    Dr. (Mrs. Tasnim N. Shaikh


    Full Text Available Technological revolution in the age old cotton textile industry has made spinning preparatory section as a control centre for quality and economy of the outgoing product. Spinners have to chase these goals by cleaning the cotton mix without detoriating feed cotton characteristics and undue increase in the waste levels at higher productivity level. The successful efforts demand through investigation of the cotton fibers and their trash characteristics as well as identification of their best fit interrelationship with process parameters. Set of experimentations done in this direction are described in this paper as case study.

  20. Modelling the effect of temperature on specific death rate of the micro-flora of raw cotton wool

    C.C. Opara


    Full Text Available Cotton wool for use in medicine must be sterilized and heat treatment is the most common sterilization technique for bulk processing of agricultural materials. Modelling the effect of temperature variations on specific death rate of the micro-flora of raw cotton wool was carried out in this project. The raw cotton wool was collected from a farmer in Kano State, the most important cotton wool producing state of Nigeria. The micro-flora was determined by inoculating and incubating with 0.85% NaCl diluents and the number of bacteria determined by plate count method. As the sterilization temperatures were varied with increased time, the thermal death rates and thermal death time of the micro-flora were determined for each temperature and these was used in the modelling. The model lnK = 83.9 – 34190(1/T shows that the sterilization temperature has a linear relationship with the death rate constant and it is in line with Arrhenius model.

  1. Effect of polyester blends in hydroentangled raw and bleached cotton nonwoven fabrics on the adsorption of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride

    The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of alkyl-dimethyl-benzyl-ammonium chloride (ADBAC), a cationic surfactant commonly employed as an antimicrobial agent, on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics (applicable for wipes) including raw cotton, bleached cotton, and their blends with polyester (PES) were stu...

  2. Combined effects of raw materials and solvent systems on the preparation and properties of regenerated cellulose fibers.

    Chen, Jinghuan; Guan, Ying; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xueming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang


    To investigate the combined effects of materials and solvents on the preparation, structural and mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers, four cellulosic materials (microcrystalline cellulose, cotton linter pulp, bamboo pulp and bleached softwood sulfite dissolving pulp) and six non-derivative solvents (NaOH/urea aqueous solution, N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride, N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) were used to prepare fibers with wet spinning method. The results showed that the dissolvability of solvent was the determining factor in cellulose dissolution, and the dissolving time was influenced by the raw materials' properties, such as molecular weight, exposed area and hemicellulose content. The crystallinity and elongation at break of the fibers were almost fixed and not affected by the materials and solvents. However, the tensile strength of the fibers was directly proportional to the molecular weight of the raw materials, and varied with the type of solvents through cellulose degradation.

  3. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  4. Genes Expressing Differences in Upland Cotton Fiber Development Between 12 DPA and 16 DPA

    LU Cai-rui; YU Shu-xun; WANG Wu


    @@ Cotton is the major dominant natural fiber crop on the earth.Although some current cotton genetics and breeding programs had made great progresses in cotton lint yield increases and disease resistance (tolerance),fiber quality has little improvement.Global understanding genes expression will benefit to the fiber quality genetic improvement in the future.There are total 929 genes that were differently expressed between 12 DPA and 16 DPA based on the12 K cotton cDNA arrays (CapitalBio Corporation) analysis.There were 357 (38%) up-regulated,and 572 (62%) down-regulated.This work was supported by grants from the China National Basic Research Program (2004CB117306)

  5. Characterization of developmental immature fiber (im) mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) cotton fibers by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy

    The immature fiber (im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutants with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed princip...

  6. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Fiber-related Gene Expression in Cotton

    CHEN Z Jeffrey; LEE Jinsuk J; HAN Zhi-guo; HA Misook; AGARWAL Vikram


    @@ Fiber cell initiation is a complex process involving many pathways,including phytohormones and components for transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.Here we report expression analyses of fiber-related genes and small RNAs during fiber development.Using laser-dissected tissues and oligonucleotide microarrays corresponding to 23000 unigenes,we compared transcriptome profiles between the cells in epidermal layers,fibers,and inner integuments of cotton ovules.

  7. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...


    Bo Shi


    Full Text Available Corporate environmental sustainability calls for sustainable product manufacturing with less creation of waste material or increased reuse of waste materials. One example is the use of keratin fiber from the poultry industry and cotton linter from the textile industry for paper and tissue manufacturing. In this paper, the feasibility of using these waste fibers to make paper was demonstrated in handsheets. The properties of these handsheets were compared to the properties of handsheets made with standard bleached eucalyptus tropical hardwood fibers. A blend of cotton linter and keratin fibers at 80/20 and 60/40 ratios showed a 59% and 73% improvement in sheet bulk, respectively, compared to eucalyptus handsheets. Similarly, air permeability of the cotton / keratin fiber handsheets improved 414% and 336%, respectively, versus the eucalyptus. However, the tensile index of the cotton and keratin fiber blends was lower than the eucalyptus sheets. There was no remarkable difference in water absorbency up to 20% keratin fiber. Above 20% of keratin fibers the water absorbency started to decrease, which is likely attributable to the hydrophobic nature of the protein-based keratin fiber.

  9. Use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy in non-destructive and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers

    The knowledge of chemical and compositional components in cotton fibers is of value to cotton breeders and growers for cotton enhancement and to textile processors for quality control. In this work, we applied the previously proposed simple algorithms to analyze the attenuated total reflection Fouri...

  10. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  11. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

    Ya-Yu Li


    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  12. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton


    Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and

  13. Analysis of flavonoids and the flavonoid structural genes in brown fiber of upland cotton.

    Hongjie Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of changing consumer preferences, cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. from varieties with naturally colored fibers is becoming increasingly sought after in the textile industry. The molecular mechanisms leading to colored fiber development are still largely unknown, although it is expected that the color is derived from flavanoids. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Firstly, four key genes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in cotton (GhC4H, GhCHS, GhF3'H, and GhF3'5'H were cloned and studied their expression profiles during the development of brown- and white cotton fibers by QRT-PCR. And then, the concentrations of four components of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin in brown- and white fibers were analyzed at different developmental stages by HPLC. RESULT: The predicted proteins of the four flavonoid structural genes corresponding to these genes exhibit strong sequence similarity to their counterparts in various plant species. Transcript levels for all four genes were considerably higher in developing brown fibers than in white fibers from a near isogenic line (NIL. The contents of four flavonoids (naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were significantly higher in brown than in white fibers and corresponding to the biosynthetic gene expression levels. CONCLUSIONS: Flavonoid structural gene expression and flavonoid metabolism are important in the development of pigmentation in brown cotton fibers.

  14. Composite Nonwovens Made of Cotton and Other Plant Fibers: Mechanical and Thermal Characterization

    Composite nonwoven samples have been prepared from blends of fibers containing cotton and other fibers, such as bagasse, kenaf or ramie. The nonwoven structure has been stabilized with synthetic or bioderived polymers. Mechanical and thermal characteristics of nonwovens (tensile strength, modulus an...

  15. Comparative properties of cellulose nano-crystals from native and mercerized cotton fibers

    Stable aqueous suspensions of cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were fabricated from both native and mercerized cotton fibers by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, followed by high-pressure homogenization. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Wide-angle X-Ray Diffraction data showed that the fibers had b...

  16. Analysis of the Fiber Quality of Upland Cotton in China from 2005 to 2007

    YANG Wei-hua; TANG Shu-rong; XU Hong-xia; WANG Yan-qin; ZHOU Da-yun; KUANG Meng


    @@ Upper-half-mean length (Len),uniformity index (UI),breaking tenacity (Str),and mieronaire value (Mic) are the key quality parameters of cotton fiber.In this study,182 upland cotton varieties examined and approved by The National or Provincial Committees for the Examination and Approval of Crop from 2005 to 2007 were selected as materials.These varieties were the most popular varieties planted in China.The result indicated that the distribution of fiber length was very limited.The fiber length of 145 varieties was concentrated from 28 mm to 30 mm,which was nearly 80% of the varieties.

  17. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan;


    A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  18. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Familiesin Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Jian-XunFENG; Sheng-JianJI; Yong-HuiSHI; YuXU; GangWEI; Yu-XianZHU


    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50 fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  19. Analysis of Five Differentially Expressed Gene Families in Fast Elongating Cotton Fiber

    Jian-Xun FENG; Sheng-Jian JI; Yong-Hui SHI; Yu XU; Gang WEI; Yu-Xian ZHU


    Using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, we isolated five gene families,including proline-rich proteins (PRPs), arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), from fast elongating cotton fiber cells. Expression profile analysis using cDNA array technology showed that most of these gene families were highly expressed during early cotton fiber developmental stages (0-20 days post anthesis, DPA). Many transcripts accumulated over 50-fold in 10 DPA fiber cells than in 0 DPA samples. The entire gene family-AGP, together with 20 individual members in other 4 gene families, are reported in cotton for the first time. Accumulation of cell wall proteins, wall loosening enzymes, microtubules and lipid transfer proteins may contribute directly to the elongation and development of fiber cells.

  20. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan


    different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength......A detailed knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity and complexity is crucial for understanding plant growth and development. One key challenge is to establish links between polysaccharide-rich cell walls and their phenotypic characteristics. It is of particular interest for some plant material, like...... and phenotypic traits. In addition, the analysis also identified specific polysaccharides which may play a major role during fiber development for the final fiber characteristics. Three different regression methods identified a negative correlation between micronaire and the xyloglucan and homogalacturonan...

  1. Characterization of in vivo phosphorylation modification of differentially accumulated proteins in cotton fiber-initiation process.

    Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Bing; He, Wenying; Wang, Zi; Li, Guanqiao; Liu, Jinyuan


    Initiation of cotton fiber from ovule epidermal cells determines the ultimate number of fibers per cotton ovule, making it one of the restriction factors of cotton fiber yield. Previous comparative proteomics studies have collectively revealed 162 important differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in cotton fiber-initiation process, however, whether and how post-translational modifications, especially phosphorylation modification, regulate the expression and function of the DAPs are still unclear. Here we reported the successful identification of 17 phosphopeptides from 16 phosphoproteins out of the 162 DAPs using the integrated bioinformatics analyses of peptide mass fingerprinting data and targeted MS/MS identification method. In-depth analyses indicated that 15 of the 17 phosphorylation sites were novel phosphorylation sites first identified in plants, whereas 6 of the 16 phosphoproteins were found to be the phosphorylated isoforms of 6 proteins. The phosphorylation-regulated dynamic protein network derived from this study not only expanded our understanding of the cotton fiber-initiation process, but also provided a valuable resource for future functional studies of the phosphoproteins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Effect of pectin particles and cotton fibers on properties of thermoplastic cassava starch composites

    Jutarat Prachayawarakorn


    Full Text Available Due to poor mechanical properties and high water uptake of thermoplastic starch (TPS, this research focused on property improvement of thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS using natural compatible polymers, i.e. pectin particles and cotton fibers. Different TPCS composites, reinforced by the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers, were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and a compression molding machine, respectively. It was found from infrared (IR spectra that the peak position of O-H stretching of the TPCS polymer clearly shifted to lower wavenumber by the addition of the pectin particles and/or the cotton fibers. Moreover, the significant increase of stress at maximum load and Young’s modulus of the TPCS/pectin particle and the TPCS/cotton fiber composites was observed. The drop of water uptake was also found when the cotton fibers were incorporated into the TPCS matrix with/without pectin particles. In addition, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis were used to characterize different TPCS composites.

  3. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Agronomic and Fiber Quality Traits in Cotton

    Michael A. Gore


    Full Text Available The superior fiber properties of L. serve as a source of novel variation for improving fiber quality in Upland cotton ( L., but introgression from has been largely unsuccessful due to hybrid breakdown and a lack of genetic and genomic resources. In an effort to overcome these limitations, we constructed a linkage map and conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of 10 agronomic and fiber quality traits in a recombinant inbred mapping population derived from a cross between TM-1, an Upland cotton line, and NM24016, an elite line with stabilized introgression from . The linkage map consisted of 429 simple-sequence repeat (SSR and 412 genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS-based single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker loci that covered half of the tetraploid cotton genome. Notably, the 841 marker loci were unevenly distributed among the 26 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton. The 10 traits evaluated on the TM-1 × NM24016 population in a multienvironment trial were highly heritable, and most of the fiber traits showed considerable transgressive variation. Through the QTL analysis, we identified a total of 28 QTLs associated with the 10 traits. Our study provides a novel resource that can be used by breeders and geneticists for the genetic improvement of agronomic and fiber quality traits in Upland cotton.

  4. Response of the enzymes to nitrogen applications in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationships with fiber strength


    To investigate the response of key enzymes to nitrogen (N) rates in cotton fiber and its relationship with fiber strength, experiments were conducted in 2005 and 2006 with cotton cultivars in Nanjing. Three N rates 0, 240 and 480 kgN/hm2, signifying optimum and excessive nitrogen application levels were applied.The activities and the gene expressions of the key enzymes were affected by N, and the characteristics of cellulose accumulation and fiber strength changed as the N rate varied. Beta-1,3-glucanase activity in cotton fiber declined from 9 DPA till boll opening, and the beta-1, 3-glucanase coding gene expression also followed a unimodal curve in 12—24 DPA. In 240 kgN/hm2 condition, the characteristics of enzyme activity and gene expression manner for sucrose synthase and beta-1,3-glucanase in developing cotton fiber were more favorable for forming a longer and more steady cellulose accumulation process, and for high strength fiber development.

  5. Specific expression of a β-tubulin gene (GhTub1) in developing cotton fibers

    LI; Yuanli; (李园莉); SUN; Jie; (孙杰); LI; Chunhong; (李春红); ZHU; Yongqing; (朱勇清); XIA; Guixian; (夏桂先)


    A cDNA library was constructed using poly (A)+ RNA isolated from -1-15 DPA fibers of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The cDNA encoding a β-tubulin isoform (designated as GhTub1) was identified through EST search. Northern blot analysis using 3′-UTR of the cDNA as a gene-specific probe was performed to investigate the expression levels of GhTub1 in various organs and in the developing fibers. The results showed that GhTub1 gene was specifically expressed in cotton fiber cells. During fiber development, GhTub1 transcripts accumulated highlyat the stage of cell rapid elongation with the highest expression appearing at the time when fiber expansion reaches the peak rate. To probe the in vivo function of GhTub1, its cDNA was cloned in the yeast expression vector pREP1 and transformed into the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Overexpression of GhTub1 in yeast cells caused severe changes in the cell morphology. These results suggest that GhTub1 may play a role in the polar elongation of cotton fibers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fiber-specific transcript accumulation of a cotton β-tubulin gene.

  6. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu


    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  7. Construction of Genetic Linkage Map and QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality in Upland Cotton

    ZHANG Zheng-sheng


    @@ A comprehensive genetic linkage map was constructed using 270 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between two upland cotton cultivars Yumian 1 and T586.The linkage map comprised of 604 loci and 57 linkage groups ordered into 25 chromosomes,spanning 3106.9 cM,and approximately accounting for the 69.87~ of the whole cotton genome with an average genetic distance of 5.15 cM between two markers.Based on interval mapping,29 QTLs affecting fiber quality were identified,including 5 QTLs for fiber length,7 QTLs for fiber uniformity,10 QTLs for fiber strength,2 QTLs for fiber elongation,and 5 QTLs for fiber fineness.Seventeen QTLs were mapped on A sub-genome chromosomes,and 12 on D sub-genome.

  8. China Project "973"-Molecular Improvement of Cotton Fiber

    YU Shu-xun


    @@ Cotton is the main cash crop in China,and plays a very important and irreplaceable role in the national economy.With only 3% of total crop plant area,China accounts for over 10% of the output of the cotton industry.

  9. QTL Mapping for Fiber Quality Traits Based on a Dense Genetic Linkage Map with SSR,TRAP,SRAP and AFLP Markers in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    YU Ji-wen; YU Shu-xun; ZHANG Jin-fa; ZHAI Hong-hong


    @@ Cotton is one of the most important economic crops in the world,and it provides natural fiber for the textile industry.With the advancement of the textile technology and increased consumption demands on cotton fiber,both cotton yield and quality should be enhanced.However,cotton yield and fiber quality are complex quantitative traits and are usually negatively associated that hampers the simultaneous improvement of lint yield and fiber quality by traditional breeding.

  10. Isolation of a cotton CAP gene: a homologue of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein highly expressed during fiber elongation.

    Kawai, M; Aotsuka, S; Uchimiya, H


    The cDNA encoding CAP (adenylyl cyclase-associated protein) was isolated from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber cDNA library. The cDNA (GhCAP) contained an open reading frame that encoded 471 amino acid residues. RNA blot analysis showed that the cotton CAP gene was expressed mainly in young fibers.

  11. Metabolomic and transcriptomic insights into how cotton fiber transitions to secondary wall sythesis, represses lignification, and prolongs elongation

    Cotton fiber morphogenesis reflects extreme elongation and staged cell wall differentiation in an easily isolated single cell. Uncovering the cellular control mechanisms can lead to strategies for producing improved cotton fiber for textiles and other uses. To identify potential controls of the high...

  12. Chemical-free Extraction of Cotton Stalk Bark Fibers by Steam Flash Explosion

    Xiuliang Hou


    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fibers (CSBF were extracted by steam flash explosion, completed within 0.09 s, and the extracted fibers were compared with those obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Results indicate that the optimum steam pressure was 2.5 MPa when steaming time was set to 2 min for extracting CSBF. Under the optimized conditions, the obtained CSBF had a cellulose content of 72%, length of 48 mm, fineness of 45 dtex, crystallinity index of 68, moisture regain of 8%, water retention of 98%, and tensile strength of 2.4 cN/dtex, which were similar to results obtained by conventional alkaline treatment. Compared with bark of cotton stalks, CSBF had lower moisture regain and water retention, and higher onset decomposition temperature. The results show that moderate steam flash explosion is a chemical-free, quick, and effective method for exploring the industrial applications of bark of cotton stalks as natural cellulose fibers.

  13. Expression of a cotton profilin gene GhPFN1 is associated with fiber cell elongation


    Profilin is an important actin-binding protein involved in regulating the organization of actin filaments. A cotton profilin gene (GhPFN1) that shares 71% identity to profilin1 of Arabidopsis in its amino acid sequence was isolated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that GhPFN1 was expressed preferentially in the developing cotton fibers and reached the highest level at the fast elongation stage. The function of GhPFN1 in vivo was analyzed using the S. pombe system, and results suggested that GhPFN1 plays a role in fiber cell elongation.

  14. Correlations and path analysis in components of fiber yield in cultivars of upland cotton

    Laíse Ferreira de Araújo


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relative contribution of agronomic and technological components on the fiber yield in upland cotton cultivars. The experiment was carried out with 11 upland cotton cultivars in a completely randomized blocks design with three replications. Initially, we performed analysis of variance, with the F test at 5% probability for the effect of cultivar as fixed effects as well as block and environment effects as random. Then the values were ordered according to cluster test Scott-Knott, at 5% probability level. The significance of the null hypothesis that all possible canonical correlations are null was evaluated using the chi-square test. The correlations were estimated through the path analysis. By examining the canonical correlations there was dependence between the two groups of variables and therefore it is possible to promote changes in certain characteristics through the selection of others correlated. Plants of upland cotton with higher fiber yield were influenced by the decrease in average weight of the cotton boll. When there is a reduced fiber yield, there is also an increase in uniformity and strength thereof. The fiber resistance had negative indirect effects on the fiber uniformity and length.

  15. Genetic mapping and comparative analysis of seven mutants related to seed fiber development in cotton.

    Rong, Junkang; Pierce, Gary J; Waghmare, Vijay N; Rogers, Carl J; Desai, Aparna; Chee, Peng W; May, O Lloyd; Gannaway, John R; Wendel, Jonathan F; Wilkins, Thea A; Paterson, Andrew H


    Mapping of genes that play major roles in cotton fiber development is an important step toward their cloning and manipulation, and provides a test of their relationships (if any) to agriculturally-important QTLs. Seven previously identified fiber mutants, four dominant (Li (1), Li (2), N (1) and Fbl) and three recessive (n (2), sma-4(h (a)), and sma-4(fz)), were genetically mapped in six F(2) populations comprising 124 or more plants each. For those mutants previously assigned to chromosomes by using aneuploids or by linkage to other morphological markers, all map locations were concordant except n (2), which mapped to the homoeolog of the chromosome previously reported. Three mutations with primary effects on fuzz fibers (N (1), Fbl, n (2)) mapped near the likelihood peaks for QTLs that affected lint fiber productivity in the same populations, perhaps suggesting pleiotropic effects on both fiber types. However, only Li (1) mapped within the likelihood interval for 191 previously detected lint fiber QTLs discovered in non-mutant crosses, suggesting that these mutations may occur in genes that played early roles in cotton fiber evolution, and for which new allelic variants are quickly eliminated from improved germplasm. A close positional association between sma-4(h ( a )), two leaf and stem-borne trichome mutants (t (1) , t (2)), and a gene previously implicated in fiber development, sucrose synthase, raises questions about the possibility that these genes may be functionally related. Increasing knowledge of the correspondence of the cotton and Arabidopsis genomes provides several avenues by which genetic dissection of cotton fiber development may be accelerated.

  16. A prerequisite for the effective transfer of the shape-memory effect to cotton fibers

    Liem, H.; Yeung, L. Y.; Hu, J. L.


    Subtle interaction between shape-memory polymer and cellulose fibers within fabrics remains a critical issue for understanding their thermal-mechanical properties and thus the shape-memory behavior in cotton fibers. We demonstrate here the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy to probe the induced stresses in warp and weft fibers, presenting physicochemical features for cellulose fibers finished with macromolecule polyurethane and small-molecule dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea. Accordingly, a possible mechanism for transfer of the shape-memory effect to fabrics is proposed. Forming as a coating on the fiber surface after the finishing process, the shape-memory polymer takes a critical role in reducing the residual stress in weft fibers, establishing the prerequisite for reserving the shape-memory effect to fabric. In addition, this work has demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is able to probe the residual stresses in cotton fabrics after being treated by chemicals in addition to that due to physical deformation. Our result provides clear evidence that in the finishing process strength reduction in fibers in general is not only caused solely by a chemical reaction, but also by a physical modification of the cotton structure.

  17. 我国主产棉区棉花纤维品质性状的区域分布特征%Regional distribution characteristics of cotton fiber quality in main cotton production areas in China

    许乃银; 李健


    regions. Conversely, micronaire value performed ideally in the upper reaches of CRV and the Northwest Inland regions, but not so satisfactory in the subregions of the Loess Plateau, Huaibei Plain, North China Plain and the lower reaches of CRV. 3) For comprehensive fiber quality trait performance, the upper and lower reaches of CRV and the Northwest Inland regions were the most ideal subregions, followed by Huaibei Plain, Nanxiang Basin and the middle reaches of CRV. Then the North China Plain and the Loess Plateau were less satisfactory in terms of comprehensive fiber quality trait performance. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of “environmentvs. trait” biplot in evaluating ecological regionalization of cotton fiber quality. It also provided a reference for the prioritization of development of high-quality cotton production areas and raw cotton selection strategy for the textile industry and also set the guidlines for further ecological regionalization of cotton fiber quality in China.

  18. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    Mojsov, Kiro


    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  19. Harvester-based sensing system for cotton fiber-quality mapping

    Precision agriculture in cotton production attempts to maximize profitability by exploiting information on field spatial variability to optimize the fiber yield and quality. For precision agriculture to be economically viable, collection of spatial variability data within a field must be automated a...

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  1. Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose membranes from natural cotton fiber

    Yanjuan CAO


    Full Text Available A series of organic solutions with different cellulose concentrations are prepared by dissolving natural cotton fibers in lithium chloride/dimethyl acetamide (LiCl/DMAC solvent system after the activation of cotton fibers. Under different coagulating bath, the regenerated cellulose membranes are formed in two kinds of coagulation baths, and two coating methods including high-speed spin technique (KW-4A spin coating machine and low-speed scraping (AFA-Ⅱ Film Applicator are selected in this paper. The macromolecular structure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, thermal stability and wetting property of the regenerated cellulose membrane are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR,X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and contacting angle tester. The effects of mass fraction, coagulation bath type, membrane forming process on the regenerated membrane properties are investigated. Experimental results show that the performance of regenerated cellulose membrane is relatively excellent under the condition of using the KW-4A high-speed spin method, water coagulation bath, and when mass fraction of cellulose is 3.5%. The crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose membrane changes a lot compared with natural cotton fibers. The variation trend of thermal stability is similar with that of cotton fiber. But thermal stability is reduced to some degree, while the wetting ability is improved obviously.

  2. Isolation and Analysis of Expansins from the Gossypium barbadense Cotton Elongating Fiber

    TU Li-li; DENG Feng-lin; TAN Jia-fu; LI Yang; ZHANG Xian-long


    @@ Gossypium barbadense one of the most valuable cotton species due to its silkiness,luster,long staple,and high strength.Transferring the excellent fiber traits from G.barbadense as the secondary gene pool to the widely cultivated G.hirsutum via traditional and molecular-aided selection is an attractive aim of breeders.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of cotton fiber qualities

    Cotton fiber is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world. Its production and profitability are determined by at least three main factors including genotype, environment, and production practices that interact to one another and ultimately affects the yield and quality of cotto...

  4. Study on the Genetics and Development of Fiber Pigments and Color Deviation After Wetting Process of Naturally Colored Cotton

    QIU Xin-mian; ZHOU Wen-long


    The genetic control of fiber pigment color in naturally colored cotton was studied. The expres-sion of brown and green fiber color was controlled by incompletely dominant single genes and incompletelydominant major genes, respectively. Production and accumulation of the fiber pigment were related to specialexpression of enzymatic genes for pigment synthesis in fiber cells. At the stage of fiber lengthening, naturallycolored cotton, like white cotton, appeared purely white. But when fiber cell walls entered the thickeningstage, pigment appeared by degrees. When the fiber was completely matured (on boll dehiscence), the colorreached its darkest level. After wetting process treatment, the hues of the fiber pigment changed in regularpatterns. The hue circle for brown and green cotton changed in the opposite direction with wetting processtreatment. In general, the treated cotton color and luster became dark and vivid, and this trend provided the possibili-ty for enhancing the fiber quality by suitable enviromnental friendly finishing. The analysis showed that the color andluster of the cotton may be controlled by a series of pigments which show different chemical performance.

  5. Discernment of lint trash in raw cotton using multivariate analysis of excitation-emission luminescence spectra

    Excitation-Emission luminescence spectra of basic (pH 12.5) phosphate buffer solution extracts were used to distinguish among botanical components of trash within seed cotton. All components were separated from whole plants removed from a field in southern New Mexico. Unfolded Principal Component An...


    M. Juraev


    Full Text Available An important requirement imposed; to the strategy of creating a new cotton complex of Tajikistan is its scientific basis in regional – territorial aspect, reflecting the diversity of natural, socio - economic, demographic, geographic and other conditions of the country. If you save the backlog of the industry that is currently taking place, the formation of the basic foundations of the national economy which includes the "Cotton Complex", will be less effective and risky in the socio-economic terms, and would not be achievable conditions for solving a class of useful employment of the rural population. Building a cotton complex objective requires historical – economic approach, ie methodological basis of the values of the industry and its place in the structure of the national economy, which is based on the following scientific – practical approaches: the use of storage still scientific and – technical knowledge; restoring the level of mechanization of agriculture – economic activities; recovery of hydraulic structures; evidence – based delivery of balanced fertilizer elemental based standards; functioning of agrochemical service; the Organization of the introduction of high-yielding seed varieties of cotton resistant to disease; meet the needs of manufacturers of bank loans; the creation of agricultural service workers, taking into account the world practice; create a system of state support for rural enterprise including a system of benefi ts and privileges.

  7. Cotton: a sustainable raw material for value-added nonwoven textiles

    Sustainability of the materials and services we use today and protection of our environment are very strong initiatives, worldwide. Cotton is an annually renewable cash crop that is critically important to national economies of many countries, including the United States which is the 3rd largest pr...

  8. Modified fiber qualities of the transgenic cotton expressing a silkworm fibroin gene

    LI FeiFei; WU ShenJie; L(U) FenNi; CHEN TianZi; JU Ming; WANG HaiHai; JIANG YanJie; ZHANG Jie; GUO WangZhen; ZHANG TianZhen


    A silkworm gene for fibroin was introduced into the upland cotton WC line by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR detection for fibroin, nptll and gus genes, Kanamycin (Km)-resistance analysis and GUS-histochemical assay were conducted on 30 regenerated plants from 9 callus lines, and 17 positive plants were obtained by these 5 screening methods. By Km-resistance analysis and PCR for fibroin, 6 homozygous lines in T3 were obtained. Southern blot and Northern bolt demonstrated that the fibroin gene was inserted into the genome of these 6 lines, stably inherited and expressed. Compared to the control, the surface structure of mature fiber in the 6 lines was significantly distorted and an increased number of convolution was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fiber quality traits analysis indicated that fiber elongation of the 6 homozygous lines was all increased and fiber strength of 3 lines was enhanced. These results indicated that fibroin expression influenced cotton fiber structure and quality, suggesting that fibroin has great potential for improving cotton fiber quality by genetic engineering.

  9. Changes in the sugar composition and molecular mass distribution of matrix polysaccharides during cotton fiber development.

    Tokumoto, Hayato; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki


    Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) fiber development consists of a fiber elongation stage (up to 20 d post-anthesis) and a subsequent cell wall thickening stage. Cell wall analysis revealed that the extractable matrix (pectic and hemicellulosic) polysaccharides accounted for 30-50% of total sugar content in the fiber elongation stage but less than 3% in the cell wall thickening stage. By contrast, cellulose increased dramatically after the fiber elongation ceased. The amounts of extractable xyloglucans and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers per seed increased in the early fiber elongation stage and decreased thereafter. The amounts of extractable acidic polymers and non-cellulosic beta-glucans (mainly composed of beta-1,3-glucans) increased in parallel with fiber elongation and then decreased. The molecular masses of extractable non-cellulosic beta-glucans, and arabinose- and galactose-containing polymers decreased during both fiber elongation and cell wall thickening stages. The molecular mass of extractable xyloglucans also decreased during the fiber elongation stage, but this decrease ceased during the cell wall thickening stage. Conversely, the molecular size of acidic polymers in the extractable pectic fraction increased during both stages. Thus, not only the amounts but also the molecular size of the extractable matrix polysaccharides showed substantial changes during cotton fiber development.

  10. Preliminary field measurement of cotton fiber micronaire by portable NIR

    The decline of the U.S. textile industry has led to the dramatic increase in the export of U.S. cotton. Improved quality measurement systems are needed to successfully compete in the global marketplace. One key need is the development of new breeder/producer quality tools for field and at-line mea...

  11. Use of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in direct, non-destructive, and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers grown in planta and in culture

    Cotton fibers are routinely harvested from cotton plants (in planta), and their end-use qualities depend on their development stages. Cotton fibers are also cultured at controlled laboratory environments, so that cotton researchers can investigate many aspects of experimental protocols in cotton bre...

  12. Exp2 polymorphisms associated with variation for fiber quality properties in cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Daohua He


    Full Text Available Plant expansins are a group of extracellular proteins thought to affect the quality of cotton fibers. Previous expression profile analysis revealed that six Expansin A genes are present in cotton, of which two (GhExp1 and GhExp2 produce transcripts that are specific to the developing cotton fiber. To identify the phenotypic function of Exp2, and to determine whether nucleotide variation among alleles of Exp2 affects fiber quality, candidate gene association mapping was conducted. Gene-specific primers were designed to amplify the Exp2 gene. By amplicon sequencing, the nucleotide diversity of Exp2 was investigated across 92 accessions (including 7 Gossypium arboreum, 74 Gossypium hirsutum, and 11 Gossypium barbadense accessions with different fiber qualities. Twenty-six SNPs and seven InDels including 14 from the coding region of Exp2 were detected, forming twelve distinct haplotypes in the cotton collection. Among the 14 SNPs in the coding region, five were missense mutations and nine were synonymous nucleotide changes. The average SNP/InDel per nucleotide ratio was 2.61% (one SNP per 39 bp, with 1.81 and 3.87% occurring in coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity across the entire Exp2 region was 0.00603 (π and 0.844, respectively, and diversity in non-coding regions was higher than that in coding regions. For linkage disequilibrium (LD, the mean r2 value for all polymorphism loci pairs was 0.48, and LD did not decay over 748 bp. Based on 132 simple sequence repeat (SSR loci evenly covering 26 chromosomes, the population structure was estimated, and the accessions were divided into seven groups that agreed well with their genomic origin and evolutionary history. A general linear model was used to calculate the Exp2-wide diversity–trait associations of 5 fiber quality traits, considering population structure (Q. Four SNPs in Exp2 were associated with at least one of the fiber quality traits, but not with

  13. [Major-polygene effect analysis of super quality fiber properties in upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.)].

    Yuan, You-Lu; Zhang, Tian-Zhen; Guo, Wang-Zhen; Yu, John; Kohel, Russell J


    The modern textile industry depends on the improvement of fiber quality, especially strength to meet the needs of higher spinning speed. Inheritance of super quality fiber properties in Upland cotton was conducted in the present paper. P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 of eight crosses from five parents with different fiber strength, i.e. 7235 x TM1, TM1 x 7235, HS42 x TM1, PD69 x TM1, MD51 x TM1, 7235 x HS42, 7235 x PD69 and HS42 x PD69, and F2:3 for 7235 x TM1, were used in the study. The materials were planted in Nanjing or Hainan in 1998 and 1999, the individual plant fiber samples were tested with HVI system in Cotton Research Institute of CAAS at Anyang. The segregation analysis methods for major genes plus polygene mixed inheritance model developed by Gai were used to identify the genetic system of fiber qualities. The results from joint analyses of multiple segregating generations as well as single segregating generations, especially for F2:3, showed one major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model in all fiber quality characters. The heritability values of major gene in F2 of 7235 x TM1 with great parent difference were estimated as 19.6% for fiber strength, 32.0% for micronaire and 13.9% for fiber length, but little in B1 and B2 for fiber qualities. The fiber length showed high and positive dominant effect, but negative value or zero of major or polygene dominant effects for other fiber qualities. Therefore, Mid-parent value or tendency to lower parent in F1 for most of fiber qualities lead to low selection efficiency, which suggests that molecular assisted selection should be considered at first in the improvement of fiber qualities.

  14. Utility assessment of published microsatellite markers for fiber length and bundle strength QTL in a cotton breeding program

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) may help mitigate some of the current challenges regarding the genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, such as low genetic diversity and the negative association between fiber quality and lint yield. A multitude of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber length a...

  15. Genetic Effect on Yield and Fiber Quality Traits of 16 Chromosome Substitution Lines in Upland Cotton

    LUAN Ming-bao; GUO Xiang-mo; ZHANG Yongshan; YAO Jin-bo


    Evaluation of the genetic effect on yield and fiber quality can provide useful information on cotton breeding. Sixteen CSB lines and TM-1 introduced from USDA/ARS were used as male and top-crossed with three elite cultivars and the 51 F1 hybrids, 16 CSB lines, TM-1, and 3 elite cultivars were planted at the Cotton Research Institute of CAAS, Anyang, Henan Province and Xiajin, shandong Province, China. The yield traits and fiber quality data were obtained and additive and dominance effect on each trait were measured by AD model. Boll weight takes the largest additive proration, whereas boll number takes the least additive proration. The largest and the least dominant proration for lint yield and boll weight were measured, respectively. Fiber length has the additive and dominance effect, and dominance effect was slightly more than additive effect. Larger additive and no dominance effect on uniformity, micronaire, and fiber strength were measured. Significantly, positive additive effect on boll weight of CSB06 and CSB12Sh was observed. CSBI4Sh and CSB01 have significantly positive additive effect on 4 and 3 traits of fiber quality, respectively. CSB01 has the greatest dominant effect on lint yield among CSB lines. The dominant effect on fiber length of CSB lines showed positive. It is beneficial to use CSB06 and CSB12Sh as parents to improve boll size, to use CSB14Sh and CSB01 as parents to improve fiber quality. As for hybrid cotton breeding, it is reasonable using CSB01 to improve lint yield traits, and using CSB01, CSB11Sh, and CSB06 to improve fiber length.

  16. Cellulose acetate fibers prepared from different raw materials with rapid synthesis method.

    Chen, Jinghuan; Xu, Jikun; Wang, Kun; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang


    Transesterification is a mild process to prepare cellulose acetate (CA) as compared with the traditional method. In this study, CA fibers were produced from six cellulose raw materials based on a simple and rapid transesterification method. The properties of the CA solutions and the obtained CA fibers were investigated in detail. Results showed that all of the cellulose raw materials were esterified within 15 min, and spinning dopes could be obtained by concentrating the CA solutions via vacuum distillation. The XRD, FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and HSQC NMR analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of CA. The degree of substitution (DS) of the obtained CA was significantly affected by the degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose raw materials, which further influenced the viscosity of CA solutions as well as the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of the CA fibers.

  17. A knittable fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on natural cotton thread for wearable electronics

    Zhou, Qianlong; Jia, Chunyang; Ye, Xingke; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan


    At present, the topic of building high-performance, miniaturized and mechanically flexible energy storage modules which can be directly integrated into textile based wearable electronics is a hotspot in the wearable technology field. In this paper, we reported a highly flexible fiber-shaped electrode fabricated through a one-step convenient hydrothermal process. The prepared graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread derived from natural cotton thread is electrochemically active and mechanically strong. Fiber-shaped supercapacitor based on the prepared fiber electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol-H3PO4 gel electrolyte exhibits good capacitive performance (97.73 μF cm-1 at scan rate of 2 mV s-1), long cycle life (95.51% capacitance retention after 8000 charge-discharge cycles) and considerable stability (90.75% capacitance retention after 500 continuous bending cycles). Due to its good mechanical and electrochemical properties, the graphene hydrogels/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-cotton thread based all-solid fiber-shaped supercapacitor can be directly knitted into fabrics and maintain its original capacitive performance. Such a low-cost textile thread based versatile energy storage device may hold great potential for future wearable electronics applications.

  18. Functional Investigation of a Cotton Fiber HOX Gene

    GUAN Xue-ying; SHANGGUAN Xiao-xia; WANG Shui; WANG Ling-jian; CHEN Xiao-ya


    @@ Most of the plant homeodomain-containing proteins play important roles in regulating cell differentiation and organ development,and Arabidopsis GLABRA2 (GL2),a member of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) proteins,is a trichome and non-root hair cell regulator.We have analyzed several cotton homeodomain-containing proteins that belong to the class IV HD-ZIP family.One of them,GaHOX1,shows a high sequence identity to Arabidopsis GL2 (95% in the homeodomain and 64% overall).

  19. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  20. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  1. Genetic mapping and characteristics of genes specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber development in cotton.

    Ximei Li

    Full Text Available Cotton fiber is an ideal model to study cell elongation and cell wall construction in plants. During fiber development, some genes and proteins have been reported to be specifically or preferentially expressed. Mapping of them will reveal the genomic distribution of these genes, and will facilitate selection in cotton breeding. Based on previous reports, we designed 331 gene primers and 164 protein primers, and used single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP to map and integrate them into our interspecific BC(1 linkage map. This resulted in the mapping of 57 loci representing 51 genes or proteins on 22 chromosomes. For those three markers which were tightly linked with quantitative trait loci (QTLs, the QTL functions obtained in this study and gene functions reported in previous reports were consistent. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis of 52 polymorphic functional primers showed that 21 gene primers and 17 protein primers had differential expression between Emian22 (Gossypium hirsutum and 3-79 (G. barbadense. Both RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analyses of the three markers tightly linked with QTLs were consistent with QTL analysis and field experiments. Gene Ontology (GO categorization revealed that almost all 51 mapped genes belonged to multiple categories that contribute to fiber development, indicating that fiber development is a complex process regulated by various genes. These 51 genes were all specifically or preferentially expressed during fiber cell elongation and secondary wall biosynthesis. Therefore, these functional gene-related markers would be beneficial for the genetic improvement of cotton fiber length and strength.

  2. Molecular and Biochemical Evidence for Phenylpropanoid Synthesis and Presence of Wall-linked Phenolics in Cotton Fibers

    Ling Fan; Wei-Jun Shi; Wen-Ran Hu; Xiao-Yan Hao; Dong-Mei Wang; Hui Yuan; Hong-Ying Yan


    The mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber is a single cell with a typically thickened secondary cell wall. The aim of this research was to use molecular, spectroscopic and chemical techniques to investigate the possible occurrence of previously overlooked accumulation of phenolics during secondary cell wall formation in cotton fibers. Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that GhCAD6 and GhCAD1 were predominantly expressed among seven gene homologs, only GhCAD6 was up-regulated during secondary wall formation in cotton fibers. Phylogenic analysis revealed that GhCAD6 belonged to Class I and was proposed to have a major role in monolignol biosynthesis, and GhCADI belonged to Class III and was proposed to have a compensatory mechanism for monolignol biosynthesis. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that the cofactor binding sites of GhCADs were highly conserved with high similarity and identity to bona fide cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases. The substrate binding site of GhCADI is different from GhCAD6. This difference was confirmed by the different catalytic activities observed with the enzymes. Cell wall auto-fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and chemical analyses confirmed that phenolic compounds were bound to the cell walls of mature cotton fibers. Our findings may suggest a potential for genetic manipulation of cotton fiber properties, which are of central importance to agricultural, cotton processing and textile industries.

  3. Spinning of Cotton Hemp Bamboo Fiber Blended Yarn%棉汊麻竹浆纤维混纺纱的纺制



    To spinning cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn,hemp fiber were reconditioned and pretreated. Processing of raw material blending was selected to improve spinnability. Raw material feed ratio was controlled rationally, waste percentages in comb process, opening and picking process were controlled well to ensure yam blending ratio. Drawing processing was adjusted rationally to improve draw sliver evenness. In spinning less nipper gauge was used, new top pin was adopted to reduced float area and increase yarn quality. In winding process, winding tension and electronic yarn clearer parameter were selected rationally to ensure winding shape,finally cotton/hemp/bamboo 50/25/25 29. 2 tex blended yarn was spun successfully. It is pointed out quality demand of cotton hemp bamboo blended yarn can be ensured only to adjust technology measures in each process according to hemp property.%为纺制棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱,对汉麻纤维进行养生及预分梳处理;选用原料混和工艺改善可纺性;合理控制原料投料比例并控制开清棉与梳棉落棉率,保证成纱混纺比;并条工序合理调整工艺,提高熟条条干;细纱工序使用小钳口隔距,使用新型上销,缩短浮游区,以提高成纱质量;络筒工序选择适当的电清参数和络纱张力,以保证成形良好,结果顺利纺制出棉/汉麻/竹浆50/25/25 29.2 tex混纺纱.指出:只有针对汉麻纤维特点调整各工序纺纱技术措施,方能纺制出符合质量要求的棉汉麻竹浆纤维混纺纱.

  4. Effects of Increased Night Temperature on Cellulose Synthesis and the Activity of Sucrose Metabolism Enzymes in Cotton Fiber

    TIAN Jing-shan; HU Yuan-yuan; GAN Xiu-xia; ZHANG Ya-li; HU Xiao-bing; GOU Ling; LUO Hong-hai; ZHANG Wang-feng


    Temperature is one of the key factors that influence cotton fiber synthesis at the late growth stage of cotton. In this paper, using two early-maturing cotton varieties as experimental materials, night temperature increase was stimulated in the field using far-infrared quartz tubes set in semi-mobile incubators and compared with the normal night temperatures (control) in order to investigate the effects of night temperature on the cotton fiber cellulose synthesis during secondary wall thickening. The results showed that the activity of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) quickly increased and remained constant during the development of cotton fiber, while the activity of acid invertase (AI) and alkaline invertase (NI) decreased, increased night temperatures prompted the rapid transformation of sugar, and all the available sucrose fully converted into cellulose. With night temperature increasing treatment, an increase in SuSy activity and concentration of sucrose indicate more sucrose converted into UDPG (uridin diphosphate-glucose) during the early and late stages of cotton fiber development. Furthermore, SPS activity and the increased concentration of fructose accelerated fructose degradation and reduced the inhibition of fructose to SuSy; maintaining higher value of allocation proportion of invertase and sucrose during the early development stages of cotton fiber, which was propitious to supply a greater carbon source and energy for cellulose synthesis. Therefore, the minimum temperature in the nightime was a major factor correlated with the activity of sucrose metabolism enzymes in cotton fiber. Consequently, soluble sugar transformation and cellulose accumulation were closely associated with the minimum night temperature.

  5. Preparations of meiotic pachytene chromosomes and extended DNA fibers from cotton suitable for fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Renhai Peng

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH has become one of the most important techniques applied in plant molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of this technique in cotton has lagged behind because of difficulties in chromosome preparation. The focus of this article was FISH performed not only on cotton pachytene chromosomes, but also on cotton extended DNA fibers. The cotton pollen mother cells (PMCs instead of buds or anthers were directly digested in enzyme to completely breakdown the cell wall. Before the routine acetic acid treatment, PMCs were incubated in acetic acid and enzyme mixture to remove the cytoplasm and clear the background. The method of ice-cold Carnoy's solution spreading chromosome was adopted instead of nitrogen removed method to avoid chromosomes losing and fully stretch chromosome. With the above-improved steps, the high-quality well-differentiated pachytene chromosomes with clear background were obtained. FISH results demonstrated that a mature protocol of cotton pachytene chromosomes preparation was presented. Intact and no debris cotton nuclei were obtained by chopping from etiolation cotyledons instead of the conventional liquid nitrogen grinding method. After incubating the nuclei with nucleus lysis buffer on slide, the parallel and clear background DNA fibers were acquired along the slide. This method overcomes the twist, accumulation and fracture of DNA fibers compared with other methods. The entire process of DNA fibers preparation requires only 30 min, in contrast, it takes 3 h with routine nitrogen grinding method. The poisonous mercaptoethanol in nucleus lysis buffer is replaced by nonpoisonous dithiothreitol. PVP40 in nucleus isolation buffer is used to prevent oxidation. The probability of success in isolating nuclei for DNA fiber preparation is almost 100% tested with this method in cotton. So a rapid, safe, and efficient method for the preparation of cotton extended DNA fibers suitable for FISH

  6. Naturally Colored Cotton



    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  7. Effect of late planting and shading on cellulose synthesis during cotton fiber secondary wall development.

    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton-rapeseed or cotton-wheat double cropping systems are popular in the Yangtze River Valley and Yellow River Valley of China. Due to the competition of temperature and light resources during the growing season of double cropping system, cotton is generally late-germinating and late-maturing and has to suffer from the coupling of declining temperature and low light especially in the late growth stage. In this study, late planting (LP and shading were used to fit the coupling stress, and the coupling effect on fiber cellulose synthesis was investigated. Two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars were grown in the field in 2010 and 2011 at three planting dates (25 April, 25 May and 10 June each with three shading levels (normal light, declined 20% and 40% PAR. Mean daily minimum temperature was the primary environmental factor affected by LP. The coupling of LP and shading (decreased cellulose content by 7.8%-25.5% produced more severe impacts on cellulose synthesis than either stress alone, and the effect of LP (decreased cellulose content by 6.7%-20.9% was greater than shading (decreased cellulose content by 0.7%-5.6%. The coupling of LP and shading hindered the flux from sucrose to cellulose by affecting the activities of related cellulose synthesis enzymes. Fiber cellulose synthase genes expression were delayed under not only LP but shading, and the coupling of LP and shading markedly postponed and even restrained its expression. The decline of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity and its peak delay may cause cellulose synthesis being more sensitive to the coupling stress during the later stage of fiber secondary wall development (38-45 days post-anthesis. The sensitive difference of cellulose synthesis between two cultivars in response to the coupling of LP and shading may be mainly determined by the sensitiveness of invertase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and cellulose synthase.

  8. Effect of Blending Ratio on Modal Fiber Cotton Blended Yarn Quality%混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响



    探讨混纺比对Modal纤维棉混纺纱性能的影响.选取Modal纤维与棉为原料,分别纺制14.5 tex的纯棉精梳纱、纯Modal纱以及Modal与棉混纺比分别为20/80、30/70、40/60、50/50的混纺精梳纱,并通过对比试验,分析了混纺比对成纱强伸性能、条干、毛羽的影响.结果表明:从提高混纺纱断裂强度考虑,混纺比选择50/50比较适宜;Modal纤维的含量在40%左右时,成纱条干较好;混纺比为40/60或50/50左右时,成纱毛羽数较低.%Effect of blending ratio on Modal fiber cotton blended yarn quality was discussed. Modal fiber and cotton were selected as raw material,pure cotton 14. 5 tex combed yarn was spun,pure Modal 14. 5 tex yarn was spun,Modal cotton blended yarns were spun as well,the blending ratio was 20/80,30/70,40/60 and 50/50- Through contrast and test,effect of blending ratio on yarn strength and elongation,evenness and hairiness were analyzed. The result shows when adopting the blending ratio of 50/50 breaking intensity of the blended yarn is better,when adopt the blending ratio of 40/60 evenness of the blended yarn is better, when adopt the blending ratio of 50/50 or 40/60 hairiness of the blended yarns are better.

  9. Recent progress in Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy study of compositional, structural, and physical attributes of developmental cotton fibers

    Cotton fibers are natural plant products and their end-use qualities depend on their stages of development. In general, the quantity of natural fiber cellulose I (ß 1'4 linked glucose residues) increases rapidly, thus it leads to compositional, structural, and physical attribute variations among the...

  10. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  11. Removal and recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated cotton fibers.

    Qu, Rongjun; Sun, Changmei; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Chunnuan; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Hou


    Two types of chitosan-coated cotton fibers (SCCH and RCCH) were applied to remove and recover Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of the two fibers for Hg(II) were investigated at different temperatures. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic processes of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) followed the pseudo second-order model at lower temperatures and the pseudo first-order model at higher temperatures. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the adsorption isotherms of SCCH and RCCH fibers for Hg(II) in the temperature range studied. SCCH and RCCH fibers selectively adsorbed Hg(II) from binary ion systems in the presence of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I). Increased temperature was beneficial to adsorption. The recovery of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was also studied as a function of sample flow rate and volume, concentration and volume of eluent, elution rate, quantity of adsorbents added and concomitant ions. The results showed that the two fibers efficiently enriched and recovered Hg(II) in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals and some heavy metals under optimum conditions. The RCCH fiber exhibited better stability than the SCCH fiber following repeated use.

  12. High photocatalytic activity of immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanorods on carbonized cotton fibers

    Wang, Bin, E-mail: [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Karthikeyan, Rengasamy; Lu, Xiao-Ying [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Xuan, Jin [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); State-Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Leung, Michael K.H., E-mail: [Ability R and D Energy Research Center, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)


    Highlights: • Hollow carbon fibers derived from natural cotton was successfully prepared by pyrolysis method. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile hydrothermal method showed high photocatalytic activity. • The enhancement was due to the reduced band gap, improved dye adsorption capacity and effective electron–hole separation. -- Abstract: In this study, TiO{sub 2} nanorods were successfully immobilized on carbon fibers by a facile pyrolysis of natural cotton in nitrogen atmosphere followed by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Carbonized cotton fibers (CCFs) and TiO{sub 2}-CCFs composites were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Results implied that the band gap narrowing of TiO{sub 2} was achieved after integration of CCFs. Dye adsorption isotherm indicated that the maximum dye adsorption capacity (q{sub m}) of CCFs-1000 (13.4 mg/g) was 2 times higher than that of cotton fibers and q{sub m} of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 (9.0 mg/g) was 6–7 times higher than that of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanorods prepared with 3 mL Ti(OBu){sub 4} showed the highest photocatalytic activity. TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 exhibited higher activity than TiO{sub 2} immobilized on CCFs-400, CCFs-600 and CCFs-800. Good photostability of TiO{sub 2}-CCFs-1000 was found for dye degradation under visible light irradiation. The enhancement of photocatalytic dye degradation was due to the high adsorptivity of dye molecules, enhanced light adsorption and effective separation of electron–hole pairs. This work provides a low-cost and sustainable approach to immobilize nanostructured TiO{sub 2} on carbon fibers for environmental remediation.

  13. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Jieying Zheng,; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Cotton woven waste can be recycled as precursor to produce activated carbon fiber. • The optimum carbonization and activation temperature are 700 °C and 800 °C. • The prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. • The prepared ACF can be used to remove over 80% of COD from oilfield wastewater. - Abstract: In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m{sup 2}/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C.


    HRISTIAN Liliana


    Full Text Available In this study we aimed the influence of the number of undulations of polyacrylonitrile fibers, cotton type, on the properties of yarns with Nm50/1 fineness, made on BD 200 the rotor spinning machine. Rotor spinning of the synthetic fibers is largely influenced by some characteristics of the fibers as being: the quality and quantity of the avivage, frequency of undulations and the number of defects fiber. Tensile properties and structural characteristics aspect of the yarns carried on BD 200 rotor spinning machine are determined, at the fiber content, the structural model and the technological parameters of processing, by the result of the transfer of fibers proprieties, into the meaning fiber-yarn. The yarns structural compactness, determined by the degree of twisting and tensional properties are defining for the quality of yarns and warrants the corresponding to their destination. Structural characteristics of the yarns which are characterized by complexity and diversity of their actions were studied by determining the linear irregularity (U% , standard deviation (CV% and the imperfections in the form of thinning (S, thickening (G, neppines (N, relative to 1000 m yarn.

  15. Influence of Anthesis Date and Boll Branch Position on Qualities and Super-molecular Structure of Cotton Fiber

    SHAN Shi-hua; SHI Pei; SUN Xue-zhen; ZHOU Zhi-guo; BIAN Dong-cai


    The influences of the anthesis date and the fruiting branch positions on parameters of cotton fiber quality and super-molecular structure were studied. Fiber quality parameters, such as cotton fiber length, micronair, maturity and fiber strength deteriorated with postponing the anthesis date and decreasing temperature. When anthesis happened on the same date, the fruiting branch positions affected the fiber quality parameters, and the fiber quality parameters of the lower portion turned out to be higher than that of the upper portion, although the difference was insignificant. The super-molecular structure of the lower portion turned out to be superior to that of the upper portion at the early anthesis date and high temperature, which is in accordance with what was mentioned above, but the fruiting branch positions did not affect the impact of the anthesis date on the super-molecular structure.

  16. Laboratory and outside the laboratory measurements of ginned and ot ginned cotton for fiber micronaire and maturity by portable Near Infrared (NIR) Instruments

    Micronaire is a key cotton quality assessment property, impacting downstream fiber processing and dye consistency. A component of micronaire is fiber maturity (degree of secondary wall development). Historically, micronaire and maturity are measured in a laboratory under tight environmental condit...

  17. The Case for Cotton Wipes and Nonwovens

    The significant growth in the volume and number of wipe-based products for a wide variety of applications is consuming ever increasing amounts of fiber as raw material in wipes and other nonwoven products. The United States Department of Agriculture and Cotton Incorporated recognize both the economi...

  18. Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Chanel Fortier


    Full Text Available Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA. Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups.

  19. An environment-friendly thermal insulation material from cotton stalk fibers

    Xiao-yan Zhou; Fei Zheng; Hua-guan Li; Cheng-long Lu [College of Wood Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, No. 159 Longpan Road, Nanjing 210037 (China)


    A new environment-friendly thermal insulation material - binderless cotton stalk fiberboard (BCSF) made from cotton stalk fibers with no chemical additives was developed using high frequency hot-pressing. The goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of board density, fiber moisture content (MC) and pressing time on thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of BCSF. The results showed that the board with a density of 150-450 kg/m{sup 3} had the thermal conductivity values ranging from 0.0585 to 0.0815 W/m K, which was close to that of the expanded perlite and vermiculite within the same density range. The thermal conductivity values had a strong linear correlation with the board density. The internal bonding strength (IBS) of boards was good at the relatively low-density level, which can be significantly improved with increasing the fiber MC and prolonging pressing time. The same trend was observed for modulus of rapture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the boards. As an environment-friendly and renewable material, the BCSF is particularly suitable for ceiling and wall applications to save energy. (author)

  20. 进口印度棉与美棉纤维品质的对比分析%Contrast and Analyses of Indian Cotton and American Cotton Fiber Quality

    孙宁; 耿向阳; 曲京武; 王铭; 董俊哲


    Fiber quality of Indian cotton and American cotton was discussed. Six fiber quality indexes of the two kinds fiber were contrasted and analyzed, including upper half mean length, fiber uniformity index, micronaire, reflectivity, breaking tenacity and spinning consistency index. The result shows that length and breaking tenacity of Indian cotton are better than American cotton. Fiber uniformity index of the two kinds fiber is upper-middle. A grade and B grade of American cotton micronaire is higher than Indian cotton in total proportion. In reflectivity, the American cotton is the same, the distribution of Indian cotton is wider. In spinning consistency index, the Indian cotton is wider and higher than American cotton,so Indian cotton is more suitable to textile industry needs.%探讨进口印度棉与美棉的纤维品质.通过对比分析进口印度棉和美棉的上半部平均长度、纤维整齐度指数、马克隆值、反射率、断裂比强度、纺纱均匀指数等6项纤维品质指标,结果表明:印度棉的长度和断裂比强度要远好于美棉;印度棉和美棉的纤维整齐度指数均属于中等偏上;美棉马克隆值A、B两级总比例高于印度棉;反射率方面,美棉较一致,印度棉分布范围较广;印度棉的纺纱均匀指数较美棉分布广而且高,更能满足纺织业对棉花品质多层次的用棉需求.

  1. Activation of Arabidopsis seed hair development by cotton fiber-related genes.

    Xueying Guan

    Full Text Available Each cotton fiber is a single-celled seed trichome or hair, and over 20,000 fibers may develop semi-synchronously on each seed. The molecular basis for seed hair development is unknown but is likely to share many similarities with leaf trichome development in Arabidopsis. Leaf trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana is activated by GLABROUS1 (GL1 that is negatively regulated by TRIPTYCHON (TRY. Using laser capture microdissection and microarray analysis, we found that many putative MYB transcription factor and structural protein genes were differentially expressed in fiber and non-fiber tissues. Gossypium hirsutum MYB2 (GhMYB2, a putative GL1 homolog, and its downstream gene, GhRDL1, were highly expressed during fiber cell initiation. GhRDL1, a fiber-related gene with unknown function, was predominately localized around cell walls in stems, sepals, seed coats, and pollen grains. GFP:GhRDL1 and GhMYB2:YFP were co-localized in the nuclei of ectopic trichomes in siliques. Overexpressing GhRDL1 or GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Columbia-0 (Col-0 activated fiber-like hair production in 4-6% of seeds and had on obvious effects on trichome development in leaves or siliques. Co-overexpressing GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 plants increased hair formation in ∼8% of seeds. Overexpressing both GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 in A. thaliana Col-0 try mutant plants produced seed hair in ∼10% of seeds as well as dense trichomes inside and outside siliques, suggesting synergistic effects of GhRDL1 and GhMYB2 with try on development of trichomes inside and outside of siliques and seed hair in A. thaliana. These data suggest that a different combination of factors is required for the full development of trichomes (hairs in leaves, siliques, and seeds. A. thaliana can be developed as a model a system for discovering additional genes that control seed hair development in general and cotton fiber in particular.

  2. Biodegradable Poly(butylene succinate Composites Reinforced by Cotton Fiber with Silane Coupling Agent

    Masahiro Funabashi


    Full Text Available In this study, the use of cotton fiber (CF as a filler in poly(butylene succinate (PBS and the effect of silane treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and biodegradability of PBS/CF composites are investigated. The results showed that the tensile strength of PBS was improved (15%–78% with the incorporation of CF (10–40 wt% and was further increased (25%–118% when CF was treated with a silane coupling agent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation of the fracture surfaces of PBS/CF composites showed that there was slight improvement in fiber-matrix compatibility. Thermogravimetric (TG analysis showed that the thermal stability of the composites was lower than that of neat PBS and decreased with increasing filler loading. The biobased carbon content of the composites increased with increasing CF content. The incorporation of CF (with and without silane treatment in PBS significantly increased the biodegradation rate of the composites.

  3. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.


    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  4. Genetic analysis of drought tolerance with respect to fiber traits in upland cotton.

    Nasimi, R A; Khan, I A; Iqbal, M A; Khan, A A


    Cotton germplasm was analyzed to investigate its potential for developing water stress tolerance in varieties in the future. Four tolerant (NIAB-78, CIM-482, BH-121, and VH-142) and four susceptible (CIM-446, FH-1000, FH-900, and FH-901) lines were identified of 50 accessions based on their seedling root length. A complete set of diallel crosses among eight selected genotypes was subjected to genetic analysis for fiber property traits. Additive and non-additive genetic variance was involved in the inheritance of fiber strength, fineness, and length under normal and drought conditions. A large proportion of genetic variance was additive, which was further supported by moderately high narrow-sense heritability estimates for the characters. Graphic representation of variance versus covariance also depicted additive gene activity with partial dominance and the absence of non-allelic interactions in trait inheritance. The results of this study suggest that drought tolerance of cotton genotypes can be improved through crosses among tolerant genotypes using conventional selection procedures in segregating generations.

  5. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    J. Vincent Edwards


    Full Text Available Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation, K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot, α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached, and MA (clot strength. TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio. The material surface polarity (ζplateau varied from −22 to −61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  6. Electrokinetic and hemostatic profiles of nonwoven cellulosic/synthetic fiber blends with unbleached cotton.

    Edwards, J Vincent; Graves, Elena; Bopp, Alvin; Prevost, Nicolette; Santiago, Michael; Condon, Brian


    Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation), K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot), α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached), and MA (clot strength). TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio). The material surface polarity (ζplateau) varied from -22 to -61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA) also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  7. Ecological regionalization of cotton fiber quality in the Northwest Inland Region using GGE analysis%基于GGE分析的西北内陆棉区纤维品质生态区划分

    唐淑荣; 许乃银; 杨伟华; 魏守军; 周治国


    the early maturing cotton cultivation area of the Northwest Inland. In the medium-early maturing cotton region, cotton varieties with specific length and strength suitable for mechanical weaving requirements should be cultivated, and the harvest time also should be reasonable to increase fiber maturity and reduced micro-naire. Regionalization of optimized cultivation area for cotton spinning requirements could provide multi-level raw cotton materials in the Northwest Inland.%本文选用2005—2014年我国棉花区域试验西北内陆早熟棉区7个和早中熟棉区10个试验点作为试验环境进行纤维品质区域分布分析。运用GGE模型划出双标图,研究西北内陆棉区的试验环境与参试品种纤维品质性状互作模式,对参试品种性状选择适宜的生态区进行探讨与划分,并基于 GGE 双标图对纤维物理性能指标相关性进行研究,为西北内陆棉区棉花品种区域化种植和理想试验环境选择提供依据。结果表明:(1)棉花各纤维品质性状相互之间存在着一定的相关关系,纺纱均匀性指数与长度、比强度和整齐度指数表现极显著或显著正相关。(2)西北内陆棉区早熟组纤维品质性状可划分为3个生态区:优质棉纤维生态区(精河)、普通优质纤维生态区(兵团第六师昌吉、乌苏)、普通纤维生态区(兵团第七师125团、兵团第八师121团、石河子以及敦煌)。(3)西北内陆棉区早中熟组品质性状由优质到普通亦可划分为3个生态区:优质纤维生态区(莎车、轮台、巴州、库车、疏附、兵团第一师阿拉尔13团以及新疆塔河10团)、普通优质纤维生态区(麦盖提和兵团第三师喀什)、普通纤维生态区(阿克苏)。因此西北内陆早熟棉区应在注重品种早熟性选育的基础上,注重优质纤维综合品质性状的培育,提高纤维的长度和比强度。南疆的早中熟棉区,注重推选适合机采棉的长度和

  8. Phytohormonal networks promote differentiation of fiber initials on pre-anthesis cotton ovules grown in vitro and in planta.

    Hee Jin Kim

    Full Text Available The number of cotton (Gossypium sp. ovule epidermal cells differentiating into fiber initials is an important factor affecting cotton yield and fiber quality. Despite extensive efforts in determining the molecular mechanisms regulating fiber initial differentiation, only a few genes responsible for fiber initial differentiation have been discovered. To identify putative genes directly involved in the fiber initiation process, we used a cotton ovule culture technique that controls the timing of fiber initial differentiation by exogenous phytohormone application in combination with comparative expression analyses between wild type and three fiberless mutants. The addition of exogenous auxin and gibberellins to pre-anthesis wild type ovules that did not have visible fiber initials increased the expression of genes affecting auxin, ethylene, ABA and jasmonic acid signaling pathways within 1 h after treatment. Most transcripts expressed differentially by the phytohormone treatment in vitro were also differentially expressed in the ovules of wild type and fiberless mutants that were grown in planta. In addition to MYB25-like, a gene that was previously shown to be associated with the differentiation of fiber initials, several other differentially expressed genes, including auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA involved in auxin signaling, ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and abscisic acid (ABA 8'-hydroxylase an enzyme that controls the rate of ABA catabolism, were co-regulated in the pre-anthesis ovules of both wild type and fiberless mutants. These results support the hypothesis that phytohormonal signaling networks regulate the temporal expression of genes responsible for differentiation of cotton fiber initials in vitro and in planta.

  9. Molecular markers associated with the immature fiber (im) gene affecting the degree of fiber cell wall thickening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Kim, Hee Jin; Moon, Hong S; Delhom, Christopher D; Zeng, Linghe; Fang, David D


    Cotton fiber fineness and maturity measured indirectly as micronaire (MIC) are important properties of determining fiber grades in the textile market. To understand the genetic control and molecular mechanisms of fiber fineness and maturity, we studied two near isogenic lines, Gossypium hirsutum, Texas Marker-1 wild type (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant showing a significant difference in MIC values. The fibers from im mutant plants were finer and less mature with lower MIC values than those from the recurrent parent, TM-1. A comprehensive fiber property analysis of TM-1 and im mutant showed that the lower MIC of fibers in im mutant was due to the lower degree of fiber cell wall thickening as compared to the TM-1 fibers. Using an F(2) population comprising 366 progenies derived from a cross between TM-1 and im mutant, we confirmed that the immature fiber phenotype present in a mutant plant was controlled by one single recessive gene im. Furthermore, we identified 13 simple sequence repeat markers that were closely linked to the im gene located on chromosome 3. Molecular markers associated with the im gene will lay the foundation to further investigate genetic information required for improving cotton fiber fineness and maturity.


    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.


    The paper examined the price relationship between cotton and polyester. The results provide strong evidence of long term price transmissions and granger causality between cotton and polyester price as well as the asymmetry transmissions for cotton on cotton, cotton on polyester, and polyester on polyester price. However, we did not find any evidence that there exists asymmetry transmission for polyester price on cotton price. Our results also did not support the contemporaneous effects hypoth...

  11. Overexpression of a Potato Sucrose Synthase Gene in Cotton Accelerates Leaf Expansion,Reduces Seed Abortion, and Enhances Fiber Production

    Shou-Min Xu; Elizabeth Brill; Danny J.Llewellyn; Robert T.Furbank; Yong-Ling Ruan


    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in the breakdown of sucrose and is considered a biochemical marker for sink strength,especially in crop species,based on mutational and gene suppression studies.It remains elusive,however,whether,or to what extent,increase in Sus activity may enhance sink development.We aimed to address this question by expressing a potato Sus gene in cotton where Sus expression has been previously shown to be critical for normal seed and fiber development.Segregation analyses at T1 generation followed by studies in homozygous progeny lines revealed that increased Sus activity in cotton (1) enhanced leaf expansion with the effect evident from young leaves emerging from shoot apex; (2) improved early seed development,which reduced seed abortion,hence enhanced seed set,and (3) promoted fiber elongation.In young leaves of Sus overexpressing lines,fructose concentrations were significantly increased whereas,in elongating fibers,both fructose and glucose levels were increased.Since hexoses contribute little to osmolality in leaves,in contrast to developing fibers,it is concluded that high Sus activity promotes leaf development independently of osmotic regulation,probably through sugar signaling.The analyses also showed that doubling the Sus activity in 0-d cotton seeds increased their fresh weight by about 30%.However,further increase in Sus activity did not lead to any further increase in seed weight,indicating an upper limit for the Sus overexpression effect.Finally,based on the observed additive effect on fiber yield from increased fiber length and seed number,a new strategy is proposed to increase cotton fiber yield by improving seed development as a whole,rather than solely focusing on manipulating fiber growth.

  12. Involvement of Extracellular Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase in Cotton Fiber Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Extracellular Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases (CSDs) that catalyze the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide have been suggested to be involved in lignification of secondary walls in spinach, pine and aspen. In cotton fibers, hydrogen peroxide was proposed to be involved in the induction of seco...

  13. Infrared imaging of cotton fiber bundles using a focal plane array detector and a single reflectance accessory

    Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report the use of an infrared instrument equippe...

  14. Micronaire measurements on seedcotton and cotton fiber, in and outside of laboratory using micro nir-infrared instruments

    Micronaire is a key quality parameter in cotton fiber. NIR-spectroscopy has the ability to measure micronaire in and out of the laboratory. New very small micronaire instruments have recently been introduced. A program was established to measure micronaire in and outside the laboratory on seed cotto...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  16. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security

    Mehboob-ur- Rahman


    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin—transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease—thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  17. Genetics and Genomics of Cotton Leaf Curl Disease, Its Viral Causal Agents and Whitefly Vector: A Way Forward to Sustain Cotton Fiber Security.

    Rahman, Mehboob-Ur-; Khan, Ali Q; Rahmat, Zainab; Iqbal, Muhammad A; Zafar, Yusuf


    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) after its first epidemic in 1912 in Nigeria, has spread to different cotton growing countries including United States, Pakistan, India, and China. The disease is of viral origin-transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, which is difficult to control because of the prevalence of multiple virulent viral strains or related species. The problem is further complicated as the CLCuD causing virus complex has a higher recombination rate. The availability of alternate host crops like tomato, okra, etc., and practicing mixed type farming system have further exaggerated the situation by adding synergy to the evolution of new viral strains and vectors. Efforts to control this disease using host plant resistance remained successful using two gene based-resistance that was broken by the evolution of new resistance breaking strain called Burewala virus. Development of transgenic cotton using both pathogen and non-pathogenic derived approaches are in progress. In future, screening for new forms of host resistance, use of DNA markers for the rapid incorporation of resistance into adapted cultivars overlaid with transgenics and using genome editing by CRISPR/Cas system would be instrumental in adding multiple layers of defense to control the disease-thus cotton fiber production will be sustained.

  18. Characterization and photocatalytic properties of cotton fibers modified with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique

    Mohamed Shaban


    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were prepared using the sol–gel method. Cotton fibers were loaded with ZnO nanoparticles using sol–gel spin coating technique. The prepared ZnO NPs and ZnO-coated cotton were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The self-cleaning property of ZnO-coated cotton and the photocatalytic removal of methyl orange dye from the contaminated water and cotton fibers were studied by measuring the optical absorbance after exposure to sunlight and Philips 200W lamp illumination. The results showed that the cotton loaded with ZnO nanoparticles could efficiently decompose 73% of methyl orange dye in the sunlight and 30.7% in the lamp illumination after 12 hours. ZnO nanoparticles decomposed methyl orange dye by 92.7% in the sunlight and 26.4% in the lamp illumination after 7 hours.

  19. Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers

    Suh, Hageun

    A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least

  20. The influence of after-treatments on dyeability of raw and bleached cotton with curcumin, and visibility of anthotype produced motifs

    Perkič Nuša


    Full Text Available Dyeing of raw and bleached cotton fabrics with a natural dye of curcumin was studied to implement the ancient and environmentally friendly technique of developing photos called anthotype. With the aim of achieving diff erent colours of dyed cotton fabrics, several modifi cations were performed, such as extraction of curcumin in hard and soft water, after-treatments of dyed cotton, i.e. with ferrous sulphate, zinc chloride and silver nitrate, aftertreatment in alkaline bath, and aftertreatment with other natural dyes (blueberry and raspberry. The colour values of dyed samples were determined using a refl ectance spectrophotometer. Colour stability to light was determined by the standard method in Xenotest. It was found that the use of various metal salts, natural dyes, alkalinity and hardness of water infl uenced the colour changes of the substrate. Yellow, red, greenish and brownish colours of fabrics were produced by diff erent treatments. Since the use of metal ions improved the stability of curcumin to light, the motifs produced by anthotype technique were hardly visible. It was found that the natural dye of blueberries and raspberries did not infl uence the light stability, therefore a larger colour contrast between exposed and unexposed areas of the fabric was visible, and consequently good visibility of the motifs was achieved.

  1. Preparation of Cotton-Wool-Like Poly(lactic acid-Based Composites Consisting of Core-Shell-Type Fibers

    Jian Wang


    Full Text Available In previous works, we reported the fabrication of cotton-wool-like composites consisting of siloxane-doped vaterite and poly(l-lactic acid (SiVPCs. Various irregularly shaped bone voids can be filled with the composite, which effectively supplies calcium and silicate ions, enhancing the bone formation by stimulating the cells. The composites, however, were brittle and showed an initial burst release of ions. In the present work, to improve the mechanical flexibility and ion release, the composite fiber was coated with a soft, thin layer consisting of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to prepare a cotton-wool-like material comprising “core-shell”-type fibers with a diameter of ~12 µm. The fibers, which consisted of SiVPC coated with a ~2-µm-thick PLGA layer, were mechanically flexible; even under a uniaxial compressive load of 1.5 kPa, the cotton-wool-like material did not exhibit fracture of the fibers and, after removing the load, showed a ~60% recovery. In Tris buffer solution, the initial burst release of calcium and silicate ions from the “core-shell”-type fibers was effectively controlled, and the ions were slowly released after one day. Thus, the mechanical flexibility and ion-release behavior of the composites were drastically improved by the thin PLGA coating.

  2. Titanium-Dioxide Nano-Fiber-Cotton Targets for Efficient Multi-keV X-Ray Generation

    Tanabe, M; Nishimura, H; Fujioka, S; Nagai, K; Yamamoto, N; Gu, Z; Pan, C; Girard, F; Primout, M; Villette, B; Brebion, D; Fournier, K B; Fujishima, A; Mima, K


    Multi-keV x-ray generation from low-density (27 {+-} 7 mg/cc) nano-fiber-cotton targets composed of titanium-dioxide has been investigated. The cotton targets were heated volumetrically and supersonically to a peak electron temperature of 2.3 keV, which is optimal to yield Ti K-shell x rays. Considerable enhancement of conversion efficiency (3.7 {+-} 0.5%) from incident laser energy into Ti K-shell x rays (4-6 keV band) was attained in comparison with that (1.4 {+-} 0.9%) for a planar Ti-foil target.

  3. 杏棉间作复合系统对棉花产量及纤维品质的影响%Effect of apricot-cotton intercropping system on fiber quality and yield of cotton

    赵光磊; 陈耀锋; 万群芳; 张玉东; 陈瑞萍; 曹春波


    以大田棉花为对照(CK),研究了环塔里木盆地杏、棉间作系统对棉花的产量和纤维品质特性的影响.结果表明:杏、棉间作下棉花的产量及其构成因素相比对照均有不同程度的减小,且随着距杏树垂直距离的增加,其变化呈偏态分布趋势;在杏、棉间作区,棉花的比强度、伸长率和马克隆值明显减少,而纤维长度、整齐度、黄度和纺纱指数则形成了明显的增加区和降低区,表明杏、棉间作对棉花产量和纤维品质的影响很大.%With the ingle cropping of cotton as CK, the effect of apricot-cotton intercropping on fiber quality characteristics and yield of cotton around Tarim Basin was studied. The results showed that the trend of changes in the yield and its components of cotton was in partial distribution tendency in the apricot-cotton intercropping system, which were lower than those in CK. In apricot-cotton intercropping, the strength, elongation and Micronaire value of cotton were significantly reduced, but the fiber length, uniformity, yellowness and CSP of cotton increased obviously in some areas but reduced in others. The experiment showed that the apricot-cotton intercropping had great effect on fiber quality and yield of cotton.

  4. Modeling Fiber Fineness, Maturity, and Micronaire in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    ZHAO Wen-qing; ZHOU Zhi-guo; MENG Ya-li; CHEN Bing-lin; WANG You-hua


    Crop performance is determined by the combined effects of the genotype of the crop and the environmental conditions of the production system. This study was undertaken to develop a dynamic model for simulating environmental (temperature and solar radiation) and N supply effects on fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire. Three different experiments involving genotypes, sowing dates, and N fertilization rates were conducted to support model development and model evaluation. The growth and development duration of fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire were scaled by using physiological development time of secondary wall synthesis (PDTSWSP), which was determined based on the constant ratio of SWSP/BMP. PTP (product of relative thermal effectiveness (RTE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), MJ m-2) and subtending leaf N content per unit area (NA, g m-2) and critical subtending leaf N content per unit area (CNA, g m-2) of cotton boll were calculated or simulated to evaluate effects of temperature and radiation, and N supply. Besides, the interactions among temperature, radiation and N supply were also explained by piecewise function. The overall performance of the model was calibrated and validated with independent data sets from three field experiments with two sowing dates, three or five flowering dates and three or four N fertilization rates for three subsequent years (2005, 2007, and 2009) at three ecological locations. The average RMSE and RE for fiber fineness, maturity, and micronaire predictions were 372 m g-1 and 5.0%, 0.11 m g-1 and 11.4%, 0.3 m g-1 and 12.3%, respectively, indicating a good fit between the simulated and observed data. It appears that the model can give a reliable prediction for fiber fineness, maturity and micronaire formation under various growing conditions.

  5. Cotton Trip in China


    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  6. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  7. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  8. Cotton GhACT1 Gene Is Preferentially Expressed in Fiber and Required for Fiber Elongation%棉纤维发育优势表达及伸长必需的基因GhACT1

    Xue-bao LI; Lin CAI; Xiao-ping FAN; Ning-hui CHEN; Jian-wei LIU; Wei-cai YANG


    @@ Each fiber of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a single epidermal cell that rapidly elongates to 2.5 ~3.0 cm from ovule surface within about 16days after anthesis. A large number of genes are required for fiber differentiation and development, but it is unknown how these genes control and regulate the process of fiber development.

  9. A Comparative miRNAome Analysis Reveals Seven Fiber Initiation-Related and 36 Novel miRNAs in Developing Cotton Ovules

    Zheng-Ming Wang; Wei Xue; Chun-Juan Dong; Long-Guo Jin; Shao-Min Bian; Chuan Wang; Xiu-Yun Wu; Jin-Yuan Liu


    An increasing number of microRNAs(miRNAs)have been shown to play crucial regulatory roles in the process of plant development.Here,we used high-throughput sequencing combined with computational analysis to characterize miRNAomes from the ovules of wild-type upland cotton and a fiberless mutant during fiber initiation.Comparative miRNAome analysis combined with northern blotting and RACE-PCR revealed seven fiber initiation-related miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules and experimentally validated targets of these miRNAs are involved in different cellular responses and metabolic processes,including transcriptional regulation,auxin and gibberellin signal transduction,actin bundles,and lignin biosynthesis.This paper describes a complex regulatory network consisting of these miRNAs expressed in cotton ovules to coordinate fiber initiation responses.In addition,36 novel miRNAs and two conserved miRNAs were newly identified,nearly doubling the number of known cotton miRNA families to a total of 78.Furthermore,a chromatin remodeling complex subunit and a pre-mRNA splicing factor are shown for the first time to be miRNA targets.To our knowledge,this study is the first systematic investigation of fiber initiation-related miRNAs and their targets in the developing cotton ovule,deepening our understanding of the important regulatory functions of miRNAs in cotton fiber initiation.

  10. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon fiber (ACF) from cotton woven waste

    Zheng, Jieying; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang


    In this study, the activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared using cotton woven waste as precursor. The cotton woven waste was first partly dissolved by 80% phosphoric acid and then was pre-soaked in 7.5% diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution. Finally, carbonization and activation were proceeded to get ACF. The optimum preparation conditions, including carbonization temperature, carbonization time, activation temperature and activation time, were chosen by orthogonal design. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption test was conducted to characterize the prepared ACF's pore structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) were employed to characterize its chemical properties and morphology. Adsorption of oilfield wastewater was used to evaluate its adsorption properties. The results show that the prepared ACF is in the form of fiber, with the sectional diameters of 11.7 × 2.6 μm and the surface area of 789 m2/g. XPS results show that carbon concentration of the prepared ACF is higher than that of the commercial ACF. When the prepared ACF dosage is 6 g/L, over 80% of COD and over 70% of chrominance can be removed after 24 h of adsorption at 18 °C. We demonstrated the catalytic growth of m-axial InxGa1-xN (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.17) nanocolumn arrays with high crystallinity on silicon substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with trimethylindium (TMIn), triethylgallium (TEGa), and ammonia as precursors. The high quality of InGaN nanocolumns (NCs) were believed to be due to the utilization of TEGa that achieved less carbon impurities and offered more comparable vapor pressure with that of TMIn at low temperature. In addition, these NCs were grown in non-polar m-axis, which the internal electric field of the InGaN that often deteriorates the device performances might be able to be eliminated. Furthermore, the bandgap of this InGaN can be modulated from

  11. Functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs revealed in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root cell development.

    Lv, Fenni; Li, Peng; Zhang, Rui; Li, Nina; Guo, Wangzhen


    In GhCFE5 homoeologs, GhCFE5D interacted with more actin homologs and stronger interaction activity than GhCFE5A. GhCFE5D - but not GhCFE5A -overexpression severely disrupted actin cytoskeleton organization and significantly suppressed cell elongation. Homoeologous genes are common in polyploid plants; however, their functional divergence is poorly elucidated. Allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, AADD) is the most widely cultivated cotton; accounting for more than 90 % of the world's cotton production. Here, we characterized GhCFE5A and GhCFE5D homoeologs from G. hirsutum acc TM-1. GhCFE5 homoeologs are expressed preferentially in fiber cells; and a significantly greater accumulation of GhCFE5A mRNA than GhCFE5D mRNA was found in all tested tissues. Overexpression of GhCFE5D but not GhCFE5A seriously inhibits the Arabidopsis hypocotyl and root cell elongation. Yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis showed that compared with GhCFE5A, GhCFE5D interacts with more actin homologs and has a stronger interaction activity both from Arabidopsis and Upland cotton. Interestingly, subcellular localization showed that GhCFE5 resides on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and is colocalized with actin cables. The interaction activities between GhCFE5 homoeologs and actin differ in their effects on F-actin structure in transgenic Arabidopsis root cells. The F-actin changed direction from vertical to lateral, and the actin cytoskeleton organization was severely disrupted in GhCFE5D-overexpressing root cells. These data support the functional divergence of GhCFE5 homoeologs in the actin cytoskeleton structure and cell elongation, implying an important role for GhCFE5 in the evolution and selection of cotton fiber.

  12. Association analysis of fiber quality traits and exploration of elite alleles in Upland cotton cultivars/accessions (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Cai, Caiping; Ye, Wenxue; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen


    Exploring the elite alleles and germplasm accessions related to fiber quality traits will accelerate the breeding of cotton for fiber quality improvement. In this study, 99 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions with diverse origins were used to perform association analysis of fiber quality traits using 97 polymorphic microsatellite marker primer pairs. A total of 107 significant marker-trait associations were detected for three fiber quality traits under three different environments, with 70 detected in two or three environments and 37 detected in only one environment. Among the 70 significant marker-trait associations, 52.86% were reported previously, implying that these are stable loci for target traits. Furthermore, we detected a large number of elite alleles associated simultaneously with two or three traits. These elite alleles were mainly from accessions collected in China, introduced to China from the United States, or rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%. No one cultivar contained more than half of the elite alleles, but 10 accessions were collected from China and the two introduced from the United States did contain more than half of these alleles. Therefore, there is great potential for mining elite alleles from germplasm accessions for use in fiber quality improvement in modern cotton breeding.

  13. Suitable internal control genes for qRT-PCR normalization in cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis


    The mechanisms of cotton fiber development and somatic embryogenesis have been explored systematically with microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization. Real-time RT-PCR provides the simultaneous measurement of gene expression in many different samples, with which the data from microarray or others can be confirmed in detail. To achieve accurate and reliable gene expression results, normalization of real-time PCR data against one or several internal control genes is required, which should not fluctuate in different tissues during various stages of development. We assessed the gene expression of 7 frequently used housekeeping genes, including 18S rRNA, Histone3, UBQ7, Actin, Cyclophilin, Gbpolyubiquitin-1 and Gbpolyubiquitin-2, in a diverse set of 21 cotton samples. For fiber developmental series the expression of all housekeeping genes had the same down tendency after 17 DPA. But the expression of the AGP gene (arabinogalactan protein) that has high expression level at the later fiber development stage was up-regulated from 15 to 27 DPA. So the relative absolute quantification should be an efficient and convenient method for the fiber developmental series. The expression of nonfiber tissues series varied not so much against the fiber developmental series. And three best control genes Histone3, UBQ7 and Gbpolyubiquitin-1 have to be used in a combinated way to get better normalization.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a β-Galactosidase Gene Expressed Preferentially in Cotton Fibers

    Heng-Mu ZHANG; Jin-Yuan LIU


    β-galactosidases (EC constitute a widespread family of enzymes in plants that is thought to be involved in metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. We reported herein the isolation of a fulllength cDNA encoding a typical β-galactosidase protein, designated GhGal1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.galactosidase), of 843 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of nearly 94.8 kDa. In addition to a glycosyl hydrolase family 35 domain and a putative signal peptide, an unusual characteristic of GhGal 1 is that, at the C-terminus of the enzyme, a domain was found that is structurally related to a sea urchin egg lectin (SUEL-lectin) with D-galactose- and L-rhamnose-binding domains. Based on results from Southern blot, we estimated that there would be two copies of the GhGal1 gene per haploid genome of G. hirsutum.The transcripts of GhGal1 were regulated spatially and temporally and were present in very high abundance at the elongation stage of the cotton fiber. The expression pattern suggests that the GhGal1 gene could be involved in metabolism of the primary cell wall.

  15. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton

    Background: Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders’ ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed t...

  16. The GhTT2_A07 gene is linked to the brown color and natural flame retardancy phenotypes of Lc1 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers

    Some naturally-colored brown cotton fibers from accessions of Gossypium hirsutum L. can be used to make textiles with enhanced flame retardancy (FR). Several independent brown fiber loci have been identified and mapped to chromosomes, but the underlying genes have not yet been identified, and the me...

  17. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D


    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  18. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Li, Kunquan; Rong, Zhang; Li, Ye; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs) with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area.

  19. Cotton GhPOX1 encoding plant class III peroxidase may be responsible for the high level of reactive oxygen species production that is related to cotton fiber elongation.

    Mei, Wenqian; Qin, Yongmei; Song, Wenqiang; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yuxian


    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in plant cell development. In plant, class III peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes encoded by a large multi-gene family participated in the release or consumption of ROS. The specific function of each member of the family is still elusive. Here, we showed that ROS was significantly generated during cotton fiber initiation and elongation, whereas, application of NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the wild-type cotton ovule culture significantly suppressed fiber growth, respectively. Their inhibitory effects were caused by the reduction of superoxide radical (O(2)(-)). Ten GhPOX genes (cDNAs) encoding cotton class III peroxidases were isolated, among them eight GhPOX genes were reported for the first time. Microarray analyses indicated that GhPOX1 was the mostly predominantly expressed in fast-elongating cotton fiber cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed the transcript level of GhPOX1 was over 400-fold higher in growing fiber cells than in ovules, flowers, roots, stems and leaves. To reveal the role of GhPOX1 in plant development, its Arabidopsis orthologue atpox13 mutant was demonstrated to be defective in branch root development. Taken together, the data suggest that GhPOX1 plays an important role during fiber cell elongation possibly by mediating production of reactive oxygen species.

  20. Improvement of cotton fiber quality by transforming the acsA and acsB genes into Gossypium hirsutum L. by means of vacuum infiltration.

    Li, X; Wang, X D; Zhao, X; Dutt, Y


    A novel method for the genetic transformation of cotton pollen by means of vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is reported. The acsA and acsB genes, which are involved in cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum, were transferred into pollen grains of brown cotton with the aim of improving its fiber quality by incorporating useful prokaryotic features into the colored cotton plants. Transformation was carried out in cotton pollen-germinating medium, and transformation was mediated by vector pCAMBIA1301, which contains a reporter gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS), a selectable marker gene, hpt, for hygromycin resistance and the genes of interest, acsA and acsB. The integration and expression of acsA, acsB and GUS in the genome of transgenic plants were analyzed with Southern blot hybridization, PCR, histochemical GUS assay and Northern blot hybridization. We found that following pollination on the cotton stigma transformed pollen retained its capability of double-fertilization and that normal cotton seeds were produced in the cotton ovary. Of 1,039 seeds from 312 bolls pollinated with transformed pollen grains, 17 were able to germinate and grow into seedlings for more than 3 weeks in a nutrient medium containing 50 mg/l hygromycin; eight of these were transgenic plants integrated with acsA and acsB, yielding a 0.77% transformation rate. Fiber strength and length from the most positive transformants was 15% greater than those of the control (non-transformed), a significant difference, as was cellulose content between the transformed and control plants. Our study suggests that transformation through vacuum infiltration and Agrobacterium mediated transformation can be an efficient way to introduce foreign genes into the cotton pollen grain and that cotton fiber quality can be improved with the incorporation of the prokaryotic genes acsA and acsB.

  1. A MAGIC population-based genome-wide association study reveals functional association of GhRBB1_A07 gene with superior fiber quality in cotton.

    Islam, Md Sariful; Thyssen, Gregory N; Jenkins, Johnie N; Zeng, Linghe; Delhom, Christopher D; McCarty, Jack C; Deng, Dewayne D; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Jones, Don C; Fang, David D


    Cotton supplies a great majority of natural fiber for the global textile industry. The negative correlation between yield and fiber quality has hindered breeders' ability to improve these traits simultaneously. A multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) population developed through random-mating of multiple diverse parents has the ability to break this negative correlation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is a method that can rapidly identify and genotype a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping a MAGIC population using GBS technologies will enable us to identify marker-trait associations with high resolution. An Upland cotton MAGIC population was developed through random-mating of 11 diverse cultivars for five generations. In this study, fiber quality data obtained from four environments and 6071 SNP markers generated via GBS and 223 microsatellite markers of 547 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the MAGIC population were used to conduct a genome wide association study (GWAS). By employing a mixed linear model, GWAS enabled us to identify markers significantly associated with fiber quantitative trait loci (QTL). We identified and validated one QTL cluster associated with four fiber quality traits [short fiber content (SFC), strength (STR), length (UHM) and uniformity (UI)] on chromosome A07. We further identified candidate genes related to fiber quality attributes in this region. Gene expression and amino acid substitution analysis suggested that a regeneration of bulb biogenesis 1 (GhRBB1_A07) gene is a candidate for superior fiber quality in Upland cotton. The DNA marker CFBid0004 designed from an 18 bp deletion in the coding sequence of GhRBB1_A07 in Acala Ultima is associated with the improved fiber quality in the MAGIC RILs and 105 additional commercial Upland cotton cultivars. Using GBS and a MAGIC population enabled more precise fiber QTL mapping in Upland cotton. The fiber QTL and associated markers identified in

  2. Sequencing of allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. acc. TM-1) provides a resource for fiber improvement

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fibre and a significant oilseed crop. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), an allotetraploid derived from A- and D-genome progenitors, accounts for >95% of world production. Here, we sequenced and assembled 88% of the 2.5-gigabase genome of the ...

  3. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  4. Power and Time Dependent Microwave Assisted Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Decorated Cotton (SNDC) Fibers for Bacterial Decontamination

    Bhardwaj, Abhishek K.; Shukla, Abhishek; Mishra, Rohit K.; Singh, S. C.; Mishra, Vani; Uttam, K. N.; Singh, Mohan P.; Sharma, Shivesh; Gopal, R.


    Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver and gold have fascinating optical properties due to their enhanced optical sensitivity at a wavelength corresponding to their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption. Present work deals with the fabrication of silver nanoparticles decorated cotton (SNDC) fibers as a cheap and efficient point of contact disinfectant. SNDC fibers were fabricated by a simple microwave assisted route. The microwave power and irradiation time were controlled to optimize size and density of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) on textile fibers. As prepared cotton fabric was characterized for ATR-FTIR, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance, SEM and TEM investigations. Size of SNPs as well as total density of silver atoms on fabric gets increased with the increase of microwave power from 100 W to 600 W. The antibacterial efficacy of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers was found to be more effective against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 38.5 ± 0.93 μg/mL against Salmonella typhimurium MTCC-98 and 125 ± 2.12 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-737, a linear correlation coefficient with R2 ranging from ∼0.928–0.935 was also observed. About >50% death cells were observed through Propidium Iodide (PI) internalization after treatment of SNPs extracted from SNDC fibers with concentration 31.25 μg/mL. Generation of ROS and free radical has also been observed which leads to cell death. Excellent Escherichia coli deactivation efficacy suggested that SNDC fibers could be used as potentially safe disinfectants for cleaning of medical equipment, hand, wound, water and preservation of food and beverages. PMID:28316594

  5. The analysis of colored acrylic, cotton, and wool textile fibers using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Part 2: comparison with the traditional methods of fiber examination.

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve


    In the second part of this survey, the ability of micro-Raman spectroscopy to discriminate 180 fiber samples of blue, black, and red cottons, wools, and acrylics was compared to that gathered with the traditional methods for the examination of textile fibers in a forensic context (including light microscopy methods, UV-vis microspectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography). This study shows that the Raman technique plays a complementary and useful role to obtain further discriminations after the application of light microscopy methods and UV-vis microspectrophotometry and assure the nondestructive nature of the analytical sequence. These additional discriminations were observed despite the lower discriminating powers of Raman data considered individually, compared to those of light microscopy and UV-vis MSP. This study also confirms that an instrument equipped with several laser lines is necessary for an efficient use as applied to the examination of textile fibers in a forensic setting.

  6. Preferential Expression of a Beta-tubulin Gene in Developing Cotton Fibers%棉花发育纤维中一个优势表达的β-Tubulin基因

    Yuan-li LI; Jie SUN; Chun-hong LI; Yong-qing ZHU; Gui-xian XIA


    @@ The developing cotton fiber is considered as a model system for studying the function of microtubules in plant cell elongation and cell wall biosynthesis. It has been shown that microtubules undergo active dynamic changes during fiber development. At the molecular level, Dixon et al demonstrated that two alphatubulin and two beta-tubulin isoforms accumulated preferentially in fibers, and Whittaker and Triplett showed that the accumulation of alpha-tubulin transcripts changed in a gene-specific manner in the developing cotton fibers.

  7. MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers with enhanced cyclic performance for sodium-ion batteries

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Renzong; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min


    Carbon fibers derived from bio-template are low cost and environmental benign, therefore have attracted much attention in energy storage materials. In this work, we successfully fabricated MoS2/cotton-derived carbon fibers (MoS2/CDCFs) via hydrothermal route followed by carbonization process. In the composite of MoS2/CDCFs, MoS2 nanosheets vertically grow on the carbon fibers which offer fast ways for electron transfer and at the same time act as robust support to buffer the volume changes of MoS2 nanosheets during discharge/charge cycles. As anode materials for sodium-ion batteries, MoS2/CDCFs exhibit good rate performance and markedly enhanced cyclic stability due to the conductive support of CDCFs. At a current density of 0.1 A g-1, the MoS2/CDCFs-1 shows an initial reversible capacity of 504.9 mAh g-1, and maintains 444.5 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. Even when the current density increases to 0.5 A g-1, it maintains 323.1 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles, which is much higher than the capacity retention of 149.6 mAh g-1 for the bare MoS2 nanosheets. The improved electrochemical performance verifies the effective strategy of using cotton as carbon source to construct hierarchical composites for sodium-ion batteries.

  8. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Wang Ting


    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  9. The potential of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms to remove {sup 241}Am from aqueous solutions

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In the Radioactive Waste Management (GRR) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) vegetal biomass has been studied as adsorbent to remove radioisotopes from radioactive liquid wastes as part of the radioactive waste treatment program. In this work coconuts fiber was evaluate as biosorbent to remove {sup 241}Am from aqueous solutions and many different parameters were studied such as particle size (35 and 80 mesh) and contact time (between 5 and 60 minutes). In order to evaluate if the treated biomass could remove more {sup 241}Am the experiments were also performed using raw biomass and treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in basic conditions. When the experiment was carried out using raw coconuts fiber with 80 mesh, neutral conditions after 5 minutes of contact time 99% of the radionuclide was removed from the aqueous solution. This result shows the potential of this biomass to remove {sup 241}Am from radioactive liquid wastes. (author)

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Fang, Lei; Tian, Ruiping; Chen, Jiedan; Wang, Sen; Li, Xinghe; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Tianzhen


    Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs) that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes), phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes), and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes), etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of fiber strength in upland cotton chromosome introgression lines carrying different Gossypium barbadense chromosomal segments.

    Lei Fang

    Full Text Available Fiber strength is the key trait that determines fiber quality in cotton, and it is closely related to secondary cell wall synthesis. To understand the mechanism underlying fiber strength, we compared fiber transcriptomes from different G. barbadense chromosome introgression lines (CSILs that had higher fiber strengths than their recipient, G. hirsutum acc. TM-1. A total of 18,288 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected between CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, two CSILs with stronger fiber and TM-1 during secondary cell wall synthesis. Functional classification and enrichment analysis revealed that these DEGs were enriched for secondary cell wall biogenesis, glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis, sugar-mediated signaling pathways, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Pathway analysis showed that these DEGs participated in starch and sucrose metabolism (328 genes, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis (122 genes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (101 genes, and oxidative phosphorylation (87 genes, etc. Moreover, the expression of MYB- and NAC-type transcription factor genes were also dramatically different between the CSILs and TM-1. Being different to those of CSIL-31134, CSIL-35431 and CSIL-31010, there were many genes for fatty acid degradation and biosynthesis, and also for carbohydrate metabolism that were down-regulated in CSIL-35368. Metabolic pathway analysis in the CSILs showed that different pathways were changed, and some changes at the same developmental stage in some pathways. Our results extended our understanding that carbonhydrate metabolic pathway and secondary cell wall biosynthesis can affect the fiber strength and suggested more genes and/or pathways be related to complex fiber strength formation process.

  12. 种间杂交改良陆地棉的纤维品质%Fiber Quality Improvement by Interspecific Hybridization in Upland Cotton

    Ren-zhong LIU; Fu-rong WANG; Liu-ming WANG; Jia-bao WANG; Jing YANG; Qin-hong LIU


    @@ In order to transfer genes for extra fiber strength to existing cotton cultivars, we introduced 207 interspecific materials obtained by outcrossing where GG. hirsutum , GG.barbadense , G. sturtianum , G. thurberi , G.harknessii and G. somalense etc. were involved as parents respectively.

  13. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of an Allene Oxide Cyclase Gene Associated with Fiber Strength in Cotton

    WANG Li-man; ZHU You-min; TONG Xiang-chao; HU Wen-jing; CAI Cai-ping; GUO Wang-zhen


    Allene oxide cyclase (AOC) is one of the most important enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA). AOC catalyzes the conversion of allene oxide into 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), a precursor of JA. Using 28K cotton genome array hybridization, an expressed sequence tag (EST;GenBank accession no. ES792958) was investigated that exhibited signiifcant expression differences between lintless-fuzzless XinWX and linted-fuzzless XinFLM isogenic lines during ifber initiation stages. The EST was used to search the Gossypium EST database ( for corresponding cDNA sequences encoding full-length open reading frames (ORFs). Identiifed ORFs were conifrmed using transcriptional and genomic data. As a result, a novel gene encoding AOC in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum AOC;GenBank accession no. KF383427) was cloned and characterized. The 741-bp GhAOC gene comprises three exons and two introns and encodes a polypeptide of 246 amino acids. Two homologous copies were identiifed in the tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and one copy in the diploid cotton species G. herbaceum and G. raimondii. qRT-PCR showed that the GhAOC transcript was abundant in cotton ifber tissues from 8 to 23 days post anthesis (DPA), and the expression proifles were similar in the two cultivated tetraploid cotton species G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, with a higher level of transcription in the former. One copy of GhAOC in tetraploid cotton was localized to chromosome 24 (Chr. D8) using the subgenome-speciifc single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker analysis, which co-localized GhAOC to within 10 cM of a ifber strength quantitative trait locus (QTL) reported previously. GhAOC was highly correlated with ifber quality and strength (P=0.014) in an association analysis, suggesting a possible role in cotton ifber development, especially in secondary cell wall thickening.

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer sources and tillage effects on cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality

    Interest in urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) as a N fertilizer is increasing due, in part, to increased restriction on ammonium nitrate. This has resulted in UAS being marketed as an alternative fertilizer source; however, UAS has not been widely tested. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field study was c...

  15. Thermal and flame retardant behaviors of cotton fiber treated with phosphoramidate derivatives

    In this research, two phosphoramidate derivatives EHP Diethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate and MHP Dimethyl 3-hydroxypropylphos phoramidate were prepared in very high yield and purity by one step procedure and the cotton fabrics treated with them at different levels of add-on (5 - 20 wt %) were c...

  16. Irrigation termination date and amount on cotton lint yield and fiber quality

    Cotton irrigation in the Texas High Plains (THP) is often dictated by the well capacity and not by the water needs of the crop. The source of irrigation-water is the Ogallala aquifer and in many areas of the THP the water table has declined to well capacities that deliver 1.3 to > 7.6 mm/d. There is...

  17. Development of antibacterial knitted products with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber%镀银纤维/棉混纺纱抗菌针织产品的开发

    刘国华; 陈朱捷; 敖利民


    镀银纤维具有优异的抗菌性能,其针织面料的开发应用前景非常广阔。分析镀银纤维/棉混纺纱的外观特征和抗菌特点,并利用镀银纤维/棉混纺纱在单面针织机上开发了几种抗菌针织面料。测试结果表明,开发的镀银纤维/棉混纺纱针织面料具有良好的抗菌效果。%Silver-plated fiber has excellent antibacterial property , which makes its knitted fabrics have a vast potential for further development and application .The external appearance and antibacterial characteristics of blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were analyzed .Several antibacterial knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber were developed.The test results show all the knitted fabrics with blended yarn of silver-plated fiber and cotton fiber have good antibacterial properties .

  18. Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic cotton fibers for selective extraction of Cu(II) ions.

    Monier, M; Ibrahim, Amr A; Metwally, M M; Badawy, D S


    Surface ion-imprinted amino-functionalized cellulosic fibers (Cu-ABZ) were manufactured for efficient selective adsorption of Cu(2+) ions. The chemical modification steps had been characterized utilizing elemental analysis; Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) along with wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Also, the morphological structure of the ion-imprinted and the non-imprinted (NI-ABZ) fibers were visualized and compared with that of the native cotton fibers using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the coordination mode by which the Cu(2+) ions bonded to the active sites were examined by both FTIR and X-ray photo electron spectra (XPS). Both Cu-ABZ and NI-ABZ were implemented in batch experiments for optimizing the conditions by which the Cu(2+) ions can be selectively removal from aqueous medium and pH 5 was the optimum for the metal ion extraction. Moreover, the kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption data fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir models with estimated maximum adsorption capacity 93.6mg/g. Also, the reusability studies indicated that the prepared ion-imprinted adsorbent maintains more than 95% of its original activity after fifth generation cycle.

  19. Genetic Linkage Analysis of the Natural Colored Fiber and Fuzzless Traits in Cotton

    LI Fu-zhen; QIU Xin-mian; WANG Ju-qin; LU Yan-tin; BAO Li-sheng


    @@ Genetic linkage relationship of the natural colored fiber and six fuzzless seed germplasms in obsolete backgrounds of Gossypium hirsutum (AD genome) and G.barbadense were analyzed in the past two years.Three lines of natural brown fiber that were controlled by single dominant genes and two lines of green fiber controlled by another single dominant gene.

  20. Determination of total selenium in geological samples by HG-AFS after concentration with thiol cotton fiber

    FAN Haifeng; WEN Hanjie; HU Ruizhong; CHANG Bin


    Standard reference material and different geological samples were dissolved by system A (the mixture of nitric and perchloric acids) and system B (mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids), and total Se in all samples was measured by hydride-generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) after concentration with thiol cotton fiber (TCF). The analytical results obtained by the two digestion method are in good agreement (within the limit of errors) for most of the samples, particularly for those having recommended values. The Se concentrations determined by the two methods are of no difference, and the correlation coefficient is 0.9986; the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.04 (g/g Se is 10.2%. The recovery rates of systems A and B by the standard-addition method were 96%-106% and 99%-104%, respectively.

  1. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium

    Mittler Ron


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers" of cotton (Gossypium, using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated.

  2. Gene expression profile analysis of Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) mutant reveals important genes and pathways in cotton leaf and fiber development.

    Ding, Mingquan; Jiang, Yurong; Cao, Yuefen; Lin, Lifeng; He, Shae; Zhou, Wei; Rong, Junkang


    Ligon lintless-1 (Li1) is a monogenic dominant mutant of Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) with a phenotype of impaired vegetative growth and short lint fibers. Despite years of research involving genetic mapping and gene expression profile analysis of Li1 mutant ovule tissues, the gene remains uncloned and the underlying pathway of cotton fiber elongation is still unclear. In this study, we report the whole genome-level deep-sequencing analysis of leaf tissues of the Li1 mutant. Differentially expressed genes in leaf tissues of mutant versus wild-type (WT) plants are identified, and the underlying pathways and potential genes that control leaf and fiber development are inferred. The results show that transcription factors AS2, YABBY5, and KANDI-like are significantly differentially expressed in mutant tissues compared with WT ones. Interestingly, several fiber development-related genes are found in the downregulated gene list of the mutant leaf transcriptome. These genes include heat shock protein family, cytoskeleton arrangement, cell wall synthesis, energy, H2O2 metabolism-related genes, and WRKY transcription factors. This finding suggests that the genes are involved in leaf morphology determination and fiber elongation. The expression data are also compared with the previously published microarray data of Li1 ovule tissues. Comparative analysis of the ovule transcriptomes of Li1 and WT reveals that a number of pathways important for fiber elongation are enriched in the downregulated gene list at different fiber development stages (0, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18dpa). Differentially expressed genes identified in both leaf and fiber samples are aligned with cotton whole genome sequences and combined with the genetic fine mapping results to identify a list of candidate genes for Li1.

  3. Optimization of technical parameters for making mulch from waste cotton and rice straw fiber%废旧棉与水稻秸秆纤维混合地膜制造工艺参数优化

    陈海涛; 明向兰; 刘爽; 张颖; 张鸿超


    The technology of plastic mulching was widely used, but its use depended on petroleum resources, which caused white pollution; straw was a rich resource in quantity, but large amount of waste straw was burned in the field, which caused the waste of resource and the environmental pollution at the same time. To solve the pollution of plastic film, plant fiber mulching has been developed, which was biodegradable mulching. There was lots of methyl cellulose in the biogas residue produced by anaerobic fermentation using ruminant feces. Crop residues, most often treated as waste material, could be used as raw material to produce biodegradable plastic membrane, and one technique may solve the white pollution brought by plastic mulching and the plant residue pollution. Waste cotton fiber came from human production and life with low price, so there was an urgent need to its re-utilization. Abandoned textiles were mostly disposed as garbage, and the recycle was very little, which resulted in serious waste of resource and environmental pollution. In abandoned textiles, cotton textiles were mostly confined, for cotton fiber was cut or broken, and through the re-processing, some low additional value products were produced, which hindered the establishment of the industrial chain of the waste textile recycling. In order to improve the utilization rate of waste cotton fabrics and crop straw, and provide technical support for making the biodegradable biogas residue fiber mulch, the processing and property of hybrid film produced by waste cotton and rice straw fiber were studied.The “skeleton” was waste cotton fiber, and filling material was rice straw fiber, with adding the additive that was environmental friendly. The method of four-factor and five-level quadratic regression orthogonal rotation center combination was applied. Beating degree, adding ratio, basis weight and wet strength agent were taken as influencing factors; dry tension strength and elongation, wet tension

  4. Screening Cotton Mini-core Collection for Characterizing the Genetic Variability of Drought Resistance Traits and Selection of Suitable Mapping Population Parents for Genetic Dissection of Drought Resistance and Fiber Quality Traits



    In the face of a global scarcity of water resources,drought has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide.In cotton,fiber productivity and quality is strongly influenced by

  5. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli


    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  6. Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibers to Produce Sugar Hydrolyzate as Raw Material for Bioethanol Production

    Fitriani Kasim


    Full Text Available A study conducted to see the effect of the regulation and control of temperature on the length of the hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber and the resulting hydrolyzate sugar levels, which will be planned to be used as raw material for bioethanol. Therefore do oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber hydrolysis with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 at low concentrations (1% using an autoclave with a temperature of 120 ° C and 130 ° C, and the time for 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes. After that the observed reducing sugar levels by using a method Luff Schoorl. The results showed that setting temperature and time influence on sugar levels resulting hydrolyzate where the optimum temperature and time to produce the highest sugar content reducing at 130 ° C with a long 60 minutes, with the resulting reducing in sugar content was 3.51%. The results obtained are much higher than previous studies conducted by researchers who carried out the straw fibers under the same conditions by using a solution of 1% H2SO4 and hydrolysis time 1 hour, but no temperature control and heating is only done on a gas stove, which acquired sugar 0.22%. As for the gain of 0.78% sugar, hydrolysis takes 4 hours, with a concentration of 10% sulfuric acid.

  7. Cloning and functional characterization of two cDNAs encoding NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductased from developing cotton fibers

    Yong Mei QIN; Francois MA PUJOL; Yong Hui SHI; Jian Xun FENG; Yi Ming LIU; Alexander J KASTANIOTIS; J Kalervo HILTUNEN; Yu Xian ZHU


    Genes encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids were significantly up-regulated during early cotton fiber development. Two cDNAs, GhKCR1 and GhKCR2 encoding putative cotton 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductases that catalyze the second step in fatty acid elongation, were isolated from developing cotton fibers. GhKCR1 and 2 contain open reading frames of 963 bp and 924 bp encoding proteins of 320 and 307 amino acid residues,respectively. Quantatitive RT-PCR analysis showed that both these genes were highly preferentially expressed during the cotton fiber elongation period with much lower levels recovered from roots, stems and leaves. GhKCR1 and 2 showed 30%-32% identity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr159p at the deduced amino acid level. These cotton cDNAs were cloned and expressed in yeast haploid ybr159w△ mutant that was deficient in 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity.Wild-type growth rate was restored in ybr159w△ cells that expressed either GhKCR1 or 2. Further analysis showed that GhKCR1 and 2 were co-sedimented within the membranous pellet fraction after high-speed centrifugation, similar to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum marker ScKar2p. Both GhKCR(s) showed NADPH-dependent 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity in an in vitro assay system using palmitoyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA as substrates. Our results suggest that GhKCR1 and 2 are functional orthologues of ScYbr159p.

  8. Ecologically clean and raw-resources-saving technology using photonic purification of fibers

    Belyshev, Boris E.; Protasova, Valentina A.; Shepelev, Andrey V.; Kalinin, Yuri A.


    The elaborated technology of laseral optical pumping is successfully used for the purification of fibers from impurities. This is the novel and effective application of pulsed power. The higher powerful and technological advantages for purification of wool from vegetable impurities are presented in this paper. The aim of using light irradiation is almost complete cleaning of light wool from dark vegetable admixtures, dust and brand at the early steps (carding worsted blends) of technological process of producing fine yarns. Stabilizing all mechanical and chemical-technological processes following light radiation purification and increasing technical-economic parameters of production is achieved in this case as well. The physical essence of light irradiation wool cleaning is based upon different optical and thermal properties of light fibers on the one hand, and of dark admixtures-fractions of vegetable matter and burrs, dust and brand-on the other hand. The difference of coefficients of light irradiation by fibers and impurities is of great importance. The 500-1100 nm spectral range has a selective impact on the fibers and impurities.

  9. Brazilian natural fiber (jute as raw material for activated carbon production



    Full Text Available Jute fiber is the second most common natural cellulose fiber worldwide, especially in recent years, due to its excellent physical, chemical and structural properties. The objective of this paper was to investigate: the thermal degradation of in natura jute fiber, and the production and characterization of the generated activated carbon. The production consisted of carbonization of the jute fiber and activation with steam. During the activation step the amorphous carbon produced in the initial carbonization step reacted with oxidizing gas, forming new pores and opening closed pores, which enhanced the adsorptive capacity of the activated carbon. N2 gas adsorption at 77K was used in order to evaluate the effect of the carbonization and activation steps. The results of the adsorption indicate the possibility of producing a porous material with a combination of microporous and mesoporous structure, depending on the parameters used in the processes, with resulting specific surface area around 470 m2.g–1. The thermal analysis indicates that above 600°C there is no significant mass loss.

  10. Cheese dyeing of cotton/cuprene fiber%棉/铜氨纤维筒子纱染色



    For differences in dyeing properties between cotton and cuprammonium fiber, the pretreatment and dyeing process are optimized.The trials show that two-bath pretreatment process of cotton/cuprammonium cheese can increase the strength of 89% and whiteness of 2, with less hairiness and good handle compared with the conventional one-bath bleaching process.The optimized dyeing process is: pH of dye bath 11.0, levelling agent LT-R 3%, heating from 30 ℃ to 60 ℃ with rate of 1 ℃/min and holding 40 min.The dyed cheese exhibits good union color and excellent color fastness.%针对棉和铜氨纤维染色性能的差异,优化前处理和染色工艺.试验表明,棉/铜氨纤维二浴前处理工艺较常规的漂白一浴工艺,强力提高8%,白度提高2个白度值,且毛羽少、手感好.优化的棉/铜氨纤维混纺筒纱染色工艺为:染液pH值11.0,染色保温时间40 min,始染温度30℃升至60℃染色,升温速率1℃/min,新型阻染剂LT-R 3%.用该工艺染色的棉/铜氨纤维混纺筒纱同色性好,色牢度优良.

  11. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn


    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp.

  12. Mechanical Properties Change of Cotton Fiber Caused by Ultrasonic Treatment%超声波处理对棉纤维力学性能影响研究



    Micro-morphology, degree of polymerization, molecular weight and mechanical properties change were tested to study the changes of cotton fiber caused by ultrasonic treatment in distilled water. The research shows that after the experiments processing, the natural cotton fiber twist rate in still distilled water and ultrasonic treatment water was both decreased, however, the fiber diameter, reflective intensity of the fiber were increased. After 2 the ways of treatment, breaking strength has increased slightly at point of 0.5 hour. By treatment in distilled water, the degree of fiber aggregation, molecular weight and tensile strength changed little, while properties of cotton fiber decreased greatly after ultrasonic treatment.%本文利用超声波对处在蒸馏水的棉纤维进行处理,观察、测试计算棉纤维的微观形貌与聚合度、分子量与断裂强力。研究表明,棉纤维经过在蒸馏水静止侵泡、在蒸馏水中经超声波处理后,其天然转曲的扭曲率均呈现下降趋势,而纤维直径、反光强度增加。两种实验方式的棉纤维在0.5小时处,断裂强力都略有上升,其后在蒸馏水静止侵泡处理的棉纤维,其聚合度、分子量与断裂强力变化不大,而经超声波处理后的棉纤维均有较大幅度的降低。

  13. Nondestructive identification of dye mixtures in polyester and cotton fibers using raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) microspectrophotometry.

    Was-Gubala, Jolanta; Starczak, Roza


    Presented in this paper is an assessment of the applicability of Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) in visible and ultraviolet light (UV-Vis) in the examination of textile fibers dyed with mixtures of synthetic dyes. Fragments of single polyester fibers, stained with ternary mixtures of disperse dyes in small mass concentrations, and fragments of single cotton fibers, dyed with binary or ternary mixtures of reactive dyes, were subjected to the study. Three types of excitation sources, 514, 633, and 785 nm, were used during Raman examinations, while the MSP study was conducted in the 200 to 800 nm range. The results indicate that the capabilities for discernment of dye mixtures are similar in the spectroscopic methods that were employed. Both methods have a limited capacity to distinguish slightly dyed polyester fiber; additionally, it was found that Raman spectroscopy enables identification of primarily the major components in dye mixtures. The best results, in terms of the quality of Raman spectra, were obtained using an excitation source from the near infrared. MSP studies led to the conclusion that polyester testing should be carried out in the range above 310 nm, while for cotton fibers there is no limitation or restriction of the applied range. Also, MSP UV-Vis showed limited possibilities for discriminatory analysis of cotton fibers dyed with a mixture of reactive dyes, where the ratio of the concentration of the main dye used in the dyeing process to minor dye was higher than four. The results presented have practical applications in forensic studies, inter alia.

  14. Ultrasound energy to accelerate dye uptake and dye-fiber interaction of reactive dye on knitted cotton fabric at low temperatures.

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; de Silva, K M Nalin


    Acoustic cavitation formed due to propagation of ultrasound wave inside a dye bath was successfully used to dye cotton fabric with a reactive dye at lower temperatures. The energy input to the system during sonication was 0.7 W/cm(2). This was within the energy range that contributes towards forming cavitation during ultra-sonication. The influence of ultrasound treatment on dye particle size and fiber morphology is discussed. Particle size analysis of the dye bath revealed ultra-sonication energy was capable of de-agglomeration of hydrolyzed dye molecules during dyeing. SEM micrograph and AFM topographical image of the fiber surface revealed fiber morphology remains unchanged after the sonication. The study was extended in understanding the contribution of ultrasound method of dyeing towards achieving good color strength on the fabric, compared to the normal heating method of dyeing. Study showed color strength obtained using ultra sound method of dyeing is higher compared to normal heating dyeing. Ultrasound energy was able to achieve the good color strength on cotton fabric at very low temperature such as 30 °C, which was approximately 230% more than the color strength achieved in normal heating method of dyeing. This indicates that energy input to the system using ultrasound was capable of acting as an effective alternative method of dyeing knitted cotton fabrics with reactive dye.

  15. The thermal transformation of Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) and safe recycling as secondary raw materials (SRM).

    Gualtieri, A F; Foresti, E; Lesci, I G; Roveri, N; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti; Dondi, M; Zapparoli, M


    This work describes the high temperature reaction sequence of commercial Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) Cerafiber, Superwool, Rock wool and Glass wool which may be used as substitute for asbestos in some industrial applications. Knowledge of the reaction path and transformation sequence is very important to assess whether carcinogenic crystalline phases are formed during devitrification, which may occur when used as insulators. In addition, knowledge about the nature of the phases formed at high temperature is mandatory to assess if thermally transformed MMVF can be safely recycled as secondary raw material (SRM). In this scenario, this study provides useful information for the optimization of the industrial annealing process aimed to attain a safe, recyclable product. The results of this work show that one of the high-temperature products of Cerafiber and Superwool is cristobalite which is classified as a carcinogenic. It was possible to define the temperature interval at which Cerafiber and Superwool fibers can be safely used as thermal insulators (e.g. insulators in tunnel and/or roller kilns, etc.). As cristobalite is formed in both synthetic fiber products at temperatures higher than 1200 degrees C, their use should be limited to devices operating at lower temperatures. Rock and Glass wool melt upon thermal treatment. As far as the industrial process of inertization is concerned, a maximum firing temperature of 1100 and 600 degrees C is required to melt Rock wool and Glass wool, respectively, with the high-temperature products that can be safely recycled as SRM. Recycling of these products in stoneware tile mixtures were subsequently attempted. The addition of 1-2 wt.% of the melts of Rock and Glass wool gave promising results in terms of viscous sintering reactions and resistance to staining with the only weak characteristic being the color properties of the fired bodies which tend to worsen.

  16. Fiber type distribution in the shoulder muscles of the tree shrew, the cotton-top tamarin, and the squirrel monkey related to shoulder movements and forelimb loading.

    Schmidt, Manuela; Schilling, Nadja


    Muscle fiber type composition of intrinsic shoulder muscles was examined in tree shrews, cotton-top tamarins, and squirrel monkeys with respect to their shoulder kinematics and forelimb loading during locomotion. Enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to differentiate muscle fiber types on serial cross-sections of the shoulder. In the majority of the shoulder muscles, the proportions of fatigue resistant slow-twitch fibers (SO) and fatigable fast-twitch fibers (FG) were inversely related to each other, whereas the percentage of intermediate FOG-fibers varied independently. A segregation of fatigue resistant SO-fibers into deep muscle regions is indicative of differential activation of histochemically distinct muscle regions in which deep regions stabilize the joint against gravitational loading. In all three species, this antigravity function was demonstrated for both the supraspinatus and the cranial subscapularis muscle, which prevent passive joint flexion during the support phase of the limb. The infraspinatus muscle showed a high content of SO-fibers in the primate species but not in the tree shrew, which demonstrates the "new" role of the infraspinatus muscle in joint stabilization related to the higher degree of humeral protraction in primates. In the tree shrew and the cotton-top tamarin, a greater proportion of the body weight is carried on the forelimb, but the squirrel monkey exhibits a weight shift to the hind limbs. The lower amount of forelimb loading is reflected by an overall lower proportion of fatigue resistant muscle fibers in the shoulder muscles of the squirrel monkey. Several muscles such as the deltoid no longer function as joint stabilizers and allow the humerus to move beyond the scapular plane. These differences among species demonstrate the high plasticity of the internal muscle architecture and physiology which is suggested to be the underlying reason for different muscle activity patterns in homologous muscles

  17. Comparison of biodegradation of low-weight hydroentangled raw cotton nonwoven fabric and that of commonly used disposable nonwoven fabrics in the aerobic Captina silt loam soil

    The increasing use of disposable nonwovens made of petroleum-based materials generates a large amount of non-biodegradable, solid waste in the environment. As an effort to enhance the usage of biodegradable cotton in nonwovens, this study analyzed the biodegradability of mechanically pre-cleaned gr...

  18. 两种形态棉秆与回收塑料制备复合板材的工艺%Composite Processing Technology from Cotton Stalk Fiber and Particles Combined with Two Types of Recycled Plastics

    蔺焘; 郭文静; 高黎; 常亮; 王正


    采用两种形态的棉秆与两种塑料复合,制备棉秆/塑料复合板材,分析棉秆形态、塑料种类及工艺因子对复合板材性能的影响.结果表明:刨花态棉秆复合板材的性能优于搓丝态棉秆,热压温度、聚丙烯比例和板材密度对复合板材的性能有显著影响.优化条件下制成的棉秆搓丝/聚丙烯复合板材性能,超过室外结构用刨花板性能指标要求.%The authors processed cotton stalks into fiber and particles, and combined them with recycled plastics, polypropylene(PP)and polyethylene (PE), to prepare cotton stalk fiber/plastic composites by hot pressing. The composite panel properties were tested to evaluate the effects caused by the cotton stalk shapes and panel processing factors. The results showed that; 1) The composites made from the cotton stalk particles had better properties than those made from cotton stalk fibers; 2) Density, hot-pressing temperature and the cotton stalk/plastic ratio had a great effect on the cotton-stalk-fiber/polypropylene panel properties. Under optimized conditions, the cotton-stalk-fiber /polypropylene panel properties exceeded the specifications of national standard GB/T 4897. 6-2003,GB/T 4897. 7-2003 for structural particleboards.

  19. 纤维陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪性能试验研究%Evaluation of shear performance of reinforced ceramsite foamed concrete with cotton straw fiber

    王康; 陈国新; 陈磊; 万朝阳; 秦岷; 席亮


    In order to study the influence of cotton straw fiber on the shear performance of ceramsite foamed concrete,the experi-ment was performed by using double-sided direct shear method to evaluate the shear performance of fiber reinforced ceramsite foamed concrete.At the same fiber content and fiber length conditions,cotton straw fiber,glass fiber and polypropylene fiber re-inforcement effect on shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete were compared.Additionally,effects of cotton straw fiber con-tent and fiber length on shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete were also evaluated.Under the 0.2% fiber content and 6-10 mm fiber length conditions,the results indicated that the glass fiber reinforcement on the shear strength of ceramsite foamed con-crete is higher than the other kinds of fibers,polypropylene fiber followed,cotton stalk fiber is the lowest one.However,adding cotton fiber into ceramsite foamed concrete can also effectively improve its shear strength.Under the same cotton stalk fiber length but different fiber content conditions,it can be found that the blocks shear strength of 0.8% fiber content group is the highest with 39.2% increase in shear strength as compared with the same ratio for fiber specimens.Under the same cotton stalk fiber content but different fiber length conditions,it can be found that the 11-15 mm length of cotton fiber can further enhance the shear strength of ceramsite foamed concrete.The shear-compression ratio of cotton straw fiber reinforced ceramsite foamed con-crete is high and its shear performance is good.%为研究棉秆纤维对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的影响,采用双面剪切法进行抗剪性能试验,对比相同纤维掺量及纤维长度下,棉秆纤维、玻璃纤维和聚丙烯纤维对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的增强效果,分析棉秆纤维掺入量和纤维长度两个因素在不同水平下对陶粒泡沫混凝土抗剪强度的影响。结果表明:在0.2%纤维掺量及6

  20. Functional Analysis, Grouping and Expression Pattern Study of the Cotton Fiber Development-related Genes%棉纤维发育基因的功能分析、分类和表达形式

    Sheng-jian JI; Yong-hui SHI; Xiu-juan LIANG; Qiang FU; Yu-xian ZHU


    @@ Cotton fiber growth consists of four overlapping developmental stages: fiber initiation, cell elongation, secondary wall deposition and maturation. To date, great progresses have been made on cellulose synthesis and deposition. The iniation and elongation requires rapid cell division, differentiation, growth and elongation,which undoubtedly includes expression of large amounts of genes.

  1. Fishbone Diagram and Rotation Forest Predictive Model of Raw Cotton Quality for Yarn Quality%原棉质量对纱线质量的鱼骨图-旋转森林预测模型



    原棉质量的影响因素与纱线质量的关系具有不确定性,针对该问题,综合应用相关分析法、鱼骨图理论及旋转森林原理构建原棉质量对纱线质量的预测模型.采用相关分析法及原因型鱼骨图模型分析原棉影响因素与纱线质量的关联度,计算各因素权重.用实测18组纺纱数据对影响因素加权的旋转森林模型进行训练,测试结果良好.用13组数据作为测试数据,进行量预测,并且与其他预测模型进行对比.研究结果表明:鱼骨图模型可获得因素与纱线质量的关系,量化输入变量的重要性;结合旋转森林预测模型能更好地考虑各因素对纱线质量的综合影响,与其他方法进行比较,验证了鱼骨图-旋转森林模型在纱线质量预测中具有较高的精确度.%The relationship between factors of raw cotton quality and yarn quality is uncertain,so correlation analysis, fishbone diagram, and rotation forest algorithm are used to make the model of yarn quality prediction model from the perspective of quantitative analysis. Among them, correlation analysis and fishbone diagram are used to analysis the correlation degree of influence factors of raw cotton and yarn quality . Then the correlation degree is as the weight to predict by rotation forest algorithm.Eighteen groups of data are taken as training data. Additional thirteen groups as test data to verify it and compare with the other prediction method. The results show that the fishbone diagram can obtain the relationships among indexes and yarn quality, and the indexes' weights.The proposed method considering the mainfold factors can improve the prediction precision of raw cotton quality for yarn quality.Through compared with the other test data,the result shows that the model has a high accuracy.

  2. Application of an automatic yarn dismantler to track changes in cotton fiber properties during full scale processing of cotton into carded yarn

    Fassihi, A


    Full Text Available of fibers from dismantled yarn was higher, and SFC lower, than that in the twistless strand before twist insertion, indicating that, during twist insertion, short fibers were lost as fly and through suction. Fiber linear density and maturity showed similar...

  3. Modelling and Predicting the Breaking Strength and Mass Irregularity of Cotton Rotor-Spun Yarns Containing Cotton Fiber Recovered from Ginning Process by Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    Mohsen Shanbeh


    Full Text Available One of the main methods to reduce the production costs is waste recycling which is the most important challenge for the future. Cotton wastes collected from ginning process have desirable properties which could be used during spinning process. The purpose of this study was to develop predictive models of breaking strength and mass irregularity (CV% of cotton waste rotor-spun yarns containing cotton waste collected from ginning process by using the artificial neural network trained with backpropagation algorithm. Artificial neural network models have been developed based on rotor diameter, rotor speed, navel type, opener roller speed, ginning waste proportion and yarn linear density as input parameters. The parameters of artificial neural network model, namely, learning, and momentum rate, number of hidden layers and number of hidden processing elements (neurons were optimized to get the best predictive models. The findings showed that the breaking strength and mass irregularity of rotor spun yarns could be predicted satisfactorily by artificial neural network. The maximum error in predicting the breaking strength and mass irregularity of testing data was 8.34% and 6.65%, respectively.

  4. XRD and SEM/EDS characterization of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms used in the treatment of strontium in aqueous solution

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Silva, Flavia R.O.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    {sup 90}Sr, a radioactive isotope of strontium, is one of the fission products and quite often present in the radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants. Recently, the removal efficiency of strontium by treated coconut fibers was evaluated and reached up to 95% in an aqueous solution. This work presents the characterization of raw and treated coconut fibers with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in basic medium using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS). The analysis of X-ray diffraction shows a crystallinity of 37.6% for raw coconut fiber and crystallinity of 45.4% and 50.6% for coconut fibers 1 and 2, respectively. These results showed that the different degrees of degradation of organic matter can affect the crystallinity of the treated. This study of morphology and crystallinity of theses biosorbent materials with strontium will help in comprehension of the effects of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment and it will demonstrate the potential of strontium uptake by coconut fibers. (author)

  5. Effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable N, subtending leaf N concentration, fiber yield, and quality of cotton

    Binglin Chen


    Full Text Available Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, which is sensitive to N fertilization rate, is one of the indicators of soil nitrogen supplying capacity. Two field experiments were conducted in Dongtai (120°19″ E, 32°52″ N, Jiangsu, China in 2009 and Dafeng (120°28″ E, 33°12″ N, Jiangsu province, China in 2010. Six nitrogen rates (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg ha− 1 were used to study the effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content (SAHNC, subtending leaf nitrogen concentration (SLNC, yield, and fiber quality. In both Dongtai and Dafeng experiment station, the highest yield (1709 kg ha− 1, best quality (fiber length 30.6 mm, fiber strength 31.6 cN tex− 1, micronaire 4.82, and highest N agronomic efficiency (2.03 kg kg− 1 were achieved at the nitrogen fertilization rate of 375 kg ha− 1. The dynamics of SAHNC and SLNC could be simulated with a cubic and an exponential function, respectively. The changes in SAHNC were consistent with the changes in SLNC. Optimal average rate (0.276 mg day− 1 and duration (51.8 days of SAHNC rapid decline were similar to the values obtained at the nitrogen rate of 375 kg ha− 1 at which cotton showed highest fiber yield, quality, and N agronomic efficiency. Thus, the levels and strategies of nitrogen fertilization can affect SAHNC dynamics. The N fertilization rate that optimizes soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content would optimize the subtending leaf nitrogen concentration and thereby increase the yield and quality of the cotton fiber.

  6. Screening Cotton Mini-core Collection for Characterizing the Genetic Variability of Drought Resistance Traits and Selection of Suitable Mapping Population Parents for Genetic Dissection of Drought Resistance and Fiber Quality Traits



    @@ In the face of a global scarcity of water resources,drought has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide.In cotton,fiber productivity and quality is strongly influenced by water stress at any point of time during flowering to boll forming phases,and hence,it is imperative to improve the drought tolerance of cotton.This implies a need for a better characterization of the biodiversity available for drought tolerance and a complete perception of the physiological mechanisms,which are crucial to assure fiber yield and quality under water limited environments.

  7. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  8. Effects of several Plant Growth Regulators on the Yield and Fiber Quality of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Osman ÇOPUR


    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGR are used in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. production to balance vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as to increase seed cotton yield and lint quality. Field experiments were conducted with some PGRs to determine their effects on yield and yield components of cotton cultivar Stoneville 453. The study was conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the Agricultural Research and Application Centre of Harran University located in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. During the study, seven commercial PGRs (MC, NAP, BIGIB, KH, MCROP and BIGIBER were sprayed at recommended doses and appropriate application periods. Experiments were arranged as randomized complete block design with three replications. Experimental plots consisted of six rows, each having 12 m length, row spacing was 0.70 and intra-row spacing was 0.20 m. The results showed that PGRs (except PC had statistically significant positive effects on the seed cotton yield, plant height, number of open boll, number of sympodia, boll weight, lint percentage and seed index and that they decreased the earliness index. However, fibre length, fibre fineness, fibre strength and fibre uniformity were not affected by the applications. Higher yields were obtained in MCROP, BIGIB and BIGIBER treated plots. Therefore, PGRs might be considered a component of cotton growth management, which is effective on providing higher seed cotton yields.

  9. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.


    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  10. 绿色、棕色和白色棉品种光合作用与产量性状的研究%Comparative Studies on the Photosynthesis and Yield Characteristics among Green, Brown and White Fiber Cotton Varieties

    张海鹏; 周桃华; 周琴; 王荣富


    以棕色棉(皖棉38号)、绿色棉(皖棉39号)和白色棉(皖棉25号)为材料,研究了它们的光合表现与产量性状.结果表明:与白色棉相比,彩色棉皖棉38号和绿色棉皖棉39号中前期干物质积累速率慢、积累量少;叶绿素含量低;叶面积系数的增长主要在棉花生育中前期,盛花期以后,叶面积系数下降较快;光合速率在盛花前期略高于白色棉,但盛花期后明显低于白色棉.3个品种盛花期光合速率日变化有两个明显的峰值,分别为上午10时和下午16时,彩色棉的“午休”现象不明显,晴天中午下降的幅度较小,恢复的时间短,抗旱性较强.在产量性状方面,白色棉产量显著高于2个彩色棉且差异显著.%Using brown-fiber cotton (Wanmian 38), green-fiber cotton (Wanmian 39), and the'parental material called white-cotton (Wanmian 25) as experimental materials to analyze the differences of the photosynthesis character and yield in the three lines. The results indicated,compared with the white cotton, colored cottons had a relatively lower increasing rate and less amount of dry matter in the former and middle growth period, also chlorophyll' content were lower. In addition, leaf area indices of colored cotton went up mainly in the early growth stage, but they fell down fast after the full bloom stage. Just as photosynthetic rate, the green-fiber cotton and brown-fiber cotton were slightly higher than that of the white-cotton during the former full bloom stage, but obviously lower than the white-cotton during the later full bloom stage. In this study, there were two obvious peaks in diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate at 10:00am and 16:00pm among the three varieties. In comparison of white-cotton, the "nap phenomenon" of colored cottons were not obvious and their photosynthetic rate dropped within a small range, besides, the recovery time was short and the toler-ance to drought was stronger. Moreover, yields of the white-cotton

  11. Coordination and collaboration to document the global cotton germplasm resources

    Coordinated efforts to collect and maintain cotton genetic resources have increased over the last 100 years to insure the worldwide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byproducts. The classified genetic resources of cotton are extensive and include five tetraploid species in the primary gene ...

  12. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun


    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  13. 基于纤维纵向显微图像的棉/亚麻单纤维识别%Single fiber identification of cotton/ flax fabric based on longitudinal view of microscopic fiber images

    应乐斌; 戴连奎; 吴俭俭; 孙国君


    Aiming at cotton/flax blended fabrics, a new automatic identification method based on the longitudinal view of microscopic fiber images is proposed, in which the length of fiber about 0. 5 mm is used for image capture. For fiber detection, the background of fiber image is removed firstly, then fiber areas are detected by a method combining morphological close operation and background regional growth, and the glass scratches and other sundries in the images are filtered as well. Based on the region image, binary image and refining image of binary image perpendicular to the fiber skeleton, their vertical integral projection series are captured, and each coefficient variation ( CV value) and mean value of these three series are extracted and used as the texture parameters of cotton/flax blended fabric to train the least square support vector machine classifier. The experiment results show that the mean identification accuracy of cotton and flax fibers is 93. 3% .%针对棉/亚麻混纺织物,基于其单纤维纵向显微图像(纤维切段的长度约为0.5 mm),研究了纤维的自动识别方法.检测纤维时,先对纤维图像进行去背景处理,而后运用形态学闭运算和背景区域生长相结合的方法获得纤维的目标区域,对图片中出现的玻璃划痕、干扰杂物等进行了较好的滤除.由纤维骨架垂直方向上的区域图、二值图和细化图得到它们的垂直积分投影序列,并提取这3条序列各自的变异系数CV值和平均值共计6个参数.将这6个参数作为棉/亚麻纤维的特征参数,训练最小二乘支持向量机分类器,对测试集的测试结果表明该分类器对棉/亚麻短纤维的识别正确率平均为93.3%.

  14. Oil sorption by lignocellulosic fibers

    Beom-Goo. Lee; James S. Han; Roger M. Rowell


    The oil sorption capacities of cotton fiber, kenaf bast fiber, kenaf core fiber, and moss fiber were compared after refining, extraction, and reduction in particle sizes. The tests were conducted on diesel oil in a pure form. Cotton fiber showed the highest capacity, followed by kenaf core and bast fibers. Wetting, extraction, and reduction in particle size all...

  15. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan


    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  16. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  17. Preliminary examinations for the identification of U.S. domestic and international cotton fibers by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick rel...

  18. Water use, canopy temperature, lint yield, and fiber quality response of six upland cotton cultivars to water stress

    The declining saturated thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer combined with the unpredictability of precipitation during the growing season in the Southern High Plains has resulted in elevated production risks associated with short-term crop water deficits. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars that can use...

  19. Ameliorative effects of potassium nutrition on yield and fiber quality characteristics of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. under NaCl stress

    Muhammad Ashraf


    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. being moderately tolerant to salinity has been extensively grown in arid and semiarid regions where soil salinization is a major threat to plant growth and soil productivity. Excess salts in the growth medium may interfere with growth processes of cotton, leading to a severe decline in yield and fiber quality characteristics. Adequate mineral nutrient status of plants can provide an important strategy to improve plant tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment was planned to evaluate the ameliorative effects of additional potassium (K applied at 50 and 100 mg K2O kg-1 soil as potassium sulfate against NaCl stress of 100 and 180 mM in cotton. The experiment was conducted according to completely randomized design with five replications. NaCl caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05 increase in shoot sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl- with a corresponding decrease in shoot K+, K+: Na+ ratio, calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+. Plant growth, yield and fiber quality characteristics were also declined significantly by increasing external NaCl concentration. Additional K reduced shoot Na + while increased K+, K+: Na+ ratio, Ca2+ and Mg2+ with the consequent improvement in plant growth, lint yield and yield attributes as well as fiber quality characteristics at both levels of NaCl. Results revealed that K nutrition improved shoot K+: Na+ ratio by 116 and 246% at NaCl100 while 188 and 294% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively as compared to NaCl treated plants without additional K. Likewise, lint yield was improved by 38.27 and 60.49% at NaCl100 while 75.12 and 136% at NaCl180 with K50 and K100, respectively compared to NaCl stressed plants without additional K. Ameliorative effects of K against NaCl stress were relatively more prominent at higher K application at both NaCl levels. In conclusion, K-induced decrease in Na+, increase in Ca2+, K+, K+: Na+ ratio, relative water content and membrane stability index provide protective

  20. Fiber biology

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  1. An evaluation of eco-friendly naturally coloured cottons regarding seed cotton yield, yield components and major lint quality traits under conditions of East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    Efe, Lale; Killi, Fatih; Mustafayev, Sefer A


    In the study carried out in 2002-2003 in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey (in Kahramanmaras Province), four different naturally coloured cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) (dark brown, light brown, cream and green) lines from Azerbaijan and two white linted cotton varieties (Maras-92 and Sayar-314 (G. hirsutum L.)) of the region were used as material. The aim of this study was to determine seed cotton yield and yield components and major lint quality traits of investigated coloured cotton lines comprising white linted local standard cotton varieties. Field trials were established in randomized block design with four blocks. According to two year's results, it was determined that naturally coloured cottons were found similar to both white linted standard cotton varieties for sympodia number and seed cotton yield. For boll number per plant, except green cotton line all coloured cotton lines were similar to standard varieties or even some of them were better than standards. For ginning outturn, dark brown, cream and green cotton lines were found statistically similar to standard Maras-92. But all naturally coloured cotton lines had lower seed cotton weight per boll and generally lower fiber quality than white linted standard varieties. For fiber length and fiber strength cream cotton line was the best coloured cotton. And for fiber fineness only green cotton line was better than both standards. It can be said that naturally coloured cotton lines need to be improved especially for fiber quality characters in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  2. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  3. Efeito da tenacidade da fibra sobre propriedades tecnológicas do fio de algodão Effect of the cotton fiber strength on yarn properties

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino


    Full Text Available Consideraram-se três variedades de algodão com valores de tenacidade da fibra variando de 20,5 a 22,2 g/Tex: IAC 16, IAC 13-1 e IAC 17, classificadas, respectivamente, como de alta, média e baixa tenacidade. Tais variedades apresentaram características tecnológicas semelhantes quanto a comprimento, uniformidade de comprimento, índice de finura Micronaire e maturidade. As amostras foram processadas em estabelecimentos industriais, da maneira convencional, produzindo, cada uma, fios de títulos Ne20, Ne30 e Ne40. Para cada título, empregaram-se sete coeficientes de torção, representados pelas constantes 3,4, 3,6, 3,8, 4,0, 4,2, 4,5 e 4,7. Efetuaram-se as análises da variância dos resultados, de acordo com o delineamento fatorial 3 x 3 x 7, representado pelas três variedades, pelos três títulos e pelos sete níveis de coeficientes de torção. Mediante os resultados, conclui-se que fibras de algodão com alta tenacidade produzem fios mais resistentes e elásticos do que aquelas de baixa tenacidade, para qualquer título ou torção. A quantidade de torções requeridas para a obtenção de máxima resistência dos fios de algodão é pouco afetada pela tenacidade da fibra. Os fios de títulos mais altos têm os menores valores de tenacidade e elongação. A variedade IAC 16 apresentou fios com os maiores valores de tenacidade, seguida da 'IAC 13-1' e da 'IAC 17', e fios mais elásticos, acompanhada da 'IAC 17' e da 'IAC 13-1'.Three cottons with fiber strength of 20.5, 20.9 and 22.2 g/Tex and having other important fiber properties approximately equal were selected. The cottons were processed on conventional processing equipment into 20/1, 30/1 and 40/1 yarn counts, using a range of twist multipliers of 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 4.0, 4.2, 4.5 and 4.7. Yarn strength and elongation determinations were made on a pendulum-type tester of 150-300 lbs capacity. It was found that: 1 - High strength cotton produced stronger yarns than low strength for any

  4. 精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺小提花织物的开发%Development of Combed Cotton Milk Fiber Blended Small Jacquard Fabric

    杨小玲; 杜胜英; 魏强; 梁红丽


    探讨精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺小提花织物的生产技术措施.分析了精梳棉牛奶纤维混纺织物的特点,指出:该种织物织前工序应采用“小张力,低速度,重被覆,保伸长,减毛羽”的工艺原则,减少纱线毛羽及伸长;织造工序选用“小张力,适当大开口”的工艺原则,优选经位置线.通过一系列技术措施的实施,织机效率达到87.5%,产品下机一等品率达85%,达到了预期的目标.%Production technology measures of combed cotton milk fiber blended small jacquard fabric were discussed. Properties of combed cotton milk fiber blended fabric were analyzed. It is pointed out that processing principle of smaller tension,lower speed,more covering,proper elongation,less hairiness was adopted in weaving preparatory process. Elongation and hairiness of yarn were reduced. In weaving process, processing of smaller tension, proper larger Bhed was adopted,warp shed line was optimized. Through a series of technology measures,loom efficiency can reach 87. 5% ,production first grade percentage before cloth repairing can reach 85% ,the target can be reached.

  5. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  6. Enhanced attached growth of microalgae Scenedesmus. LX1 through ambient bacterial pre-coating of cotton fiber carriers.

    Zhuang, Lin-Lan; Azimi, Yaldah; Yu, Dawei; Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Yin-Hu; Dao, Guo-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ying


    The role of bacteria/extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) coated carriers on attached microalgae growth in suspended-solid phase photobioreactor (sspBR) was assessed in this study. The results showed that pre-coating cotton with ambient bacteria and their EPS improved the attached microalgal growth by as much as 230% in terms of attached microalgae density. Additionally, the single cell dry weight, chemical composition and oxygen evolving activity of attached microalgae were significantly affected by the presence of bacteria/EPS coating on the cotton carriers. The protein content of microalgae cells cultivated in the ssPBRs with carriers coated by bacteria and sterilized bacteria were on average 26% and 15% more than uncoated carriers, respectively. Through absorbing and immobilizing nutrients from the bulk medium, the bacteria/EPS coating provided the attached microalgae with nitrogen/phosphorus for protein synthesis, especially during the late stages of batch cultivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marketing policies and economic interests in the cotton sector of Kenya

    Dijkstra, Tjalling


    This report, which is based on field research carried out in 1988, examines the marketing arrangements for raw cotton, cotton lint and cotton seed in Kenya, as well as the relationships and conflicts between the actors involved. The report starts with the history of cotton production and marketing i

  8. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Alaa Arafa Badr


    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  9. Progress report on understanding AFIS seed coat nep levels in pre-opened slivers on the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    The Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) is utilized in this segment of the research project to study how seed coat neps are measured. A patent search was conducted, and studied to assist with the understanding of the AFIS measurement of this impurity in raw cotton. The older AFIS 2 is primari...

  10. Low-level hydrogen peroxide generation by unbleached cotton nonwovens: implications for wound healing applications

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. The compon...

  11. FIAS fiber maturity measurement based on ribbon width and Fiber Density

    Fineness and maturity parameters of cotton fibers are often derived from measurements of cotton fiber cross-sections. Currently, image analysis is used to measure cross sectional properties of cotton fibers such as total area, cellulose area, lumen area, fiber perimeter, lumen perimeter, circularity...

  12. Removal of cesium using coconut fiber in raw and modified forms for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Jesus, Nella N.M. de; Nobre, Vanessa B.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Di Vitta, Patricia B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica


    Sorption is one of the most studied methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste streams. Cesium-137 is a radioisotope formed by the fission of uranium and it can cause health problems due to its easy assimilation by cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of coconut fiber in removing cesium from radioactive liquid wastes; this process can help in disposing radioactive waste. The experiments were performed in batch and the particle size of the fiber ranged between 0.30 mm and 0.50 mm. The fiber was treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium. The following parameters were analyzed: contact time, pH and concentration of cesium ions in aqueous solution. After the experiments the samples were filtered and cesium remaining in solution was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. (author)

  13. Laser imaging method for fast detecting white foreign fibers in cotton%棉花中白色异性纤维的激光成像快速检测方法

    刘翔; 何相呈; 苏真伟; 刘锋; 王冬; 顾其彪


    现有的棉花异性纤维分拣机采用可见光照明成像,难以识别棉花中混杂的白色异性纤维。为了有效地检测出与棉花颜色相同或相近的白色异性纤维,该文采用线激光照明成像的方法,在固定线激光功率、波长和相机光圈的条件下,利用不同的曝光时间,获取了12种典型的白色异性纤维与皮棉的图像,分析其成像曝光时间与图像对比度之间的关系,发现不同的关系曲线存在一段共有的最优曝光峰值时间。在此曝光时间内,同一图像中的白色异性纤维已经“过曝”,而棉花还处于欠饱和状态。二者图像灰度值的明显差异可用于检测棉花中的白色异性纤维。该文在线激光功率为0.8 W,波长650 nm,相机光圈为8C,曝光时间为1.6 ms的条件下获取了1500幅图像。试验表明,采用简单的固定阈值法,皮棉中12种典型的白色异性纤维的识别率达到了95.8%。研究结果为提高棉花中白色异性纤维的识别率和速度提供了一条新途径。%Foreign fibers, such as polypropylene baler twine, packaging materials, ropes, small pieces of cloths, nylon, and other different synthetic fibers, are almost invariably present in cotton during the cotton picking, storing, drying, and transporting. Their presence in textile processing may cause a disastrous quality problem in the textile industry because their physical and chemical properties are different from cotton. In recent years, machine vision systems have been used for sorting out the foreign fibers from cotton, however, all of the sorting machines cannot efficiently identify white foreign fibers in cotton, because their color is the same or very similar under the illumination of visible light. The laser imaging method previously suggested by our team can distinguish most of the white foreign fibers from cotton based on the difference of the microstructure of the sample surface, but the successful

  14. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Zhang, Baohong


    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  15. Linear Laser Detecting Method of White Foreign Fibers in Cotton Based on Sample Cross-section Imaging%基于线激光截面成像的棉花白色异性纤维检测方法

    刘锋; 苏真伟; 乔丽


    Machine vision inspection of white foreign fibers in cotton is a research hotspot in China and aboard. Based on the fact that there are flosses and free filaments on the surface of a cotton layer, and most of the white foreign fiber surfaces are smooth, without any floss, an image acquisition method of the cross-section of the samples under the illumination of linear laser was proposed, which showed the differences of the microstructure characteristic of their surface from the reflection and transmission of the linear laser. Then, according to the features of the distribution and density of the flosses around the white spots in the images, an algorithm for identification of cotton and white foreign fibers was suggested. The experimental results indicated that, by the new method, the detecting rate of the white foreign fibers in cotton was up to 86. 9% .%针对棉层表面散布绒毛或游离的纤维细丝,而异性纤维表面光洁无毛的特点,提出了一种基于线激光的样本截面图像获取方法,获取并显示了其微观结构在激光照射下的图像差异.在此基础上,根据激光照射下二者周围有无高亮度的星点,以及星点的分布特征,提出了一种棉花中白色异性纤维的识别算法.实验结果表明,该方法对棉花中典型白色异性纤维的识别率达到了86.9%.

  16. 保护棉纤维和非织造布工厂的金属探测仪%Metal detectors protect cotton fiber and nonwovens plants

    J. Konig


    现代纤维生产没有金属探测仪是不可想象的。它们在棉纤维转换成非织造材料的生产链中保护材料和机器。作为唯一不需要增加移动管就可直接集成到气动输送线的金属探测器——Metmn 05 PowerLine(德国Mesutronic公司生产),已用于德国ErkoTriitzschler公司的非织造工厂,以检测纤维中的金属颗粒。小于2m的传感器间距和极快的机构提高了除杂的可靠性。气动输送线中重型和轻型团块在气流中的速度差异几乎没有影响,将除杂损失降到最低。%Modem fiber production without metal detectors is inconceivable today. They protect material and machines in the refinement chain from the cotton fiber to the nonwovens material. The only metal detector that can be directly integrated into the pneumatic conveying line without a probe tube, the Metron 05 PowerLine from Mesutronic GmbH, Kirchberg,/Germany, examines the fibers in nonwovens plants from Erko Trtitzschler GmbH, Dtilmen/German, for metallic particles. The short distance of less than 2 m between the sensor and the extremely fast mechanism increases ejection reliabihy. The difference in the airspeeds of heavy and light parts in the pneumatic conveying line has virtually no effect. This reduces ejection losses to a minimum.

  17. Impacto do beneficiamento sobre o número de neps e quantidade de impurezas da fibra do algodão Ginning impact on the number of neps and amount of cotton fiber contaminants

    Odilon R. R. F. da Silva


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar o efeito do beneficiamento sobre o conteúdo de impurezas, pó e o número de neps na pluma, em 12 algodoeiras do Estado de Mato Grosso. O experimento consistiu de uma combinação fatorial de cinco etapas de beneficiamento do algodão em 12 algodoeiras em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Amostras de algodão foram coletadas nas seguintes etapas: a no desmanche do fardão; b antes do descaroçamento; c logo após o descaroçamento; d na bica, sem o uso do limpador tipo serrilha; e na bica, após a limpeza da pluma, utilizando-se o limpador tipo serrilha. Em todas as etapas se retiraram quatro amostras padrão de pluma com massa de 350 g a fim de serem analisadas mediante o instrumento AFIS (Advanced Fiber Information System para determinação do conteúdo de impurezas e poeira e o número de neps da fibra. Os resultados indicam que os processos de prelimpeza do algodão em caroço e limpeza da pluma reduzem o conteúdo de impurezas e da poeira do algodão enquanto, juntamente com o descaroçamento, esses processos aumentaram o número de neps da fibra do algodão. A utilização do limpador de pluma tipo serrilha com manta contínua aumenta a eficiência de limpeza da pluma, porém ocasiona incrementos significativos no número de neps.The purpose of this work was to study the ginning effect on the amount of cotton contaminants, dust and neps in cotton fiber, in 12 industries in the Mato Grosso State. The experiment consisted of a factorial combination over five stages of ginning and 12 cotton industries using a randomized design with four replications. Some samples of cotton were collected in the following phases: a in the bale dismantling; b before the ginning; c right after ginning; d into the covered lint slide not using the saw lint cleaner; and e into the covered lint slide, after cleaning process using the saw lint cleaner system. Over all stages four standard samples of

  18. 新型竹原纤维鞋垫材料的开发%Development of novel raw bamboo fiber insole materials

    刘建政; 吴锐


      介绍了竹原纤维鞋垫材料的生产工艺和性能测试结果,并与当前市场上以乙烯-醋酸乙烯共聚物(EVA)和聚氨酯(PU)为基材的主流鞋垫材料的性能进行比较。结果表明,竹原纤维鞋垫材料的透气性、吸湿性和力学性能均超过EVA材料和PU材料。利用竹原纤维天然抑菌的特性,不用添加化学助剂就能有效抑菌,使产品更环保、舒适和安全。竹原纤维鞋垫材料的性能符合鞋品逐渐向轻质、弹性、透气、吸水和健康方面发展的要求。%The manufacture process of raw bamboo fiber insole materials and their properties tests were introduced and comparison on their properties and that of current EVA and PU insole materials , the test results show that the permeability and absorption and mechanical property of the former be better than that of the rest.The raw bamboo fiber with property of bacteriostatic could made products more comfortable and safe as well as environment-protectable, and this kind of insole material would be light, elastic, permeable, absorbable and health.

  19. Nonwoven greige cotton for wound healing and hygienic product applications

    The potential to use greige (non-bleached) cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention. This is due to innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwoven hydroentanglement processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorpt...

  20. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  1. Cotton-based nonwovens and their potential scope

    Although the overall use of cotton fiber in modern nonwovens has been limited, certain recent commercial and research developments make the use of cotton and its derivatives more attractive in nonwovens. The commercial developments include the availability of pre-cleaned greige cotton, purified (ble...

  2. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  3. Laser line scan imaging method for detection of white foreign fibers in cotton%棉花中白色异性纤维的线扫描激光成像检测方法

    王冬; 尹伯彪; 刘翔; 何相呈; 苏真伟


    在可见光和紫外光照明条件下,皮棉中白色异性纤维和棉花背景的颜色相近,很难用现有的机器视觉系统或人工方法检测出来。该文以12种典型白色异性纤维为样本,采用线扫描相机,分别在红色激光(波长658 nm)、蓝色激光(波长405 nm)和红外激光(波长850 nm)3种照明条件下,改变激光功率和曝光时间,获取了300幅白色异性纤维与棉花的图像。在此基础上,根据同一图像中目标和背景的平均灰度值计算了图像的对比度,然后作出了不同激光波长、功率、曝光时间和图像对比度之间的关系曲线,最后,在该试验装置的条件下,该文确定了线激光成像的最佳检测波长为658 nm、光功率为55 mW和曝光时间为36µs,发现采用优化的线激光参数成像,图像中12种白色异性纤维灰度值已经接近饱和而棉花还处于欠饱和状态,“目标”和“背景”的对比度达到最大,利用两者平均灰度值的明显差异可以检测出棉花中的白色异性纤维。试验结果表明,采用优化的线激光成像参数获取730幅棉花图像,利用简单的Prewitt算子边缘检测法和固定阈值的二值化方法对图像进行分割,12种典型白色异性纤维样本的正确识别率分别可达93.7%和92.9%。%With the development of machine vision systems, auto-sorting systems have been used for removal of foreign fibers (contaminants) in cotton. Of them, white foreign fibers are hardly distinguished from lint cotton because their colors are the same or very close under the illumination of visible lights and ultraviolet lights in the inspection by an existing machine vision system or manual sorting. The laser imaging methods previously suggested by our team can detect most of the white foreign fibers in cotton, but there are 2 problems that need to be solved: One is that they can only use area cameras for the inspection, which is not

  4. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Matusiak Małgorzata


    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  5. Sampling nucleotide diversity in cotton

    Yu John Z


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated cotton is an annual fiber crop derived mainly from two perennial species, Gossypium hirsutum L. or upland cotton, and G. barbadense L., extra long-staple fiber Pima or Egyptian cotton. These two cultivated species are among five allotetraploid species presumably derived monophyletically between G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Genomic-based approaches have been hindered by the limited variation within species. Yet, population-based methods are being used for genome-wide introgression of novel alleles from G. mustelinum and G. tomentosum into G. hirsutum using combinations of backcrossing, selfing, and inter-mating. Recombinant inbred line populations between genetics standards TM-1, (G. hirsutum × 3-79 (G. barbadense have been developed to allow high-density genetic mapping of traits. Results This paper describes a strategy to efficiently characterize genomic variation (SNPs and indels within and among cotton species. Over 1000 SNPs from 270 loci and 279 indels from 92 loci segregating in G. hirsutum and G. barbadense were genotyped across a standard panel of 24 lines, 16 of which are elite cotton breeding lines and 8 mapping parents of populations from six cotton species. Over 200 loci were genetically mapped in a core mapping population derived from TM-1 and 3-79 and in G. hirsutum breeding germplasm. Conclusion In this research, SNP and indel diversity is characterized for 270 single-copy polymorphic loci in cotton. A strategy for SNP discovery is defined to pre-screen loci for copy number and polymorphism. Our data indicate that the A and D genomes in both diploid and tetraploid cotton remain distinct from each such that paralogs can be distinguished. This research provides mapped DNA markers for intra-specific crosses and introgression of exotic germplasm in cotton.

  6. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  7. Reed canary grass as energy and fiber raw material; Roerflen som energi- och fiberraavara. En system- och ekonomistudie

    Olsson, Rolf; Rosenqvist, H.; Vinterbaeck, J.; Burvall, J.; Finell, M.


    In this report, a system and economic analysis is reported for cultivation of RCG for energy purpose and as a raw material for the paper industry. The interest in cultivation of Reed Canary Grass (RCG) is growing in Sweden due to the new tax on waste disposal, since sewage sludge could be recycled in RCG cultivation. Increased carbon sinks in soil is another positive factor. Plant selection work in Finland and Sweden have resulted in 20% higher harvests than the feed varieties of RCG. Silty/sandy soils give highest yields. Before investments could be made in paper industry, a production volume of about 100,000 tons/year would have to be reached, demand a cultivation area of about 40,000 ha. The initial market before this level is reached should be the energy sector, specially smaller district heating systems. Processed to pellets, briquettes or powder, RCG can substitute fuel oil.

  8. 开发汉麻棉涡流纱的体会%Experience of Developing Hemp Cotton Vortex Yarn



    To develop hemp cotton vortex yarn, hemp fiber and long-staple cotton raw material were selected reasonably, hemp fiber was pretreated. According to characteristics of hemp fiber raw material, related technulogy measures were adopted,such as selecting fore-spinning and vortex spinning processing parameters rationally, controlling temperature & humidity strictly,finally hemp/cotton 60/40 21. 6 tex vortex yarn can be developed successfully, yam hairiness can be reduced, yam quality level and usability can be improved. It is considered that it is feasible to use vortex spinning technology producing high content hemp cotton blended yarn,yarn hairiness can be reduced and hemp cotton blended yam quality level can be improved.%为开发高比例汉麻棉涡流纱,通过合理选用汉麻纤维和长绒棉原料,对汉麻纤维进行预处理,针对汉麻纤维原料特点,合理配置前纺和涡流纺工艺参数及采取有关技术措施,严格控制温湿度,结果顺利地开发出汉麻/棉60/40 21.6 tex涡流纱,大幅度降低了成纱毛羽,提升了质量水平和使用性能.认为:利用涡流纺纱技术生产高比例汉麻棉混纺纱在技术上是可行的,有助于大幅度降低纱线毛羽、提升汉麻棉混纺纱质量档次.

  9. Study on Compression Mechanical Properties of Waste Cotton Fibers Bio-Composites%废棉纤维生物复合材料压缩力学性能的研究

    邱金帆; 李国辉; 吕鹏飞; 张海泉


    采用糙皮侧耳真菌的菌丝体来替代传统的化学粘合剂来粘结废棉纤维并通过一定的后加工处理制备质轻环保的废棉纤维生物复合板材,并通过添加废旧烟梗和烟叶作为骨架材料来增强其压缩强度。实验结果表明,添加了不同骨架材料的棉纤维生物复合板抗压载荷和压缩弹性模量都优于废棉纤维生物复合板;厚度为20 mm的废棉纤维生物复合板在合理的压缩范围内的抗压载荷达到12.35 kN,而添加了烟叶和烟梗的废棉纤维生物复合板的抗压载荷分别达到了10.16 kN和27.10 kN;最终制成的三种不同的生物复合材料其压缩弹性模量最高达到22.40 MPa,赋予了该生物复合材料特殊的静态压缩特性。%Light and green waste cotton fibers bio-composites were prepared by the use of the mycelium of pleurotus ostreatus to intertwine the waste cotton fibers instead of the traditional chemical adhesives and then certain post processing,and improving its compressive strength by adding waste tobacco leaves and stems as the skeletal materials. The results show that the compressive load and compression modulus of the waste cotton fiber bio-composite panels added with different skeletal materials are better than cotton fiber bio-composite panels. The compressive load of the waste cotton fibers bio-composite panels with the thickness of 20 mm reach 12.35 kN in the reasonable compression range, and the compressive load of the two materials by adding tobacco leaves and stems are up to 10.16 kN and 27.10 kN respectively. The most high compression modulus of the final three different biological composites is 22.40 MPa,which lead to the special static compression characteristics of the materials.

  10. A New High-Speed Foreign Fiber Detection System with Machine Vision

    Zhiguo Chen


    Full Text Available A new high-speed foreign fiber detection system with machine vision is proposed for removing foreign fibers from raw cotton using optimal hardware components and appropriate algorithms designing. Starting from a specialized lens of 3-charged couple device (CCD camera, the system applied digital signal processor (DSP and field-programmable gate array (FPGA on image acquisition and processing illuminated by ultraviolet light, so as to identify transparent objects such as polyethylene and polypropylene fabric from cotton tuft flow by virtue of the fluorescent effect, until all foreign fibers that have been blown away safely by compressed air quality can be achieved. An image segmentation algorithm based on fast wavelet transform is proposed to identify block-like foreign fibers, and an improved canny detector is also developed to segment wire-like foreign fibers from raw cotton. The procedure naturally provides color image segmentation method with region growing algorithm for better adaptability. Experiments on a variety of images show that the proposed algorithms can effectively segment foreign fibers from test images under various circumstances.

  11. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG


    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  12. CCI and CI Join Hands:A Better Supply Chain with More Innovations on Cotton Fabrics

    Tom; Xue


    Cotton Council International("CCI")and Cotton Incorporated("CI") joined forces again,from October 19-22,2010 at Intertextile Shanghai,to promote natural fiber-U.S.cotton.As global textile strategic partners,both organizations were bringing together alliances through the cotton

  13. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”


    ... (Mississippi Levee Com'rs v. Refuge Cotton Oil Co., 91 Miss. 480, 44 So. 828, 829). Mote ginning, the process... a ginning process to extract the short-fiber cotton, is not included in the ginning of cotton unless... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the...

  14. Cotton Wool Derived Carbon Fiber Aerogel Supported Few-Layered MoSe2 Nanosheets As Efficient Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution.

    Zhang, Youfang; Zuo, Lizeng; Zhang, Longsheng; Huang, Yunpeng; Lu, Hengyi; Fan, Wei; Liu, Tianxi


    Recent studies have proven that newly emerging two-dimensional molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) is a promising noble-metal-free electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Increasing the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanostructures is a key issue to fully realize the excellent electrochemical properties of MoSe2. In this work, a few-layered MoSe2/carbon fiber aerogel (CFA) hybrids have been facilely obtained through the combination of high-temperature carbonization and one-pot solvothermal reaction. CFA derived from cotton wool is used as a three-dimensional conductive network for construction of hierarchical MoSe2/CFA hybrids, where few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets are uniformly and perpendicularly decorated on the surfaces of CFA. In the designed and prepared hybrids, CFA effectively increases the exposures of the active edges of MoSe2 nanosheets as well as provides reduced lengths for both electron transportation and ion diffusion. Therefore, the obtained optimal MoSe2/CFA hybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical activity as HER electrocatalyst with a small onset potential of -0.104 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode and a small Tafel slope of 62 mV per decade, showing its great potential as a next-generation Pt-free electrocatalyst for HER.

  15. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  16. Quantitative analysis and QTL mapping for agronomic and fiber traits in an RI population of Upland cotton

    In this present study, we evaluated a RI population including 188 RI lines developed from 94 F2-derived families and their two parental lines, ‘HS 46’ and MARCABUCAG8US-1-88 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), at Mississippi State, MS, for two years. Fourteen agronomic and fiber traits were measured. One hundr...

  17. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  18. Development of Plain Fabrics Spun by BlendedYarn of Color Cotton/ Lyocell/Ramie/Spun Silk Fiber%彩棉/Lyocell/苎麻/绢丝混纺纱平纹织物的开发



      本文通过彩棉、苎麻、Lyocell、绢丝混纺纱线的合理组合,探索出了最优的配棉工艺,纺出了9.8  tex的高档高支纱,其织成的面料经过酶处理,免烫整理,可作高档衬衫面料.%  This paper searched the optimal cotton distribution technology for high-grade blended yarn of 9.8 tex by reasonable combination of cotton, ramie, lyocell and silk fiber. The fabric woven with this blended yarn could be used as high-quality shirt fabrics after the enzyme and non-iron finishing treatment.

  19. Potential of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire determination

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  20. Use of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton micronaire assessment

    Micronaire is one of important cotton properties as it reflects fiber maturity and fineness. Automation-based high volume instrumentation (HVITM) measurement has been well established as a primary and routine tool of providing fiber micronaire and other quality properties to cotton breeders and fibe...

  1. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...



    Dec 4, 2013 ... sorghum, cotton, vegetables among others), livestock (cattle, goats, swine, and ...... HM (2009). Chemical composition of raw milk and heavy metals ... fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds.

  2. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton


    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  3. 控释氮肥对不同部位棉铃素质及纤维品质的影响%Effects of Controlled Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quality of Cotton Bolls and Fiber in Different Fruiting Branches

    李学刚; 孙学振; 宋宪亮; 孙淑娟; 陈二影; 张美玲


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences between urea and controlled release urea in terms of their effects on the qualities of cotton bolls and fiber.The cotton cultivar Lumianyan No.28 was grown under field conditions with three types of controlled release nitrogen fertilizers; 100% PCU (pitch controlled urea),50% U (urea) +50% PCU (pitch controlled urea),and 100% CRBBF (controlled release bulk blending fertilizer).Compared with the control,those treatments that received controlled release nitrogen fertilizer showed improved quality of cotton bolls and fiber.That is,they showed improved quality of cotton bolls and fiber at the third to fifth fruit node on both middle and upper fruiting branches,an increased number of fruiting branches,greater boll weight at both positions on the plant,and a decreased lint percentage.Applying controlled release nitrogen fertilizer increased the fiber micronaire,significantly improved the fiber strength,and shortened the time to reach fiber maturity,but it did not affect fiber length.These results indicated that 100% PCU and CRBBF treatments significantly affected the quality of cotton bolls and fiber.%设计100%树脂包膜尿素基施、50%普通尿素+50%树脂包膜尿素基施和棉花控释专用肥基施3种控释氮肥处理,以100%普通尿素为对照,研究等氮条件下,不同控释氮肥处理对棉花(鲁棉研28号)不同结铃部位棉铃素质及纤维品质的影响.结果表明,与普通氮肥处理相比,控释氮肥处理对棉株3~5果节和中上部果枝的棉铃素质及纤维品质影响显著,呈现出铃重增加、衣分降低的趋势,而对其他部位棉铃素质及纤维品质无显著影响.控释氮肥处理显著增大了纤维马克隆值,增加了纤维比强度,提高了纤维成熟度,但对纤维长度影响不显著.3个控施氮肥处理以100%树脂包膜尿素基施处理和棉花控释专用肥基施处理影响最显著.

  4. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary


    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  5. 基于GGE双标图与纤维长度选择的棉花品种生态区探索与划分%Cotton Megaenvironment Investigation Based on GGE Biplot and Fiber Length Selection

    金石桥; 许乃银


    The possible megaenvironments in the Yangtze River Valley based on cotton fiber length selection were investigated and divided in order to provide the scientific rationale for the decision-making of cotton fiber length selection and recommendation for the target environment. GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to analyze the classification scheme of the megaenvironments in the target environment on the purpose of cotton fiber length selection in the cotton variety trial in the Yangtze River Valley during the 2000-2010 periods. Based on the environment combination pattern concluded from the“which-won-where”view of GGE biplot and the corresponding information ratio adjustment, the cotton planting regions in Yangtze River Valley was divided into three distinct fiber length selection megaenvironments, namely, the first megaenvironment contained seven test environments including Anqin, Jiujiang, Wuhan, Nantong, Huanggang, Changde and Yueyang; the second megaenvironment contained four test environments including Jingzhou, Yancheng, Nanjing and Shehong;and the third megaenvironment contained test environment of Cixi, Jianyang, Xiangfan and Nanyang. It was feasible to select and utilize the particular varieties within the particular megaenvironment, thus to enhance the cotton fiber length selection and application efficiency.%探索和划分长江流域棉区基于棉花纤维长度选择的品种生态区,为棉花品种纤维长度的选择和推荐提供决策依据。采用GGE双标图方法分析了2000-2010年期间长江流域国家棉花品种区域试验目标环境基于纤维长度选择的品种生态区划分方案。以GGE双标图的“品种与环境最佳组合”功能图展示的试验环境组合模式为基础,并采用信息比进行较正,结果表明中国长江流域棉区大致可划分为基于纤维长度选择的3个品种生态区,第1个品种生态区包括安庆、九江、武汉、南通、黄冈、常德和岳阳,第2个

  6. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S


    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  7. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John


    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  8. Identification of Conserved Cotton MicroRNAs and Their Targets

    ZHANG Bao-hong; WANG Qing-lian


    @@ No study has been performed on identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets in cotton although cotton is one of the most important fiber and economic crops around the world.In this study,we found 30 potential cotton miRNAs using a comparative genomic approach based on genomic survey sequence analysis and miRNA secondary structure.These cotton miRNAs belong to 22 miRNA families.Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis indicated that the predicted miRNAs were expressed in cotton plants.

  9. A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  10. Preparation of Adsorbent Based on Modiifcation of Cotton Fibers by HBP-NH2 and Its Property%HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂的制备及性能研究

    孙凤; 臧传峰; 闫腾; 张德锁; 陈宇岳; 林红


    A modified cotton fiber adsorbent was prepared successfully by grafting amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) onto oxidized cotton ifbers. Its technology of preparation was optimized based on the adsorption quantity of Cd2+. The results showed that the modiifed cotton ifbers have the highest adsorption capacity up to Cd2+when 20 g/L HBP-NH2 reacted with oxidized cotton ifbers at 60℃and 11.03 pH value for 2 h. The adsorption quantity of Cd2+could reach 38.94 mg/g.%本研究通过氧化活化棉纤维的方法将端氨基超支化聚合物(HBP-NH2)接枝到棉纤维表面,成功制备了一种HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂,并以Cd2+的吸附量为依据对吸附剂的制备工艺进行了优化。研究表明HBP-NH2改性棉纤维吸附剂最佳制备工艺为:在60℃下,pH值为11.03的20 g/L HBP-NH2溶液中(浴比1∶50),接枝反应2 h,所制备的改性棉纤维对Cd2+的吸附量最高,可达38.94 mg/g。

  11. A one bath chemo-enzymatic process for preparation of absorbent cotton

    A.S.M. Raja; A. Arputharaj; Sujata Saxena; P.G. Patil


    Cotton is the raw material for preparation of absorbent cotton. Raw cotton has to be subjected to scouring and bleaching processes for making it absorbent by removing the naturally present wax, protein and minerals in the fibre. The scouring is done at 115 °C using alkali followed by bleaching at boiling condition using alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The effluent coming out of such processes contains high COD and BOD values. Due to the stringent environmental regulation and great awaren...

  12. 棉织物上SESA活化法固定化脂肪酶工艺的研究*%Study on immobilization of lipase onto cotton fiber activated by SESA

    彭立凤; 刘新喜


    研究了对-β-硫酸酯乙砜基苯胺活化法在棉织物上固定化脂肪酶的工艺条件,并考察了固定化酶的最适作用温度和pH及间歇操作稳定性。最佳固定化条件为:醚化pH为10.0,偶联pH为7.0,脂肪酶的浓度为6 mg/ml,偶联时间为12h,所得固定化脂肪酶的最大活力为35U/g(棉)·min。固定化酶的最适作用温度为35℃,最适pH为8.0,半衰期为6d。%The conditions of the lipase immobilization onto cotton fiber activated by p-β-sulfuric acid ester ethyl sulfone aniline (SESA) have been studied. The optimal temperature and pH of the immobilized lipase were investigated, and the operating stability of the immobilized lipase was studied too. The results showed that the optimal conditions for the immobilization were that the pH of the reaction for the cotton fiber with SESA was 10.0,the linking pH of lipase to fiber was 7.0,the linking time was 12h,and the concentration of lipase was 6mg· mL- 1 .Then 35 U· g(fiber) - 1 · min- 1 activity of immobilized lipase was obtained. The optimal temperature and pH of the immobilized lipase were 35 ℃ and 8.0 respectively, and its half life was 6 days .

  13. Physical and combustion properties of nonwoven fabrics produced from conventional and naturally colored cottons

    A comparative study was conducted to identify the effects of processing parameters on physical and combustion properties of needlepunched (NP) and hydroentangled (H-E) nonwoven fabrics produced from fibers of a standard Mid-South white fiber cotton and a naturally colored brown fiber cotton. The fl...

  14. 生长物质对彩色棉胚珠离体培养纤维发育的影响%Effects of Growth Substances on the Fiber Growth and Development of Color Cotton Ovule Culturein vitro

    刘松江; 龚文芳; 孙君灵; 庞保印; 杜雄明


    .72%和8.81%(P<0.05);添加适宜浓度的甘露醇(30 g·L-1)、氯化钠(0.10 mol·L-1)、氯化钾(0.20 mol·L-1)、蔗糖(10 g·L-1)、茉莉酸甲酯(40μmol·L-1)或者苯丙氨酸(0.10 mmol·L-1)有利于棕色棉显色,其中40μmol·L-1茉莉酸甲酯效果最好;试验所用的生长物质处理下,绿色棉显色差异不大。【结论】蔗糖为彩色棉胚珠生长和纤维发育提供了糖源和渗透环境;适宜浓度的茉莉酸甲酯、油菜素内酯或阿魏酸有利于棕色棉和绿色棉纤维伸长发育;油菜素内酯和茉莉酸甲酯存在交叉作用,油菜素内酯主要参与纤维伸长过程中,而茉莉酸甲酯可能参与到棕色棉色素代谢过程中;一定浓度的甘露醇、氯化钠、氯化钾、蔗糖、茉莉酸甲酯或苯丙氨酸有利于棕色棉色素合成;渗透压调节剂、植物生长调节剂和类黄酮前体物质对绿色棉纤维显色作用不明显。%[Objective] In order to establish and optimize theovule culture system of brown cotton and green cotton, the effects of growth substances (osmotic regulators, plant growth regulators and flavonoids biosynthesis precursors) on the fiber growth and development were studied.[Method]Brown cotton variety Z1-61, green cotton variety CC28 and the white cotton variety RT-White (control sample) were used as plant materials. The conventional ways of cultivation and management were adopted. Flowers were tagged at 0 day post anthesis (DPA), and then the ovules of 3 DPA were used for ovule culture in vitro. Besides the addition of 10.0μmol·L-1IAA and 5.0μmol·L-1GA3, different concentrations of osmotic regulators (mannitol, NaCl, KCl and sucrose), plant growth regulators (MeJA and BR) and flavonoids biosynthesis precursors (phenylalanine and ferelic acid ) were added to the basic BT medium, respectively. Except investigating the interaction effect between brassinolide and methyl jasmonate, the other experiments were

  15. Study on the Handle of Keratin Transgenic Cotton Fabric

    蒋培清; 严文源; 严灏景


    Gene of animal keratin can be inoculated into cotton fiber and thus get the keratin transgenic cotton fiber through transgenic technology. Handle of two kinds of pure cotton poplin, one of which is made of the keratin transgenic cotton while the other is made of the ordinary cotton of the same breed as control group and both with absolutely identical spinning, weaving, and dyeing process, was objectively evaluated with KES system. The result of analysis indicates that the principal changes of keratin transgenic cotton fabric are that the bending and shearing property of the fabric are considerably enhanced, KOSHI (Stiffness) and HARI (Anti-drape stiffness) of the fabric are good, while SHINAYAKASA (Flexibility with soft feeling) and SHARI (Crispness) decline.

  16. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B


    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  17. Molecular tools for contemporary cotton breeding

    Among approximately 50 Gossypium (cotton) species are two tetraploids (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) and two diploids (G. arboreum, and G. herbaceum) that are domesticated to produce raw materials for global textile and oilseed industries with an increasing demand for high-yield and high-quality of co...

  18. Raw Materials Selection, Formula Design and Quality Control for Producing Electronic-grade Glass Fibers%电子级玻璃纤维生产原料选用、配方设计及质量控制



    介绍了电子级玻璃纤维实际生产新原料的选用、配方设计、熔制氧化-还原状态量化管理。探讨各种原料质量控制。对比不同原料配方生产的拉丝成品率、满筒率、中空纤维、能耗等。阐述了各项控制指标的配合应用、精细化玻璃纤维生产管理。%An introduction is made to the raw materials selection, formula design, quantitative management of melt-ing oxidation-reduction as well as the quality control of various raw materials for actual production of electronic-grade glass fibers. . The glass strand yield, full package rate, hollow fiber percentage and energy consumption in the cases of using different formulas are conpared. Furthermore, the combination of various controls and meticulous management of glass fiber production are elaborated.

  19. Palha de cana-de-açúcar como matéria-prima na obtenção de fibras celulósicas para papel Sugarcane straw as raw material to produce cellulosic fibers for papermaking

    Anisio Azzini


    Full Text Available No presente estudo, procedeu-se à caracterização morfológica das fibras celulósicas obtidas a partir da palha de cana-de-açúcar. Esse material, classificado como um resíduo fibroso, apresentou comprimento médio (1,24 mm intercalado das fibras do eucalipto (1,0 mm e do Pinus (4,0 mm, principais fontes de matérias-primas celulósicas. Para as demais dimensões da fibra, os valores médios obtidos foram de 4,33, 4,15 e 12,80 µm, respectivamente, para a espessura da parede celular, diâmetro do lume e largura da fibra. Embora os rendimentos em fibras, tanto no processo ácido (34,63% como no básico (33,97%, tenham sido relativamente baixos, esse material, pelas características micrométricas das fibras, pode ser utilizado na obtenção de celulose e papel, para usos que requeiram baixos níveis de resistência.The morphological characteristics of cellulosic fibers obtained from sugarcane straw were determined. This material, a fibrous residue, presented fiber length (1.24 mm between the eucaliptus (1.0 mm and Pinus (4.0 mm fiber lengths, whose woods are the main cellulosic raw material used to produce pulp and paper. The average values for wall thickness, lumen diameter and fiber width were, respectively 4.33, 4.15 and 12.80 µm. Although, the fiber yields obtained in acid (34.63% or alkaline (33.97% conditions were low in comparison with that obtained for wood species, the sugarcane straw is adequate to be used as raw material for papermaking.

  20. Chemical modification of cotton fabrics for improving utilization of reactive dyes.

    Fang, Long; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Deshuai


    The cotton fabric was chemically modified with the acrylamide through Michael addition reaction and Hoffman degradation reaction. And the optimum chemical modification conditions were determined. The molecular structure of the modified cotton fabric was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structures of both the raw and modified cotton fabrics were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The raw and modified cotton fabrics were dyed using commercial reactive dyes with vinyl-sulfone groups. The results showed that the total dye utilization of modified cotton fabrics in the salt-free dyeing was higher than that of raw cotton fabrics in the conventional dyeing. And the color fastness properties and tear strength of modified fabrics were both satisfactory.

  1. Genetically modified cotton in India and detection strategies.

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Chhabra, Rashmi


    India is one of the largest cotton-growing countries. Cotton is a fiber crop with varied applications from making tiny threads to fashionable clothing in the textile sector. In the near future, cotton crop will gain popularity as a multipurpose crop in India. The commercialization of Bt cotton in 2002 and consequently the fast adoption of Bt cotton hybrids by cotton farmers have enhanced the cotton production in India. Presently, genetically modified (GM) cotton has occupied 21.0 million hectares (mha) that comprise 14% of the global area under GM cultivation. In the coming years, improved cotton hybrids, with stacked and multiple gene events for improved fiber quality, insect resistance, drought tolerance, and herbicide tolerance, would further significantly improve the cotton production in India. With the dramatic increase in commercialization of GM crops, there is an urgent need to develop cost-effective and robust GM detection methods for effective risk assessment and management, post release monitoring, and to solve the legal disputes. DNA-based GM diagnostics are most robust assays due to their high sensitivity, specificity, and stability of DNA molecule.

  2. Our experience in processing a pre-cleaned greige cotton lint for certain nonwoven base materials

    Traditionally bleached cotton has been used for the production of nonwoven fabrics. One primary reason for this scenario was that there was no greige cotton fiber alternative that would meet the required cotton cleanliness needs of the nonwovens manufacturers. However, today, there are several vers...

  3. Determing the feasiblity of chemical imaging of cotton trash

    There is some interest in the textile community about the identity of cotton trash that has become comingled with cotton lint. Currently, trash is identified visually by human “classers” and instrumentally by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS) and the High Volume Instrument (HVI). Although...

  4. Cost Effective Approaches to Impart Flame Resistance to Cotton Nonwovens

    Recent changes in the flammability laws require improvements in the flame resistance of cotton-containing consumer goods such as upholstered furniture, mattresses, and pillows. Cotton, synthetic fibers, fabrics, and foam are the basic constituents of these goods, often the first to engulf by a fire....

  5. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  6. Studies on the Characteris of the Induction of Cotton Fiber Derived from Cotton Ovule Callus Cells%棉胚珠愈伤组织诱导成纤维实验系统的研究

    汤清秀; 赵旌旌; 王隆华


    Cotton nbers were induced from cotton ovule callus cells by suspension culture,floatculture or filter paper bridge culture.h was found that float culture or filter paper bridge culture was bener than suspension culture.APM and actinomycin D inhibit the fibe elongation.Cellobiose promotes its development. Polarity affects its culture.%用棉花胚珠切块诱导愈伤组织,经悬浮振荡培养、漂浮培养、滤纸桥法等方法诱导成纤维细胞。发现漂浮培养和改进的滤纸桥法对纤维的诱导效果比悬浮振荡培养的效果好。微管解聚剂APM和核酸抑制剂抑制纤维的生长,纤维二糖有一定的促进作用。极性对纤维的生长有影响。

  7. A brief summary of major advances in cotton functional genomics and molecular breeding studies in China


    Cotton fibers, commonly known as cotton lint, are single-celled trichomes derived from epidermal layers of cotton ovules. Despite of its importance in word trade, the molecular mechanisms of cotton fiber production is still poorly understood. Through transcriptome profiling, functional genomics, proteomics, metabolomics approaches as well as marker-assisted molecular breeding, scientists in China have made significant contributions in cotton research. Here, we briefly summarize major progresses made in Chinese laboratories, and discuss future directions and perspectives relative to the development of this unique crop plant.

  8. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei


    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.


    COLDEA Alina


    Full Text Available The comfort is undoubtedly the most important human attribute depends upon the moisture transport which in turn depends on the moisture transport behavior of the knitted fabric. Moisture transport is the transfer of liquid water capillary interstices of the yarns and depends on the wettability of fiber surfaces, as well as the structure of the yarn and fabric. Because of its good water absorption property, cotton is often used for next-to-skin wear such as t-shirts, underwear, socks. All these are known as ``moisture management`` which means the ability of a textile fabric to transport moisture away from the skin to the garment’s outer surface in multi-dimensions and it is one of the key performance criteria in today’s apparel industry since it has a significant effect on the human perception of moisture sensations. In order to study, plated knitted fabric for socks were knitted as plated single jersey in the same production conditions, from different types of yarns, produced in different yarn counts (Ne 20, Ne 24, Ne 30 and different raw material. (cotton, bamboo, soybean, polyester, viscose. Were chose two different density on circular knitting machine. The liquid moisture management of the samples was measured in order to determinate moisture transport index. Was study also the influence of raw material and fabric structure related to the moisture transport index. According to the obtained results, it was found that some of the knitted fabrics used in this study have goodmoisture management capability.

  10. Textile fibers prepared by combined alkali soaking, steam explosion and laccase/mediator treatments to bark of cotton stalks%碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体处理制备棉秆皮纤维

    张莉; 夏胜娟; 马博谋; 廖祥儒; 侯秀良


    为了实现棉秆的高效资源化利用,该文提出一种碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体联合处理棉秆皮制备纺织纤维的新方法。研究了浸泡NaOH用量对棉秆皮分离效果的影响以及漆酶介体处理介体种类及用量、漆酶用量对木质素去除的影响。采用扫描电子显微镜、X 射线衍射、热稳定性分析等方法,对比研究了蒸汽闪爆、漆酶介体处理后棉秆皮纤维的化学成分、结构与性能。研究结果表明,碱液浸泡-蒸汽闪爆-漆酶介体处理(NaOH用量10 g/L,介体ABTS用量为棉秆皮纤维干质量的1%,漆酶用量为600 U/g)能制得表面洁净、热稳定性好的棉秆皮纤维,其长度为55.7 mm,细度为28 dtex,长径比为1139,断裂强度为2.97 cN/dtex,纤维素质量分数为78%,结晶指数为67.5,得率为40%,可用于纺织,研究结果为木质纤维素纤维的制备提供参考。%As we all know, burning of cotton stalks will bring serious environment pollution. In order to protect the environment and make efficient utilization of cotton stalks, this paper presented a new method for the preparation of cellulose textile fibers, which could obtain better fibers from bark of cotton stalks. It was reported that natural cellulose fibers from bark of cotton stalks had significantly better mechanical properties than those from other lignocellulosic agricultural byproducts such as rice and wheat straws. Fibers from bark of cotton stalks were used to reinforce thermoplastic composites, but they were difficult to be spun into textile yarns due to their high fineness value and rigidity. However, conventional method of using strong alkaline solution (30-100 g/L NaOH) for extraction of cellulose fibers from lignocellulosic byproducts led to environmental pollution and high cost. In this paper, the new method included 3 combined steps, i.e. alkali soaking, steam explosion and laccase mediator system treatment. Bark of cotton stalks

  11. Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Jeoh, Tina


    Steam Explosion Pretreatment of Cotton Gin Waste for Ethanol Production By Tina Jeoh Foster A. Agblevor, Chair Biological Systems Engineering ABSTRACT The current research investigates the utilization of cotton gin waste as a feedstock to produce a value-added product - fuel ethanol. Cotton gin waste consists of pieces of burs, stems, motes (immature seeds) and cotton fiber, and is considered to be a lignocellulosic material. The three main chemical constituents are ce...

  12. Ultra-structural Observation on Fiber Cell Development of Xinjiang Early-maturing cotton%新疆特早熟陆地棉纤维细胞发育过程的超微结构观察

    闫洪颖; 胡文冉; 范玲


    The Ultra-structural developmental process of fiber cell from early maturing cotton (cv. Xinluzao 36) was observed by using transmission electron microscopy. At 10 DPA, when the primary cell wall of cotton fiber was thin and even thickness, and a big vacuole located at the central of fiber cell, there were many organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes and Golgi bodies in the cytoplasm. At 20 DPA, a thin layer of the secondary cell wall formed inside the primary cell wall clearly and a part of the organelles disappeared. Subsequently, the secondary cell wall thickened rapidly. The average thickness increased around 0.139 m per day from 30 DPA to 40 DPA and around 0.47 m per day from 40 DPA to 50 DPA. The secondary cell wall gradually thickened and formed daily growth rings. Then the vacuum inside fiber cell became a narrow gap as the fiber maturing. Results showed that the fiber development process of early-maturing cotton was quite similar to other varieties reported, despite flowering and maturing earlier.%利用透射电镜观察新疆特早熟陆地棉新陆早36号纤维发育过程中的超微结构变化.在10 DPA纤维细胞初生壁形成期,液泡占据纤维细胞中央,细胞质中有大量的线粒体、内质网、高尔基体等细胞器,初生壁较薄且厚度均匀;在20 DPA时,纤维在初生壁内已明显有一层薄薄的次生壁的形成,细胞质中细胞器部分解体;随后次生壁增厚速度逐步加快,在30 DPA到40 DPA之间,纤维平均增厚速度约为每天0.139 m,在40 DPA到50 DPA之间,纤维平均增厚速度约为每天0.47 m.纤维细胞次生壁向内层逐步层层加厚,形成"日生长轮".随着纤维细胞的脱水成熟,纤维细胞次生壁增厚使纤维中腔只剩下一条窄缝.观察结果表明,虽然特早熟陆地棉发育进程快,开花早,但纤维细胞的发育进程与所报道的其它棉花品种具有相似性.

  13. Nitrogênio e promotor de crescimento: efeitos no crescimento e desenvolvimento do algodão colorido verde Nitrogen and growth promoter: effects on growth and development of green fiber cotton

    Maria M. de Lima


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos fatores adubação nitrogenada e promotor de crescimento aplicado nas sementes sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento do algodão colorido verde. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação pertencente ao Centro Nacional de Pesquisa do Algodão (Embrapa-CNPA, onde o promotor de crescimento Stimulate® foi aplicado nas doses de 10 e 17 mL por 0,5 kg de sementes e o N em cobertura nas doses de 0, 80, 160 e 240 kg ha-1. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com nove tratamentos e três repetições em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 + 1. Estimaram-se as variáveis relativas ao crescimento (altura de planta, diâmetro do caule e área foliar e ao desenvolvimento (aparecimento do primeiro botão floral, da primeira flor e abertura do primeiro capulho. Verificou-se que o promotor de crescimento Stimulate® não alterou o crescimento do algodoeiro herbáceo nem interagiu com o N aplicado no meio edáfico. Independentemente do fator dose do promoter de crescimento, o nitrogênio promoveu um decréscimo linear significante na precocidade das plantas e aumentou o crescimento.This research had the objective of quantifying the effects of nitrogen manuring and growth promoter applied in the seeds on growth and development of cotton of green fiber. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions at the National Center of Cotton Research (EMBRAPA-CNPA, where the growth promoter Stimulate® was applied in doses of 10 and 17 mL per 0.5 kg of seeds and the nitrogen topdressing in doses of 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with nine treatments and three replications in a factorial scheme of 4 x 2 + 1. The variables related to growth (plant height, stem diameter and leaf area and to development (emergence of first flower button and of first flower and opening of first cotton boll were analyzed. It was verified that the Stimulate® growth promoter

  14. 聚乳酸纤维与棉纤维不同混纺比对纱线力学性能的影响%Different Blended Ratio Effected on Yarn Mechanical Properties of the Yarn Blended with Corn Polylactic Acid Fiber and Cotton

    赵凯; 潘福奎; 王春


    文章对聚乳酸纤维的性能和发展应用进行了阐述。通过设定实验条件,对聚乳酸纤维和棉纤维不同混纺比下的拉伸性能进行测试、分析,并得出结论。%The properties and application of polylactic acid fiber were elaboreted. The mechanical properties of corn polylactic acid fiber and cotton fiber were tested and analysed, according to setted experimental conditions, and the conclusions drawn.

  15. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China].

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Xu, Min; Shen, Dan; Jin, Lu-Lu; Zhou, Zhi-Guo


    Taking cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCoTN 33B as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate (0, 240 and 480 kg x hm(-2)) and planting density (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation in the extremely early maturing cotton region of Northeast China. With the growth and development of cotton, the biomass and nitrogen accumulation of cotton boll, cotton seed, and cotton fiber varied in 'S' shape. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the dynamic characteristics of boll biomass and nitrogen accumulation, and on the fiber yield and quality. In treatment 240 kg x hm(-2) and 97500 plants x hm(-2), the biomass of single boll, cotton seed and cotton fiber was the maximum, the starting time and ending time of the rapid accumulation period of the biomass and nitrogen were earlier but the duration of the accumulation was shorter, the rapid accumulation speed of the biomass was the maximum, and the distribution indices of the biomass and nitrogen were the lowest in boll shell but the highest in cotton seed and cotton fiber.

  16. Comparison of a wire belt conveyor and cross auger conveyor for conveying burr cotton on a stripper harvester

    Cotton fiber quality begins to degrade naturally with the opening of the boll, and mechanical harvesting processes are perceived to exacerbate fiber degradation. Previous research indicates that stripper-harvested cotton generally has lower fiber quality including on average lower micronaire, length...

  17. Mapping of QTL for Fiber Length Using Interspecific Gossypium hirsutum × G.barbadense F2 Population



    @@ Cotton occupies a pre-eminent place among cash crops as it guides the destiny of a large section of the farming community as well as that of a flourishing textile industry.As the yarn manufacturing industry has undergone a technological revolution,more emphasis is given to quality of the raw material in order to overcome high speed spinning.Though different yarn manufacturing technologies have various requirements in terms of basic fiber properties,fiber length has a premier role in deciding the spinning efficiency.

  18. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  19. Fibra de coco e resíduo de algodão para substrato de mudas de tomateiro Coconut fiber and cotton waste as substrate for tomato seedlings

    Cândido A da Costa


    Full Text Available O efeito da mistura de fibra de coco (FC e resíduo compostado de algodão (RA foi avaliado na formação de substrato para produção de mudas de tomateiro Kada Gigante. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no ICA da UFMG em Montes Claros-MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 Substrato comercial Hortimix®; T2 100% massa seca de resíduo algodão proveniente da compostagem do resíduo da industria têxtil (RA; T3 20% FC+80% RA; T4 40% FC+60% RA; T5 60% FC+40% RA; T6 80% FC+20% RA; T7 100% FC+% RA. Foram avaliados o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a porcentagem de germinação, a massa fresca da parte aérea e a massa fresca da raiz, a massa seca da aérea seca e a massa da matéria seca da raiz. Observou-se que o aumento da proporção de fibra de coco verde em relação ao resíduo compostado de algodão proporcionou maior emergência, e índice de velocidade de emergência, entretanto, o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular diminuíram com o aumento dessa proporção. O resíduo de algodão proveniente da compostagem do resíduo da industria têxtil, constitui-se em um material útil na produção de substratos comerciais.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate fiber mixture of coconut and cotton waste, to produce substrate for tomato seedling production (cultivar Kada Gigante. The experimental design was randomized blocks, four replications, with seven treatments: T1 Commercial Substrate Hortimix®; T2 0% coconut dry fiber mass (FC+100% dry mass of cotton waste (RA; T3 20% (FC+80% (RA; T4 40% (FC+60% (RA; T5 60% (FC+40% (RA; T6 80% (FC+20% (RA; T7 100% (FC+0% (RA. The vigor was evaluated in terms of percentage and index of emergence, stem diameter, seedling height. Increasing the proportion of coconut fiber to cotton

  20. Utilization of pre-cleaned greige cotton in nonwovens: a sensible approach

    Although cotton – a consumer-preferred, naturally sustainable fiber – has been extensively used in traditional textiles for centuries, its utilization in nonwoven fabrics has been minimal (~2% by weight). A major reason thus far for the cotton not being a preferred fiber for modern nonwovens has be...

  1. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V


    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  2. Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications

    Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

  3. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    Pasta, Mauro


    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. Comparison of two feature selection algorithms oriented to raw cotton ripeness discrimination%面向田间籽棉成熟度判别的二种特征选择算法比较

    王玲; 刘德营; 姬长英


    To discriminate the ripeness of cotton quickly and accurately,15 shape structure features were extracted from cotton images and the execute efficiencies and classification accuracy of their feature subset selection algorithms such as Wrapper-based Exhaustive searching and Wrapper-based stopping(WE-W) and Filter-based Heuristic searching and Wrapper-based stopping(FH-W) were compared by using 10-fold cross-validation.By taking the error rate of a Bayes classifier on validation set (WE-W) and the class-separability measuring value on a training set (FH-W)as assessing functions,the optimal l (l=1,2,3,…,15) feature subset was searched by using exhaustive (WE-W) and heuristic (FH-W) strategies on the training set,which stops at the minimum error rate of Bayes-classifier on the validation set(WE-W and FH-W).Experimental results show that the average classification rates of WE-W and FH-W algorithms on the prediction set are 85.39% (WE-W) and 85.28% (FHW) at l=3,respectively.It concludes that the FH-W algorithm can be a reference in practice for its higher execute efficiency and good classification accuracy.%为了快速、准确地判别田间籽棉的成熟度,提取了描述棉瓣形状的15个结构特征,基于10折交叉验证比较了封装器下穷举搜索并基于封装器停止搜索(WE-W)和过滤器下启发式搜索并基于封装器停止搜索(FH-W)这二种特征选择算法的执行效率和分类性能.分别以验证集上Bayes分类器的误分率(WE-W)和训练集上的类可分性测量值(FH-W)为评价函数,在训练集上穷举搜索(WE-W)和启发式搜索(FH-W)最优l维特征子集,l=1,2,…,15,并于Bayes分类器在验证集上的平均误分率极小时停止搜索(WE-W和FH-W).结果显示,WE-W和FH-W算法在预测集上于l=3处分别获得了85.39% (WE-W)和85.28% (FH-W)的平均识别率,表明FH-W算法执行效率高、分类性能好,对实际应用有参考意义.

  5. 涤/锦/棉/氨纶多组分纤维功能性面料染整工艺探讨%Dyeing and finishing process of polyester/ polyamide/ cotton/ spandex multi-component fibers functional fabric

    周勇; 李春光; 吕建品; 徐惠娟; 王海花


    The enzyme cold-batch and low temperature pretreatment were used to solve the wrinkling problem of polyester/polyamide/cotton/spandex multi-component fibers fabric. The potential damage of hole on the fabric caused by low temperature oxygen bleaching was also solved. And the fluffy and soft-feeling semi-finished product was obtained. Disperse dyes with high washing fastness were selected to solve the high washing fastness of multi-component fibers fabric. The continuous pad dyeing process with acid dyes was developed and the uniform dyeing quality was obtained by adjusting three kinds of fiber hue. The functional composite finishing of fabric was carried out to increase the hydrophilic soil-release finishing on the base of outstanding fabric smoothness. The wearing comfort and washable fabric performances were achieved, improving wearability of the fabric.%采用生物酶冷堆及低温前处理工艺解决涤棉锦氨纶多纤维织物的褶皱问题,同时解决了低温氧漂中潜在破洞的损伤,半成品手感柔软、蓬松;染色工序优选高水洗牢度分散染料,解决多纤维织物的高水洗色牢度,开发酸性染料的长车轧染工艺,通过3种纤维色相调整,获得均匀、饱满的染色实物质量;在获得优良的织物外观平整度的基础上,对面料功能性复合整理,增加亲水易去污整理,使面料穿着舒适、历久常新,提高了织物的服用性能.


    Tanja Nikolić


    Full Text Available The effect of periodate oxidation on the chemical and sorption properties of cotton yarn was investigated by determining aldehyde group content, moisture sorption, water retention and iodine sorption. Oxidation of cotton yarn was performed by varying concentration of sodium periodate solution and reaction time. To measure the aldehyde content present in the oxidized cotton, the aldehyde groups were selectively oxidized to carboxyl groups with sodium chlorite at pH 4-5, at room temperature for 48 h, and carboxyl group content was determined by modified calcium-acetate method. Differences in the sorption properties of untreated and oxidized cotton samples were obtained using conventional methods. The aldehyde groups were introduced into the oxidized cotton up to 99.2 µmol/g. Compared to the untreated fibers, oxidized cotton samples exhibited higher moisture sorption (up to 9% and lower water retention values (up to 19% and iodine sorption values (up to 31%. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the crystalline structure of cellulose is not significantly changed by periodate oxidation, which is of great importance for textile material production.

  7. Induction of Low-Level Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Unbleached Cotton Nonwovens as Potential Wound Dressing Materials.

    Edwards, J Vincent; Prevost, Nicolette T; Nam, Sunghyun; Hinchliffe, Doug; Condon, Brian; Yager, Dorne


    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) generation during cotton fiber development. Traditionally, the processing of cotton into gauze involves scouring and bleaching processes that remove the components in the cuticle and primary cell wall. The use of unbleached, greige cotton fibers in dressings, has been relatively unexplored. We have recently determined that greige cotton can generate low levels of H₂O₂ (5-50 micromolar). Because this may provide advantages for the use of greige cotton-based wound dressings, we have begun to examine this in more detail. Both brown and white cotton varieties were examined in this study. Brown cotton was found to have a relatively higher hydrogen peroxide generation and demonstrated different capacities for H₂O₂ generation, varying from 1 to 35 micromolar. The H₂O₂ generation capacities of white and brown nonwoven greige cottons were also examined at different process stages with varying chronology and source parameters, from field to nonwoven fiber. The primary cell wall of nonwoven brown cotton appeared very intact, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, and possessed higher pectin levels. The levels of pectin, SOD, and polyphenolics, correlated with H₂O₂ generation.

  8. Induction of Low-Level Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Unbleached Cotton Nonwovens as Potential Wound Dressing Materials

    J. Vincent Edwards


    Full Text Available Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation during cotton fiber development. Traditionally, the processing of cotton into gauze involves scouring and bleaching processes that remove the components in the cuticle and primary cell wall. The use of unbleached, greige cotton fibers in dressings, has been relatively unexplored. We have recently determined that greige cotton can generate low levels of H2O2 (5–50 micromolar. Because this may provide advantages for the use of greige cotton-based wound dressings, we have begun to examine this in more detail. Both brown and white cotton varieties were examined in this study. Brown cotton was found to have a relatively higher hydrogen peroxide generation and demonstrated different capacities for H2O2 generation, varying from 1 to 35 micromolar. The H2O2 generation capacities of white and brown nonwoven greige cottons were also examined at different process stages with varying chronology and source parameters, from field to nonwoven fiber. The primary cell wall of nonwoven brown cotton appeared very intact, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, and possessed higher pectin levels. The levels of pectin, SOD, and polyphenolics, correlated with H2O2 generation.

  9. World Collection of Cotton

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova


    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  10. Cotton Pricing Discussion


    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  11. Dictionary of Cotton

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...




    Full Text Available A linhagem de algodoeiro IAC 20-233 e as variedades comerciais IAC 21 e IAC 22 foram caracterizadas morfologicamente pelo número e pelo ângulo de convolução de suas fibras, utilizando-se microscopia óptica. A variedade IAC 21 apresentou fibras com menor número e ângulo de convolução que a IAC 20-233 e a IAC 22, enquanto estas foram semelhantes entre si. Os três genótipos apresentaram fibras de maturidade similar. O índice Micronaire (medida do complexo finura + maturidade da variedade IAC 21 foi maior que o dos demais, correspondendo, portanto, a fibras mais grossas. Isso pode ter contribuído para diminuir o número e o ângulo de convolução e, como conseqüência, deprimido a elongação da fibra e do fio de algodão produzido.Two cotton cultivars (IAC 21 and IAC 22 and a breeding line (IAC 20-233 were morphologically characterized by the fiber number of convolutions and the convolution angle determined using optical microscopy. IAC 21 presented a smaller value for those traits than the ones determined for IAC 22 and IAC 20-233, which presented similar values. All three genotypes produced fibers with similar maturity. The highest Micronaire index (measurement of the complex fineness + maturity obtained by the IAC 21 fiber, corresponds to the thickest fibers. This fact may lead to a reduction of the fiber number and angle of convolution and therefore decreased fiber and yarn elongation.




    Full Text Available Em latossolo roxo ácido e de baixa fertilidade do município de Guaíra (SP, desenvolveu-se de 1986/87 a 1989/90 um ensaio de caráter permanente com o algodoeiro para estudar o efeito da aplicação de calcário (0,6; 1,8 e 3,0 t.ha-1 e de gesso (0, 2, 4, 6 t.ha-1 sobre as características do capulho e propriedades tecnológicas da fibra. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi do tipo blocos ao acaso com parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. O calcário elevou os valores de massa de um capulho e diminuiu o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, mas não afetou a massa de sementes, a porcentagem, o comprimento, a uniformidade de comprimento e a tenacidade da fibra. O gesso aumentou as massas de capulho e de sementes, especialmente quando associado a maior dose de calcário, assim como o índice Micronaire e a maturidade da fibra, no mais baixo nível de calagem.The effects of limestone and phosphogypsum applications on bolls characteristics and technological properties of the cotton fiber were studied in a permanent trial on a Dystrophic Dusky Latosol, acid and of low fertility during growing seasons of 1986/87 to 1989/90. A randomized complete block design was used, arranged in split split-plots with four replications where the dolomitic limestone doses were the main plots (0.6, 1.8 and 3.0 t.ha-1, and the phosphogypsum doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 t.ha-1 were the subplots. Lime and phosphogypsum were applied in the first year and reaplicated during 1988/89. Liming caused an increase in mass of bolls and reduced the Micronaire index and fiber maturity, and did not affect the mass of seed, the percentage of fiber, the length, the length uniformity and fiber tenacity. The use of phosphogypsum increase the mass of bolls and mass of seed, mainly when associated with extremes doses of lime. Otherwise, its effects upon Micronaire index and fiber maturity values, were significant at low level of liming.

  14. Application Effect Analyses of Computer Cotton Assorting System%计算机配棉系统的应用效果分析

    丁忠平; 袁安民


    Cotton assorting and prediction yarn quality effect by computer cotton assorting system was analyzed. Functions of computer cotton assorting system were introduced. Micronaire value and fiber length were selected as the first case,micronaire value,fiber length and fiber uniform were selected as the second case,cotton assorting and spinning test were done in the two cases. The result shows that the error between prediction data of the first case and practical data are larger. While the error between prediction data of the second case and practical data are less, the yam quality can fit use demands. It is considered that better yarn quality prediction result can be got when cotton bales classification of computer cotton assorting system can be set rationally according to raw material. Prediction result of computer cotton assorting system can be more accurate when equipment, processing etc are considered comprehensively.%分析计算机配棉系统配棉及预测成纱质量的效果.介绍了计算机配棉系统的功能,分别选取马克隆值和长度(方案1)及马克隆值、长度和纤维整齐度(方案2)为参数进行配棉及纺纱试验.试验结果表明:方案1的预测理论数据与实际生产数据误差较大,而方案2的误差明显减小,生产出的成纱质量符合使用要求.认为:根据原料情况合理设置计算机配棉系统的棉包分类分组方能取得理想的成纱质量预测结果,如能综合考虑设备、工艺等因素,计算机配棉系统的预测结果会更加精确.

  15. Study of illuminance distribution of lighting source based on cotton foreign fiber detecting system%原棉异纤维检测系统照明光源光照度分布研究

    张显斌; 袁轲


    Based on the cotton foreign fiber detecting system of machine vision, the success or failure of the system is decided by the good lighting source and lighting solutions, which plays a very vital role in the whole process and has the detecting targets display more characteristics. The white LED with single-chip InGaN(Blue)/YAG phosphor is chosen as lighting solutions, the theoretical analysis and non-imaging optical design are adopted to study the illumination distribution of LED square arrays, which are compared by TracePro. By comparing the results of illuminance distribution of the two ranking ways, LED triangular arrays with high illumination and good uniformity is chosen as the lighting source of the cotton foreign fiber detecting system, which can improve the quality of the machine vision imaging.%在基于机器视觉的原棉异纤维检测系统中,选择能满足检测系统的光源和照明方案是提高系统检测率和检出率的关键,使检测对象尽可能多地显现出特征信息.选用单芯片InGaN(蓝)/YAG荧光粉型白光LED作为照明光源,采用理论计算和非成像光学设计的方法对LED阵列的光照度分布进行了研究,并根据原棉异纤维检测系统对光源光照度的具体要求,设计出了LED正方形阵列和三角形阵列两种排列方式,并利用TracePro软件对两种阵列形式进行仿真.通过比较两种阵列形式光照度分布的结果,最终选用高光照度且均匀性好的LED三角形阵列作为原棉异纤维检测系统的照明光源,满足了机器视觉成像的要求.

  16. Small Increase in Global Cotton Consumption Expected in 2011/12


    According to ICAC, after a 4% drop in 2010/11, world cotton mill use is projected to resume slow growth in 2011/12. Cotton mill use is forecast at 24.7 million tons in 2011/12, 1.5% higher than in 2010/11. This rise will be facilitated by increased availability of cotton, but moderated by still relatively high cotton prices and competition from chemical fibers. However, the possibility of a double-dip global economic recession could reduce these expectations. China, India and Pakistan will drive the increase in global cotton mill use in 2011/12.

  17. The State of the Kenyan Cotton Growing Industry

    Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi; HUANG Xiu-bao; WANG Xin-hou; J O Wagala


    From the early 1960s to late 1980s, the Kenyan cotton growing industry played a vital role in the Kenyan economy in terms of provision of employment and creation of wealth in the rural areas. It also played a central role in the textile industry which was thriving during the above mentioned period. Over the years, cotton production in Kenya has fallen steadily, such that by the year 2000, the country experienced a severe cotton fiber deficit. This study was undertaken to investigate the trend of the cotton growing industry in Kenya. Selected aspects of the industry like cost of production, cotton seed distribution, the operation of cotton gins and the quality of cotton lint were considered.Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and K-means clustering techniques were used in data analysis. The results of this study show that Kenyan cotton farmers produced seed cotton at a break-even price of US$ 0.31 per kilogram, while the price offered was US $ 0.29 per kilogram.c

  18. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  19. Kinetics and mechanism studies of p-nitroaniline adsorption on activated carbon fibers prepared from cotton stalk by NH4H2PO4 activation and subsequent gasification with steam.

    Li, Kunquan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng


    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared for the removal of p-nitroaniline (PNA) from cotton stalk by chemical activation with NH(4)H(2)PO(4) and subsequent physical activation with steam. Surface properties of the prepared ACFs were performed using nitrogen adsorption, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The influence of contact time, solution temperature and surface property on PNA adsorption onto the prepared ACFs was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic rates at different temperatures were modeled by using the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Morris's intraparticle diffusion and Boyd's film-diffusion models, respectively. It was found that the maximum adsorption of PNA on the ACFs was more than 510 mg/L, and over 60% adsorption occurred in first 25 min. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was related to the contacting time and the micropore structure of the adsorbents. And the increase of micropore surface area favored the adsorption process. Kinetic rates fitted the pseudo-second-order model very well. The pore diffusion played an important role in the entire adsorption period, and intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step in the beginning 20 min. The Freundlich model provided a better data fitting as compared with the Langmuir model. The surface micrograph of the ACF after adsorption showed a distinct roughness with oval patterns. The results revealed that the adsorption was in part with multimolecular layers of coverage.

  20. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  1. The Economic Effectiveness of the Cotton Checkoff Program

    Capps, Oral; Williams, Gary W.


    This report is an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of the marketing/promotion, nonagricultural research, and agricultural research activities associated with the cotton checkoff program over the period of 1986/87 through 2004/05. The analysis is based on a multi-equation, econometric, non-spatial, price equilibrium simulation model of U.S. and foreign fiber markets using annual data. The key average annual impacts of the cotton checkoff program on U.S. and foreign cotton and man-made f...

  2. Chromosome Substitution Lines:Useful Genomic Resources in Cotton

    SAHA Sukumar; JENKINS Johnie N; MCARTY Jack C; WU Ji-xiang; STELLY David


    @@ The genus Gossypium is a very diverse one with about 50 species.However,a very narrow germplasm base is presently being used for genetic improvement of Upland cotton.The wild tetraploid cotton species are reservoirs of important genes for pest and disease resistance,and for improved agronomic and fiber traits.Two of the most important forces impeding Upland cotton improvement are" 1)the paucity of information about genes that control important traits,and 2) the need for extensive usage of diverse germplasm.

  3. 协效剂对棉杆皮聚乳酸复合材料力学性能的影响%Effect of synergist on mechanical properties of cotton stalk bast fibers reinforced polylactic acid composites materials

    王博; 徐进硕; 魏春艳; 崔永珠; 吕丽华


    在废弃棉秆皮纤维增强聚乳酸模压制成的复合材料板中添加阻燃剂后,由于其膨胀体系原理,严重影响了复合材料的力学性能.选用蒙脱土(MMT)和微纤化纤维素(MFC)作为协效剂,利用其特殊的物理结构来提高复合材料的力学性能.同时,蒙脱土也有协效阻燃作用,可以提高材料的阻燃性能.试验结果表明,在加入协效剂后,复合材料的力学性能均有提高,MFC对材料的拉伸强度和冲击强度提高较明显,可分别提高43.74%和41.50%.经XRD测定,加入MMT后,材料的片层间距增加到5.38 nm,说明MMT以片层的形式插入到纤维与基体中,同时极限氧指数增加了6.38%.%The composite boards were moulded by waste cotton stalk bast fibers and polylactic acid (PLA), whose mechanical properties were seriously affected after addition of flame retardants. Montmorillonite (MMT) and micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with special physical structure were utilized as synergists to improve the mechanical properties of composite materials. At the same time, MMT had synergistic flame retardant ef-fect, which could improve the flame retardant properties of materials. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials were increased after synergist addition. The tensile strength and impact strength was obviously increased by MFC addition and increased by 43.74% and 41.50%, respec-tively. XRD result indicated that the interlamellar space of materials increased to 5.38 nm after MMT addition, and also illustrated MMT inserted into the fibers and matrixs in the form of layers, meanwhile limit oxygen in-dex was increased by 6.38%.

  4. Current state of the cotton and textile industry in Kazakhstan

    Gulfari Azhimetova


    Full Text Available The textile industry of Kazakhstan is presented basically by enterprises created in period of centrally planned economy and as consequence. Low labor productivity, lacking equipment base and technologies, poor marketing are problems of the current state of industry. But, there are also advantages as a vicinity of potential cotton manufacturers - Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan. A free economic zone (FEZ “Ontustik” has been established and a program of “Ontustik” FEZ development has been adopted for developing the cotton and textile cluster in Kazakhstan. The law “About development of the cotton branch” has been adopted in Kazakhstan to provide the textile enterprises with necessary raw material and to develop the domestic cotton growing.

  5. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton

    ZHANG Chao; WANG Jie; JIA Yin-hua; DU Xiong-ming


    @@ Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased the production costs.So the breeding for dwarf plant is the best way to solve this problem.In the past,some dwarf mutants of cotton with recessive gene controlled were reported.

  6. American Cotton Development Strategy


    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  7. [Determination of cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric by NIR spectra and variable selection methods].

    Sun, Tong; Geng, Xiang; Liu, Mu-hua


    Rapid detection of textile fiber components is very important for production process of quality control, trading and market surveillance. The objective of this research was to assess cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric quickly by near infrared (NIR) spectrum technology and variable selection methods. Reflectance spectra of samples were acquired by a NIRFlex N-500 Fourier spectroscopy in the range of 4000~10,000 cm(-1), primary election of spectral range and pretreatment analysis were conducted first. Then, three variable selection methods such as UVE (uninformative variables elimination), SPA (successive projections algorithm) and CARS (competitive adaptive reweighted sampling) were used to select sensitive variables. After that, PLS (partial least squares) was used to develop calibration model for cotton content of cotton/ramie blended fabric, and the best calibration model was used to predict cotton content of samples in prediction set. The result indicates that range of 4052~8000 cm(-1) is optimal spectral range for cotton content modeling. CARS method is an efficient method to improve model performance, the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of CARS-PLS for calibration and prediction sets are 0.903, 0.749 and 8.01%, 12.93%, respectively. So NIR spectra combined with CARS method is feasible for assessing cotton content in cotton/ramie blended fabric, and CARS method can simplify model, improve model performance.

  8. 棉花纤维和衣分等基因系的收集和遗传学研究%Genetics and the Genetic Collection of Isogenic Lines of Seed Lint Type and Fiber Output in Cotton



    @@ As a result of long standing investigation on urgent problems of amphidiploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum genetics, for the first time genetic determination of the most important traits has been established, and the unique genetic collection of homozygous isogenic lines has been developed. A scientifically wellfounded theory about combined types of polygene interaction in genetic determination of tracts in cotton, has been developed.

  9. Maturidade da fibra de algodão determinada pelo fibrógrafo modelo 430 Cotton fiber maturity determined by the 430 fibrograph

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino


    Full Text Available O método de determinar a maturidade da fibra de algodão pelo fibrógrafo digital Mod. 230-A foi transposto para o novo modelo 430, que apresenta algumas inovações técnicas e opera com um pente único. A equação respectiva foi obtida através do estudo comparativo das funções L = f(p, L²/P = f(L e M% = f(IM obtidas para os dois aparelhos, e das relações n = p0/p e k = (IM230_A/IM430, sendo L a leitura inicial em volts, p0 o peso da fibra de dois pentes do Mod. 230-A, p o peso da fibra do pente do Mod. 430, IM o índice de maturidade e M% a maturidade em porcentagem de fibras maduras. A expressão final obtida foi: log M% = 2,4123 - 1,37016.IM430 onde: IM430 = L2/P _ 0,04857.L + 0,3616 Comparando-se os resultados obtidos na análise de ensaios regionais de variedades, pelo emprego dos dois modelos, 230-A e 430, inclusive a equação de Worley Jr. (in 7 desenvolvida para o segundo modelo, concluiu-se que, entre os três métodos testados, a expressão apresentada permitiu maior sensibilidade para diferenciar variedades quanto à maturidade.The Digital Fibrograph method to estimate fiber maturity was converted for the new model 430, by direct studies of both models, without establishing correlations with data of other instruments based on different principles. Comparative studies were made on the functions L = f(p, L2/p = f(L, M% = f(IM and the relations n = p0 / p and k = (IM230_A/IM430 were estimated, where L is the amount reading, p0, the weight of fiber of both combs of Model 230-A, p, the weight of fiber of the comb of model 430, IM, the maturity index and M%%, the maturity expressed in percentage of mature fibers. The final equation obtained for model 430 was: log M% = 2.4123 _ 1,37016 . IM430 with IM430 = L2/p - 0.04857 . L + 0.3616 Evaluation of "F" values obtained by analysing regional variety tests, using both methods and also the equation proposed by Worley Jr. showed the above presented expression to be the most sensible in

  10. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng


    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth.

  11. Toward Molecular Cytogenetical Characterizations in Cotton Genome

    LING Jian; WANG Kun-bo; PENG Ren-hai; WU Qion; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; STELLY David


    @@ Cotton is viewed as the most important cash crop in the world,and sustains the agricultural economies of many nations by providing a sustainable fiber product for the textile industry.Due to its global economic importance,many molecular tools are being developed.Florescent in situ hybridization (FISH),which allows DNA sequences to be mapped directly on chromosomes,is stressed as one of the most powerful techniques in plant molecular cytogenetics research.

  12. Isolation and functional characterization of a cotton ubiquitination-related promoter and 5'UTR that drives high levels of expression in root and flower tissues

    Viana Antonio AB


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium spp. is an important crop worldwide that provides raw material to 40% of the textile fiber industry. Important traits have been studied aiming the development of genetically modified crops including resistance to insect and diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and herbicide. Therefore, the characterization of promoters and regulatory regions is also important to achieve high gene expression and/or a specific expression pattern. Commonly, genes involved in ubiquitination pathways are highly and differentially expressed. In this study, we analyzed the expression of a cotton ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2 family member with no previous characterization. Results Nucleotide analysis revealed high identity with cotton E2 homologues. Multiple alignment showed a premature stop codon, which prevents the encoding of the conserved cysteine residue at the E2 active site, and an intron that is spliced in E2 homologues, but not in GhGDRP85. The GhGDRP85 gene is highly expressed in different organs of cotton plants, and has high transcript levels in roots. Its promoter (uceApro2 and the 5'UTR compose a regulatory region named uceA1.7, and were isolated from cotton and studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. uceA1.7 shows strong expression levels, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of CaMV35S. The uceA1.7 regulatory sequence drives GUS expression 7-fold higher in flowers, 2-fold in roots and at similar levels in leaves and stems. GUS expression levels are decreased 7- to 15-fold when its 5'UTR is absent in uceApro2. Conclusions uceA1.7 is a strong constitutive regulatory sequence composed of a promoter (uceApro2 and its 5'UTR that will be useful in genetic transformation of dicots, having high potential to drive high levels of transgene expression in crops, particularly for traits desirable in flower and root tissues.

  13. Physiology of host-pathogen interaction in wilt diseases of cotton in relation to pathogen management

    Verticillium and Fusarium wilts are important vascular wilt diseases of cotton that significantly reduce cotton yields and negatively impact fiber quality. In spite of intense efforts to control these diseases, yield losses persist and in the US alone were estimated to be about 133 and 28 thousand b...

  14. Screen of Different Cotton Varieties under Dry Land Conditions in Namibia



    @@ Cotton has been identified as a crop with promising potential in Namibia.As such,cotton variety evaluation trials have been conducted for yield,fiber qualities,resistance to diseases and pests,as well as adaptability to the climatic conditions.

  15. Exploring biosensor applications with cotton cellulose nanocrystalline protein and peptide conjugates

    Sensor I: Nano-crystalline preparations were produced through acid hydrolysis and mechanical breakage of the cotton fibers from a scoured and bleached cotton fabric and a scoured and bleached, mercerized fabric, which was shown to produce cellulose I (NCI) and cellulose II (NCII) crystals respective...

  16. Genetic Analysis of a Novel Dwarf Mutant,AISHENG98,from Upland Cotton


    Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important textile fiber and the second most important oil seed source in the world.To control excessive growth of cotton plant height,which may result in shading and lodging,farmers and researchers have used plant growth regulators that increased

  17. Cotton-based nonwovens

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  18. Influência da fusariose nas principais características de fibra e de produção do algodoeiro Effects of fusarium wilt on cotton fiber quality and yield

    Edivaldo Cia


    Full Text Available São relatados estudos de correlação entre o índice de sobrevivência que mede c grau de tolerância à murcha do algodoeiro, causada pelo fungoFusarium oxysporumf. vasinfectum, e as seguintes características: comprimento de fibra, uniformidade de comprimento, índice Micronaire, resistência Pressley, porcentagem de fibra, peso de um capulho, peso de 100 sementes e produção. O índice de sobrevivência foi avaliado em 21 ensaios de campo para as variedades paulistas de algodoeiro: IAC RM3, IAC 12-2 e IAC 13-1. As características da IAC RM3, variedade que apresentou maior índice de sobrevivência, foram menos influenciadas pela doença, com exceção do peso de 100 sementes. O índice de sobrevivência correlacionou-se positivamente com a produção e com a uniformidade de comprimento, para as três variedades estudadas.The results of a study on correlations between the survival index of cotton to Fusarium wilt and the economical characters: fiber lenght, uniformity index, Micronaire, Pressley, yield, lint percent, seed grade and boll weight, are presented and discussed. The study was carried out in twenty-one experiments envolving the varieties: IAC RM3 (wilt resistant, IAC 12-2 (susceptible and IAC 13-1 (intermediary in behaviour and different degrees of intensity of wilt. The resistant variety was the less affected by Fusarium in the above characters, when compared with the other varieties except in the case of seed grade (mean weight of hundred seeds. The survival index showed positive correlation with yield and uniformity index for the three varieties. For a given variety, higher correlations were observed in the case of the characters in which it excelled.

  19. Cotton Demand Dropping in China


    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  20. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Rubporn Kittivachra


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  1. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    By Wang Ting


    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  2. Enzymes of Trichoderma and other origin in biopreparation of cotton

    Anita Losonczi; George Szakacs; Emilia Csiszar; Outi Kareela


    @@ Preparation and bleaching are among the most energy and chemical intensive steps of the traditional cotton finishing. About 75 % of the organic pollutants arising from textile finishing are derived from the preparation of cotton goods. Biopreparation may be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to harsh alkaline chemicals for preparing of cotton. Different enzymes i. e. cellulases,pectinases, lipases and proteases have been tested for biopreparation. Many papers have been published how enzymes effect on the properties of cotton fabrics in respect to their effectiveness to replace alkaline scouring and how enzymes modify the various cell wall components of cotton fibers. However,very few data have been reported on bleachability and dyeing behavior of the bioscoured fabrics. In this work an acidic cellulase (Celluclast 1.5 L, Trichoderma reesei origin), an acidic pectinasehemicellulase (Viscozyme 120 L , Aspergillus aculeatus ) and a cellulase-free xylanase (Pulpzyme HC,Bacillus sp. ) enzymes were used for bioscouring of greige cotton fabric. Selected properties of the pretreated samples, which are important for effective dyeing, are characterized in detail. Effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching, applied subsequent to the biopretreatment on the bleachability and dyeing properties of the samples is also elucidated. A reactive dye was used at four different concentrations to compare the dyeing behavior of biopretreated as well as biopretreated and subsequently bleached cotton fabrics with that of the alkaline scoured as well as alkaline scoured and bleached fabrics, respectively. Color evenness and uniformity, and wash fastness properties of the dyed samples are also determined[1].

  3. Supply Chain Insights: Athletic Socks-A Cotton Opportunity

    Xue Peng


    @@ Accounting for 43% of the total sock offerings at U.S.retailers,athletic socks are gaining attention from industry and consumers.Consumers now view socks as "equipment" and choose socks that enhance their athletic performance.Major athletic brands have capitalized on this trend by expanding their product lines to include performance socks.Following recent trends in athletic apparel,retail offerings of athletic socks have shifted towards synthetic fibers according to data from Cotton Incorporated's Retail MonitorTM,the percentage of cotton-dominant (51%-100% cotton) athletic socks in stores declined from 46% in 2007 to 34% in 2009.This trend runs counter to consumers' preference for cotton in athletic socks,expressed in recent consumer surveys and wear tests.

  4. DNA Sequence Evolution and Rare Homoeologous Conversion in Tetraploid Cotton.

    Justin T Page


    Full Text Available Allotetraploid cotton species are a vital source of spinnable fiber for textiles. The polyploid nature of the cotton genome raises many evolutionary questions as to the relationships between duplicated genomes. We describe the evolution of the cotton genome (SNPs and structural variants with the greatly improved resolution of 34 deeply re-sequenced genomes. We also explore the evolution of homoeologous regions in the AT- and DT-genomes and especially the phenomenon of conversion between genomes. We did not find any compelling evidence for homoeologous conversion between genomes. These findings are very different from other recent reports of frequent conversion events between genomes. We also identified several distinct regions of the genome that have been introgressed between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, which presumably resulted from breeding efforts targeting associated beneficial alleles. Finally, the genotypic data resulting from this study provides access to a wealth of diversity sorely needed in the narrow germplasm of cotton cultivars.

  5. Silver nanowire-functionalized cotton fabric.

    Nateghi, Mohammad R; Shateri-Khalilabad, Mohammad


    In this study, general functionalization of cotton fabric by loading silver nanowires (AgNWs) on cotton surface is reported. Initially, AgNWs were synthesized by a polyol process and then were conformal coated onto individual cotton fibers through a simple "dip and dry" process. SEM images revealed a thin and uniform AgNWs coating on the cotton microfibers which was supported by a surface chemical analysis by EDX. The average electrical surface resistivity of the fabric coated with conductive network of AgNWs was measured to be 27.4 Ω/sq. Incubating the modified fabric with either Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that the fabric had substantial antimicrobial capacity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (100% microbial death). The fabric also showed excellent UV-blocking ability with the UV protection factor of 113.14. The fluorosilane coated AgNWs-loaded fabric displayed stable superhydrophobicity with CA and SHA values of 156.2°±3.2° and 7°, respectively.

  6. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan


    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of θ(a)/θ(r) = 151°/144° (θ(a), advancing contact angle; θ(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation.

  7. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  8. CottonDB Enhancement

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard


    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  9. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara


    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  10. Obtenção e caracterização de compósitos utilizando poliestireno como matriz e resíduos de fibras de algodão da indústria têxtil como reforço Obtainment and characterization of composites using polystyrene as matrix and fiber waste from cotton textile industry as reinforcement

    Cleide Borsoi


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é utilizar fibras de algodão como material de reforço em materiais compósitos poliméricos utilizando o poliestireno como matriz e o poli(estireno-co-anidrido maleico como agente compatibilizante. Os compósitos foram desenvolvidos em uma extrusora dupla-rosca co-rotacional, precedidos de uma pré-mistura em extrusora mono-rosca e moldados por injeção. Os compósitos foram avaliados mediante ensaios mecânicos, térmicos, termo dinâmico-mecânico e de morfologia dos compósitos produzidos. Os ensaios de flexão e tração mostram que a adição de 20% de fibra de algodão faz com que essas propriedades aumentem, sendo esse efeito intensificado em presença de compatibilizante. Observou-se aumento da resistência ao impacto com adição de carga; porém, os compósitos com compatibilizante apresentaram resultados inferiores. A HDT para os compósitos com 20% de fibra de algodão foi de aproximadamente 7 ºC. Por meio do TGA, observa-se que a adição de fibras de algodão desloca o início da perda de massa para temperaturas próximas a 200 ºC. Na análise de DMTA, observa-se que, com a adição da fibra de algodão, ocorre aumento na rigidez e no módulo de armazenamento. As micrografias mostram redução no pull-out das fibras, devido a uma maior adesão fibra/matriz, com a utilização do agente compatibilizante.The aim of this work is to use cotton fibers as reinforcement in polymeric composites materials using polystyrene as matrix and poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride coupling agent. The composites were developed by first mixing in a single screw extruder and a co-rotation parallel twin screw extruder and injection molded. The composites were characterized by analysis mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical thermal and morphology. The results from the flexural and tensile strength demonstrate that the addition of 20% cotton fibers tends to increase in these properties; however there is increase when using a

  11. Current Status and Progresses in Chinese Cotton Genomic Research%中国棉花基因组研究的现状及展望

    Yu-xian ZHU; Sheng-jian JI; Ying-chun LU; Gang WEI; Jun LI


    @@ Cotton fiber, a single-celled trichome, 30-40mm in length and 15m in cell-wall-thickness, is a differentiated epidermal cell originated from the outer integument of the ovule. There are several groups in China that work on cotton gene cloning or fiber improvement using biotechnological approaches. Dr. Xiaoya Chen's group from the Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Academia Sinica, obtained transgenic cottons that express a rabbit keratin gene, a silkworm fibroin gene, IAAM and PAT gene.


    D.V. Parikh


    Full Text Available New nonwoven products containing cotton and Lyocell (Trademarked name Tencel, low temperature thermal-bondable bicomponent olefin/polyester, or comber noils were developed using needlepunching and spunlacing (hydroentanglement. Webs containing five different blends were prepared by either light needlepunching, or light needlepunching followed by hydroentangling. We acquired detailed basis weight uniformity measurements to learn about processing and the influence of fiber blend composition on web uniformity. Basis weight uniformity was evaluated without regard to web direction ("Total" uniformity, along the machine direction (MD uniformity and across the cross direction (CD uniformity at numerous size resolutions. We observed that blending manufactured fibers (either Tencel or olefin/polyester with bleached cotton and comber noils substantially improved basis weight uniformity of both types of nonwovens. We also observed that subjecting needled webs to hydroentangling significantly improved Total and MD uniformities.

  13. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  14. Cotton domestication: dramatic changes in a single cell

    Strasburg Jared L


    Full Text Available Abstract Investigations on the nature of genetic changes underpinning plant domestication have begun to shed light on the evolutionary history of crops and can guide improvements to modern cultivars. A recent study focused on cotton fiber cells tracks the dramatic genome-wide changes in gene expression during development that have accompanied selection for increased fiber yield and quality. See Research article:

  15. Cotton micronaire measurements by small portable near infrared (nir) analyzers

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber’s maturity and fineness. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instru...


    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J


    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies.

  17. Silver-cotton nanocomposites: Nano-design of microfibrillar structure causes morphological changes and increased tenacity

    Nam, Sunghyun; Condon, Brian D.; Delhom, Christopher D.; Fontenot, Krystal R.


    The interactions of nanoparticles with polymer hosts have important implications for directing the macroscopic properties of composite fibers, yet little is known about such interactions with hierarchically ordered natural polymers due to the difficulty of achieving uniform dispersion of nanoparticles within semi-crystalline natural fiber. In this study we have homogeneously dispersed silver nanoparticles throughout an entire volume of cotton fiber. The resulting electrostatic interaction and distinct supramolecular structure of the cotton fiber provided a favorable environment for the controlled formation of nanoparticles (12 ± 3 nm in diameter). With a high surface-to-volume ratio, the extensive interfacial contacts of the nanoparticles efficiently “glued” the structural elements of microfibrils together, producing a unique inorganic-organic hybrid substructure that reinforced the multilayered architecture of the cotton fiber.

  18. Effects of Potassium Application on the Photosynthetic Characteristics, Yield, and Fiber Properties of Different Transgenic Cotton Varieties%施钾对不同转基因棉花品种光合特性及产量和品质的影响

    张海鹏; 马健; 文俊; 周桃华


    在田间试验条件下,研究了施钾对转Bt+CpTI基因抗虫棉中棉所41、转Bt基因抗虫棉国抗1号和常规棉泗棉3号光合特性和产量及品质的影响.结果表明,施用钾肥能不同程度地提高不同转基因棉花品种的叶绿素含量、叶面积指数(LAI)、叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、叶绿素荧光动力学参数PS Ⅱ、最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ潜在光化学活性(Fv/Fo),从而提高棉花叶片的光合性能.施钾还提高了转基因棉花干物质量及分配到生殖器官的比例,增加了棉花总成铃数、铃重和衣分;施钾处理的中棉所41、国抗1号和泗棉3号的皮棉产量较未施钾处理分别增加5.8%,11.8%和7.0%,棉纤维的主要品质指标也得到改善.转Bt基因抗虫棉国抗1号比转Bt+CpTI基因抗虫棉中棉所41和泗棉3号对钾肥更为敏感.%Three transgenic cotton varieties, transgenic Bt+CpTI insect-resistant cotton CCRI 41, transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton Guokang 1 and Simian 3, were used in the field experiments to analyze the effects of potassium application on the photo-synthetic characteristics, yield and fiber properties of different transgenic cottons. The results showed that applying potassium before cotton seedlings transplanted increased chlorophyll content, LAI, PS 11 maximal photochemical efficiency(Fv/Fm), PS II potential activity (Fv/ Fo), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomata conductance (Gs), and accumulation of biomass and the proportion oi distributed to reproductive organs in plant, and total bolls per hectare, boll weight and lint percentage. Lint yield of CCRI 41, Guokang 1 and Simian 3 were increased by 5.83%, 11.75% and 7.01%, respectively. In addition, fiber qualitative characters, such as 2.5% span length, tenacity, micronaire value and length uniformity were also improved. Transgenic Bt insect-resistant cotton Guokang 1 responded more active to potassium fertilizer than transgenic Bt+CpTI insect

  19. 合理设置计算机配棉系统%Reasonable set up the computer with cotton system



    原棉占棉纱生产成本的70%左右,合理配棉是纺织企业保证产品质量的前提,本文介绍了我国计算机自动配棉的历史和现状,分析棉花质量检验体制改革对棉纺企业的影响,分析了计算机配棉系统的功能,自动配棉的流程。根据原料情况合理设置计算机配棉系统,是棉纺企业提高生产效率,降低生产成本的关键。%production cost of raw cotton yarn around 70%, reasonable cotton textile enterprises products without sacrificing quality, this paper introduces the history and current situation of computer automatic cotton, analysing the impact of cotton quality inspection system for cotton mill, cotton analyzes the computer and distribution system features automatic cotton-blending process. According to the raw material situation and reasonable set cotton distribution system for computers, is a cotton spinning enterprises to improve production efficiency, the key to reducing production costs.

  20. 基于费舍尔评分与离散粒子群优化的棉花异性纤维在线检测%Online detection for cotton foreign fiber based on fisher score and binary particle swarm optimization

    赵学华; 李道亮; 于合龙


    Foreign fibers in cotton refer to non-cotton fibers and dyed fibers such as hairs, binding ropes, plastic films, candy wrappers, and polypropylene twines. Foreign fibers in cotton even in low content, especially in lint, can seriously affect the quality of the final cotton textile products. Today, online detection systems based on machine vision have been developed for evaluating the quality of the cotton. In such systems, classification of foreign fibers in cotton is the basic and key technology, which is related to the systems’ performance. Finding the optimum feature set with the small size and high accuracy is essential due to it can not only simplify the design of classifier, but also reduce the time of feature extraction. It is a feature selection problem in nature. Feature selection plays an important role in online detection of foreign fibers in cotton. This paper proposed a combined feature selection algorithm for foreign fiber data by combining Fisher Score with BPSO (Binary Particle Swarm Optimization). First, Fisher Score was used to filter noisy features. Then, the BPSO used the classifier accuracy as a fitness function to select the highly discriminating features. The proposed method was tested for classification on foreign fiber dataset. The comparisons of the proposed algorithm with Fisher Score approach and BPSO algorithm showed that the proposed algorithm was able to find the subsets with small size that produced the best classification accuracy in cross-validation. The optimal set with 18 features was selected from 75 features by the proposed algorithm, which classification accuracy reached 93.5%. The time cost of the optimal sets involving three stages corresponding to image segmentation, feature extraction and classification throughout the process of online detection was also tested. The time (0.8231 s) of the optimal set obtained by the proposed algorithm was obviously lower than the original set and the other subset selected by Fscore and

  1. A comparison of wood and plant fiber properties

    Robson, D.J.; Hague, J.


    Huge quantities of wood and nonwood plant fi-bers are produced each year. There is increasing interest in the use of nonwood fibers in composites. Many of these fibers are traded worldwide and have established prices. Prices range from $2,500 per tonne for cotton to $35 per tonne for straw. Fibers h

  2. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  3. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia


    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  4. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    Baffes, John


    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  5. Structure and properties of cotton-based biodegradable/compostable nonwovens

    Rong, Haoming

    Cotton-based biodegradable nonwoven products have been receiving increasing attention in recent years with the growing environmental awareness throughout the world. A majority of the cotton-based nonwoven products are processed by carding with the binder fibers, and then point-bonding using a thermal calender. In this work, different biodegradable binder fibers were used to produce cotton-based nonwovens. The structure and the properties of the resulting fabrics were studied. The effect of bonding temperature and binder fiber content on the bond morphology was investigated. The fracture and failure mechanisms of the fabrics produced with different binder fiber content and at different bonding temperature were analyzed. Binder fiber distribution was determined by both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that DSC is a useful method to quantitatively characterize the binder fiber distribution in the carded cotton-based nonwovens. By determining the specific enthalpy from crystallization of one of the binder fiber components in the fabrics, it is possible to calculate the fiber composition. Tensile properties of the resultant nonwovens under different processing conditions were studied. The optimal processing conditions for the nonwovens processed using different binder fibers were determined based on their tensile properties. Consequently, effects of binder fiber type, binder fiber content, and bonding temperature on the tensile property of the nonwoven fabrics are discussed. The best binder fiber under the experimental conditions was selected based on the tensile property of the resulting fabrics. Based on the interactions of binder fiber composition and bonding temperature, empirical models have been developed to predict the breaking load of the webs bonded by the best binder fiber using the General Linear Models Procedure in JMP 5.0 statistical analysis software. The absorbent behavior and flexural rigidity of the nonwoven fabrics bonded by one

  6. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan


    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  7. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira; Osmundo Brilhante Oliveira-Neto; Hudson Fernando Moura; Leonardo Lima Pepino de Macedo; Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro Arraes; Wagner Alexandre Lucena; Isabela Tristan Lourenço-Tessuti; Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa; Maria Cristina Mattar Silva; Maria Fátima eGrossi de Sá


    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (throu...

  8. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Aïda JALLOUL


    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  9. Compositional features of cotton plant biomass fractions characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Cotton is one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world. In addition to natural textile fiber production as a primary purpose, it yields a high grade vegetable oil for human consumption and also carbohydrate fiber and protein byproducts for animal feed. In this work, attenuated total...


    许乃银; 张国伟; 李健; 周治国


    to the AEC are approximated by the genetic correlation(r √H) and the square root heritability (√H) respectively.Meanwhile,the product of the genetic correlation(r √H) and the square root heritability(√H) is defined as the ideal index of test location.However,the Euclidean distance to the "ideal" location is more precise in evaluating the ideal degree of test locations.In the present study,the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis was employed to analyze twentyseven independent one-year datasets of national cotton variety trials from 2000 to 2010 in the Yangtze River Valley to evaluate trial locations based on cotton fiber length selection.The trial locations were comprised of Janyang and Shehong in Sichuan province; Changde and Yueyang in Hunan province; Huanggang,Jingzhou,Wuhan and Xiangfan in Hubei province; Nanyang in Henan province; Jiujiang in Jiangxi province;Anqin in Anhui province; Nanjing,Nantong and Yancheng in Jiangsu province and Cixi in Zhejiang province.Judging by the desirability indices and superiority parameter,we could conclude that Jingzhou,Jiujiang and Changde test locations were most efficient in broad adaptive breeding for cotton fiber length selection and also ideal to act as regional trial sites for the enhancement of cultivar selection efficacy.However,the coastal region test location in Jiangsu and Zhejiang province (Nantong,Yancheng and Cixi) and the test locations located in Sichuan basin(Jianyang and Shehong) were not suitable in cotton fiber length selection targeting at the whole cotton planting region in the Yangtze River Valley.The other trial locations including Yueyang,Huanggang,Wuhan,Xiangfan,Nanyang,Anqin and Nanjing were of moderate performance in the regional trial scheme for cotton fiber length selection.The results above were positive as a case study in displaying the GGE biplot application efficiency in cotton regional trial environment evaluation and also in providing the theory background for the decision

  11. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability


    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  12. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China


    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  13. Cotton Trip in China

    Wang Ting


    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  14. RNA Interference for Functional Genomics and Improvement of Cotton (Gossypium sp.).

    Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y; Ayubov, Mirzakamol S; Ubaydullaeva, Khurshida A; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Ruziboev, Haydarali S; Shapulatov, Umid M; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Percy, Richard G; Devor, Eric J; Sharma, Govind C; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Kumpatla, Siva P; van der Krol, Alexander; Kater, Hake D; Khamidov, Khakimdjan; Salikhov, Shavkat I; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Pepper, Alan E


    RNA interference (RNAi), is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium sp.). The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialization.

  15. RNA interference for functional genomics and improvement of cotton (Gossypium spp.

    Ibrokhim Y. Abdurakhmonov


    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi, is a powerful new technology in the discovery of genetic sequence functions, and has become a valuable tool for functional genomics of cotton (Gossypium ssp.. The rapid adoption of RNAi has replaced previous antisense technology. RNAi has aided in the discovery of function and biological roles of many key cotton genes involved in fiber development, fertility and somatic embryogenesis, resistance to important biotic and abiotic stresses, and oil and seed quality improvements as well as the key agronomic traits including yield and maturity. Here, we have comparatively reviewed seminal research efforts in previously used antisense approaches and currently applied breakthrough RNAi studies in cotton, analyzing developed RNAi methodologies, achievements, limitations, and future needs in functional characterizations of cotton genes. We also highlighted needed efforts in the development of RNAi-based cotton cultivars, and their safety and risk assessment, small and large-scale field trials, and commercialisation.

  16. Nova fórmula para exprimir a maturidade da fibra de algodão pelo método do fibrógrafo modelo 430 A new equation for expressing cotton fiber maturity determined by the fibrograph model 430 method

    Julio Isao Kondo


    Full Text Available Estabeleceu-se nova fórmula para o método de obtenção da maturidade da fibra de algodão por meio do fibrógrafo modelo 430. Essa fórmula permite a expressão e classificação dos valores de maturidade obtidos, segundo padrões internacionais adotados para o método da soda cáustica a 18%.A new equation for expressing cotton fiber maturity was adapted to the Fibrograph model 430 method. The new equation express the values of maturity obtained according to international standard scale used for the 18% caustic soda method.

  17. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll


    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  18. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials



    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI:

  19. Investigation of Cotton Component Destruction in Cotton/Polyester Blended Textile Waste Materials



    Full Text Available The recycling technologies of textile industry waste usually are adjusted for materials manufactured of uniform fibers. Unfortunately, usually materials are manufactured of blended chemical and natural fibers to achieve better wearing properties, i. e. abrasion resistance, durability and etc. This paper presents investigation about the destruction of cotton component and easy separation from non-biodegradable polyester. The pre-treatment (soaking in aqueous solutions of reagents was carried out at different temperatures for blended knitting yarn (50 % cotton / 50 % polyester waste. The waste was pre-treated by aqueous solutions of reagents: MgCl2; Al2(SO43, MgCl2 and Al2(SO43 mixture, MgCl2 and citric acid mixture at 20, 50, 90 and 130 °C. After the pre-treatment all samples were dried at 102 °C and heat-treated at different temperatures: 150, 160 and 180 °C. The investigation results showed that the highest degradation rate (95.47 % of cotton component from 50 % cotton / 50 % polyester blended knitting yarn waste  was achieved by using the pre-treatment at 20 °C temperature by aqueous solution of 20 g/l MgCl2 and 4 g/l Al2(SO43 mixture and heat-treatment of dry samples at 180 °C temperature. DOI:

  20. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance.

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W; Stiller, Warwick N; Wilson, Lewis J


    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars.

  1. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W.; Stiller, Warwick N.; Wilson, Lewis J.


    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  2. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen


    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  3. Introgression of Bt Genes in Novel Germplasm and Contribution to Indian Cotton Economy

    VIDYASAGAR Parchuri


    @@ Emergence of transgenic Bt-cotton technology has opened up a new chapter in Indian cotton production in 21st century.The crylAc gene of Monsanto derived from American Upland Coker-312 background was not directly suitable for varied cotton growing situations in India.Delivery of Bt-gene technology to Indian farming systems should be superimposed on hybrid technology,fiber quality,and superior agronomic adaptation.Protection offered by this alien Bt-gene against major serious pest Helicoverpa armigera,by preventing annual losses ranging from 15~35 percent,automaticaly contributed to higher yield.

  4. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC


    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  5. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    Togbe, C.E.


    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  6. Variable selection based cotton bollworm odor spectroscopic detection

    Lü, Chengxu; Gai, Shasha; Luo, Min; Zhao, Bo


    Aiming at rapid automatic pest detection based efficient and targeting pesticide application and shooting the trouble of reflectance spectral signal covered and attenuated by the solid plant, the possibility of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) detection on cotton bollworm odor is studied. Three cotton bollworm odor samples and 3 blank air gas samples were prepared. Different concentrations of cotton bollworm odor were prepared by mixing the above gas samples, resulting a calibration group of 62 samples and a validation group of 31 samples. Spectral collection system includes light source, optical fiber, sample chamber, spectrometer. Spectra were pretreated by baseline correction, modeled with partial least squares (PLS), and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS). Minor counts differences are found among spectra of different cotton bollworm odor concentrations. PLS model of all the variables was built presenting RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.89, its theory basis is insect volatilizes specific odor, including pheromone and allelochemics, which are used for intra-specific and inter-specific communication and could be detected by NIR spectroscopy. 28 sensitive variables are selected by GA, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 14 and RV2 of 0.90. Comparably, 8 sensitive variables are selected by CARS, presenting the model performance of RMSEV of 13 and RV2 of 0.92. CARS model employs only 1.5% variables presenting smaller error than that of all variable. Odor gas based NIR technique shows the potential for cotton bollworm detection.

  7. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Toews Michael D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Sus Gene Family in Cotton

    Changsong Zou; Cairui Lu; Haihong Shang; Xinrui Jing; Hailiang Cheng; Youping Zhang; Guoli Song


    Sucrose synthase (Sus) is a key enzyme in plant sucrose metabolism.In cotton,Sus (EC is the main enzyme that degrades sucrose imported into cotton fibers from the phloem of the seed coat.This study demonstrated that the genomes of Gossypium arboreum L.,G.raimondii Ulbr.,and G.hirsutum L.,contained 8,8,and 15 Sus genes,respectively.Their structural organizations,phylogenetic relationships,and expression profiles were characterized.Comparisons of genomic and coding sequences identified multiple introns,the number and positions of which were highly conserved between diploid and allotetraploid cotton species.Most of the phylogenetic clades contained sequences from all three species,suggesting that the Sus genes of tetraploid G.hirsutum derived from those of its diploid ancestors.One Sus group (Sus I) underwent expansion during cotton evolution.Expression analyses indicated that most Sus genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and had development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells.Members of the same orthologous group had very similar expression patterns in all three species.These results provide new insights into the evolution of the cotton Sus gene family,and insight into its members' physiological functions during fiber growth and development.

  9. Design of multi-functional cotton gauze with antimicrobial and drug delivery properties.

    Rehan, Mohamed; Zaghloul, S; Mahmoud, F A; Montaser, A S; Hebeish, A


    The ideal biomedical fiber/fabric materials can both promote the drug delivery properties and prevent microbial infection. Herein we present an innovation-based strategy for fabrication of biomedical cotton gauze which concomitantly displays antimicrobial and drug delivery performance properties. The innovative strategy involved three distinct steps: (1) Cationization of cotton gauze by reacting it with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride [Quat-188] or anionization of cotton gauze through partial carboxymethylation. (2) Thus modified samples of cotton gauze along with unmodified blank samples were submitted to in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using trisodium citrate (TSC) which has three-fold functions: (a) reducing agent for conversion of Ag(+) to Ag(o) (atom), (b) stabilizing agent to prevent aggregation of AgNPs and, (c) linker for fixation of AgNPs on the surfaces of the cotton gauze. (3) All the modified and unmodified cotton gauze samples were loaded with oxytetracyline hydrochloride drug. To this end, characterization of the modified and unmodified cotton samples before and after being loaded with drug using state-of-the-art facilities was undertaken. These facilities comprised UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, scanning electron microscope and Infrared Spectroscopy by Attenuated total Reflectance (ATR/IR). Evaluation of the antimicrobial and drug release properties of the cotton gauze samples in question was conducting. Results obtained signified that the modified cotton gauze can be used in the area of biomedical textiles particularly as antimicrobial and drug delivery. Also reported were mechanisms entailed in chemical modifications of cotton gauze and interactions of this modified cotton gauze with antimicrobial as well as with drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dangerous Raw Oysters


    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  11. [Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density on cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation in extremely early mature cotton region of Northeast China].

    Wang, Zi-Sheng; Xu, Min; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Jin, Lu-Lu; Shan, Ying; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Zhou, Zhi-Guo


    Taking two cotton cultivars Liaomian 19 and NuCOTN 33B with different growth periods as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilization rates (0, 240 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) and different planting densities (75000, 97500 and 120000 plants x hm(-2)) on the cotton biomass, nitrogen accumulation, and accumulative nitrogen utilization in the planting region of extremely early mature cotton in Northeast China. The dynamics of cotton biomass and nitrogen accumulation of the two cultivars with their growth process followed Logistic model. Both nitrogen fertilization rate and planting density had significant effects on the cotton nitrogen accumulation dynamics and the cotton yield and quality. In all treatments, the beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen was about 13 d earlier than that of biomass. In treatment plant density 97500 plants x hm(-2) and nitrogen fertilization rate 240 kg x hm(-2), the eigenvalues of the dynamic accumulation models of nitrogen and biomass for the two cultivars were most harmonious, lint yield was the highest, fiber quality was the best, and accumulative nitrogen utilization efficiency was the highest. In the study region, the earlier beginning time of rapid accumulation of nitrogen and biomass and their higher accumulation rates were benefit to the formation of higher cotton yield.

  12. Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.

    Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun


    Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method.

  13. Properties and Processing of the Pineapple Leaf Fiber

    张元明; 郁崇文


    The properties and constituent of pineapple fiber were tested, and on the base of that, chemical treatment was used to improve the spinnability of the fiber, and the pure and blended yarn of pineapple fiber were produced in worsted and cotton spinning system.

  14. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  15. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)


    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  16. Efeitos da utilização de misturas de adubos com ou sem enxofre na precocidade e nas características do capulho e da fibra do algodoeiro Effects of mixtures of fertilizers with or without sulfur on cotton earliness and some characteristics of fibers and bolls

    Nelson Paulieri Sabino


    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados referentes à precocidade e características do capulho e da fibra do algodoeiro, obtidos em ensaio de caráter permanente, no município de Guaíra (SP, em gleba de Latossolo Roxo, durante o período 1974/75-1977/78, utilizando-se a variedade 'IAC 16'. Além da reação ao fósforo, foi planejado um estudo conjunto visando observar a resposta do algodoeiro à aplicação de misturas de adubo contendo fósforo e enxofre em quantidades variáveis. A análise e a interpretação dos resultados permitiram as seguintes conclusões: a Adubações com superfosfato triplo ou simples, em solo deficiente em fósforo, resultaram em maior precocidade no ciclo do algodoeiro, enquanto o uso de sulfato de amônio em cobertura tendeu a prolongar esse ciclo; b Ambas as fontes citadas de fósforo proporcionaram aumentos significativos no peso de capulho e no comprimento das fibras, enquanto apenas o superfosfato simples aumentou sensivelmente o peso de cem sementes e o índice Micronaire, que representa o complexo finura + maturidade da fibra; c As características porcentagem de fibras, uniformidade de comprimento, resistência e maturidade das fibras, não foram alteradas significativamente pelos tratamentos estudados.Effects of fertilizers mixtures with or without sulfur on cotton earliness and some characteristics of fiber and bolls, obtained in a field experiment carried out at Guaira County (SP in a oxisoil -"Latossolo Roxo" - during the years of 1974/75 to 1977/78, are related. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results: a - soil fertilizations with concentrated superphosphate or ordinary superphosphate resulted in early picking of cotton crop. Plant cycle, was delayed with split application of ammonium sulphate; b - both concentrated superphosphate and ordinary superphosphate increased significantly boll weight and fiber length, but only ordinary superphosphate gave significant increases on seed weights and

  17. Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns

    Chen Aiqun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7 identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum. Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

  18. Developing hybrid cotton (Gossypium spp.) using honey bees as pollinators and the Roundup Ready® Phenotype as the selection trait

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile fiber crop in the United States (US). Hybrid cotton is grown in several countries but the use of hybrids in the US has been limited due to seed production costs. The objective of this study was to investigate a novel method for the production of ...

  19. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Muhammad Sohail


    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  20. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  1. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  2. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  3. Integrated Process of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)Hollow Fiber Membrane for Polluted Raw Water Treatment%受污染原水处理的聚四氟乙烯中空膜组合工艺

    厉帅; 郭建宁; 范小江; 张亮; 王凌云; 张锡辉


    该文以排洪期东江水为原水,开展了聚四氟乙烯(PTFE)中空纤维膜组合工艺处理受污染原水的小试和中试研究。工艺将臭氧、混凝与膜过滤集成,后置生物活性炭过滤。试验的PTFE膜孔径为0.12μm,外径×内径为2.3 mm ×1 mm。小试试验测得临界膜通量为60 L/m2·h,臭氧能够促进组合工艺对有机物的去除,并能提高氨氮的去除。中试试验规模为120 t/d,膜通量为41.67 L/m2·h。结果表明,投加臭氧时组合工艺对氨氮的处理负荷能提高至3.19~4.31 mg/L,COD去除率为70%~94%,UV254去除率达到73%~87%,工艺出水浊度<0.2 NTU,大于2μm颗粒数<50 CNT/mL。工艺出水中THMs、HAAs、甲醛、溴酸盐均符合新的饮用水卫生标准;膜出水未检出细菌总数和总大肠菌群数。投加臭氧(O3/TOC=0.6~0.8)可显著减轻膜污染,达到同样的污染程度所需的运行时间较未投加臭氧时延长1倍;投加7~9 mg/L臭氧可逐渐消除膜污染,达到原位修复膜污染,减少化学清洗频次的目的。%A hybrid process combining oznation with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)hollow fiber membrane was studied for treatment of drinking water from polluted surface water in small and pilot scale. Raw water was simulated the Dongjiang River in flood drainage period. Ozonation,coagulation and membrane filtration were integrated followed by biological activated carbon filtration. The tested PTFE membrane has a pore size of 0. 12μm,out diameter of 2. 3 mm and inner diameter of 1 mm. The results of lab-scale experiment show that the critical flux is 60 L/m2 · h,and the removal efficiencies of organic matters and ammonia are improved with ozone present. The results of pilot scale experiments scale 5 m3/h,permeation flux 41. 67 L/m2 ·h show that the removal load of ammonia is 3. 19~4. 31 mg/L,and the removal efficiencies of COD and UV254 are 70% ~94% and 73% ~87

  4. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Dennis K.Zhao


    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  5. China Cotton label to be generalized


    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  6. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit


    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  7. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    KIM Robert; AMANTURDIEV Alisher; MEJLUMYAN Larisa; BABAYEV Yashen; KIM Michael


    @@ Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality.Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  8. Correlation of Inhibitor Proteinase in Varieties and Lines of Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) to Different Geographic Population of Verticillium dathliae Klebahn

    KIM; Robert; AMANTURDIEV; Alisher; MEJLUMYAN; Larisa; BABAYEV; Yashen; KIM; Michael


    Breeding for wilt resistance and its theoretical basis are primarily responsible for increases in cotton yield and fiber quality. Breeding for immunity is the most efficient method in our struggle with infectious diseases.

  9. Cloning and Function Characteristic of GhDWF4,an Ortholog of Arabidopsis DWF4 from Upland Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)


    As one of the longest cells characterized in plant kingdom,cotton fibers were regarded as an ideal material for studying plant cell growth and development.In recent years,several reports revealed that

  10. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Flora Zhao


    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  11. A one bath chemo-enzymatic process for preparation of absorbent cotton

    A.S.M. Raja


    Full Text Available Cotton is the raw material for preparation of absorbent cotton. Raw cotton has to be subjected to scouring and bleaching processes for making it absorbent by removing the naturally present wax, protein and minerals in the fibre. The scouring is done at 115 °C using alkali followed by bleaching at boiling condition using alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The effluent coming out of such processes contains high COD and BOD values. Due to the stringent environmental regulation and great awareness among the public about environment, worldwide attempts have been made to develop green and sustainable chemical processing of materials. Based on the above, in the present study efforts have been made to develop an eco-friendly one bath preparatory process for the production of absorbent cotton using chemo-enzymatic formulation. The result indicated that absorbent cotton produced using the developed process fulfilled the required performance properties as per pharmacopoeia in comparable with the conventional process made one.


    LOX Wouter


    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  13. Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R


    Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2μm and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material.

  14. Study of plasma-induced graft polymerization of stearyl methacrylate on cotton fabric substrates

    Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Chao; Shao, Jianzhong


    A simple and facile method to prepare the cotton fabric with hydrophobicity was described in the present work. In the one-step process, the cotton fabric pre-impregnated with the monomer solution of stearyl methacrylate (SMA) was placed in the plasma chamber and followed by glow discharge of the Helium low temperature plasma. The cotton fabrics before and after the plasma treatment were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The wettability of the cotton fabrics was evaluated by contact angle measurement. Fabric Hand Values and mechanical properties were also measured in the experiment. The results showed that polymer films could be coated on the cotton fibers through the plasma induced grafting polymerization of SMA. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited an extraordinary hydrophobicity with a contact angle of 149° for a 5 μL water droplet and excellent thermal stability. The relative hand value and mechanical breaking strength of the cotton fabrics declined slightly after graft polymerization of SMA by the plasma.

  15. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Malik Tassawar Hussain


    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  16. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Malik Tassawar Hussain


    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  17. Cloning and Characterization of Fiber-specific Genes Through High Throughput Analysis%用高通量分析法克隆和鉴定棉花纤维专化表达基因

    Ying-chun LU; Gang WEI; Jun LI; Yu-xian ZHU


    @@ Our current project is to isolate, identify and characterize cotton fiber-specific genes in order to pick up candidates for fiber quality improvement. Firstly, 10DPA ( day post anthesis ) cotton fiber cDNA library was constructed with 5X106 primary titer and 1.3kb average insertions.

  18. Recognizing a limitation of the TBLC-activated peroxide system on low-temperature cotton bleaching.

    Chen, Wenhua; Wang, Lun; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jingjing; Sun, Chang; Xu, Changhai


    In this study, cotton was bleached at low temperatures with an activated peroxide system which was established by incorporating a bleach activator, namely, N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]caprolactam chloride (TBCC) into an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Experimental results showed that the bleaching performance was unexpectedly diminished as the TBCC concentration was increased over the range of 25-100g/L. Kinetic adsorption experiment indicated that this was most likely ascribed to the adsorptive interactions of TBCC and the in situ-generated compounds with cotton fibers. Such a limitation was especially fatal to cold pad-batch bleaching process of cotton in which a high TBCC concentration was often required. The results of this study may stimulate further research to avoid or overcome the limitation of the TBCC-activated peroxide system on low-temperature cotton bleaching.

  19. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    Wilson, Alexander


    . The concepts of raw art and outsider art were typical of a time when oppositional politics still infused artistic and academic discourses. But modernity seems to have ‘grown out’ of its adolescence, so to speak: out of politics of opposition and absolutes. Of course, it is neither desirable nor possible...... to return to the oppositional dynamics and binary divisions of yesterday, now that we have crossed this paradigmatic threshold. But the schizoanalytic stance may offer us another view of the emerging paradigm. It affords different tools of interpretation and suggests ways artists may grow out of modernity...

  20. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; de Silva, K. M. Nalin; Amaratunge, Gehan A. J.


    We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ∼1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity. Microscopic characterization of the fiber surface using SEM and AFM reveals the deposition of GO sheets on the fiber surface as a conformal coating. Analysis of the fabric surface using UV-vis absorption allowed identification of the ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic domains present on the GO coated cotton fabric surface. Hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric are ascribed to two dimensional amphiphilic properties of deposited GO nano sheets, which successfully lower the interfacial energy of the fabric surface.

  1. Tissue engineering scaffolds electrospun from cotton cellulose.

    He, Xu; Cheng, Long; Zhang, Ximu; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui


    Nonwovens of cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning of cotton cellulose in its LiCl/DMAc solution. The key factors associated with the electrospinning process, including the intrinsic properties of cellulose solutions, the rotating speed of collector and the applied voltage, were systematically investigated. XRD data indicated the electrospun nanofibers were almost amorphous. When increasing the rotating speed of the collector, preferential alignment of fibers along the drawing direction and improved molecular orientation were revealed by scanning electron microscope and polarized FTIR, respectively. Tensile tests indicated the strength of the nonwovens along the orientation direction could be largely improved when collected at a higher speed. In light of the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their unique porous structure, the nonwovens were further assessed as potential tissue engineering scaffolds. Cell culture experiments demonstrated human dental follicle cells could proliferate rapidly not only on the surface but also in the entire scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure and elastic constants of Dharwar cotton fibre using WAXS data

    O M Samir; R Somashekar


    Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) recordings were carried out on raw Dharwar cotton fibres available in Karnataka. Using this data and employing linked atom least squares (LALS) method, we report here the molecular and crystal structure of these cotton fibres. Employing structural data, we have computed elastic moduli tensor components of these fibres. From these investigations, it turns out that the intrinsic strains present in the fibre arise due to hydrogen bonds and not covalent bonds, which is a significant result.

  3. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua


    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  4. Aberrant Expression of Critical Genes during Secondary Cell Wall Biogenesis in a Cotton Mutant, Ligon Lintless-1 (Li-1

    James J. Bolton


    Full Text Available Over ninety percent of the value of cotton comes from its fiber; however, the genetic mechanisms governing fiber development are poorly understood. Due to their biochemical and morphological diversity in fiber cells cotton fiber mutants have been useful in examining fiber development; therefore, using the Ligon Lintless (Li-1 mutant, a monogenic dominant cotton mutant with very short fibers, we employed the high throughput approaches of microarray technology and real time PCR to gain insights into what genes were critical during the secondary cell wall synthesis stage. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the normal TM-1 genotype and the near isogenic Li-1 revealed that over 100 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold during secondary wall biogenesis, although the genetic profile of the expansion phase showed no significant differences in the isolines. Of particular note, we identified three candidate gene families-expansin, sucrose synthase, and tubulin—whose expression in Li-1 deviates from normal expression patterns of its parent, TM-1. These genes may contribute to retarded growth of fibers in Li-1 since they are fiber-expressed structural and metabolic genes. This work provides more details into the mechanisms of fiber development, and suggests the Li gene is active during the later stages of fiber development.

  5. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis


    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  6. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material



    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.

  7. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M


    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  8. Effect of dyeing on antibacterial efficiency of silver coated cotton fabrics

    Shahidi, Sheila; Rezaee, Sahar; Hezavehi, Emadaldin


    Despite numerous investigations during recent decades in the field of antimicrobial treating textile fibers using silver, many obscurities remain regarding the durability and dyeing ability and the influences of dyeing on the antimicrobial effectiveness of silver-treated fibers. In this research work, the cotton fabrics were sputtered using DC magnetron sputtering system for different times of exposure by silver. Then the silver coated samples were dyed by different classes of synthetic and natural dyes. The dye ability of coated samples was compared with untreated cotton. The reflective spectrophotometer was used for this purpose. The morphology of the cotton fabrics before and after dyeing was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity of samples before and after dyeing, were investigated and compared. For antibacterial investigation, the antibacterial counting tests were used. It was concluded that, dyeing does not have any negative effect on antibacterial activity of coated samples and very good antibacterial activity was achieved after dyeing.

  9. Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls

    Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))


    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

  10. QTL mapping in A-genome diploid Asiatic cotton and their congruence analysis with AD-genome tetraploid cotton in genus Gossypium.

    Ma, Xuexia; Ding, Yezhang; Zhou, Baoliang; Guo, Wangzhen; Lv, Yanhui; Zhu, Xiefei; Zhang, Tianzhen


    Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L.) is an Old World cultivated cotton species. The sinense race was planted extensively in China. Due to the advances in spinning technology during the last century, the species was replaced by the New World allotetraploid cotton G. hirsutum L. Gossypium arboreum is still grown in India and Pakistan and also used as an elite in current cotton breeding programs. In addition, G. arboreum serves as a model for genomic research in Gossypium. In the present study, we generated an A-genome diploid cotton intraspecific genetic map including 264 SSR loci with three morphological markers mapped to 13 linkage groups. The map spans 2,508.71 cM with an average distance of 9.4 cM between adjacent loci. A population containing 176 F(2:3) families was used to perform quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for 17 phenotypes using Multiple QTL Model (MQM) of MapQTL ver 5.0. Overall, 108 QTLs were detected on 13 chromosomes. Thirty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F2 population. Forty-one QTLs for yield and its components were detected in the F(2:3) families with a total of 43 QTLs for fiber qualities. Two QTLs for seed cotton weight/plant and lint index and three QTLs for seed index were consistently detected both in F2 and F(2:3). Most QTLs for fiber qualities and yields were located at the same interval or neighboring intervals. These results indicated that the negative correlation between fiber qualities and yield traits may result from either pleiotropic effect of one gene or linkage effects of multiple closely linked genes.

  11. Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics prepared by sol–gel coating of TiO2 and surface hydrophobization

    Chao-Hua Xue et al


    Full Text Available By coating fibers with titania sol to generate a dual-size surface roughness, followed by hydrophobization with stearic acid, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane or their combination, hydrophilic cotton fabrics were made superhydrophobic. The surface wettability and topology of cotton fabrics were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The UV-shielding property of the treated fabrics was also characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry.

  12. Genetic mapping and comparative expression analysis of transcription factors in cotton.

    Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Xin; Li, Ximei; Lin, Zhongxu


    Transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The study of the structure and function of TFs represents a research frontier in plant molecular biology. The findings of these studies will provide significant information regarding genetic improvement traits in crops. Currently, a large number of TFs have been cloned, and their function has been verified. However, relatively few studies that genetically map TFs in cotton are available. To genetically map TFs in cotton in this study, specific primers were designed for TF genes that were published in the Plant Transcription Factor Database. A total of 977 TF primers were obtained, and 31 TF polymorphic loci were mapped on 15 cotton chromosomes. These polymorphic loci were clearly preferentially distributed on chromosomes 5, 11, 19 and 20; and TFs from the same family mapped to homologous cotton chromosomes. In-silico mapping verified that many mapped TFs were mapped on their corresponding chromosomes or their homologous chromosomes' corresponding chromosomes in the diploid genomes. QTL mapping for fiber quality revealed that TF-Ghi005602-2 mapped on Chr19 was associated with fiber length. Eighty-five TF genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis, and 4 TFs were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, revealing unique expression patterns across different stages of fiber development between the mapping parents. Our data offer an overview of the chromosomal distribution of TFs in cotton, and the comparative expression analysis between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense provides a rough understanding of the regulation of TFs during cotton fiber development.

  13. Textile processing improvements due to high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. Processing capacities of new high-speed roller ginning technology approach that of saw ginning. Spinning mills are interested in mill performance data comparing new upland cultivars processed by both saw and roller ginning. Four dive...

  14. Advent of Greige Cotton Nonwovens Made By Hydro-Entanglement Process

    Using greige (scour/bleachless) cotton, a few nonwoven fabrics have been successfully produced by adopting conventional fiber opening, cleaning and (modified) carding machines followed by cross-lapping, pre/light needling, and hydro-entanglement (H-E) on modern commercial machinery and equipment. Us...

  15. 76 FR 32088 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports


    ... Supply and Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market, CWS-071-01, November 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, . MacDonald, Stephen and Sarah Whitley. Fiber Use for Textiles and China's Cotton Textile Exports,...

  16. 76 FR 54078 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports


    ... Demand: Issues and Impact on the World Market, CWS-071-01, November 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, . MacDonald, Stephen and Sarah Whitley. Fiber Use for Textiles and China's Cotton Textile Exports, CWS-08i-01,...

  17. The effect of seed cotton moisture during harvesting on - part 2- yarn and fabric quality

    Part 1 of this study found that there were significant differences in terms of fiber quality and processing performance of seed cotton harvested from one field using a John Deere 7760 spindle harvester at two moisture levels, 12%, and storing the harvested modules for 12 weeks prior to gin...

  18. 超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物的开发%On Developing Jacquard Fabric with Different Warps and Wefts of Blended Yarns between Ultra-ifne Polyester and Cotton, Hemp and Other Fibers



    The paper discusses the key techniques for producing mini-jacquard woven fabric using blended yarns between ultra-fine polyester and cotton, hemp and other fibers as warps and wefts. By analyzing fabric style and difficulties in production, it suggests the rational process route and optimized parameters for warping, sizing and weaving processes. The resulted fabric has special stripped structure and unique look, offering reference for developing and producing high-grade apparel fabric.%探讨了超细旦涤纶与棉、汉麻等异经异纬提花织物生产技术的要点。通过对该面料的织物风格以及生产难点进行分析,选择合理的工艺流程,优化整经、浆纱织造等工序的工艺参数。面料具有特殊的条形结构,风格独特,为高档服装面料的开发及生产提供参考。

  19. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  1. Property and Shape Modulation of Carbon Fibers Using Lasers.

    Blaker, Jonny J; Anthony, David B; Tang, Guang; Shamsuddin, Siti-Ros; Kalinka, Gerhard; Weinrich, Malte; Abdolvand, Amin; Shaffer, Milo S P; Bismarck, Alexander


    An exciting challenge is to create unduloid-reinforcing fibers with tailored dimensions to produce synthetic composites with improved toughness and increased ductility. Continuous carbon fibers, the state-of-the-art reinforcement for structural composites, were modified via controlled laser irradiation to result in expanded outwardly tapered regions, as well as fibers with Q-tip (cotton-bud) end shapes. A pulsed laser treatment was used to introduce damage at the single carbon fiber level, creating expanded regions at predetermined points along the lengths of continuous carbon fibers, while maintaining much of their stiffness. The range of produced shapes was quantified and correlated to single fiber tensile properties. Mapped Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the local compositional and structural changes. Irradiation conditions were adjusted to create a swollen weakened region, such that fiber failure occurred in the laser treated region producing two fiber ends with outwardly tapered ends. Loading the tapered fibers allows for viscoelastic energy dissipation during fiber pull-out by enhanced friction as the fibers plough through a matrix. In these tapered fibers, diameters were locally increased up to 53%, forming outward taper angles of up to 1.8°. The tensile strength and strain to failure of the modified fibers were significantly reduced, by 75% and 55%, respectively, ensuring localization of the break in the expanded region; however, the fiber stiffness was only reduced by 17%. Using harsher irradiation conditions, carbon fibers were completely cut, resulting in cotton-bud fiber end shapes. Single fiber pull-out tests performed using these fibers revealed a 6.75-fold increase in work of pull-out compared to pristine carbon fibers. Controlled laser irradiation is a route to modify the shape of continuous carbon fibers along their lengths, as well as to cut them into controlled lengths leaving tapered or cotton-bud shapes.

  2. Heat Release Property and Fire Performance of the Nomex/Cotton Blend Fabric Treated with a Nonformaldehyde Organophosphorus System

    Charles Q. Yang


    Full Text Available Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA was used for flame retardant finishing of the 65/35 Nomex®/cotton blend woven fabric. The system contains HFPO as a flame retardant, BTCA as a bonding agent, and triethenolamine (TEA as a reactive additive used to enhance the performance of HFPO/BTCA. Addition of TEA improves the hydrolysis resistance of the HFPO/BTCA crosslinked polymeric network on the blend fabric. Additionally, TEA enhances HFPO’s flame retardant performance by reducing formation of calcium salts and also by providing synergistic nitrogen to the treated blend fabric. The Nomex®/cotton blend fabric treated with the HFPO/BTCA/TEA system shows high flame resistance and high laundering durability at a relatively low HFPO concentration of 8% (w/w. The heat release properties of the treated Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were measured using microscale combustion calorimetry. The functions of BTCA; HFPO and TEA on the Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were elucidated based on the heat release properties, char formation, and fire performance of the treated blend fabric.

  3. Fabrication of cotton nano-powder and its textile application

    GUAN YingTing; LI Yi


    A combination of chemical and mechanical treatment of cotton produced cotton powder (fibrils) with a mean diameter of 97 nm is analyzed by Laser Particle Size Analyzer. Transmission Electron Micro scope (TEM) study showed that the diameter of the fibrils was about 10-30 nm and the length was from 70nm to over 400 nm. The powder was then coated onto fabrics (100% polyester fabric, 100% wool fabric and 100% cotton fabric). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study showed that cotton fibrils were adhered to the surface of treated fabrics (fibers). The ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) value (AS/NZS 4399:1996) for cotton fabrics increased about 20% after the treatment. This implies that the treated samples give a better protection from UV light. The moisture management test (MMT) of the fabrics such as wetting time at bottom, top maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum absorption rate, bottom maximum wetted radius and bottom spreading speed, et al., showed that there were significant changes after the treatment. These changes gave better moisture management ability to the treated fabrics and thus made the fabric more comfortable. However, Wide-angle X-ray Diffraction and Fourie Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis proved that supermolecular structure and chemical structure of treated fabrics were the same as the original fabrics. Other properties of the treated fabric such as thermal conductivity, wrinkle recovery, hand, et al., did not change. This implied that the basic function of the treated fabrics for the clothing industry was the same as untreated fabrics. This study is a foundation for further researches on textile application.

  4. Rapid continuous pyrolysis of cotton stalks for charcoal production

    Mobarak, F.


    Charcoal of more than 80% carbon content was obtained from cotton stalks by using a rapid continuous pyrolysis process. The yield ranged from 17 to 37% depending on the pyrolysis temperature. When raising the temperature from 400 to 700 degrees C the carbon content of the charcoal initially increased, then remained constant while the yield decreased continually. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was found to be 600 degrees C. At this temperature a product having 86% carbon content on a moisture and ash free basis was obtained. The bulk density went through a minimum at a pyrolysis temperature of 600 degrees C. The increase observed at higher temperatures was attributed to the collapse of the cell wall structure. On the other hand, the adsorption activity decreased continually with increasing pyrolysis temperature. To some extent, charcoal properties depend on particle size of the raw material. Thus, the fine fraction had a higher ash content and a higher adsorption capacity than the coarse fraction. Compared to similar charcoal samples from other agricultural residues and wood the cotton stalk charcoal showed a remarkably high adsorption activity even without any additional activation. Gathering cotton stalks and their prompt conversion to charcoal by rapid continuous pyrolysis would eliminate worm dissemination and fire hazards resulting from storage of the stalks by the farmers.

  5. The Design and Development of Cotton/Modal/Bamboo Viscose Fiber Blended Fabric Collection%棉与木代尔、竹浆纤维混纺织物的设计与开发



    By using Cotton/Modal/Bamboo Viscose ifber blended yarn, fabrics in 9 different weaves were designed, as the wearing property varies greatly depending on fabric weave. The looming parameters and production process were calculated, and the fabrics in nine different weaves were woven on sample loom. Then the key production and technical points were analyzed and the scheme for optimizing fabric properties was summed up, offering reference to textile enterprises for developing such fabrics.%采用棉与木代尔、竹浆纤维混纺纱,设计9种不同织物组织,其服用性能有很大差异。对9种不同组织织物的上机规格参数及生产工艺进行计算,再在小样机上试织,分析生产技术要点,总结出织物性能优选方案,为纺织企业进行此类织物的开发提供了参考依据。

  6. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States


    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  7. Isolation and recovery of cellulose from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Lv, Fangbing; Wang, Chaoxia; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Chuanjie


    Development of a simple process for separating cellulose and nylon 6 from their blended fabrics is indispensable for recycling of waste mixed fabrics. An efficient procedure of dissolution of the fabrics in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) and subsequent filtration separation has been demonstrated. Effects of treatment temperature, time and waste fabrics ratio on the recovery rates were investigated. SEM images showed that the cotton cellulose dissolved in [AMIM]Cl while the nylon 6 fibers remained. The FTIR spectrum of regenerated cellulose (RC) was similar with that of virgin cotton fibers, which verified that no other chemical reaction occurred besides breakage of hydrogen bonds during the processes of dissolution and separation. TGA curves indicated that the regenerated cellulose possessed a reduced thermal stability and was effectively removed from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics (WNCFs). WNCFs were sufficiently reclaimed with high recovery rate of both regenerated cellulose films and nylon 6 fibers.

  8. 木棉纤维保暖絮片的探究%Investigation of kapok fiber warm flakes

    樊星; 薛少林


    以木棉纤维、涤纶、棉纤维为原料,分析原料混纺比、预针刺机针刺密度及针刺深度等工艺参数对产品性能的影响,成功开发出不同组分、不同工艺的木棉非织造保暖材料,得到合适的木棉非织造保暖絮片的开发路径。%The effects of the raw material kapok fiber , polyester fiber and cotton fiber blending ratio and the needling density and needling depth of pre-acupuncture needling machine on the properties of products were investigated .Non-woven kapok fiber warm-made materials of the different components and different processes were developed successfully .The proper development path of non-woven kapok warm flacks was concluded .

  9. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Huang Junfei


    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  10. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang


    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  11. Genome physical mapping of polyploids: a BIBAC physical map of cultivated tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Yang; Huang, James J; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Stelly, David M; Zhang, Hong-Bin


    Polyploids account for approximately 70% of flowering plants, including many field, horticulture and forage crops. Cottons are a world-leading fiber and important oilseed crop, and a model species for study of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. This study has addressed the concerns of physical mapping of polyploids with BACs and/or BIBACs by constructing a physical map of the tetraploid cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The physical map consists of 3,450 BIBAC contigs with an N50 contig size of 863 kb, collectively spanning 2,244 Mb. We sorted the map contigs according to their origin of subgenome, showing that we assembled physical maps for the A- and D-subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton, separately. We also identified the BIBACs in the map minimal tilling path, which consists of 15,277 clones. Moreover, we have marked the physical map with nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs), making one BES in approximately 250 kb. This physical map provides a line of evidence and a strategy for physical mapping of polyploids, and a platform for advanced research of the tetraploid cotton genome, particularly fine mapping and cloning the cotton agronomic genes and QTLs, and sequencing and assembling the cotton genome using the modern next-generation sequencing technology.

  12. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit


    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  13. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.


    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  14. The increasing multifunctionality of Agricultural Raw Materials: Three dilemmas for Innovation and Adoption

    Boehlje, M.; Bröring, S.


    Agricultural raw materials are increasingly being used for multiple industries or sectors beyond the traditional fiber and nutrition industries: energy in the form of ethanol and biodiesel, industrial products such as polymers and bio-based synthetic chemicals and fibers, and pharmaceutical/health p

  15. How current ginning processes affect fiber length uniformity index

    There is a need to develop cotton ginning methods that improve fiber characteristics that are compatible with the newer and more efficient spinning technologies. A literature search produced recent studies that described how current ginning processes affect HVI fiber length uniformity index. Resul...

  16. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    PATERSON Andrew H


    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  17. Dielectric permitivity measurement of cotton lint

    A technique was developed for making broad band measurements of cotton lint electrical permitivity. The fundamental electrical permitivity value of cotton lint at various densities and moisture contents; is beneficial for the future development of cotton moisture sensors as it provides a...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  20. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...