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Sample records for raudla tnis kanger

  1. ID-kaart on mugav ja praktiline dokument / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 12. okt., lk. 2; Lääne Elu 13. okt., lk. 2; Hiiumaa 13. okt., lk. 2; Koit 16. okt., lk. 6; Nädaline 16. okt., lk. 4; Sakala 18. okt., lk. 2; Valgamaalane 18. okt., lk. 2; Pjarnuskii Ekspress 12. okt., lk. 2; Meie Maa 19. okt., lk. 2; Hiiu Leht 23. okt., lk. 2; Järva Teataja 30. okt., lk. 2. Siseministri nõunik Heiki Raudla ID-kaardist

  2. Kitarritab'idest / Laur Kanger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kanger, Laur

    2006-01-01

    Muusikakirjastajate Assotsiatsiooni (MPA - Music Publisher's Association of United States) sõjast kitarritabulatuure (klassikalise noodikirja märkimise lihtsustatud viis) pakkuvate veebisaitide vastu

  3. Kuidas turustada otse? / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    25. aprillil korraldas Eesti Põlumajandus-Kaubanduskoda Lääne-Virumaal Põlulas seminari "Farmitoodete otseturundus", mille eesmärk oli aidata maaettevõtjatel uusi tulu teenimise võimalusi leida. Artiklis toob Flandria põllumajanduse innovatsioonikeskuse esindaja Bart Vleeschouwers näiteid flaami väiksemate farmide toodangu turustamise viisidest

  4. Chelsea - pelgupaik keset suurlinna / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Chelsea Flower Show'st, millest jäid märksõnadena meelde looduslähedus, ühiskondlik hoolivus ja minevikuihalus. Parima näituseaia tiitli pälvis Sarah Eberle kujundatud kosmoseaed "600 Days with Bradstone". Pikemalt ka Andi Sturgeoni kujundatud vähiuuringute keskuse aiast. 10 värv. vaadet

  5. Piison aitab otse turustada / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Põllumajandus-Kaubanduskoda korraldas 25. aprillil 2006.a. farmitoodete otseturustuse alase avatud seminari Lääne-Virumaal Põlula külas Roosioru piisonifarmis. Seminaril esines ka Flandria põllumajanduse innovatsioonikeskuse esindaja Bart Vleeschouwers

  6. Performance of a tagged neutron inspection system (TNIS) based on portable sealed generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Lunardon, M.; Viesti, G.; LeTourneur, P.; Heuveline, F.; Mangeard, M.; Tcheng, C.

    2004-01-01

    A portable sealed neutron generator has been modified to produce 14MeV tagged neutron beams with an embedded YAP:Ce scintillation detector. The system has been tested by detecting the coincident gamma-rays produced in the irradiation of a graphite sample by means of a standard NaI(Tl) scintillator. Time resolution of about δt=4-5ns (FWHM) has been measured. The sealed neutron tube has been operated up to 10 7 neutron/s. Possible applications in non-destructive assays and future developments of the Tagged Neutron Inspection System concept are discussed

  7. Põllumehel seninägematud sõbrad / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Eestimaa Põllumajandustootjate Keskliidu korraldatud konverentsil "140 päeva Euroopa Liidus" viibisid ka vabariigi president, Riigikogu esimees, põllumajandus-, välis-, keskkonna-, regionaal- ja rahandusministrid, COPA/COCEGA peasekretäri asetäitja Stef Swinnen ja Eesti põllumeeste esindaja Brüsselis Aivar Niinemägi

  8. Ärge põletage toiduvilja! / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    13.-15. märtsini Alam-Saksimaal Papenburgis toimunud energiakultuuride kasvatamisele pühendatud kongressil esitasid teadlased, ettevõtjad ja poliitikategelased oma pildi, millises suunas peaks bioenergia tootmine ja kasutamine arenema

  9. Bioenergiapisik on nakatanud põllumehi / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti ettevõtjate huvist bioenergia vastu. Seni on bioenergia investeeringutoetuse abil rahastatud biomassi töötlemise ja soojusenergia tootmise seadmete ostmist. Investeeringud bioenergia tootmisse

  10. Rohkem head metsa / Taavi Ehrpais ; interv. Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ehrpais, Taavi, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Vardi erametsaseltsi esimees põllumaa metsastamise põhjustest, looduslikust metsastumisest, istutatud puude valikust, metsastustoetustest. Lisad: Enamlevinud metsataimede hinnad tänavu kevadel; Pange tähele! Vt. samas: Istikutest tuli puudu; Siret Tappo. Põllumaade metsastamise toetus

  11. Palju nalja käigu pealt / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Kanal 2 meelelahutussaatest "Jumal tänatud, et sa siin oled!" (saatejuht Andrus Vaarik) kui näitest, kuidas improviseeritud sketshid võivad anda parema tulemuse nii kutselistel kui "isehakanud" näitlejatel kui kindla tekstiga huumorisaade

  12. Tehing mulla ja päikesega / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Ühendriikide ning kogu maailma novaatorlike farmerite tippu kuuluvad isa ja poeg, Wade ning Clay Mitchell, praktiseerivad kulude minimeerimiseks ja tulude maksimeerimiseks ainulaadset riba-(vahele)viljelust, maa harimisel kasutavad nad ülitäpset automaatjuhtimist. Vt. samas: Põlvest põlve; Strip-intercropping - tagasi muistsete võtete juurde

  13. The Baltic Respublics and the Crisis of 2008-2011 / Rainer Kattel, Ringa Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kattel, Rainer, 1974-

    2013-01-01

    Artikkel käsitleb majanduslangust aastatel 2008-2011 Baltimaades (sh Eesti) ning toob välja unikaalsed tegurid nende riikide majanduspoliitikas, mis võimaldasid väljuda kriisist, kuid mille radikaalsus ei ole jäljendatav teistes Euroopa riikides. Tabelid, joonised

  14. Seadusandja peab mõtlema nagu filosoof, aga kirjutama nagu talupoeg / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik : Laupäev, 24. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje: Subbota, 24. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 24. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 24. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 24. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 4; Nädaline, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 4; Vooremaa, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 2; Koit, 27. nov. 2001, lk. 6. Kodanikuühiskond saab tõelise arenguvõimaluse alles siis, kui kodanikud osalevad demokraatlikus juhtimises

  15. Kui ei istu, siis pole vaja ka püsti tõusta / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2004-01-01

    Pedagoogist ja vaimulikust August Osvald Westrén-Dollist (1882-1961). Õpetas usuõpetust ja ladina keelt Viljandi Maagümnaasiumis, Viljandi Haridusseltsi Tütarlaste Gümnaasiumis ja kohalikus Saksa Gümnaasiumis

  16. Rapsist diislikütus : kallis ja tõrjutud / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Paldiski Lõunasadamas avatud Biodiesel Paldiski AS tehas loodab tulevikus täisvõimsuse juures toota 100 000 tonni biodiislikütust aastas, praegu eksporditakse kogu toodang peamiselt Lääne-Euroopasse ja Skandinaaviasse. Eesti tarbijale biodiislikütuse tootmist takistab peamiselt tooraine kõrge hind ning vähene nõudlus. Küsimusele vastavad Kai Realo ja Indrek Kaju

  17. Halduskohtu pädevus : Riigikohtu administratiivosakonna ja halduskolleegiumi praktika aastatel 1919-1940 ja 1992-2009 / Liina Kanger, Marelle Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kanger, Liina, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Halduskohtu pädevuse piiritlemine õiguskorras ja teistest kohtuharudest (eraõiguse valdkonnas, kriminaal- ja väärteoasjades, põhiseaduslikkuse järelevalve teostamisel, riigiõiguslikes vaidlustes ja organitüli lahendamisel)

  18. Propaganda ehk "kui sõna ei löö, siis ei löö ka kaigas" / Heiki Raudla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudla, Heiki, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Propaganda kujunemisest läbi ajaloo, erinevatest teooriatest, reeglitest ja võtetest. Propagandaalasest tegevusest Eestis 1924-1940, Riikliku propaganda talituse (RPT) loomisest 27.09.1935 ja selle juhist Edgar Kigastest

  19. Ainsa eestlasena Pulitzeri võitnud Edmund Valtman pandi raamatusse / Riho Laurisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurisaar, Riho

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas ilmus 2006. a. kirjastuselt Ilo Heiki Raudla raamat "Edmund Valtman, eestlane, kes võitis Pulitzeri". USA-sse emigreerunud Edmund Valtman (1914-2005) sai 1962. a. Kuuba-ainelise karikatuuri eest Pulitzeri auhinna

  20. Igale hingele jõululugemist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. Tallinnas kirjastuselt Ilo ilmunud Heiki Raudla raamatust eesti karikaturistist Edmond Valtmanist (1914-2005) "Edmund Valtman : eestlane, kes võitis Pulitzeri" ja kirjastuselt Sinisukk ilmunud raamatust" Täielik portreemaalimise kursus"

  1. Maramaa elust poksi ja graffitini / Andres Lepik, Ott Aardam ; interv. Gert Kiiler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Andres

    2008-01-01

    Ugala teater alustas 89. hooaega. Esimese poole plaanitud esietendused : Toomas Suumani "Linnapea" Heiki Raudla raamatu "August Maramaa aeg" järgi, lavastaja Andres Lepik. Ott Aardami noortetükist "Poks", lavastaja autor. Gerald Sibleyras' "Grafiti", lavastaja Taago Tubin. Silvia Soro jõulunäidend "Inetu pardipoja" ainetel, lavastaja Oleg Titov

  2. Development of the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.

    2007-01-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project is part of the 6th European Union Framework Program. It aims at developing a Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) to detect illicit materials, such as explosives and narcotics, in cargo containers. Fast neutron induced reactions produce specific gamma-rays used to determine the chemical composition of the inspected material. The associated particle technique is employed to precisely locate the interaction points of the neutrons. A new deuterium-tritium neutron generator has been developed, including a pixelized alpha particle detector. The TNIS also comprises high-efficiency fast neutron and gamma-ray detectors, a dedicated front-end electronics and an integrated software to entirely drive the system and automatically process the data. Most components have been integrated during last months at Institute Ruder Boskovic, in Zagreb, Croatia. An overview of the TNIS and of its preliminary performances is presented

  3. Electron Resonance Decay into a Biological Function: Decrease in Viability of E. coli Transformed by Plasmid DNA Irradiated with 0.5-18 eV Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouass Sahbani, S; Cloutier, P; Bass, A D; Hunting, D J; Sanche, L

    2015-10-01

    Transient negative ions (TNIs) are ubiquitous in electron-molecule scattering at low electron impact energies (0-20 eV) and are particularly effective in damaging large biomolecules. Because ionizing radiation generates mostly 0-20 eV electrons, TNIs are expected to play important roles in cell mutagenesis and death during radiotherapeutic cancer treatment, although this hypothesis has never been directly verified. Here, we measure the efficiency of transforming E. coli bacteria by inserting into the cells, pGEM-3ZfL(-) plasmid DNA that confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Before transformation, plasmids are irradiated with electrons of specific energies between 0.5 and 18 eV. The loss of transformation efficiency plotted as a function of irradiation energy reveals TNIs at 5.5 and 9.5 eV, corresponding to similar states observed in the yields of DNA double strand breaks. We show that TNIs are detectable in the electron-energy dependence of a biological process and can decrease cell viability.

  4. Basin F Overburden and Soil Sampling and Analysis Study, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    and the material lodged in the shoe of the sampler z•s pressed out and placed in the bottom of the sleeve. In tnis tray, an undisturbed sample of the...b):______ A. Szandard dev--aciol of lowiest stanidard (S): _____ jmmzltnof lzw.sz standard (c): _______ i~veraq* &ýs-: banca cý lovesc standard

  5. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-01-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper

  6. Madaket Harbor, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Water Resources Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    will continue to be, important increases in the recreational use of land and water. The harbor area is an important arena for commercial shellfishing...an important arena for commercial shell fishing. The past few years have seen a rather rapid increase in residential land use. Construction has...beamc. Tnis material will be re-deposited,, viaj troio it 1-apfro1inr ox prior location. j, MADAKET HARBOR NANTUCKET, MASSACHUSETTS FEASIBILITY

  7. Operational Implications of the NATO Strategic Concept 2010 for European Countries in NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    tnis von NATO und EU- Eine Analyse unter Beriicksichtigung des Lissabonner Reformvertrages (Munich: AVM-Verlag, 2009), 4. Martin Reichard, The EU-NATO...Lockheed Martin Corp., Moorestown, USA. The consortium developed the first multifunctional counter battery radar in the world with a fu lly active phased...significant forces in expeditionary missions. Gustav Lindstrom , Caaudia Major and Christian Mt>lling provide a good review of the historic background, the

  8. Bangor International/Dow AFB, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    temporary site at ground GM1-1l RO-2 Surfac level in ramp area. 6 Apr 60 Located approx 200 ft from corner Same RO-2A 13 ft of old rnwy 33 taxiway and...USAF STAC . 0-14-S( OL A) ............ . . .T... ..O . PORN ... 17- GLCPAL CLIMATOLOGY 9RANCH ArETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY Alq WEATHEk SERVICL/4AC S...13.1 i ?6 6.. 5918 USAFETAC PORN 0.9.5 (OL.-) PFVIOUS EDITIONS OF TnIS FORM AIRE ORSOLTE Jut 64 GLCRAL CLIMAT0L.i Y 1 ANCH AFE T AC SKYCO E A>4 4ATHER

  9. Review and Evaluation of Army Aviation Depot NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) and Reliability Centered Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-31

    TAILBOOM ATTACH FITTINC UPPER & LOWER RH 2n _3 S C Y J D U R FUELL CELL AFT BULKHEAD PANEl. R/H Ib 54 S C Y J D U R FUEL CELL UPPER OUTBOARD PANEL R/H...in the real world. terns i-n tnis cIass are generally simple (so-called "sg- cell ") components such as tarts wich are subject to metal ’atizue or otner...AH-64 airframe, the automated airframe logbooK, the upgraded RCA data base management system, the ACE/AACE, CFD, PEM , breakout and other programs as

  10. Fatigue 󈨛. Papers presented at the International Conference on Fatigue and Fatigue Threshold (3rd) Held in Charlottesville, Virginia on June 28-July 3, 1987. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    rI ONAL 2/6 UNCLASSIFIED P" 4140 fPh ICNlLjG UN rwPLI/6.1 ML. 111111.03128 I2.2 11-1 111112 11.8 IIIJIL25 .4 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL...interval. Tnis strain data was then fitted by ARMA models. The material selected was SAE bolt steel, grade 2. The ultimate strength of this steel is 74 Ksi...2 K. Iwamoto ; JSAE Symp.(1978). 3 H. Kitagawa, T. Satoh and M. Fujimoto ; SAE 850371 (1985) 4 Fujimoto ; JSAE Symp (1985). 5 J. Niizawa, Tomioka,et

  11. Instructor/Operator Display Evaluation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    d. II nec..aory amd cidentify by bl-i k ,br ( HI Ihq .~Ida 9. high? 9.Iii-/iprldU orm i i 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on revere@ aid. If necessary and...stuay scooe, anu summ.inizeu primary stuoy tecnnimques, u.;eu, din inOUt’outULt arainete~rs, SPOCidl CupauiliT-ie𔃽 , ano limii td -imnsa onu ru 126...ouservations in tnis uiscussion) out, on tne otner odnu, it wuulu weaken any tenuency to td <e seriously tne overall performadnce uifference in favor- ol

  12. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher M; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2017-09-01

    To describe the effect of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes. 11 males and 3 females participated in a 3-day inpatient crossover study with strawberry, tobacco, and their usual flavor e-liquid. Nicotine levels were nominally 18mg/mL in the strawberry (pH 8.29) and tobacco (pH 9.10) e-liquids and ranged between 3-18mg/mL in the usual brands (mean pH 6.80). Each day consisted of a 15-puff session followed by 4h of abstinence, then 90min of ad libitum use. Subjects used a KangerTech mini ProTank 3. After 15 puffs, the amount of nicotine inhaled and systemically retained were not significantly different between the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids but plasma AUC (0 → 180) was significantly higher with the strawberry e-liquid. While not significantly different, C max was 22% higher and various early time point AUCs to measure rate of rise of nicotine in blood ranged between 17 and 23% higher with the strawberry e-liquid compared to the tobacco e-liquid. During ad libitum use, systemic exposure to nicotine (AUC (0 → 90) ) was the same for the tobacco and usual brand e-liquids but were both significantly lower than after using the strawberry e-liquid. The usual flavors were more liked and satisfying than the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids. Flavors influence nicotine exposure through flavor liking, may affect rate of nicotine absorption possibly through pH effects, and contribute to heart rate acceleration and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette users titrate their nicotine exposure but the extent of titration may vary across flavors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Electronic Cigarette Vaping Machine for the Characterization of Aerosol Delivery and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Christopher M; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton; St Helen, Gideon

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is one method used to evaluate the safety of e-cigarettes. While some researchers have modified smoking machines for e-cigarette aerosol generation, these machines are either not readily available, not automated for e-cigarette testing or have not been adequately described. The objective of this study was to build an e-cigarette vaping machine that can be used to test, under standard conditions, e-liquid aerosolization and nicotine and toxicant delivery. The vaping machine was assembled from commercially available parts, including a puff controller, vacuum pump, power supply, switch to control current flow to the atomizer, three-way value to direct air flow to the atomizer, and three gas dispersion tubes for aerosol trapping. To validate and illustrate its use, the variation in aerosol generation was assessed within and between KangerTech Mini ProTank 3 clearomizers, and the effect of voltage on aerosolization and toxic aldehyde generation were assessed. When using one ProTank 3 clearomizer and different e-liquid flavors, the coefficient of variation (CV) of aerosol generated ranged between 11.5% and 19.3%. The variation in aerosol generated between ProTank 3 clearomizers with different e-liquid flavors and voltage settings ranged between 8.3% and 16.3% CV. Aerosol generation increased linearly at 3-6V across e-liquids and clearomizer brands. Acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde generation increased markedly at voltages at or above 5V. The vaping machine that we describe reproducibly aerosolizes e-liquids from e-cigarette atomizers under controlled conditions and is useful for testing of nicotine and toxicant delivery. This study describes an electronic cigarette vaping machine that was assembled from commercially available parts. The vaping machine can be replicated by researchers and used under standard conditions to generate e-cigarette aerosols and characterize nicotine and

  14. Impact of e-liquid flavors on e-cigarette vaping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Shahid, Marian; Chu, Sherman; Benowitz, Neal L

    2018-05-31

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to describe the impact of e-cigarette liquid flavors on experienced e-cigarette users' vaping behavior. 11 males and 3 females participated in a 3-day inpatient crossover study using e-cigarettes with strawberry, tobacco, and their usual brand e-liquid. Nicotine levels were nominally 18 mg/mL in the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids and ranged between 3-18 mg/mL in the usual brands. On each day, participants had access to the study e-cigarette (KangerTech mini ProTank 3, 1.5 Ohms, 3.7 V) and the assigned e-liquid during a 90-minute videotaped ad libitum session. Average puff duration was significantly longer when using the strawberry e-liquid (3.2 ± 1.3 s, mean ± SD) compared to the tobacco e-liquid (2.8 ± 1.1 s) but the average number of puffs was not significantly different (strawberry, 73 ± 35; tobacco, 69 ± 46). Compared to the strawberry- and tobacco-flavored e-liquids, average puff duration was significantly longer (4.3 ± 1.6 s) and the average number of puffs was significantly higher (106 ± 67 puffs) when participants used their usual brand of e-liquid. Participants generally puffed more frequently in small groups of puffs (1-5 puffs) with the strawberry compared to the tobacco e-liquid and more frequently in larger groups (>10 puffs) with their usual brand. The strength of the relationship between vaping topography and nicotine intake and exposure were not consistent across e-liquids. Vaping behavior changes across e-liquids and influences nicotine intake. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms that underlie these behavioral changes, including e-liquid pH and related sensory effects, subjective liking, and nicotine effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Electron transfer driven decomposition of adenine and selected analogs as probed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, T.; Mendes, M.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Eden, S.; García, G.; Bacchus-Montabonel, M.-C.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of electron-transfer-induced decomposition of adenine (Ad) and a selection of analog molecules in collisions with potassium (K) atoms. Time-of-flight negative ion mass spectra have been obtained in a wide collision energy range (6-68 eV in the centre-of-mass frame), providing a comprehensive investigation of the fragmentation patterns of purine (Pu), adenine (Ad), 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd), 6-dimethyl adenine (6-dimAd), and 2-D adenine (2-DAd). Following our recent communication about selective hydrogen loss from the transient negative ions (TNIs) produced in these collisions [T. Cunha et al., J. Chem. Phys. 148, 021101 (2018)], this work focuses on the production of smaller fragment anions. In the low-energy part of the present range, several dissociation channels that are accessible in free electron attachment experiments are absent from the present mass spectra, notably NH2 loss from adenine and 9-methyl adenine. This can be understood in terms of a relatively long transit time of the K+ cation in the vicinity of the TNI tending to enhance the likelihood of intramolecular electron transfer. In this case, the excess energy can be redistributed through the available degrees of freedom inhibiting fragmentation pathways. Ab initio theoretical calculations were performed for 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd) and adenine (Ad) in the presence of a potassium atom and provided a strong basis for the assignment of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals accessed in the collision process.

  16. Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stokhof

    2010-12-01

    Montague Grammar, Mental Representation, and Reality’. In S. Ohman & S. Kanger (eds. ‘Philosophy and Grammar’, 59–78. Dordrecht: Reidel.Partee, Barbara H. 1988. ‘Semantic Facts and Psychological Facts’. Mind and Language 3: 43–52.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.1988.tb00132.xStokhof, Martin. 2007. ‘Hand or Hammer? On Formal and Natural Languages in Semantics’. Journal of Indian Philosophy 35, no. 5: 597–626.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10781-007-9023-7Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011a. ‘Abstraction and Idealisation: The Construction of Modern Linguistics’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 1–26.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.001Stokhof, Martin & van Lambalgen, Michiel. 2011b. ‘Comments–to–Comments’. Theoretical Linguistics 37, no. 1–2: 79–94.http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/THLI.2011.008Thomason, Richmond H. 1974. ‘Introduction’. In Richmond H. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy. Selected papers of Richard Montague.’, 1–71. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Weinberg, Jonathan M., Gonnerman, Chad, Buckner, Cameron & Alexander, Joshua. 2010. ‘Are Philosophers Expert Intuiters?’ Philosophical Psychology 23, no. 3: 331–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515089.2010.490944

  17. Formal Semantics: Origins, Issues, Early Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H. Partee

    2010-12-01

    Linguistics Wars. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Heim, I. 1982. The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts. Published 1989, New York: Garland. http://newstar.rinet.ru/~goga/biblio/heim (djvu or http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/Tk0ZmYyY/ (very large PDF file.Heim, I. & Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.https://udrive.oit.umass.edu/partee/Semantics_Readings/Heim%26Kratzer.pdf.Hintikka, J. 1973. ‘Carnap’s heritage in logical semantics’. Synthese 25: 372–397.Hintikka, K. J. J. 1962. Knowledge and Belief. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Hintikka, K. J. J., Moravcsik, J. & Suppes, P. (eds.. 1973. Approaches to Natural Language. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.Hodges, W. 1998. ‘Compositionality is not the problem’. Logic and Logical Philosophy 6:7–33. http://www.logika.umk.pl/llp/06/hodges.pdf.Hodges, W. 2001. ‘Formal Features of Compositionality’. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10: 7–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026502210492Huck, G. J. & Goldsmith, J. A. 1995. Ideology and Linguistic Theory: Noam Chomsky and the Deep Structure Debates. London: Routledge.Jackendoff, R. 1972. Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Jacobson, P. 1999. ‘Towards a variable-free semantics’. Linguistics and Philosophy 22: 117–184.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005464228727Janssen, T. M. V. 1983. Foundations and Applications of Montague Grammar. Amsterdam: Mathematisch Centrum, University of Amsterdam.Kalish, D. & Montague, R. 1964. Logic: Techniques of Formal Reasoning. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.Kalish, D., Montague, R., Mar, G. & Fogelin, R. J. 1980. Logic : Techniques of Formal Reasoning. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Kanger, S. 1957a. ‘The Morning Star Paradox’. Theoria 23: 1–11.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-2567.1957.tb00263.xKanger, S. 1957b. ‘A note on quantification and